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Sample records for intermittent binge alcohol

  1. Alcohol binge drinking during pregnancy and cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2009-01-01

    estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption as well as frequency of binge drinking at any time during pregnancy was not associated with risk of cryptorchidism. Binge drinking in gestational weeks 7-15 was associated with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism with adjusted......BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested gestational weeks 8-14 as a time window of particular importance to the intrauterine development of the male genitalia, and prenatal exposure to alcohol is under suspicion as a risk factor for cryptorchidism. We examined if prenatal exposure to alcohol...... of cryptorchidism were identified and 398 of these were orchiopexy verified. Maternal alcohol consumption including number and timing of binge drinking episodes was assessed in two computer-assisted telephone interviews around gestational weeks 17 and 32. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of cryptorchidism were...

  2. Adolescent binge drinking leads to changes in alcohol drinking, anxiety, and amygdalar corticotropin releasing factor cells in adulthood in male rats.

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    Nicholas W Gilpin

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects

  3. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  4. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  5. Cognitive Control Over Immediate Reward in Binge Alcohol Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Antoinette; Mackenzie, Caitlyn; Harrington, Kaitlyn; Borg, Sarah; Hester, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control deficits, as captured by inhibitory control measures, are indicative of increased impulsivity and are considered a marker for substance use disorder vulnerability. While individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) typically exhibit inhibitory control dysfunction, evidence of impaired inhibitory control among harmful drinkers, who are at increased risk of developing an AUD, is mixed. This study examined the response inhibition of binge drinkers using a task that employed neutral, as well as both immediate and delayed reward contingencies, to determine whether reward induced heightened impulsivity in this population. Binge alcohol users (n = 42) and controls (n = 42) were administered a Monetary Incentive Control Task that required participants to successfully inhibit a prepotent motor response to both neutral and immediately rewarding stimuli in order to secure a large delayed reward. Binge drinkers had significantly worse response inhibition than controls irrespective of trial condition and even after controlling for differences in weekly intake. Although both binge and control participants exhibited significantly worse inhibitory control in the presence of immediate reward, the control group showed a greater reduction in inhibition accuracy compared to the binge group in reward relative to neutral conditions. Both groups demonstrated significantly enhanced control when forewarned there was an increased chance response inhibition would be required. Control participants secured the delayed reward more often than binge participants. Despite the variability in the literature, this study demonstrated consistent generalized impulse control deficits among binge-drinking individuals that were unrelated to reward manipulations. These findings point to mechanisms that may confer vulnerability for transition from binge drinking to AUD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that persons who engage in binge alcohol use as teenagers are at increased risk for binge drinking as young adults. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update asks respondents aged 12 or older to report their frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the month before the survey. NSDUH defines binge…

  7. Beverage- and Brand-Specific Binge Alcohol Consumption among Underage Youth in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; O'Doherty, Catherine; Jernigan, David

    2015-09-01

    Binge drinking is a common and risky pattern of alcohol consumption among youth; beverage and brand-specific consumption during binge drinking is poorly understood. The objective was to characterize beverage- and brand-specific consumption associated with binge drinking among underage youth in the U.S. An internet panel was used to obtain a sample of 1,032 underage youth aged 13-20, who drank alcohol in the past 30 days. For each brand consumed, youth reported drinking quantity and frequency, and whether they engaged in binge drinking with that brand (≥5 drinks for males, ≥4 for females). Each youth reporting binge drinking with a brand constituted a binge drinking report. Overall, 50.9% of youth binge drank with ≥1 brand, and 36.5% of youth who consumed any particular brand reported binge drinking with it. Spirits accounted for 43.8% of binge drinking reports. Twenty-five brands accounted for 46.2% of binge drinking reports. Many of these brands were disproportionately associated with binge drinking relative to their youth market share. Binge drinking among youth is most commonly involves spirits, and binge drinking is concentrated within a relatively small number of brands. Understanding factors underlying beverage and brand preference among binge drinking youth could assist prevention efforts.

  8. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  9. Differential Effects of Alcohol on Memory Performance in Adolescent Men and Women with a Binge Drinking History.

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    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Talk, Andrew; Montañés, Adriana; Duque, Aránzazu; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is characterized by intermittent consumption of large quantities of alcohol in short periods. This pattern of drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and has been associated with undermined learning and memory ability. This study investigates the relationships between a history of BD and the effects of acute exposure to alcohol on learning and memory performance in adolescent men and women. A high, acute dose of alcohol or control refreshment was administered to a sample of 172 adolescent undergraduate students, some of which had a history of BD and others of which had refrained from alcohol consumption. Subsequently, immediate visual memory (IVM) and working memory (WM) was measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale in females and males with different BAC (Experiment 1) and similar BAC (Experiment 2). In both experiments, IVM was reduced after acute alcohol consumption and there was no significant main effect of Drinking Pattern. Furthermore, an effect of cognitive alcohol tolerance on IVM was observed in women but not in men. WM was not affected by alcohol, but a gender difference was evident in that performance was superior in men than in women. In adolescents, IVM is more sensitive than WM to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, since the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in BD women but not in BD men. These findings emphasize the need to investigate the neurotoxic effects of alcohol in adolescent women. In adolescents, immediate visual memory (IVM) is more sensitive than working memory to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, because the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in binge drinking (BD) women but not in BD men. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  11. Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Sweeting, Helen; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Mathis, Federica; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. State-funded schools. Baseline survey of 12 464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10 259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Alcohol Binge Drinking and Executive Functioning during Adolescent Brain Development

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    Soledad Gil-Hernandez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning. Some research has found that alcohol consumption in adolescence does not significantly affect executive functioning while others found it does. It is possible that these discrepancies could be due to the history of alcohol consumption, that is, at what age the subjects started drinking. The aim of our study is to assess the performance on executive functioning tasks of 13–19-year-old adolescents according to their pattern of alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that BD adolescents will perform worse than non-BD subjects in tasks that evaluate executive functions, and these differences will increase depending on how long they have been consuming alcohol. Three hundred and twenty-two students (48.14% females; age range 13–22 years; mean aged 16.7 ± 2.59 participated in the study; all of them had begun drinking at the age of 13 years. Participant were divided into three groups, according to their age range (13–15, 16–18, and 19–22 years and divided according to their pattern of alcohol consumption (BD and control groups. Then, the subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tasks that assess executive functions like working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, or self-control among others. The entire sample showed a normal improvement in their executive performance, but this improvement was more stable and robust in

  13. Executive functioning and alcohol binge drinking in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, María; Corral, Montserrat; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is prevalent among college students. Studies on alcoholism have shown that the prefrontal cortex is vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. The prefrontal cortex undergoes both structural and functional changes during adolescence and young adulthood. Sex differences have been observed in brain maturation and in alcohol-induced damage. The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship between BD and cognitive functions subserved by the prefrontal cortex in male and female university students. The sample comprised 122 undergraduates (aged 18 to 20 years): 62 BD (30 females) and 60 non-BD (29 females). Executive functions were assessed by WMS-III (Backward Digit Span and Backward Spatial Span), SOPT (abstract designs), Letter Fluency (PMR), BADS (Zoo Map and Key Search) and WCST-3. BD students scored lower in the Backward Digit Span Subtest and generated more perseverative responses in the SOPT In relation to interaction BD by sex, BD males scored lower in the Backward Digit Span test than BD females and non-BD males. BD is associated with poorer performance of executive functions subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results do not support enhanced vulnerability of women to alcohol neurotoxic effects. These difficulties may reflect developmental delay or frontal lobe dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... and number of episodes) and between simple reaction time (SRT) and alcohol intake or binge drinking (timing and number of episodes) during pregnancy. Conclusion This was one of the first studies investigating IPT and prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking in early pregnancy. Daily prenatal...

  15. Alcohol marketing receptivity, marketing-specific cognitions, and underage binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. This study describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1,734 U.S. 15- to 20-year-old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including TV time, Internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30-day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies, and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for sociodemographics, personality, and peer drinking. Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30-day binge drinking. Correlations between mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 to 0.47), and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand to drink, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  16. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

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    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Binge drinking in undergraduates: relationships with sex, drinking behaviors, impulsivity, and the perceived effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C

    2009-09-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.

  18. Binge drinking: a pattern associated with a risk of problems of alcohol use among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bedendo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate problems associated with alcohol use among university students who reported binge drinking in comparison to students who consumed alcohol without binging. Method: a cross-sectional study among university students (N=2,408 who accessed the website about alcohol use. Logistic and linear regression models were included in the statistical analyzes. Results: alcohol use in the last three months was reported by 89.2% of university students; 51.6% reported binge drinking. Compared to students who did not binge drink, university students who presented this pattern were more likely to report all evaluated problems, among them: black out (aOR: 5.4; having academic problems (aOR: 3.4; acting impulsively and having regrets (aOR: 2.9; getting involved in fights (aOR: 2.6; drinking and driving (aOR: 2.6 and accepting a ride with someone who had drunk alcohol (aOR: 1.8. Students who binged also had higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (b=4.6; p<0.001, more negative consequences (b=1.0; p<0.001 and a reduced perception of the negativity of the consequences (b=-0.5; p<0.01. Conclusion: binge drinking was associated with an increase in the chances of manifesting problems related to alcohol use. The conclusions of this study cannot be generalized for all of the Brazilian population.

  19. Alcohol Marketing Receptivity, Marketing-specific Cognitions and Underage Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. Methods This paper describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1734 U.S. 15–20 year old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including television time, internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30 day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for socio-demographics, personality and peer drinking. Results Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30 day binge drinking. Correlations among mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 – 0.47) and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Conclusions Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. PMID:23256927

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90 meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.

  1. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

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    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Intermittent Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Male and Female Rats

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    Eva M. Marco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.

  3. Effects of Gabra2 Point Mutations on Alcohol Intake: Increased Binge-Like and Blunted Chronic Drinking by Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Emily L; Gunner, Georgia; Huynh, Polly; Gachette, Darrel; Moss, Stephen J; Smart, Trevor G; Rudolph, Uwe; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABA A receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABA A receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABA A receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively. Social approach by mutant and Wt mice in forced alcohol abstinence was compared to approach by EtOH-naïve controls. Social deficits in forced abstinence were treated with allopregnanolone (0, 3.0, 10.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) or midazolam (0, 0.56, 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice with BZD-insensitive α2-containing GABA A receptors (H101R) escalated their binge-like drinking. Mutants harboring the Q241M point substitution in Gabra2 showed blunted chronic intake in the CA and IA protocols. S270H/L277A mutants consumed excessive amounts of alcohol but, unlike wild-types, they did not show forced abstinence-induced social deficits. These findings suggest a role for: (i) H101 in species-typical binge-like drinking, (ii) Q241 in escalated chronic drinking, and (iii) S270 and/or L277 in the development of forced abstinence-associated social deficits. Clinical findings report reduced BZD-binding sites in the cortex of dependent patients; the present findings suggest a specific role for BZD-sensitive α2-containing receptors. In addition, amino acid residue 241 in Gabra2 is

  4. Association of moderate alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy with neonatal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Lemola, Sakari; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Deriaz, Olivier; Gerber, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Heavy drinking and smoking during pregnancy are known to have a negative impact on the unborn child. However, the impact of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking has been debated recently. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of moderate prenatal drinking and binge drinking with birthweight, being small for gestational age (SGA) at birth, preterm birth, and neonatal asphyxia. Moderate alcohol drinking, binge drinking, and several possible confounders were assessed in 1,258 pregnant women; information on neonatal health was obtained at birth. Results indicate that 30.8% of the women drank at low levels (6.35 mmol and/or Apgar score drugs, illicit drug use, and child gender moderate drinking was related to lower birthweight (p < 0.01), and moderate drinking and binge drinking were associated with neonatal asphyxia at trend level (p = 0.06 and p = 0.09). Moderate drinking and binge drinking were not related to length of gestation. In contrast to recent reviews in the field, our results assume that moderate drinking and binge drinking are risk factors for neonatal health. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. U.S. Marines' Perceptions of Environmental Factors Associated With Alcohol Binge Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Hurtado, Suzanne L; Simon-Arndt, Cynthia M

    2018-02-07

    Alcohol misuse, in particular binge drinking, is a serious concern among military personnel because it is strongly associated with adverse consequences and has a deleterious effect on readiness. Although most alcohol misuse studies have focused on individual risk factors, studies are increasingly examining environmental influences and strategies for reducing alcohol risks. The purpose of this study is to address gaps in what is known about how service members' perceptions of environmental factors are related to binge drinking in the U.S. Marine Corps. The relationship between Marines' self-reports of environmental factors and alcohol binge drinking was assessed in this correlational study using data from three large Marine Corps installations drawn from the Department of Defense 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel (N = 2,933). We proposed several directional hypotheses based on existing civilian and military studies of alcohol use and misuse, as well as health behavior theory. Agreement with the statements that alcoholic beverages cost too much, that drinking might negatively affect one's military career, and that one's immediate supervisor and installation discourage alcohol use were independently associated with decreased odds of binge drinking (i.e., protective factors). Perceptions that alcoholic beverages are difficult to get was particularly protective; the odds of having binged were lower for participants who endorsed this belief than for those who did not. Perceptions that drinking is part of being in one's unit was a risk factor for binge drinking (odds ratio = 1.29). Even after accounting for strong sociodemographic correlates, binge drinking was independently associated with a number of environmentally oriented perceptions. Beliefs that alcohol is affordable and easy to access were the strongest environmental correlates of increased risk of binge drinking. Addressing the threat alcohol misuse poses to both Marines and

  6. Interpersonal communication among vocational community college students about alcohol use and binge drinking : Causality, content, and conversation partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, E.H.G.

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands binge drinking among vocational community college students is a serious problem. Among this group, binge drinking is a serious health problem. Recent statistics show that 31% of vocational community students consume on average 5-10 alcoholic units, 19% consumes 11-20 alcoholic

  7. Rodent Models of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Binge Ethanol Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Ghosh Dastidar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Both chronic and acute (binge alcohol drinking are important health and economic concerns worldwide and prominent risk factors for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. There are no FDA-approved medications to prevent or to treat any stage of ALD. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic strategies remains a critical need for patients with ALD. Relevant experimental animal models that simulate human drinking patterns and mimic the spectrum and severity of alcohol-induced liver pathology in humans are critical to our ability to identify new mechanisms and therapeutic targets. There are several animal models currently in use, including the most widely utilized chronic ad libitum ethanol (EtOH feeding (Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet model, chronic intragastric EtOH administration (Tsukamoto–French model, and chronic-plus-binge EtOH challenge (Bin Gao—National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA model. This review provides an overview of recent advances in rodent models of binge EtOH administration which help to recapitulate different features and etiologies of progressive ALD. These models include EtOH binge alone, and EtOH binge coupled with chronic EtOH intake, a high fat diet, or endotoxin challenge. We analyze the strengths, limitations, and translational relevance of these models, as well as summarize the liver injury outcomes and mechanistic insights. We further discuss the application(s of binge EtOH models in examining alcohol-induced multi-organ pathology, sex- and age-related differences, as well as circadian rhythm disruption.

  8. Alcohol consumption and factors associated with binge drinking among female university students of health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Rocha Hora Mendonça

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption and the prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking among university students of health-related courses in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of 865 female students from two universities in the Brazilian Northeast. The instruments used were the AUDIT and a questionnaire used to collect sociodemographic data. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used, with statistical significance set at p-value < 0.05. Results: Risky alcohol consumption was evidenced in 16.4%, while the prevalence of binge drinking was 48.0%. Binge drinking was strongly associated with drunk driving (OR = 12.24 and living in a conflicting family environment (OR = 6.33. Binge drinking was a constant in students who engaged in fights, those who had problems with the law and among smokers. Conclusion: The high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, binge drinking and the association of these with risky behaviors in students serve to guide future public policies on prevention.

  9. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  10. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    January 2018, Vol. 108, No. 1. RESEARCH. Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO). African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol .... SA, focusing primarily on demographics, labour market participation, ..... of male drinkers reported binge drinking, while 32.4% of female drinkers ...

  11. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 standard drinks on an average drinking day. Results. Current alcohol use (any amount) in 2014 - 2015 was reported by 33.1% of the population (47.7% males, 20.2% females). Of drinkers, 43.0% reported binge drinking (48.2% males, ...

  12. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...... education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity...

  13. Altered brain functional connectivity and behaviour in a mouse model of maternal alcohol binge-drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantacorps, Lídia; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L; Valverde, Olga; Conejo, Nélida M

    2018-06-08

    Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of maternal alcohol binge drinking on brain function and behaviour. To address this issue, we used pregnant C57BL/6 female mice with time-limited access to a 20% v/v alcohol solution as a procedure to model alcohol binge drinking during gestation and lactational periods. Male offspring were behaviourally tested during adolescence (30 days) and adulthood (60 days), and baseline neural metabolic capacity of brain regions sensitive to alcohol effects were also evaluated in adult animals from both groups. Our results show that prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure caused age-dependent changes in spontaneous locomotor activity, increased anxiety-like behaviour and attenuated alcohol-induced conditioned place preference in adults. Also, significant changes in neural metabolic capacity using cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) quantitative histochemistry were found in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, the mammillary bodies, the ventral tegmental area, the lateral habenula and the central lobules of the cerebellum in adult mice with prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure. In addition, the analysis of interregional CCO activity correlations in alcohol-exposed adult mice showed disrupted functional brain connectivity involving the limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. Finally, increased neurogenesis was found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of

  14. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  15. [Preliminary Study on Cognitive Determinants Influencing Argentine Youngsters towards Intensive Alcohol Consumption or Binge Drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Raúl Ángel; Luque, Leticia Elizabeth; Tomas, María Teresa Cortés; Tort, Begoña Espejo; Giménez, José Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The current alcohol consumption pattern among youngsters and adolescents, characterized by heavy drinking during a few hours, several days a week, or binge drinking (binge drinking, concentrated drinking or long-gulp drinking) is a reality in many countries, including Spain and Argentina. To describe cognitive determinants in the behavior regarding excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking) in 16-25 year subjects in Argentina. An ad hoc survey was conducted to assess cognitive determinants influencing heavy alcohol consumption, according to I. Ajzen's guidelines. There are significant statistic differences between the group of heavy drinkers and the group that does not reach such level of consumption in relation to behavioral beliefs, and control beliefs. Both groups recognized consumption is noxious and not safe; no differences were observed concerning normative beliefs. There is a complex interaction mong attitudinal factors, motivational and behavior control factors. Instruments require greater sensitivity and further in-depth analysis is required regardomg short, middle and long consequences generated by binge drinking and its role as a positive or negative reinforment. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Extended vs. brief intermittent access to palatable food differently promote binge-like intake, rejection of less preferred food, and weight cycling in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisler, A D; Garcia, M G; Spierling, S R; Hui, B E; Zorrilla, E P

    2017-08-01

    Palatable food access promotes obesity leading some to diet. Here, we modeled the roles of duration, intermittency and choice of access in bingeing, escalation of daily intake, and underacceptance of alternatives. Female rats with ("Choice") or without continuous chow access, received chow or continuous (Chocolate), intermittent (MWF) long (24h, Int-Long), or intermittent short (30min, Int-Short) access to a sucrose-rich, chocolate-flavored diet (CHOC). Int-Long rats showed cycling body weight; they overate CHOC, had increased feed efficiency on access days and underate chow and lost weight on non-access days, the latter correlating with their reduced brown fat. Int-Short rats had the greatest 30-min intake upon CHOC access, but did not underaccept chow or weight cycle. Individual vulnerability for intermittent access-induced feeding adaptations was seen. Continuous access rats gained fat disproportionate, but in direct relation, to their normalized energy intake and persistently underaccepted chow despite abstinence and return to normal weight. Abstinence reduced the binge-like CHOC intake of Int-Short rats and increased that of continuous access rats, but not to levels associated with intermittent access history. Choice increased daily CHOC intake under Continuous access and binge-like intake under Int-Short access. Intermittency and duration of past access to palatable food have dissociable, individually-vulnerable influences on its intake and that of alternatives. With extended access, daily intake reflects the palatability of available food, rather than metabolic need. Ongoing restrictedness of access or a history of intermittency each drive binge-like intake. Aspects of palatable food availability, similar and different to drug availability, promote disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  18. The regional geography of alcohol consumption in England: Comparing drinking frequency and binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "Wired," yet intoxicated: modeling binge caffeine and alcohol co-consumption in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Companion, Michel; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-08-01

    The combination of highly caffeinated "energy drinks" with alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) has become popular among young adults and intoxication via such beverages has been associated with an elevated risk for harmful behaviors. However, there are discrepancies in the human literature regarding the effect of caffeine on alcohol intoxication, perhaps due to confounding factors such as personality type, expectancy, and history of exposure. Animal models of co-exposure are resistant to such issues; however, the consequences of voluntary co-consumption have been largely ignored in the animal literature. The primary goal of this work was to characterize a mouse model of binge caffeine and EtOH co-consumption employing the limited access "Drinking-in-the-Dark" (DID) paradigm. Caffeine was added to a 20% alcohol solution via DID. Alcohol/caffeine intake, locomotor behavior, ataxia, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive function were evaluated as a consequence of co-consumption in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Caffeine did not substantially alter binge alcohol intake or resultant blood EtOH concentrations (BECs), nor did it alter alcohol's anxiolytic effects on the elevated plus maze or cognitive-interfering effects in a novel object-recognition task. However, no evidence of alcohol-induced sedation was observed in co-consumption groups that instead demonstrated a highly stimulated state similar to that of caffeine alone. The addition of caffeine was also found to mitigate alcohol-induced ataxia. Taken together, our mouse model indicates that binge co-consumption of caffeine and alcohol produces a stimulated, less ataxic and anxious, as well as cognitively altered state; a state that could be of great public health concern. These results appear to resemble the colloquially identified "wide awake drunk" state that individuals seek via consumption of such beverages. This self-administration model therefore offers the capacity for translationally valid explorations of the

  20. Chronic binge alcohol consumption during pregnancy alters rat maternal uterine artery pressure response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vishal D; Lunde-Young, Emilie R; Davis-Anderson, Katie L; Orzabal, Marcus; Ivanov, Ivan; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to investigate pressure-dependent maternal uterine artery responses and vessel remodeling following gestational binge alcohol exposure. Two groups of pregnant rats were used: the alcohol group (28.5% wt/v, 6.0 g/kg, once-daily orogastric gavage in a binge paradigm between gestational day (GD) 5-19) and pair-fed controls (isocalorically matched). On GD20, excised, pressurized primary uterine arteries were studied following equilibration (60 mm Hg) using dual chamber arteriograph. The uterine artery diameter stabilized at 20 mm Hg, showed passive distension at 40 mm Hg, and redeveloped tone at 60 mm Hg. An alcohol effect (P = 0.0025) was observed on the percent constriction of vessel diameter with greater pressure-dependent myogenic constriction. Similar alcohol effect was noted with lumen diameter response (P = 0.0020). The percent change in media:lumen ratio was higher in the alcohol group (P alcohol affects pressure-induced uterine artery reactivity, inward-hypotrophic remodeling, and adaptations critical for nutrient delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Complex interactions between the subject factors of biological sex and prior histories of binge-drinking and unpredictable stress influence behavioral sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Sema G; Guzelian, Eugenie; Palmer, Mason A; Martin, Douglas L; Kim, Jennifer; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-10

    Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking. In Experiment 1, female mice were insensitive to the UCMS-induced increase in ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol intake under continuous alcohol-access. Experiment 2 revealed interactions between ethanol dose and sex (females>males), binge-drinking history (water>ethanol), and UCMS history (UCMS>controls), with no additive effect of a sequential prior history of both binge drinking and UCMS observed. We also observed an interaction between UCMS history and sex for righting recovery. UCMS history potentiated subsequent binge-drinking in water controls of both sexes and in male binge-drinking mice. Conversely, a prior binge-drinking history increased subsequent ethanol intake in females only, irrespective of prior UCMS history. In Experiment 3, a concurrent history of binge-drinking and UCMS did not alter ethanol intake, nor did it influence the ethanol dose-locomotor response function, but it did augment alcohol-induced sedation and reduced subsequent alcohol intake over that produced by binge-drinking alone. Thus, the subject factors of biological sex, prior stressor history and prior binge-drinking history interact in complex ways in mice to impact sensitivity to alcohol's motor-stimulating, -incoordinating and intoxicating effects, as well as to influence subsequent heavy drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Message Formats, Numeracy, Risk Perceptions of Alcohol-Attributable Cancer, and Intentions for Binge Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Yang, Z. Janet

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to examine whether risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer influence college students' binge-drinking intention and to explore how message formats (text, table, and graph) and numeracy influence risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer. We found that a majority of participants (87%) perceive some risks of…

  3. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  4. Melanocortin and Opioid Peptide Interactions in the Modulation of Binge Alcohol Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Spain (June, 2010). Talk titled A Role for Central Neuropeptides in Binge Alcohol Drinking. 4. Departamento de Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud...Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud (JML-C, FC, IC), University of Almerı́a, Almerı́a, Spain. Received...Low, 2008). From the Department of Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud (IC, FC, JML-C), University of Almerı́a, Almerı́a, Spain; and Department of

  5. Binge drinking and family history of alcoholism are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott A; Steele, Joel S; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2017-07-01

    To test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD) and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more life-time drinks are associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age. Alcohol-naive adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up. During all visits, adolescents completed a monetary delay discounting task to measure impulsive choice. The effects of binge-drinking status, FHD and their interaction on impulsive choice across adolescence were tested. Developmental Brain Imaging Laboratory, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA. A total of 116 healthy male and female adolescents (ages 10-17 years at baseline) completed two to four visits between July 2008 and May 2016. Discounting rates were obtained based on adolescents' preference for immediate or delayed rewards. FHD was based on parent-reported prevalence of alcohol use disorder in the participant's first- and second-degree relatives. Binge-drinking status was determined based on the number of recent binge-drinking episodes. There was a significant interaction effect of binge-drinking status and FHD on impulsive choice across age (b = 1.090, P alcohol-naive, greater FHD was associated with a steeper decrease in discounting rates across adolescence (b = -0.633, P alcoholism is associated with a steeper decline in impulsive choice across adolescence, but only in those who remain alcohol-naive. Meanwhile, more life-time drinks during adolescence is associated with increases in impulsive choice across age. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Alcohol dependence induced in rats by semivoluntary intermittent intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Macieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11, 5% ETOH (N = 20, 20% ETOH (N = 20 and 40% ETOH (N = 18. ETOH solutions were offered at the end of the day and overnight from Monday to Friday, and throughout weekends, for 90 days. The concentration of the ETOH solutions was increased in a stepwise fashion allowing the rats to get used to the taste of alcohol. Reposition of pure water was permitted during 1-h water drinking periods in the morning. Daily volume intake (± SEM averaged 25.4 ± 0.4 ml (0% ETOH, 23.8 ± 0.6 ml (5% ETOH, 17.6 ± 0.7 ml (20% ETOH and 17.5 ± 0.6 ml (40% ETOH. ETOH consumption differed significantly (P<0.05 among groups, averaging 4.4 ± 0.2 g kg-1 day-1 (5% ETOH, 10.3 ± 0.3 g kg-1 day-1 (20% ETOH and 26 ± 1.2 g kg-1 day-1 (40% ETOH. Furthermore, ETOH detection in plasma 10-12 h after offering the solution indicated that its consumption in the 40% ETOH group was sufficient to override its metabolism. Overt signs of ETOH dependence, such as increased thirst, hyperactivity, puffing, hair ruffling and startle responsiveness as well as reduced drowsiness, were significantly increased in the 20% and 40% ETOH groups compared to the 0% and 5% groups. Accordingly, the model described here proved to be a useful tool for the evaluation of subtle or moderate behavioral and physical consequences of long-term ETOH intake

  7. Blood Alcohol Concentration-Related Lower Performance in Immediate Visual Memory and Working Memory in Adolescent Binge Drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Vinader-Caerols

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC on memory during late adolescence (18–19 years old in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers, BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers, BAC1 (0.3 – 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers or BAC2 (0.54 – 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers. The subjects’ immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III. The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L. No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than

  8. Blood Alcohol Concentration-Related Lower Performance in Immediate Visual Memory and Working Memory in Adolescent Binge Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Duque, Aránzazu; Montañés, Adriana; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18-19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females) that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers), BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers), BAC1 (0.3 - 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers) or BAC2 (0.54 - 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers). The subjects' immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L). No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than working memory to

  9. Negative Affect and Excessive Alcohol Intake Incubate during Protracted Withdrawal from Binge-Drinking in Adolescent, But Not Adult, Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziya M. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41 are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOHadolescents influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience. For additional comparison, adult mice (EtOHadults with comparable drinking history (PND56-69 were subdivided into groups tested for anxiety/drinking either on PND70 (24 h withdrawal or PND98 (28 days withdrawal. Tissue from the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA was examined by immunoblotting for changes in the expression of glutamate-related proteins. EtOHadults exhibited some signs of hyperanxiety during early withdrawal (PND70, but not during protracted withdrawal (PND98. In contrast, EtOHadolescents exhibited robust signs of anxiety-l and depressive-like behaviors when tested as adults on PND70. While all alcohol-experienced animals subsequently consumed more alcohol than mice drinking for the first time, alcohol intake was greatest in EtOHadolescents. Independent of drinking age, the manifestation of withdrawal-induced hyperanxiety was accompanied by reduced Homer2b expression within the CeA and increased Group1 mGlu receptor expression within the AcbSh. The present data provide novel evidence that binge-drinking during adolescence produces a state characterized by profound negative affect and excessive alcohol consumption that incubates with the passage of time in withdrawal. These data extend our prior studies on the

  10. Computed tomography assessment of peripubertal craniofacial morphology in a sheep model of binge alcohol drinking in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker

  11. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Binge Drinking and the Young Brain: A Mini Review of the Neurobiological Underpinnings of Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Hermens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking has significant effects on memory, particularly with regards to the transfer of information to long-term storage. Partial or complete blocking of memory formation is known as blackout. Youth represents a critical period in brain development that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Animal models show that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol compared with the adult brain. This mini-review addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of binge drinking and associated memory loss (blackout in the adolescent and young adult period. Although the extent to which there are pre-existing versus alcohol-induced neurobiological changes remains unclear, it is likely that repetitive binge drinking in youth has detrimental effects on cognitive and social functioning. Given its role in learning and memory, the hippocampus is a critical region with neuroimaging research showing notable changes in this structure associated with alcohol misuse in young people. There is a great need for earlier identification of biological markers associated with alcohol-related brain damage. As a means to assess in vivo neurochemistry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has emerged as a particularly promising technique since changes in neurometabolites often precede gross structural changes. Thus, the current paper addresses how MRS biomarkers of neurotransmission (glutamate, GABA and oxidative stress (indexed by depleted glutathione in the hippocampal region of young binge drinkers may underlie propensity for blackouts and other memory impairments. MRS biomarkers may have particular utility in determining the acute versus longer-term effects of binge drinking in young people.

  13. Adolescent binge-pattern alcohol exposure alters genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimes, AnnaDorothea; Torcaso, Audrey; Pinceti, Elena; Kim, Chun K; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Pak, Toni R

    2017-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a major health concern in the United States, with 21% of teenagers reporting binge-pattern drinking behavior in the previous 30 days. Recently, our lab showed that alcohol-naïve offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited altered gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in stress regulation. We employed Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing as an unbiased approach to test the hypothesis that parental exposure to binge-pattern alcohol during adolescence alters DNA methylation profiles in their alcohol-naïve offspring. Wistar rats were administered a repeated binge-ethanol exposure paradigm during early (postnatal day (PND) 37-44) and late (PND 67-74) adolescent development. Animals were mated 24 h after the last ethanol dose and subsequent offspring were produced. Analysis of male PND7 offspring revealed that offspring of alcohol-exposed parents exhibited differential DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus. The differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) were distinct between offspring depending on which parent was exposed to ethanol. Moreover, novel DMCs were observed when both parents were exposed to ethanol and many DMCs from single parent ethanol exposure were not recapitulated with dual parent exposure. We also measured mRNA expression of several differentially methylated genes and some, but not all, showed correlative changes in expression. Importantly, methylation was not a direct predictor of expression levels, underscoring the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Overall, we demonstrate that adolescent binge ethanol exposure causes altered genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Binge drinking and alcohol prices: a systematic review of age-related results from econometric studies, natural experiments and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2015-01-01

    Heavy episodic ("binge") drinking of alcohol has serious public health implications, especially for youth and young adults. Previous summaries and surveys have failed to address in a comprehensive manner the effects of alcohol prices on binge drinking by gender or age group. A qualitative systematic review is performed for effects of alcohol prices (or tax surrogates) on binge drinking for three age groups: youth, young adults, and adults. Outcomes examined include binge participation, intensity and frequency. Criteria for data collection and potential sources of bias are discussed, including adequacy of price data. Price-binge relationships are judged using a 95% confidence interval (p ≤ 0.05) for statistical significance. Fifty-six relevant econometric studies were found, with studies and results distributed equally among three age groups. Also found were five natural experiments for tax reductions and six field studies. Null results or mixed results are found in more than half of the studies. The body of evidence indicates that binge drinkers are not highly-responsive to increased prices. Non-responsiveness holds generally for younger and older drinkers and for male and female binge drinkers alike. A limitation of the current literature is that results are only available for higher-income countries. Increased alcohol taxes or prices are unlikely to be effective as a means to reduce binge drinking, regardless of gender or age group.

  15. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy....... Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge...... and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the potential associated risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)). RESULTS: Questionnaires from 3,238 women were included. A majority of 70 %, reported weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The prevalence decreased to 3 % during early...

  16. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  17. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Banerjee

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals or dextrose (Control. Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4, leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART.

  18. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  19. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J; Blanchette, Jason G; Nguyen, Thien H; Heeren, Timothy C; Nelson, Toben F; Naimi, Timothy S

    2015-03-01

    U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (-0.09, P = 0.02 versus -0.005, P = 0.63) and price elasticity (-1.40, P tax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P = 0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (P tax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Nelson, Toben F.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Design Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Findings In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (−0.09, P=0.02 versus −0.005, P=0.63) and price elasticity (−1.40, Ptax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P=0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (Ptax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. PMID:25428795

  1. Predicting alcohol consumption and binge drinking in company employees: an application of planned behaviour and self-determination theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Lonsdale, Adam J; Hein, Vello; Koka, Andre; Lintunen, Taru; Pasi, Heidi; Lindwall, Magnus; Rudolfsson, Lisa; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2012-05-01

    This study tested an integrated model of the psychosocial determinants of alcohol-related behaviour among company employees from four nations. A motivational sequence was proposed in which motivational orientations from self-determination theory influenced intentions to consume alcohol within guideline limits and alcohol-related behaviour via the mediation of the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). A three-wave prospective design using self-reported psychological and behavioural measures. Company employees (N= 486, males = 225, females = 261; M age = 30.41, SD= 8.31) from four nations (Estonia, Finland, Sweden, and UK) completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivation from self-determination theory, attitudes, subjective norms, PBC, intentions from the theory of planned behaviour, and self-reported measures of past alcohol consumption and binge-drinking occasions at the first time point (time 1). Follow-up psychological and behavioural measures were taken one month later (time 2) and follow-up behavioural measures taken a further 2 months later (time 3). Path analyses supported the motivational sequence with identified regulation (time 1), predicting intentions (time 1), and alcohol units consumed (time 2). The effects were indirect via the mediation of attitudes and PBC (time 1). A similar pattern of effects was found for the effect of time 2 psychological variables on time 3 units of alcohol consumed. There was little support for the effects of the psychological variables on binge-drinking behaviour. Findings provide new information on the psychosocial determinants of alcohol behaviour in company employees and the processes involved. Results may provide impetus for the development of interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. 17β-Estradiol is required for the sexually dimorphic effects of repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure on the HPA axis during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during adolescence has long-term sexually dimorphic effects on anxiety behavior and mood disorders. We have previously shown that repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure increased the expression of two critical central regulators of stress and anxiety, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in adolescent male rats. By contrast, there was no effect of alcohol on these same genes in adolescent females. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol (E(2, the predominant sex steroid hormone in females, prevents alcohol-induced changes in CRH and AVP gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. To test this hypothesis, postnatal day (PND 26 females were ovariectomized and given E(2 replacement or cholesterol as a control. Next, they were given an alcohol exposure paradigm of 1 saline alone, 2 acute (single dose or 3 a repeated binge-pattern. Our results showed that acute and repeated binge-pattern alcohol treatment increased plasma ACTH and CORT levels in both E(2- and Ch-treated groups, however habituation to repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure was evident only in E(2-treated animals. Further, repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure significantly decreased CRH and AVP mRNA in Ch-, but not E(2-treated animals, which was consistent with our previous observations in gonad intact females. We further tested the effects of E(2 and alcohol treatment on the activity of the wild type CRH promoter in a PVN-derived neuronal cell line. Alcohol increased CRH promoter activity in these cells and concomitant treatment with E(2 completely abolished the effect. Together our data suggest that E(2 regulates the reactivity of the HPA axis to a repeated stressor through modulation of the habituation response and further serves to maintain normal steady state mRNA levels of CRH and AVP in the PVN in response to a repeated alcohol stressor.

  3. Use of a crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mouse model with the NIAAA-model of chronic-binge ethanol intake to study liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle J; Nazari, Shayan S; Jacobs, W Carl; Grahame, Nicholas J; McKillop, Iain H

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to compare mice bred to preferentially consume high amounts of alcohol (crossed-high alcohol preferring, cHAP) to c57BL/6 (C57) mice using a chronic-binge ethanol ingestion model to induce alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Male C57 and cHAP mice were randomized to a Lieber-DeCarli control (LDC) diet, Lieber-DeCarli 5% (v/v) ethanol (LDE) diet or free-choice between 10% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water (EtOH-DW) and DW. After 4 weeks mice were gavaged with either 9 g/kg maltose-dextrin (LDC+MD) or 5 g/kg EtOH (LDE+Binge, EtOH-DW+Binge). Nine hours later tissue and serum were collected and analyzed. cHAP mice on EtOH-DW consumed significantly more ethanol than cHAP or C57 mice maintained on LDE. However, cHAP and C57 mice on the LDE+Binge regiment had greater hepatosteatosis and overall degree of liver injury compared to EtOH-DW+Binge. Changes in pro-inflammatory gene expression was more pronounced in cHAP mice than C57 mice. Analysis of liver enzymes revealed a robust induction of CYP2E1 in C57 and cHAP mice maintained on EtOH-DW+Binge or LDE+Binge. However, while C57 mice exhibited higher basal hepatic glutathione than cHAP mice, these mice appeared more susceptible to oxidative stress following LDE+Binge than cHAP counterparts. Despite cHAP mice consuming more total ethanol prior to gavage when maintained on EtOH-DW, LDE followed by gavage created a more severe model of ALD in both C57 and cHAP mice. These data suggest factors other than total amount of alcohol consumed affect degree of ALD development in the chronic-binge model in cHAP mice. cHAP mice voluntarily consume high amounts of ethanol and exhibited hepatic injury when subject to chronic-binge ethanol feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet. However, hepatic injury was reduced in cHAP mice in a chronic-binge model following voluntary high ethanol consumption in drinking water. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Binge drinking in alcohol-preferring sP rats at the end of the nocturnal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Acciaro, Carla; Lobina, Carla; Loi, Barbara; Zaru, Alessandro; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption using the standard 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with unlimited access; under this regimen, sP rats daily consume 6-7 g/kg alcohol. The present study assessed a new paradigm of alcohol intake in which sP rats were exposed to the 4-bottle "alcohol (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen during one of the 12 h of the dark phase of the daily light/dark cycle; the time of alcohol exposure was changed daily in a semi-random order and was unpredictable to rats. Alcohol intake was highly positively correlated with the time of the drinking session and averaged approximately 2 g/kg when the drinking session occurred during the 12th hour of the dark phase. Alcohol drinking during the 12th hour of the dark phase resulted in (a) blood alcohol levels averaging approximately 100 mg% and (b) severe signs of alcohol intoxication (e.g., impaired performance at a Rota-Rod task). The results of a series of additional experiments indicate that (a) both singular aspects of this paradigm (i.e., unpredictability of alcohol exposure and concurrent availability of multiple alcohol concentrations) contributed to this high alcohol intake, (b) alcohol intake followed a circadian rhythm, as it decreased progressively over the first 3 h of the light phase and then maintained constant levels until the beginning of the dark phase, and (c) sensitivity to time schedule was specific to alcohol, as it did not generalize to a highly palatable chocolate-flavored beverage. These results demonstrate that unpredictable, limited access to multiple alcohol concentrations may result in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats, modeling - to some extent - human binge drinking. A progressively increasing emotional "distress" associated to rats' expectation of alcohol might be the neurobehavioral basis of this drinking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  5. Elevated activation of ERK1 and ERK2 accompany enhanced liver injury following alcohol binge in chronically ethanol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroor, Annayya R; Jackson, Daniel E; Shukla, Shivendra D

    2011-12-01

    Binge drinking after chronic ethanol consumption is one of the important factors contributing to the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis. The molecular mechanisms of this effect remain poorly understood. We have therefore examined in rats the effect of single and repeat ethanol binge superimposed on chronic ethanol intake on liver injury, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and gene expression. Rats were chronically treated with ethanol in liquid diet for 4 weeks followed by single ethanol binge (5 gm/kg body weight) or 3 similar repeated doses of ethanol. Serum alcohol and alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels were determined by enzymatic methods. Steatosis was assessed by histology and hepatic triglycerides. Activation of MAPK, 90S ribosomal kinase (RSK), and caspase 3 were evaluated by Western blot. Levels of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), early growth response-1 (egr-1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured by real-time qRT-PCR. Chronic ethanol treatment resulted in mild steatosis and necrosis, whereas chronic ethanol followed by binge group exhibited marked steatosis and significant increase in necrosis. Chronic binge group also showed significant increase (compared with chronic ethanol alone) in the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, and RSK. Phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK did not increase by the binge. Ethanol binge, after chronic ethanol intake, caused increase in mRNA for egr-1 and PAI-1, but not TNFα. Chronic ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of rat liver to increased injury by 1 or 3 repeat binge. Among other alterations, the activated levels of ERK1, and more so ERK2, were remarkably amplified by binge suggesting a role of these isotypes in the binge amplification of the injury. In contrast, p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 activities were not amplified. These binge-induced changes were also reflected in the increases in the

  6. Chronic alcohol binging injures the liver and other organs by reducing NAD⁺ levels required for sirtuin's deacetylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Samuel W

    2016-04-01

    NAD(+) levels are markedly reduced when blood alcohol levels are high during binge drinking. This causes liver injury to occur because the enzymes that require NAD(+) as a cofactor such as the sirtuin de-acetylases cannot de-acetylate acetylated proteins such as acetylated histones. This prevents the epigenetic changes that regulate metabolic processes and which prevent organ injury such as fatty liver in response to alcohol abuse. Hyper acetylation of numerous regulatory proteins develops. Systemic multi-organ injury occurs when NAD(+) is reduced. For instance the Circadian clock is altered if NAD(+) is not available. Cell cycle arrest occurs due to up regulation of cell cycle inhibitors leading to DNA damage, mutations, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. NAD(+) is linked to aging in the regulation of telomere stability. NAD(+) is required for mitochondrial renewal. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present in every visceral organ in the body so that there is a systemic reduction of NAD(+) levels in all of these organs during binge drinking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  8. Students worry about the impact of alcohol on quality of life: Roles of frequency of binge drinking and drinker self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquiens, A; Falissard, B; Aubin, H J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of binge drinking, its intensity and frequency, and drinker self-concept on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in students. This cross-sectional online survey included 16,930 students. We collected sociodemographics, environmental data, and drinking behaviors. We assessed HRQOL using the Alcohol Quality-of-Life scale, which explicitly explores the subjective negative impact on quality of life one attributes to his relationship with alcohol and the degree to which drinking is a part of an individual's self-concept. Data analyses were performed in 2015 and 2016. We described and compared binge drinkers and non-binge drinkers. Using a regression model we identified the independent factors associated with HRQOL. The impact on HRQOL attributed to alcohol was significantly greater among binge drinkers. Factors of impact on HRQOL subjectively attributed to alcohol by students were: AUDIT-C score, interaction between gender and AUDIT-C score, strong individual identity as a drinker, binge-drinking frequency, financial difficulties, being a foreigner, fewer years since diploma, chronic condition, recent use of cannabis, psychostimulant, poppers or gambling. Sleep quality, ability to work, expenditure on alcohol, shame, and health-related concerns were the most strongly impacted quality of life areas. Binge-drinking frequency should be considered as an important target in prevention programs. In addition, integrating findings on students' subjective perceptions of impairment of HRQOL by alcohol could enable the development of more acceptable and more relevant prevention messages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima eMomeni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHanTM:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for six weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over four weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHanTM:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHanTM:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHanTM:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to

  10. A model of alcohol drinking under an intermittent access schedule using group-housed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Smutek

    Full Text Available Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule, they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ∼ 10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors.

  11. The effects of a single memantine treatment on behavioral alterations associated with binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Spinetta, Michael J; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    The third trimester in human fetal development represents a critical time of brain maturation referred to as the "brain growth spurt". This period occurs in rats postnatally, and exposure to ethanol during this time can increase the risk of impairments on a variety of cognitive and motor tasks. It has been proposed that one potential mechanism for the teratogenic effects of ethanol is NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity during periods of ethanol withdrawal. In neonatal rats, antagonism of NMDA receptors during ethanol withdrawal, with drugs such as MK-801 and eliprodil, has been shown to mitigate some of the behavioral deficits induced by developmental ethanol exposure. The current study examined whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and a drug used clinically in Alzheimer's patients, would attenuate impairments associated with binge ethanol exposure in neonatal rats. On postnatal day 6, rats were exposed to 6 g/kg ethanol via intubation with controls receiving an isocaloric maltose dextrin solution. Twenty-one hours following the ethanol binge, rats received intraperitoneal injections of memantine at 0, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg. Ethanol's teratogenic effects were assessed using multiple behavioral tasks: open field activity, parallel bars and spatial discrimination reversal learning. Ethanol-treated rats were overactive in the open field and were impaired on both reversal learning and motor performance. Administration of 15 or 20 mg/kg memantine during withdrawal significantly attenuated ethanol's adverse effects on motor coordination, but did not significantly alter activity levels or improve the spatial learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure. These results indicate that a single memantine administration during ethanol withdrawal can mitigate motor impairments but not spatial learning impairments or overactivity observed following a binge ethanol exposure during development in the rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Associations Between E-Cigarettes and Binge Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Energy Drinks Mixed With Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Sandra; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-03-01

    Use of e-cigarettes by youth is proliferating worldwide, but little is known about the behavioral profile of youth e-cigarette users and the association of e-cigarette use with other health-risky behaviors. This study examines the associations between e-cigarette use and tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use among a large sample of Canadian youth. Using Canadian data from 39,837 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in year 3 (2014-2015) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine how current use of e-cigarettes were associated with tobacco, marijuana, binge drinking, and energy drinks mixed with alcohol. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by sex. Overall, 9.75% of respondents were current e-cigarette users. Current cigarette smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.009), current marijuana users (OR = 5.549), and noncurrent marijuana users (OR = 3.653) were more likely to report using e-cigarettes than noncigarette smokers and nonmarijuana users. Gender differences among males and females showed higher risk of e-cigarette use among female current marijuana users (OR = 7.029) relative to males (OR = 4.931) and female current smokers (OR = 3.284) compared to males (OR = 2.862). Compared to nonbinge drinkers, weekly (OR = 3.253), monthly (OR = 3.113), and occasional (OR = 2.333) binge drinkers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Similarly, students who consume energy drinks mixed with alcohol (OR = 1.650) were more likely to use e-cigarettes compared to students who do not consume them. We identify that youth who binge drink or use marijuana have a greater increased risk for using e-cigarettes compared to cigarette smokers. These data suggest that efforts to prevent e-cigarette use should not only be discussed in the domain of tobacco control. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  14. Chronic Binge Alcohol Administration Dysregulates Hippocampal Genes Involved in Immunity and Neurogenesis in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Maxi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUD exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+ patients. We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA administration (13–14 g EtOH/kg/wk prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. The underlying mechanisms of neurocognitive alterations due to alcohol and SIV are not known. This exploratory study examined the CBA-induced differential expression of hippocampal genes in SIV-infected (CBA/SIV+; n = 2 macaques in contrast to those of sucrose administered, SIV-infected (SUC/SIV+; n = 2 macaques. Transcriptomes of hippocampal samples dissected from brains obtained at necropsy (16 months post-SIV inoculation were analyzed to determine differentially expressed genes. MetaCore from Thomson Reuters revealed enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, immune responses, and neurodevelopment. Functional relevance of these alterations was examined in vitro by exposing murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs to ethanol (EtOH and HIV trans-activator of transcription (Tat protein. EtOH impaired NPC differentiation as indicated by decreased βIII tubulin expression. These findings suggest a role for neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in CBA/SIV neuropathogenesis and warrant further investigation of their potential contribution to CBA-mediated neurobehavioral deficits.

  15. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... 2012;119:1211-1221. Objective  The aim was to examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's attention at 5 years of age. Design  Prospective follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003......-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the recently developed Test of Everyday Attention for Children...

  16. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, A; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers...

  17. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  18. Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.

  19. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol sales compared to survey data, 1993–2006. Addiction 2010;105:1589–96. Floyd RL, Decouflé P, ... BRFSS surveyed participants using both cellular and landline phones; before 2011, surveys were conducted over landline phones ...

  20. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  1. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons’ Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954

  2. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciencia" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M Sanchez

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... costs include health care expenses, crime, and lost productivity. Binge drinking cost federal, state, and local governments ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Division of Population Health , Alcohol and Public Health , ...

  4. Schisandra sphenanthera extract (Wuzhi Tablet protects against chronic-binge and acute alcohol-induced liver injury by regulating the NRF2-ARE pathway in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhen Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse leads to alcoholic liver disease and no effective therapy is currently available. Wuzhi Tablet (WZ, a preparation of extract from Schisandra sphenanthera that is a traditional hepato-protective herb, exerted a significant protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in our recent studies, but whether WZ can alleviate alcohol-induced toxicity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of WZ to alcohol-induced liver injury by using chronic-binge and acute models of alcohol feeding. The activities of ALT and AST in serum were assessed as well as the level of GSH and the activity of SOD in the liver. The expression of CYP2E1 and proteins in the NRF2-ARE signaling pathway including NRF2, GCLC, GCLM, HO-1 were measured, and the effect of WZ on NRF2 transcriptional activity was determined. We found that both models resulted in liver steatosis accompanied by increased transaminase activities, but that liver injury was significantly attenuated by WZ. WZ administration also inhibited CYP2E1 expression induced by alcohol, and elevated the level of GSH and the activity of SOD in the liver. Moreover, the NRF2-ARE signaling pathway was activated by WZ and the target genes were all upregulated. Furthermore, WZ significantly activated NRF2 transcriptional activity. Collectively, our study demonstrates that WZ protected against alcohol-induced liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defense, possibly by activating the NRF2-ARE pathway.

  5. Binge drinking and total alcohol consumption from 16 to 43 years of age are associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose in women: results from the northern Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Karina; Hammarström, Anne; Rolandsson, Olov

    2017-06-08

    Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels. The aim was to examine the association between total alcohol consumption and binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 and fasting plasma glucose at age 43. Data were retrieved from a 27-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. In 1981, all 9th grade students (n = 1083) within a municipality in Sweden were invited to participate. There were re-assessments at ages 18, 21, 30 and 43. This particular study sample consisted of 897 participants (82.8%). Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) was measured at a health examination at age 43. Total alcohol consumption (in grams) and binge drinking were calculated from alcohol consumption data obtained from questionnaires. Descriptive analyses showed that men had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose as compared to women. Men also reported higher levels of alcohol consumption and binge drinking behavior. Linear regressions showed that total alcohol consumption in combination with binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose at age 43 in women (beta = 0.14, p = 0.003) but not in men after adjustment for BMI, hypertension and smoking at age 43. Our findings indicate that reducing binge drinking and alcohol consumption among young and middle-aged women with the highest consumption might be metabolically favorable for their future glucose metabolism.

  6. Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  8. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... period of uncontrolled overeating). Today the generally accepted definition of binge drinking in the United States is ...

  9. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  10. Quit Binging (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Too many people are overindulging in alcohol and putting themselves at risk for death from alcohol poisoning. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking, including alcohol poisoning death.

  11. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  12. Increased expression of protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha) and decreased PKA-regulated genes in chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Lutjens, Robert; van der Stap, Lena D; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Intermittent models of alcohol exposure that mimic human patterns of alcohol consumption produce profound physiological and biochemical changes and induce rapid increases in alcohol self-administration. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes during chronic intermittent alcohol exposure in three brain regions that receive mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and that are believed to be involved in alcohol's reinforcing actions: the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. An independent replication of the experiment was used for RT-PCR validation of the microarray results. The protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha, Pkia), a member of the endogenous PKI family implicated in reducing nuclear PKA activity, was found to be increased in all three regions tested. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of the expression of several PKA-regulated transcripts in one or more of the brain regions studied, including the activity and neurotransmitter-regulated early gene (Ania) - 1, -3, -7, -8, the transcription factors Egr1 and NGFI-B (Nr4a1) and the neuropeptide NPY. Reduced expression of PKA-regulated genes in mesocorticolimbic projection areas may have motivational significance in the rapid increase in alcohol self-administration induced by intermittent alcohol exposure.

  13. "Suddenly a Binge Drinking Episode Has Happened to Him": Locus of Control, Notion of Responsibility, Alcoholism and Suicide in the Taz Region, Yamal Nenets Autonomous Okrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Istomin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the notion of responsibility is often invoked by mass-media reports, activists and lay people when discussing alcoholism and suicides, anthropological discussions of this topic seem to deliberately avoid the notion. Based on the example of the Taz Nenets of western Sibera, this paper explores how cross-cultural differences in the notion of responsibility, if approached in a non-moralising way, can enrich our understanding of several aspects of the drinking and suicidal behaviours of native northerners. The Nenets seem to believe that both positive and negative events in their lives happen more due to chance or for highly localised reasons that they do not control rather than being caused by their own informed and wilful actions (external locus of control. Particularly, acts of suicide and binge drinking episodes just happen to people and, therefore, people cannot be held responsible for them. This attitude can be a compensatory mechanism for the flat attribution style observed among Nenets in previous studies. It should be taken into account in programs of suicide prevention and the treatment of alcoholism.

  14. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  15. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  16. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  17. FGF21, a liver hormone that inhibits alcohol intake in mice, increases in human circulation after acute alcohol ingestion and sustained binge drinking at Oktoberfest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Susanna; Andersen, Emilie S; Dalgaard, Niels B

    2018-01-01

    . KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers. Thus, the liver may limit alcohol consumption by secreting FGF21. However, whether full-length, active...... plasma FGF21 (FGF21 (1-181)) levels in humans increase acutely or sub-chronically in response to alcohol ingestion is uncertain. METHODS: We recruited 10 healthy, fasted male subjects to receive an oral water or alcohol bolus with concurrent blood sampling for FGF21 (1-181) measurement in plasma...... correlated fasting FGF21 (1-181) levels in 49 healthy, non-alcoholic subjects of mixed sex with self-reports of alcohol-related behaviors, emotional responses, and problems. Finally, we characterized the effect of recombinant human FGF21 injection on ad libitum alcohol intake in mice. RESULTS: We show...

  18. Risk Estimation Modeling and Feasibility Testing for a Mobile eHealth Intervention for Binge Drinking Among Young People: The D-ARIANNA (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Schivalocchi, Alessandro; Bartoli, Francesco; Carretta, Daniele; Brambilla, Giulia; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is common among young people but often relevant risk factors are not recognized. eHealth apps, attractive for young people, may be useful to enhance awareness of this problem. We aimed at developing a current risk estimation model for binge drinking, incorporated into an eHealth app--D-ARIANNA (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults)--for young people. A longitudinal approach with phase 1 (risk estimation), phase 2 (design), and phase 3 (feasibility) was followed. Risk/protective factors identified from the literature were used to develop a current risk estimation model for binge drinking. Relevant odds ratios were subsequently pooled through meta-analytic techniques with a random-effects model, deriving weighted estimates to be introduced in a final model. A set of questions, matching identified risk factors, were nested in a questionnaire and assessed for wording, content, and acceptability in focus groups involving 110 adolescents and young adults. Ten risk factors (5 modifiable) and 2 protective factors showed significant associations with binge drinking and were included in the model. Their weighted coefficients ranged between -0.71 (school proficiency) and 1.90 (cannabis use). The model, nested in an eHealth app questionnaire, provides in percent an overall current risk score, accompanied by appropriate images. Factors that mostly contribute are shown in summary messages. Minor changes have been realized after focus groups review. Most of the subjects (74%) regarded the eHealth app as helpful to assess binge drinking risk. We could produce an evidence-based eHealth app for young people, evaluating current risk for binge drinking. Its effectiveness will be tested in a large trial.

  19. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  20. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...

  1. Aggression and increased glutamate in the mPFC during withdrawal from intermittent alcohol in outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Lara S; Nathanson, Anna J; Shimamoto, Akiko; Tayeh, Jillian K; Wilens, Allison R; Holly, Elizabeth N; Newman, Emily L; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2015-08-01

    Disrupted social behavior, including occasional aggressive outbursts, is characteristic of withdrawal from long-term alcohol (EtOH) use. Heavy EtOH use and exaggerated responses during withdrawal may be treated using glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. The current experiments explore aggression and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate as consequences of withdrawal from intermittent access to EtOH and changes in aggression and mPFC glutamate caused by NMDAR antagonists memantine and ketamine. Swiss male mice underwent withdrawal following 1-8 weeks of intermittent access to 20 % EtOH. Aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors with a conspecific were measured 6-8 h into EtOH withdrawal after memantine or ketamine (0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In separate mice, extracellular mPFC glutamate after memantine was measured during withdrawal using in vivo microdialysis. At 6-8 h withdrawal from EtOH, mice exhibited more convulsions and aggression and decreased social contact compared to age-matched water controls. Memantine, but not ketamine, increased withdrawal aggression at the 5-mg/kg dose in mice with a history of 8 weeks of EtOH but not 1 or 4 weeks of EtOH or in water drinkers. Tonic mPFC glutamate was higher during withdrawal after 8 weeks of EtOH compared to 1 week of EtOH or 8 weeks of water. Five milligrams per kilogram of memantine increased glutamate in 8-week EtOH mice, but also in 1-week EtOH and water drinkers. These studies reveal aggressive behavior as a novel symptom of EtOH withdrawal in outbred mice and confirm a role of NMDARs during withdrawal aggression and for disrupted social behavior.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  3. Impact of a Mobile E-Health Intervention on Binge Drinking in Young People: The Digital-Alcohol Risk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and Young Adults Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Bartoli, Francesco; Carretta, Daniele; Schivalocchi, Alessandro; Bebbington, Paul E; Clerici, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is common among young people. E-Health apps are attractive to them and may be useful for enhancing awareness. We aimed to investigate the impact of a publicly available evidence-based e-Health app (Digital-Alcohol Risk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and Young Adults [D-ARIANNA]), estimating current risk of BD by questions, matching identified risk factors, and providing in percent an overall risk score, accompanied by appropriate images showing mostly contributing factors in summary graphics. A natural, quasi-experimental, pre-/post-test study was conducted. Subjects were recruited in pubs, clubs, discos, or live music events. They were requested to self-administer D-ARIANNA and were re-evaluated after two further weeks. Young (18-24 years) people (N = 590) reported reduced BD at follow-up (18% vs. 37% at baseline). To exclude systematic errors involving those lost at follow-up (14%), the diminution in BD was confirmed in an appropriate generalized estimating equation model with unweighted data on a last observation carried forward basis. Our study provides evidence of population-level benefit at 2 weeks, attained with D-ARIANNA. This can be disseminated easily and economically among young people. However, additional components, including regular feedback and repeated administration by gamification, may be required to make this app suitable for longer term impact. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...... expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group...... included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...

  5. Effects of Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on the Expression of Endocannabinoid Signaling-Related Proteins in the Spleen of Young Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Mariam; Sánchez, Laura; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana; Mela, Virginia; Alén, Francisco; Decara, Juan; Suárez, Juan; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Chowen, Julie; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia; Viveros, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats

  6. Effects of Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on the Expression of Endocannabinoid Signaling-Related Proteins in the Spleen of Young Adult Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Pavón

    Full Text Available Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS, which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in

  7. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scott Swartzwelder

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30 received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g. or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  8. Consumo de alcohol en atracón en las mujeres y adolescentes (Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    Este podcast está basado en el informe de Vital Signs de enero del 2013, que tiene información sobre las mujeres y las adolescentes que consumen alcohol en atracón. En las mujeres, se define el consumo de alcohol en atracón como beber cuatro o más tragos en un periodo corto. Esto hace que las mujeres y las adolescentes tengan un riesgo más alto de cáncer de mama, agresiones sexuales, enfermedades cardiacas y embarazos no planeados.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  9. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure alters brain and systemic responses to reach sodium and water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, A; Abate, P; Amigone, J L; Vivas, L; Molina, J C

    2015-12-17

    The aim of the present work is to analyze how prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure to a moderate dose (2.0 g/kg; group Pre-EtOH) during gestational days (GD) 17-20 affects hydroelectrolyte regulatory responses. This type of exposure has been observed to increase ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal day 30-32). In this study we analyzed basal brain neural activity and basal-induced sodium appetite (SA) and renal response stimulated by sodium depletion (SD) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption as a function of vehicle or ethanol during late pregnancy. In adolescent offspring, SD was induced by furosemide and a low-sodium diet treatment (FURO+LSD). Other animals were analyzed in terms of immunohistochemical detection of Fra-like (Fra-LI-ir) protein and serotonin (5HT) and/or vasopressin (AVP). The Pre-EtOH group exhibited heightened voluntary ethanol intake and a reduction in sodium and water intake induced by SD relative to controls. Basal Na and K concentrations in urine were also reduced in Pre-EtOH animals while the induced renal response after FURO treatment was similar across prenatal treatments. However, the correlation between urine volume and water intake induced by FURO significantly varied across these treatments. At the brain level of analysis, the number of basal Fra-LI-ir was significantly increased in AVP magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in 5HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in Pre-EtOH pups. In the experimental group, we also observed a significant increase in Fra-LI along the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the central extended amygdala nuclei. In summary, moderate Pre-EtOH exposure produces long-lasting changes in brain organization, affecting basal activity of central extended amygdala nuclei, AVP neurons and the inhibitory areas of SA such as the NTS and the 5HT-DRN. These changes possibly modulate the above described variations in basal-induced drinking behaviors and renal

  10. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.

  11. White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Histories of Marijuana Use and Binge Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobus, J.; McQueeny, T.; Bava, S.; Schweinsburg, B. C.; Frank, L.R.; Yang, T. T.; Tapert, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities have been observed in adolescents with alcohol use disorders but less is known about neuropathological brain characteristics of teens with subdiagnostic binge drinking or the common pattern of binge drinking combined with marijuana use. The goal of this study was to examine white matter integrity in adolescents with histories of binge drinking and marijuana use.

  12. Characteristics of women who binge drink before and after they become aware of their pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Rod Nielsen, Naja; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of alcohol on a single occasion (binge drinking) may harm the developing foetus and pregnant women are advised to avoid binge drinking while pregnant. We present characteristics of Danish women who binge drank in the pre-and post recognised part of their pregnancy....

  13. 8. Binge Drinking and Psychomotor Performance in Female Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    among female social drinkers; to compare motor skills performance between ... Harmful alcohol use is high in males but women ... mean different things in different contexts . Binge ... occasionally thereby putting their brains at risk of damage.

  14. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure causes more severe pancreatic injury and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China 230032 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.

  15. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure causes more severe pancreatic injury and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Ke, Zun-ji; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.

  16. Quit Binging (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    Too many people are overindulging in alcohol and putting themselves at risk for death from alcohol poisoning. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking, including alcohol poisoning death.  Created: 1/15/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  17. Editorial. Impact of the Binge Drinking (BD) in Adolescence. Are we doing it right? Editorial. Impacto del consumo episódico excesivo de alcohol en la adolescencia. ¿Lo estamos haciendo bien?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Martínez, Ana Magdalena; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Gil-García, Eugenia; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2018-04-15

    Nowadays, one of the most prevalent patterns of alcohol consumption is called binge drinking (BD). In 2015, the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) Group estimated that about 35% of adolescents of 15-16 years old have had at least one BD occasion in the past 30 days while at national level, the series of surveys on the use of drugs in adolescents of secondary education (ESTUDES, 2014-2015) determined that 32.2% of adolescents stated having performed BD in the last month. The aim of this editorial was to update the context of adolescence drinking and analysing the impact of BD by ages, including health and social costs derived. Once the magnitude of the problem was set, some research and action lines have been established in order to guide future work for the prevention of alcohol misuse and for establishing future preventive policies on alcohol. Finally, the need for evaluating these interventions from the efficiency point of view was discussed and assessed.

  18. Differential strain vulnerability to binge eating behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Britny A; Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2014-03-29

    Binge eating is a significantly heritable phenotype, but efforts to detect specific risk genes have fallen short. Identification of animal strain differences in risk for binge eating could highlight genetic differences across individuals of the same species that can be exploited in future animal and molecular genetic research. The current study aimed to explore strain differences in risk for binge eating in Sprague-Dawley versus Wistar female rats using the Binge Eating Resistant/Binge Eating Prone model. A sample of male Sprague-Dawley rats, a known low-risk group for binge eating, was included as a comparison group. A total of 83 rats (23 Wistar females, 30 Sprague-Dawley females, 30 Sprague-Dawley males) completed a protocol of intermittently administered, palatable food. Binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats were identified using a tertile approach. Sprague-Dawley female rats consumed the highest amount of palatable food and were more likely to be classified as BEP compared to Wistar female and Sprague-Dawley male rats. Wistar female rats were not significantly different from Sprague-Dawley male rats in their palatable food intake and tendency to be classified as BER rather than BEP. Sprague-Dawley female rats appear to be a particularly vulnerable genotype for binge eating. Comparisons between this group and others could help identify specific genetic/biological factors that differentiate it from lower risk groups. The reward system, linked to binge eating in humans, is a possible candidate to explore. Strain differences in the reward system could help increase understanding of individual differences in risk for binge eating in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  20. Prevalence and correlates of binge drinking among older adults with multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin H; Moore, Alison A; Sherman, Scott E; Palamar, Joseph J

    2018-06-01

    Binge drinking among older adults has increased in the past decade. Binge drinking is associated with unintentional injuries, medical conditions, and lower health-related quality of life. No studies have characterized multimorbidity among older binge drinkers. We examined past 30-day binge alcohol use and lifetime medical conditions among adults age ≥50 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2005 to 2014. Self-reported lifetime prevalence of 13 medical conditions and medical multimorbidity (≥2 diseases) among binge drinkers were compared to non-binge drinkers. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine correlates of binge alcohol use among older adults with medical multimorbidity. Among adults aged ≥50, 14.4% reported past-month binge drinking. Estimated prevalence of medical multimorbidity was lower (21.4%) among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers (28.3%; p older adults with multimorbidity, higher income (AOR = 1.44, p older adults in good health are apt to drink more than adults in poorer health. Current use of tobacco and substance use disorder were associated with an increased risk for binge drinking among older adults with multimorbidity. Binge drinking by older adults with multimorbidity may pose significant health risks especially with the concurrent use of other substances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Binge drinking, reflection impulsivity, and unplanned sexual behavior: impaired decision-making in young social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Julia M; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Griffin, Alison; Hunt, Frances J; Milani, Raffaella M

    2014-04-01

    The repeated pattern of heavy intoxication followed by withdrawal from alcohol (i.e., "binge drinking") has been found to have substantial adverse effects on prefrontal neural systems associated with decision-making and impulse control. Repeated binge drinking has been linked to risky and unplanned sexual behavior; however few studies have examined the role of impulsivity and related cognitive processes in understanding this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking, "reflection impulsivity" (deficits in gathering and evaluating information during decision-making), alcohol-related expectancies, and unplanned sexual behavior in a sample of young social drinkers. Ninety-two university students completed the alcohol use questionnaire (AUQ) to measure alcohol intake and binge drinking. Two groups (low-binge and high-binge) were generated from the AUQ data. The Information Sampling Task (IST) was used to measure reflection impulsivity; the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) for alcohol outcome expectancies; and an unplanned sexual behavior questionnaire, which asked about the number of unplanned sexual events. When compared to the low-binge drinking group, the high-binge drinkers had significantly more unplanned sexual encounters and were impaired on the IST, reflection-impulsivity task. They scored higher on the alcohol expectancy factors of sociability, risk and aggression, negative self-perception, and in particular liquid courage. In a regression analysis, number of unplanned sexual encounters, binge drinking score, and liquid courage were all significantly related. These results support the role of binge drinking in reduced impulse control and decision-making deficits. The findings indicate that high-binge drinkers demonstrate impairments on an impulse control task similar to that observed in dependent samples and this may be a factor in understanding the negative behavioral consequences associated with excessive

  2. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  3. Intermittent Ethanol during Adolescence Leads to Lasting Behavioral Changes in Adulthood and Alters Gene Expression and Histone Methylation in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. Wolstenholme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task. As adults, mice were tested for cognitive changes using the novel object recognition task, ethanol-induced anxiolysis and ethanol sensitivity. Adolescent binge ethanol altered ethanol sensitivity in young mice and led to lasting memory deficits in the object recognition test and greater ethanol sensitivity in adulthood. Using genomic profiling of transcripts in the PFC, we found that binge ethanol reduced myelin-related gene expression and altered chromatin modifying genes involved in histone demethylation at H3K9 and H3K36. We hypothesize that ethanol’s actions on histone methylation may be a switch for future transcriptional changes that underlie the behavioral changes lasting into adulthood.

  4. Energy intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  5. Learning and Memory in Adolescent Moderate, Binge, and Extreme-Binge Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T; Tracas, Ashley; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Matt, Georg E; Eberson-Shumate, Sonja; Tapert, Susan F

    2016-09-01

    Binge drinking has been linked to neurocognitive disadvantages in youth, but it is unclear whether drinking at particularly heavy levels uniquely affects neurocognitive performance. This study prospectively examined (1) whether initiating moderate, binge, or extreme-binge drinking in adolescence differentially influences subsequent learning and memory performances, and (2) whether dosage of alcohol consumption is linearly associated with changes in learning and memory over 6 years of adolescence. Participants, who later transitioned into drinking, were administered verbal learning and memory (VLM) assessments at project intake prior to the onset of substance use (age 12 to 16 years), and at follow-up approximately 6 years later (N = 112). Participants were grouped based on alcohol involvement at follow-up as follows: moderate (≤4 drinks per occasion), binge (5+ drinks per occasion), or extreme-binge (10+ drinks per occasion) drinkers. Despite equivalent performances prior to onset of drinking, extreme-binge drinkers performed worse than moderate drinkers on verbal learning, and cued and free short delayed recall (ps learning (β^ = -0.24), and immediate (β^ = -0.27), short delay free (β^ = -0.28) and cued (β^ = -0.30), and long delay free (β^ = -0.24) and cued (β^ = -0.27) recall (ps < 0.05). Drinking quantity during adolescence appears to adversely affect VLM in a dose-dependent manner. The acquisition of new verbal information may be particularly affected, notably for those who initiated drinking 10+ drinks in an occasion. Although classification of drinkers into categories remains critical in the study of alcohol, it is important to consider that subtle differences may exist within drinking categories. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  7. Cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerz, Kelly E; Guastello, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    A cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking behavior was developed and tested with attitude toward alcohol consumption and peer influence as the two control parameters. Similar models were also developed for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Participants were 1,247 students who completed the Long Form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The results were strongest for the binge drinking criterion (R(2) = .90), compared to a linear model (R(2) = .34) that is usually associated with the Theory of Planned Behavior or Theory of Reasoned Action. The results have numerous implications for the development of interventions and for future research.

  8. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  9. The Role of Parenting Styles and Alcohol Expectancies in Teen Binge Drinking: A Preliminary Investigation among Italian Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Lonigro, Antonia; Baiocco, Roberto; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    As adolescents' alcohol abuse is more widespread almost everywhere, the aim of this study was to better understand the influence of both alcohol expectancies and parenting styles on this risky behaviour in order to allow the development of future prevention programmes, by evaluating the correlation between these variables. A total of 1500 subjects…

  10. Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-07-01

    The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking, on child motor function at age 5. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function at age 5. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  12. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of university students' definitions of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E; Young, Kathleen M; Hoffmann, Erica; Gumber, Shinakee; Cummings, Jeremy P; Pavlick, Michelle; Rosenberg, Harold

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to assess undergraduates' (N = 424) definitions of binge drinking and to evaluate whether the number of drinks they said comprise a binge varied as a function of beverage type, respondent gender, and respondent binge drinking status. When asked to designate the specific number of drinks that comprise a binge for each of four beverage types, students reported that the number of beers constituting a binge was significantly larger than the number of glasses of wine, shots of hard liquor, and servings of any combination of alcoholic beverage types; men reported that a larger number of drinks constitute a binge than did women; and those who had engaged in 3 or more binges in the past 2 weeks reported that more drinks comprise a binge than those who had binged less often. Responses to an open-ended question asking their definition of a binge revealed that students sometimes characterize a binge in terms of motivations for and unhealthy consequences of drinking, in addition to defining a binge as comprising consumption of a large amount of alcohol in a limited (though often unspecified) time period. Furthermore, students attributed their open-ended definitions of binge drinking to informal sources of information and observation of others' drinking almost as often as they did to school-based or media-based sources. This suggests that educators might look for innovative ways to use both formal and informal social networking, and video illustrations of restrained drinking, as ways to influence young people's views of binge drinking.

  13. Determinants for binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Kragh Andersen, Per; Sabroe, Svend

    2014-01-01

    of pocket money) predict binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark. Methods: This study is based on the Danish data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which took place in 2011. This cross-sectional survey obtained data from 2765 adolescents who were in grade 9 in Denmark...... at that time. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the outcome variable of binge drinking and the exposure variables of alcohol-drinking peers, pocket money, and mother’s/father’s approval of intoxication. Results: The risk of binge drinking increased with the number of alcohol......-drinking peers (trend test, p pocket money spent (trend test, p

  14. Binge Drinking Episodes in Young Adults: How Should We Measure Them in a Research Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mariann R; Mazzuco, Adriana; Kang, Minkyung; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, consequences of binge drinking are a major health and policy concern. This article reviews contemporary binge drinking definitions as well as different questionnaires and biomarkers that have been used in research settings to examine binge drinking behavior among young adults. A review of electronic databases was conducted for binge drinking definitions, questionnaires, and biomarkers for the measurement of binge drinking in young adults (18-30 years). Binge drinking is often defined as four or more drinks for females and five or more drinks for males on an occasion or in one sitting within a designated time frame (2 weeks vs. past 30 days). Several tools and questionnaires are available to identify young adult repeated binge drinkers. Biomarkers have been used to corroborate self-reported alcohol consumption, of which direct biomarkers such as phosphatidylethanol may be useful in confirming recent heavy drinking. It is important to measure binge drinking along a continuum and to use questions that allow for assessment of intensity, frequency, duration, and daily versus weekend consumption patterns. Open-ended questions that allow for intensity (number of drinks) and frequency can be used to determine dose-response relationships with respect to specific outcome measures. Direct alcohol biomarkers reflecting alcohol consumption over a period of several days are useful in conjunction with questionnaire data for identifying young adult binge drinkers.

  15. Personality factors and styles among college students who binge eat and drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Christina C; Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2009-03-01

    Elevated rates of comorbidity between binge eating and alcohol use problems have been widely documented. Prior studies have examined specific personality traits associated with the co-occurrence of these problems. The current study explores comprehensive personality factors that are associated with the co-occurrence of binge eating and binge drinking among a diverse sample of 208 college undergraduates. Using the Five Factor Model of personality, the authors assessed both comprehensive personality factors and style of impulse control, a personality style defined by different combinations of neuroticism and conscientiousness. On the basis of responses to a screening instrument, college students were assigned to one of four groups: binge eat, binge drink, binge eat and drink, and non-binge. The binge eat and drink group reported a higher level of neuroticism than did students in the binge drink and non-binge groups. Additionally, the binge eat and drink group was more likely to report an undercontrolled style of impulse control than were other groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q),...

  17. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3 weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex

  18. The Utility of a Gender-Specific Definition of Binge Drinking on the AUDIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Van Tyne, Kathryne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although binge drinking is commonly defined as the consumption of at least 5 drinks in 1 sitting for men and 4 for women, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) defines binge drinking as the consumption of 6 or more drinks in 1 sitting for both men and women. This study examined the effect of using gender-specific binge…

  19. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.

  20. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  1. Environmental Management Approach to Improve College Student and Community Relations to Reduce Binge and High-Risk Alcohol Use and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…

  2. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...

  3. High-Risk Driving Behaviors among Adolescent Binge-Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Meyer, Rachel A.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is common among adolescents. Alcohol use, and binge-drinking in particular, has been associated with neurocognitive deficits as well as risk-taking behaviors, which may contribute to negative driving outcomes among adolescents even while sober. Objectives To examine differences in self-reported driving behaviors between adolescent binge-drinkers and a matched sample of controls, including (a) compliance with graduated licensing laws, (b) high risk driving behaviors, and (c) driving outcomes (crashes, traffic tickets). Methods The present study examined driving behaviors and outcomes in adolescent recent binge drinkers (n=21) and demographically and driving history matched controls (n=17), ages 16-18. Results Binge drinkers more frequently violated graduated licensing laws (e.g., driving late at night), and engaged in more “high risk” driving behaviors, such as speeding and using a cell-phone while driving. Binge drinkers had more traffic tickets, crashes and “near crashes” than the control group. In a multivariate analysis, binge drinker status and speeding were the most robust predictors of a crash. Conclusion Binge drinking teens consistently engage in more dangerous driving behaviors and experience more frequent crashes and traffic tickets. They are also less compliant with preventative restrictions placed on youth while they are learning critical safe driving skills. Scientific Significance These findings highlight a need to examine the contribution of underlying traits (such as sensation seeking) and binge-related cognitive changes to these high-risk driving behaviors, which may assist researchers in establishing alternative prevention and policy efforts targeting this population. PMID:22324748

  4. Expectativas positivas com o uso de álcool e o beber se embriagando: diferenças de gênero em estudo do Projeto GENACIS, São Paulo, Brasil Positive expectations towards alcohol use and binge drinking: gender differences in a study from the GENACIS project, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Braga Cavariani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as expectativas de homens e mulheres com relação ao uso do álcool e a associação dessas com o comportamento de beber com embriaguez. Foi realizado inquérito epidemiológico, domiciliar, transversal, de base populacional, com amostra probabilística estratificada por conglomerados, na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram entrevistadas 2.083 pessoas de ambos os sexos utilizando-se o questionário GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study. Beber com embriaguez foi considerada variável dependente, e foram construídos modelos de regressão logística para cada sexo, ajustando-se os modelos para idade, escolaridade e renda. Todas as expectativas, exceto achar mais fácil falar com companheiro, associaram-se ao comportamento de beber com embriaguez. Nosso estudo mostrou que beber com embriaguez pode estar associado a expectativas com uso do álcool. Compreender essas expectativas pode contribuir para elaboração de estratégias mais efetivas de prevenção do beber excessivo.The objective was to investigate expectations towards alcohol use among men and women and the association between these expectations and binge drinking (or heavy episodic drinking. An epidemiological cross-sectional population-based household survey with a stratified probabilistic sample was conducted in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Males and females were interviewed (n = 2,083 with the GENACIS questionnaire (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. The dependent variable was binge drinking, and logistic regression models were constructed for each gender, adjusting for age, schooling, and income. All expectations, with the exception of increased ease in talking with one's partner, were associated with binge drinking. The study shows that binge drinking can be associated with expectations towards alcohol use. Understanding such expectations can contribute to the design of

  5. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  9. Binge Drinking: A Confused Concept and its Contemporary History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Virginia; Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Binge drinking is a matter of current social, political and media concern. It has a long-term, but also a recent, history. This paper discusses the contemporary history of the concept of binge drinking. In recent years there have been significant changes in how binge drinking is defined and conceptualised. Going on a ‘binge’ used to mean an extended period (days) of heavy drinking, while now it generally refers to a single drinking session leading to intoxication. We argue that the definitional change is related to the shifts in the focus of alcohol policy and alcohol science, in particular in the last two decades, and also in the role of the dominant interest groups. The paper is a case study in the relationship between science and policy. We explore key themes, raise questions and point to a possible agenda for future research.

  10. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  11. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  12. Binge Drinking Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Peer Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most p...

  13. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  14. Intermittent hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, J.; Vogel, H.; Hupe, W.

    1981-01-01

    An intermittent hydronephrosis was observed in a 40-year old patient. This disease pattern is due to an incongruity between the formation of urine and the transport capacity in the ureteropelvic junction. The latent impediment of flow becomes manifest with increased urine secretion. Irreversible renal damage can be the result of the repeatedly occurring hydronephrotic crises. (orig.) [de

  15. Does Binge Drinking During Early Pregnancy Increase the Risk of Psychomotor Deficits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking......, on child motor function at age 5. METHODS: We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home...

  16. 'Let's get wasted': A discourse analysis of teenagers' talk about binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainey, Timothy A; Stephens, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a significant health issue. To explore teenagers talk about binge drinking, four peer-group interviews were conducted with 20 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, with experience of excessive alcohol use. A discourse analysis showed that a 'drinking is cool' discourse constructed 'getting wasted' as an integral part of social life, while a 'drinking as a social lubricant' discourse described the behavioural functions of alcohol use. Participants also actively resisted an 'alcohol is bad' discourse, which acknowledges the risks of alcohol use. The findings illustrate how teenagers use these resources in sophisticated ways to position the teen drinker positively and negatively. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  18. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  19. Intermittent Access to Ethanol Drinking Facilitates the Transition to Excessive Drinking After Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Vapor Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kim, Sarah; Cole, Maury; Brennan, Molly; George, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol binge drinking in humans is thought to increase the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unclear is whether drinking patterns (e.g., bingelike or stable drinking) differentially affect the transition to compulsive-like drinking in dependent individuals. We examined whether chronic bingelike drinking facilitates the transition to compulsive-like drinking in rats. Male Wistar rats were given 5 months of intermittent access to ethanol (EtOH) (IAE) or continuous access to EtOH (CAE) in a 2-bottle choice paradigm. Then, rats were given chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure. Escalation of EtOH intake and compulsive-like responding for EtOH, using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and quinine-adulterated EtOH, were measured. IAE rats escalated EtOH drinking after 2 weeks of 2-bottle choice, whereas CAE rats exhibited stable EtOH drinking for 5 months. After 8 weeks of CIE, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats escalated their EtOH intake. However, IAE rats escalated their EtOH intake weeks sooner than CAE rats and exhibited greater EtOH intake. No differences in compulsive-like responding were found between IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats. However, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats showed strong compulsive-like responding compared with rats without prior IAE or CAE. Chronic EtOH drinking at stable or escalated levels for several months is associated with more compulsive-like responding for EtOH in rats that are exposed to CIE compared with rats without a prior history of EtOH drinking. Moreover, IAE facilitated the transition to compulsive-like responding for EtOH after CIE exposure, reflected by the escalation of EtOH intake. These results suggest that IAE may facilitate the transition to AUD. This study indicates that despite a moderate level of EtOH drinking, the IAE animal model is highly relevant to early stages of alcohol abuse and suggests that it may be associated with neuroadaptations that produce a faster transition to

  20. College Binge Drinking and Its Association with Depression and Anxiety: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourse, R; Adamshick, P; Stoltzfus, J

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking is a significant public health problem across college campuses in the United States. Despite substantial research and the use of evidence-based methods, the binge drinking culture remains an obstinate health crisis on campuses. This study examined the current binge drinking rate on a selected college campus, the association between binge drinking and anxiety and depression as well as the associated consequences of students' alcohol use. A sample of 201 students from a small, private Mid-Atlantic college completed validated scales as well as demographics and questionnaires. Primary outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, 7-item Generalised Anxiety Questionnaire, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary measures were the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire, questionnaires, and demographics. Descriptive outcomes, frequencies and percentages, and separate Chi-square tests methodologies were utilised for analyses. According to the AUDIT, 93% of students engaged in hazardous drinking, with a binge drinking rate of 38.8%. No significant associations were found between hazardous drinking and depression (p = 0.20) or anxiety (p = 0.68) levels in students. A significant relationship was found between their amount of drinking and negative consequences (p students reported moderate and severe levels of anxiety and depression. Our student sample engaged in binge drinking, suffered negative consequences, and presented with anxiety and depression issues along with gender implications as females had higher rates of depression and anxiety. Males drank significantly more and binged more often than females. The majority of students who binged experienced memory loss. Both females and males reported taking foolish risks and being impulsive when drinking. Students are vulnerable to harmful consequences when binging and have poor insight regarding binge drinking.

  1. Intermittency '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    1993-01-01

    The existing data definitely indicate the existence of intermittency, i.e. of self similar structures in the systems of particles created in high-energy collisions. The effect seems universal: it was found in most of the processes investigated and its measures parameters depend only weakly (if at all) on the process in question. Strong HBT effect was found, suggesting that intermittency is related to space-time structure of the pion source rather than to detailed momentum structure of the production amplitudes. There are indications that this space time structure may be fractal, but more data is needed to establish this. The theoretical explanation remains obscure: it seems that both parton cascade and hadronization play an important role. Their interrelation, however, remains a mystery. 5 figs., 19 refs

  2. Investigation of Sex Differences in the Microglial Response to Binge Ethanol and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Barton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The female brain appears selectively vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol, but the reasons for this are unclear. One possibility is an exaggerated neuroimmune response in the female brain, such that alcohol increases microglia number and reactivity to subsequent stimuli, such as exercise. It is important to better characterize the interactive neural effects of alcohol and exercise, as exercise is increasingly being used in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. The present study compared the number of microglia and evidence of their activation in alcohol-vulnerable regions of the brain (medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in male and female rats following binge alcohol and/or exercise. Binge alcohol increased microglia number and morphological characteristics consistent with their activation in the female brain but not the male, regardless of exercise. Binge alcohol followed by exercise did increase the number of MHC II+ (immunocompetent microglia in females, although the vast majority of microglia did not express MHC II. These results indicate that binge alcohol exerts sex-specific effects on microglia that may result in enhanced reactivity to a subsequent challenge and in part underlie the apparent selective vulnerability of the female brain to alcohol.

  3. Binge-type behavior in rats consuming trans-fat-free shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W

    2008-07-05

    Studies from this and another laboratory involving an animal model of binge-type behavior have used vegetable shortening containing trans-fats. Due to reformulations by vegetable shortening manufacturers to remove trans-fats from their products, only trans-fat-free shortenings are now available. The goal of the present study was to assess binge-type behavior in rats with trans-fat and trans-free vegetable shortening. Trans-fat-free shortening was provided to three different groups of non-food-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats on different schedules of access: continuous access (24 h/day-7 days/week), daily access (1 h every day), and intermittent access (1 h on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays). Trans-fat shortening was provided to a fourth group on the intermittent access schedule. A fifth group had no shortening access (chow only). Both intermittent groups (trans-fat-free and trans-fat) consumed significantly more shortening during the 1-h period of availability than did the daily group, and there was no difference in shortening intakes between the intermittent groups. These results are identical to previous reports of binge-type behavior in rats using this model. Thus, binge-type behavior in the present behavioral model depends upon the schedule of access, not the presence of trans-fats in the shortening.

  4. Episodic and Binge Gambling: An Exploration and Preliminary Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.

  5. Binge drinking and blood pressure: cross-sectional results of the HAPIEE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pajak

    Full Text Available To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking.We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45-69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥ 100 g in men and ≥ 60 g in women in one session at least once a month were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure and a binary outcome (≥ 140/90 mm Hg.In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45-1.82 after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03-1.39. In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05-1.63. Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects.The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure.

  6. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  7. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  8. Intermittent hyperthyreosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulman, F.G.; Tal, E.; Pfeifer, Y.; Superstine, E.

    1975-01-01

    Intermittent hyperthyreosis occurs under various forms of stress, especially heat stress. The clinician may diagnose such cases as masked or apathetic hyperthyroidism or 'forme fruste' hyperthyreosis or thyroid autonomy. As most routine and standard tests may here yield inconsistent results, it is the patients' anamnesis which may provide the clue. Our Bioclimatology Unit has now seen over 100 cases in which thyroid hypersensitivity towards heat was the most prominent syndrome: 10-15% of weather-sensitive patients are affected. The patients complain before or during heat spells of such contradictory symptoms as insomnia, irritability, tension, tachycardia, palpitations, precordial pain, dyspnoe, flushes with sweating or chills, tremor, abdominal pain or diarrhea, polyuria or pollakisuria, weight loss in spite of ravenous appetite, fatigue, exhaustion, depression, adynamia, lack of concentration and confusion. Determination of urinary neurohormones allows a differential diagnosis, intermittent hyperthyreosis being characterized by three cardinal symptoms: tachycardia - every case with more than 80 pulse beats being suspect (not specific); urinary histamine - every case excreting more than 90 μg/day being suspect. Again the drawback of this test is its lack of specificity, as histamine may also be increased in cases of allergy and spondylitis; urinary thyroxine - every case excreting more than 20 μg/day T-4 being suspect. This is the only specific test. Therapy should make use of lithium carbonate and betablockers. Propyl thiouracil is rarely required. (orig.) [de

  9. Binge Eating in Obesity: Associated MMPI Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkin, Ronette L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Determined Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) characteristics' association with binge-eating severity among obese women. Indicated much variability in binge severity among obese women seeking treatment. MMPI characteristics were significantly related to binge severity. As binge severity increased, so did psychological disturbance,…

  10. Binge drinking and insomnia in middle-aged and older adults: the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Mauro, Pia M; Mojtabai, Ramin; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol use in later life has been linked to poor sleep. However, the association between binge drinking, which is common among middle-aged and older adults, and insomnia has not been previously assessed. We studied participants aged 50 years and older (n = 6027) from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study who reported the number of days they had ≥4 drinks on one occasion in the prior 3 months. Participants also reported the frequency of four insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between binge drinking frequency and insomnia. Overall, 32.5% of participants had >0 to ≤2 binge drinking days/week; and 3.6% had >2 binge drinking days/week. After adjusting for demographic variables, medical conditions, body mass index, and elevated depressive symptoms, participants who binged >2 days/week had a 64% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.47, p = 0.017). Participants reporting >0 to ≤2 binge days/week also had a 35% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.15-1.59, p = 0.001). When smoking was added to the regression model, these associations fell just below the level of significance. Results suggest that binge drinking is associated with a greater risk of insomnia among adults aged 50 years and older, although this relationship may be driven in part by current smoking behavior. The relatively high prevalence of both binge drinking and sleep complaints among middle-aged and older populations warrants further investigation into binge drinking as a potential cause of late-life insomnia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. College students' binge drinking at a beach-front destination during spring break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, G L; Josiam, B M; Dietrich, U C

    1998-05-01

    Four hundred forty-two women and 341 men were surveyed at Panama City Beach, Florida, to assess the effects of gender, age, fraternity or sorority membership, and travel motivation on alcohol consumption and binge drinking during spring break. The mean number of drinks consumed the previous day was 18 for men and 10 for women; 91.7% of the men and 78.1% of the women had participated in a binge-drinking episode during the previous day. Respondents less than 21 years old consumed less alcohol and reported significantly lower frequencies of intoxication than those over 21. The men's reported levels of alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and intoxication to the point of sickness were significantly higher than the women's, but fraternity or sorority membership was not associated with higher levels of consumption. Students motivated to visit the specific destination because of its "party" reputation consumed significantly more alcohol than students who cited other reasons for going there.

  12. Adolescent binge drinking and risky health behaviours: findings from northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Razvodovsky, Yury; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2013-12-15

    Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours. Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours. Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual and contextual factors related to binge drinking among adolescents in Spain: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Sordo, Luis; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M Teresa; Belza, María José J; Espelt, Albert

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of binge drinking by regions in Spain and assess the effect of individual and contextual factors related to this drinking pattern in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the 2014 Spanish School Survey on Drug Use (ESTUDES) in students aged 14-18 years (N = 34,259). The outcome was binge drinking in adolescents during the last 30 days. Individual independent variables were socioeconomic variables and variables related to access to alcohol and its availability. Contextual variables consisted of adult alcohol consumption, public policies on alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals.  The results showed that the prevalence of youth binge drinking by region of residence was similar for both sexes (r = 0.72). At the individual level, binge drinking was mainly associated with the perception of easy access to alcohol (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23-1.55), consumption in open areas [(PR: 3.82; 95% CI: 3.44-4.24) < once a month and (PR: 6.57; 95% CI: 5.85-7.37) ≥ once a month], at least one parent allowing alcohol consumption (PR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.37-1.47), and receiving >30 euros weekly (PR :1.51; 95% CI: 1.37-1.67). Contextual variables were not associated with youth binge drinking when individual variables were considered. In conclusion, youth binge drinking was associated with individual variables related to high alcohol accessibility and availability, regardless of contextual variables. These variables explained the variability in binge drinking among Spanish regions.

  14. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  15. Alcohol Intake Increases in Adolescent C57BL/6J Mice during Intermittent Cycles of Phase-Delayed, Long-Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gamsby

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents naturally go to bed and awaken late, but are forced to awaken early for school and work. This leads to “social jetlag”, a state of circadian desynchrony (CD, in which internal biological rhythms are out of sync with behavioral rhythms. CD is associated with increased alcohol intake in adults, but has been less well-studied in adolescents. The goal of this study was to model adolescent alcohol intake during similar CD conditions in male C57BL/6J mice. Free access alcohol intake, water intake and wheel-running activity were measured during a normal 12HR photoperiod or during alternating photoperiod (Experiment 1: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 18 h light for 3 days, with dark (activity onset delayed 9 h during the 18HR photoperiod; Experiment 2: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 6 h light for 3 days, with dark onset delayed 3 h during the 6HR photoperiod. In Experiment 1, CD produced a small but significant increase in the total alcohol intake per day as well as in intake in bouts, with the greatest increase over controls in the hours following the 6HR dark period. Additionally, the pattern of alcohol intake in bouts shifted to increase alcohol intake during the shorter dark period. In Experiment 2, the opposite effect occurred—the longer dark cycle led to lower alcohol drinking in the second half of the dark period. However, in Experiment 2, CD produced no significant changes in either total alcohol intake or alcohol intake in bouts. Conclusion: shifts in the light cycle that disrupt the regular pattern of day and night, and increase the length of the night phase, are sufficient to increase both drinking in bouts and restricted drinking in adolescent mice, modeling increased alcohol intake in adolescents during CD.

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  17. Entertainment and music magazine reading and binge drinking among a group of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relative contribution of exposure to entertainment and music magazines on binge drinking among a group of teenagers under the supervision of a juvenile court system in a medium-sized western United States community. Despite having a large proportion of adolescent readers, entertainment and music magazines typically include a substantial number of advertisements for alcoholic beverages in each issue. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire administered to 342 juvenile offenders (ages 12-18 years). Three-quarters of our respondents reported they have used alcohol and about 37% indicated they were binge drinkers. As anticipated, binge drinkers were more frequent readers of entertainment and music magazines than non-binge drinkers. Binge drinkers also estimated that larger portions of their classmates used alcohol and would be more accepting of regular drinking than non-binge drinkers. Results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict whether our subjects typically consumed five or more drinks during a drinking episode indicated that perceived ease of access, age, gender, the number of best friends who drink, parental drinking (inversely), and entertainment and music magazine reading frequency were significant predictors of binge drinking. We conclude that the predictive influence entertainment and music magazine reading frequency may actually reflect a selectivity bias among a segment of the youth sub-culture already inclined toward alcohol use and abuse. We recommend that entertainment and music magazine reading should be considered only within the constellation of other risk factors when assessing risk for potential alcohol abuse.

  18. Relationships Between Perceived Family Gambling and Peer Gambling and Adolescent Problem Gambling and Binge-Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zu Wei; Yip, Sarah W; Steinberg, Marvin A; Wampler, Jeremy; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-12-01

    The study systematically examined the relative relationships between perceived family and peer gambling and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. It also determined the likelihood of at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking as a function of the number of different social groups with perceived gambling. A multi-site high-school survey assessed gambling, alcohol use, presence of perceived excessive peer gambling (peer excess-PE), and family gambling prompting concern (family concern-FC) in 2750 high-school students. Adolescents were separately stratified into: (1) low-risk, at-risk, and problem/pathological gambling groups; and, (2) non-binge-drinking, low-frequency-binge-drinking, and high-frequency-binge-drinking groups. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to each other, FC and PE were associated with greater likelihoods of at-risk and problem/pathological gambling. However, only FC was associated with binge-drinking. Logistic regression revealed that adolescents who endorsed either FC or PE alone, compared to no endorsement, were more likely to have at-risk and problem/pathological gambling, relative to low-risk gambling. Adolescents who endorsed both FC and PE, compared to PE alone, were more likely to have problem/pathological gambling relative to low-risk and at-risk gambling. Relative to non-binge-drinking adolescents, those who endorsed both FC and PE were more likely to have low- and high-frequency-binge-drinking compared to FC alone or PE alone, respectively. Family and peer gambling individually contribute to adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. Strategies that target adolescents as well as their closely affiliated family and peer members may be an important step towards prevention of harm-associated levels of gambling and alcohol use in youths.

  19. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  1. Forced swim stress increases ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2016-06-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated alcohol use to the development of alcohol dependence. Additionally, stress is a common trigger for relapse and subsequent loss of control of drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. The present study was designed to characterize effects of repeated forced swim stress (FSS) on ethanol consumption in three rodent drinking models that engender high levels of ethanol consumption. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 10-min FSS 4 h prior to each drinking session in three different models of high ethanol consumption: chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) drinking (a model of dependence-like drinking), drinking-in-the-dark (DID; a model of binge-like drinking), and intermittent vs. continuous access (a model of escalated drinking). In the CIE drinking paradigm, daily FSS facilitated the escalation of ethanol intake that is typically seen in CIE-exposed mice without altering ethanol consumption in control mice exposed to FSS. FSS prior to drinking sessions did not alter ethanol consumption in the DID or intermittent access paradigms, whereas stressed mice in the continuous access procedure consumed less ethanol than their nonstressed counterparts. The CIE drinking paradigm may provide a helpful preclinical model of stress-induced transition to ethanol dependence that can be used to (1) identify underlying neural mechanisms that facilitate this transition and (2) evaluate the therapeutic potential of various pharmacological agents hypothesized to alleviate stress-induced drinking.

  2. High intake of palatable food predicts binge-eating independent of susceptibility to obesity: an animal model of lean vs obese binge-eating and obesity with and without binge-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Artiga, A I; Pritchett, C E; Chandler-Laney, P C; Smith, M L; Eldridge, A J

    2007-09-01

    To determine the stability of individual differences in non-nutritive 'junk' palatable food (PF) intake in rats; assess the relationship of these differences to binge-eating characteristics and susceptibility to obesity; and evaluate the practicality of using these differences to model binge-eating and obesity. Binge-eating prone (BEP) and resistant (BER) groups were identified. Differential responses to stress, hunger, macronutrient-varied PFs, a diet-induced obesity (DIO) regimen and daily vs intermittent access to a PF+chow diet, were assessed. One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats. Reliability of intake patterns within rats; food intake and body weight after various challenges over acute (1, 2, 4 h), 24-h and 2-week periods. Although BEP and BER rats did not differ in amount of chow consumed, BEPs consumed >50% more intermittent PF than BERs (PBEPs suppressed chow but not PF intake when stressed, and ate as much when sated as when hungry. Conversely, BERs were more affected by stress and ate less PF, not chow, when stressed and were normally hyperphagic to energy deficit. BEP overeating generalized to other PFs varying in sucrose, fat and nutrition content. Half the rats in each group proved to be obesity prone after a no-choice high fat diet (DIO diet) but a continuous diet of PF+chow normalized the BEPs high drive for PF. Greater intermittent intake of PF predicts binge-eating independent of susceptibility to weight gain. Daily fat consumption in a nutritious source (DIO-diet; analogous to a fatty meal) promoted overeating and weight gain but limiting fat to daily non-nutritive food (PF+chow; analogous to a snack with a low fat meal), did not. The data offer an animal model of lean and obese binge-eating, and obesity with and without binge-eating that can be used to identify the unique physiology of these groups and henceforth suggest more specifically targeted treatments for binge-eating and obesity.

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  4. Alcohol Use, Eating Patterns, and Weight Behaviors in a University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore associations between alcohol, alcohol-related eating, and weight-related health indicators. Methods: Cross-sectional, multivariate regression of weight behaviors, binge drinking, and alcohol-related eating, using self-reported student survey data (n = 3206 undergraduates/graduates). Results: Binge drinking was associated with…

  5. Binge drinking among adolescents: prevalence, risk practices and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.

  6. “I cannot stand the boredom.” Binge drinking expectancies in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biolcati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of this study is to improve our knowledge on binge drinking behavior in adolescents. In particular, we tested a model of predictors of binge drinking focusing on boredom proneness; we also examined the predictive and mediating role of drinking expectancies on binge drinking. Methods: A questionnaire designed to assess current drinking behavior, such as binge drinking, drinking expectancies and boredom proneness, was administered to 721 Italian adolescents (61% females aged between 13 and 19 years (M = 15.98, SD = 1.61. Results: Structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on drinking expectancies as predicted by boredom proneness and as predictive of adolescents' binge drinking. Interestingly, disinhibition and relief from pain seem to play a more important mediating role between boredom and alcohol outcome. Conversely, no mediation was found for interpersonal and social confidence expectancies on binge drinking. Conclusions: In general, the results suggest that preventative interventions on alcohol misuse should focus on personality traits and underlying drinking expectancies.

  7. Repeated intermittent alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent increases expression of the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit in cerebellar granule neurons and delays motor development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R; Vollmer, Cyndel C; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Vollmer, William; Blomquist, Samantha L; Morton, Russell A; Everett, Julie C; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Yu, Jieying; Orser, Beverley A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during fetal development can lead to long-lasting alterations, including deficits in fine motor skills and motor learning. Studies suggest that these are, in part, a consequence of cerebellar damage. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are the gateway of information into the cerebellar cortex. Functionally, CGNs are heavily regulated by phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition from Golgi cell interneurons; however, the effect of EtOH exposure on the development of GABAergic transmission in immature CGNs has not been investigated. To model EtOH exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy, neonatal pups were exposed intermittently to high levels of vaporized EtOH from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. This exposure gradually increased pup serum EtOH concentrations (SECs) to ∼60 mM (∼0.28 g/dl) during the 4 h of exposure. EtOH levels gradually decreased to baseline 8 h after the end of exposure. Surprisingly, basal tonic and phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs were not significantly affected by postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, PAE increased δ subunit expression at P28 as detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Also, electrophysiological studies with an agonist that is highly selective for δ-containing GABA(A) receptors, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP), showed an increase in THIP-induced tonic current. Behavioral studies of PAE rats did not reveal any deficits in motor coordination, except for a delay in the acquisition of the mid-air righting reflex that was apparent at P15 to P18. These findings demonstrate that repeated intermittent exposure to high levels of EtOH during the equivalent of the last trimester of human pregnancy has significant but relatively subtle effects on motor coordination and GABAergic transmission in CGNs in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic plus binge ethanol feeding induces myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial and cardiovascular dysfunction, and steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan V; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Paloczi, Janos; Lajtos, Tamas; Erdelyi, Katalin; Nemeth, Balazs T; Nan, Mintong; Hasko, Gyorgy; Gao, Bin; Pacher, Pal

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in humans develops in response to chronic excessive alcohol consumption; however, good models of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy in mice are lacking. Herein we describe mouse models of alcoholic cardiomyopathies induced by chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) feeding and characterize detailed hemodynamic alterations, mitochondrial function, and redox signaling in these models. Mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5% EtOH for 10, 20, and 40 days (d) combined with single or multiple EtOH binges (5 g/kg body wt). Isocalorically pair-fed mice served as controls. Left ventricular (LV) function and morphology were assessed by invasive pressure-volume conductance approach and by echocardiography. Mitochondrial complex (I, II, IV) activities, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, gene expression of markers of oxidative stress (gp91phox, p47phox), mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and fibrosis were examined. Cardiac steatosis and fibrosis were investigated by histological/immunohistochemical methods. Chronic and binge EtOH feeding (already in 10 days EtOH plus single binge group) was characterized by contractile dysfunction (decreased slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and preload recruitable stroke work), impaired relaxation (decreased time constant of LV pressure decay and maximal slope of systolic pressure decrement), and vascular dysfunction (impaired arterial elastance and lower total peripheral resistance). This was accompanied by enhanced myocardial oxidative/nitrative stress (3-NT; gp91phox; p47phox; angiotensin II receptor, type 1a) and deterioration of mitochondrial complex I, II, IV activities and mitochondrial biogenesis, excessive cardiac steatosis, and higher mortality. Collectively, chronic plus binge EtOH feeding in mice leads to alcohol-induced cardiomyopathies (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism models) characterized by increased myocardial oxidative

  9. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  10. Evaluation of an alternative methodology for investigating leadership and binge drinking among sorority members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucker, Jonathan A; Teed, Carla M

    2004-02-01

    Recent research suggests that leaders in Greek organizations use alcohol more frequently and more heavily than non-leaders in Greek organizations. These results carry considerable implications for the majority of existing alcohol education programs that rely heavily on peer modeling. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a more complex and realistic assessment of leadership involvement produced different results than the previous study. Results from 327 women in five randomly selected sororities provide evidence that binge drinking is related to some negative academic outcomes, but that a significant relationship between binge drinking and leadership involvement in Greek organizations does not exist. Furthermore, the results provide evidence that leadership styles do not influence the leadership involvement-binge drinking relationship.

  11. College Binge Drinking Associated with Decreased Frontal Activation to Negative Emotional Distractors during Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Cohen-Gilbert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to college is associated with an increase in heavy episodic alcohol use, or binge drinking, during a time when the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal-limbic circuitry continue to mature. Traits associated with this immaturity, including impulsivity in emotional contexts, may contribute to risky and heavy episodic alcohol consumption. The current study used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to assess brain activation during a task that required participants to ignore background images with positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence while performing an inhibitory control task (Go-NoGo. Subjects were 23 college freshmen (seven male, 18–20 years who engaged in a range of drinking behavior (past 3 months’ binge episodes range = 0–19, mean = 4.6, total drinks consumed range = 0–104, mean = 32.0. Brain activation on inhibitory trials (NoGo was contrasted between negative and neutral conditions and between positive and neutral conditions using non-parametric testing (5000 permutations and cluster-based thresholding (z = 2.3, p ≤ 0.05 corrected. Results showed that a higher recent incidence of binge drinking was significantly associated with decreased activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, brain regions strongly implicated in executive functioning, during negative relative to neutral inhibitory trials. No significant associations between binge drinking and brain activation were observed for positive relative to neutral images. While task performance was not significantly associated with binge drinking in this sample, subjects with heavier recent binge drinking showed decreased recruitment of executive control regions under negative versus neutral distractor conditions. These findings suggest that in young adults with heavier recent binge drinking, processing of negative emotional

  12. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  13. The ABBA study - approach bias modification in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Schmidt, Ulrike Hermine; Friederich, H C

    2016-01-01

    Background: The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are recurrent episodes of binge eating. Despite negative psychological and physical consequences, BN/BED patients show uncontrollable approach tendencies towards food. This cognitive bias occurs at an early stage of information processing. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) directly targets such biases and has been shown to be effective in treating several mental disorders. In alcohol addiction, automatic act...

  14. Reduced cerebellar brain activity during reward processing in adolescent binge drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cservenka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to ongoing development, adolescence may be a period of heightened vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Binge drinking may alter reward-driven behavior and neurocircuitry, thereby increasing risk for escalating alcohol use. Therefore, we compared reward processing in adolescents with and without a history of recent binge drinking. At their baseline study visit, all participants (age = 14.86 ± 0.88 were free of heavy alcohol use and completed a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Following this visit, 17 youth reported binge drinking on ≥3 occasions within a 90 day period and were matched to 17 youth who remained alcohol and substance-naïve. All participants repeated the WOF task during a second visit (age = 16.83 ± 1.22. No significant effects were found in a region of interest analysis of the ventral striatum, but whole-brain analyses showed significant group differences in reward response at the second study visit in the left cerebellum, controlling for baseline visit brain activity (p/α < 0.05, which was negatively correlated with mean number of drinks consumed/drinking day in the last 90 days. These findings suggest that binge drinking during adolescence may alter brain activity during reward processing in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. Facebook Displays as Predictors of Binge Drinking: From the Virtual to the Visceral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Kerr, Bradley; Moreno, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of social media, a nascent but important area of research is the effect of social media posting on one's own self. It is possible that an individual's social media posts may have predictive capacity, especially in relation to health behavior. Researchers have long utilized concepts from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to predict health behaviors. The theory does not account for social media, which may influence or predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test a model including Facebook alcohol displays and constructs from the TRA to predict binge drinking. Incoming college freshmen from two schools (312 participants between the ages of 18 and 19) were interviewed prior to (T1) and one year into college (T2), and their Facebook profiles were evaluated for displayed alcohol content. Path modeling was used to evaluate direct and indirect paths predicting binge drinking. Path analysis suggested that Facebook alcohol displays at T1 directly predict binge drinking at T2, while alcohol attitude both directly and indirectly predicts binge drinking. Based on these results, a preliminary model of social media presentation and action is discussed.

  16. Facebook Displays as Predictors of Binge Drinking: From the Virtual to the Visceral

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Kerr, Bradley; Moreno, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    Given the prevalence of social media, a nascent but important area of research is the effect of social media posting on one's own self. It is possible that an individual's social media posts may have predictive capacity, especially in relation to health behavior. Researchers have long utilized concepts from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to predict health behaviors. The theory does not account for social media, which may influence or predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test a model including Facebook alcohol displays and constructs from the TRA to predict binge drinking. Incoming college freshmen from two schools (312 participants between the ages of 18 and 19) were interviewed prior to (T1) and one year into college (T2), and their Facebook profiles were evaluated for displayed alcohol content. Path modeling was used to evaluate direct and indirect paths predicting binge drinking. Path analysis suggested that Facebook alcohol displays at T1 directly predict binge drinking at T2, while alcohol attitude both directly and indirectly predicts binge drinking. Based on these results, a preliminary model of social media presentation and action is discussed. PMID:26412923

  17. Adolescent binge drinking linked to abnormal spatial working memory brain activation: differential gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F

    2011-10-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Forty binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males), aged 16 to 19 years, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and an SWM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant binge drinking status × gender interactions were found (p working memory performances (p performance (p gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during an SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that blood oxygen level-dependent activation is affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive marker of alcohol impact to the brain on future behaviors, such as driving safety, academic performance, and neuropsychological performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué O. Suárez-Ortiz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS, it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus. Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of

  19. Gentrification and binge drinking in California neighborhoods: It matters how long you've lived there.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Yen, Irene H

    2018-07-01

    Neighborhood context plays a role in binge drinking, a behavior with major health and economic costs. Gentrification, the influx of capital and residents of higher socioeconomic status into historically-disinvested neighborhoods, is a growing trend with the potential to place urban communities under social and financial pressure. Hypothesizing that these pressures and other community changes resulting from gentrification could be tied to excessive alcohol consumption, we examined the relationship between gentrification and binge drinking in California neighborhoods. California census tracts were categorized as non-gentrifiable, stable (gentrifiable), or gentrifying from 2006 to 2015. Outcomes and covariates were obtained from the California Health Interview Survey using combined 2013-2015 data (n = 60,196). Survey-weighted logistic regression tested for associations between gentrification and any binge drinking in the prior 12 months. Additional models tested interactions between gentrification and other variables of interest, including housing tenure, federal poverty level, race/ethnicity, sex, and duration of neighborhood residence. A third of respondents reported past-year binge drinking. Controlling for demographic covariates, gentrification was not associated with binge drinking in the population overall (AOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.95-1.34), but was associated with binge drinking among those living in the neighborhood gentrification is associated with binge drinking. Further understanding the relationship between gentrification and high-risk alcohol use is important for policy and public health interventions mitigating the impact of this process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  1. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M.; Noori, Hamid R.; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S.; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M.

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents

  2. Personality Traits Related to Binge Drinking: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Adan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area. The main characteristics of personality related to the practice of BD, regardless of the theoretical model used, are high Impulsivity and high Sensation seeking, as well as Anxiety sensitivity, Neuroticism (Hopelessness, Extraversion and low Conscientiousness. The data obtained may have theoretical implications to elucidate the endophenotype of BD, but they are especially useful for their preventive applications. Integration into prevention programs of emotional self-control skills, decision-making, social skills, and strategies to manage negative emotions will minimize the risk factors or consequences of BD associated with personality and will improve their effectiveness. In the future, it is necessary to harmonize a common measurement instrument for the assessment of personality, develop longitudinal studies with large samples that also integrate biological and neurocognitive measurements, and determine the reciprocal relationship between personality and BD together with its modulating variables, as well as the possible cultural differences.

  3. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  4. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  5. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Eun

    2018-04-01

    Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008-December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07-1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence ( P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking.

  6. Intermittent search strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, O.; Loverdo, C.; Moreau, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines intermittent target search strategies, which combine phases of slow motion, allowing the searcher to detect the target, and phases of fast motion during which targets cannot be detected. It is first shown that intermittent search strategies are actually widely observed at various scales. At the macroscopic scale, this is, for example, the case of animals looking for food; at the microscopic scale, intermittent transport patterns are involved in a reaction pathway of DNA-binding proteins as well as in intracellular transport. Second, generic stochastic models are introduced, which show that intermittent strategies are efficient strategies that enable the minimization of search time. This suggests that the intrinsic efficiency of intermittent search strategies could justify their frequent observation in nature. Last, beyond these modeling aspects, it is proposed that intermittent strategies could also be used in a broader context to design and accelerate search processes.

  7. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  8. What's driving the binge in binge eating disorder?: A prospective examination of precursors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard I; Kenardy, Justin; Wiseman, Claire V; Dounchis, Jennifer Zoler; Arnow, Bruce A; Wilfley, Denise E

    2007-04-01

    Previous research, mostly using retrospective reports, indicated a relation of negative affect and dietary restraint with the occurrence of binge episodes in binge eating disorder (BED). We employed Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to better understand precursors and consequences of binge eating. Thirty-three females with BED carried a handheld computer for 7 days, and were periodically prompted to indicate their current emotions, hunger, and binge status. Negative mood and hunger were significantly higher at prebinge than at nonbinge times, but negative mood was even higher at postbinge. Participants attributed binge episodes to mood more frequently than to hunger or abstinence violation. The finding that negative mood is actually heightened subsequent to a binge suggests the need to further investigate what is reinforcing about a binge, including possible escape from self-awareness. Strengths of EMA technology are discussed, as well as its broad utility in BED assessment and treatment.

  9. Intermittency in branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Texas Univ., Austin; Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency properties of three branching models have been investigated. The factorial moments show power-law behavior as function of small rapidity width. The slopes and energy dependences reveal different characteristics of the models. The gluon model has the weakest intermittency. (orig.)

  10. New evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gabrielle Martins

    Full Text Available Adolescence is characterized by heightened susceptibility to peer influence, which makes adolescents vulnerable to initiating or maintaining risky habits such as heavy drinking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of social capital with longitudinal changes in the frequency of binge drinking among adolescents at public and private high schools in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. This longitudinal study used two waves of data collected when the adolescents were 12 and 13 years old. At the baseline assessment in 2013 a classroom survey was carried out with a representative sample of 588 students. In 2014, a follow-up survey was carried out with the same adolescents when they were aged 13 years. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-C (AUDIT C was employed for the evaluation of alcohol intake. Our predictor variables included sociodemographic and economic characteristics (gender, type of school, mother's education, family income and Social Capital. For evaluation of social capital, we used the Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students (SCQ-AS. Descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed (p <0.05. The log-binomial model was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals. The two-tailed p value was set at <0.05. The prevalence of binge drinking in 2013 was 23.1% and in 2014 the prevalence had risen to 30.1%. Gender (PR 1.48; 95% CI 0.87-2.52 and socioeconomic status (type of school and mother's education were not associated with the increase in the frequency of binge drinking. However, higher social capital was significantly associated with an increase in binge drinking by students. Adolescents who reported that they had an increase in social cohesion in the community/neighborhood subscale were 3.4 times more likely (95%CI 1.96-6.10 to binge drink themselves. Our results provide new evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.

  11. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  12. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Reduced cerebellar brain activity during reward processing in adolescent binge drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Jones, Scott A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-12-01

    Due to ongoing development, adolescence may be a period of heightened vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Binge drinking may alter reward-driven behavior and neurocircuitry, thereby increasing risk for escalating alcohol use. Therefore, we compared reward processing in adolescents with and without a history of recent binge drinking. At their baseline study visit, all participants (age=14.86 ± 0.88) were free of heavy alcohol use and completed a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Following this visit, 17 youth reported binge drinking on ≥3 occasions within a 90 day period and were matched to 17 youth who remained alcohol and substance-naïve. All participants repeated the WOF task during a second visit (age=16.83 ± 1.22). No significant effects were found in a region of interest analysis of the ventral striatum, but whole-brain analyses showed significant group differences in reward response at the second study visit in the left cerebellum, controlling for baseline visit brain activity (p/αreward processing in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Binge drinking among young adults in an urban tertiary care emergency department in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Daphna; Rosca, Paola; Vilner, Doron; Brimberg, Idit; Stall, Yael; Rimon, Ayelet

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol use is a major preventable public health problem with serious health and social consequences especially among youth. In Israel, alcohol use has become an emerging problem during the last decade, and its use has increased among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is the common pattern of alcohol consumption among young adults who drink for recreational purposes. The present survey was conducted among 16-35 years old visitors to the ED. The aim was specifically to identify binge drinkers in order to assess the scope of the need for a brief counseling intervention among young people who arrive intoxicated to a large tertiary care urban ED in Israel. The survey was conducted throughout a 1 week period (24 h per day) at the general EDs in a large, tertiary care center, situated in Tel Aviv. During the survey week, 946 individuals, aged 16-35, visited the ED and 573 (63%) of them were approached for an interview. 89% of those approached agreed to be interviewed. Consenting patients [N = 348] were asked whether they drink any alcohol, how often they drink and how much. About one fifth of those interviewed were in the habit of consuming more than four units of alcohol per occasion. Drinking several times a week or every day was reported by 19% of the males and 26% of the females. Frequency of the drinking episodes was highly correlated with the number of units of drink per occasion. The study found a very high rate of binge drinking among ED visitors, and this suggests a need for large scale ED-based interventions. As binge drinkers are at elevated risk for accidents, violence and related problems, effective ED-based interventions could make an important contribution to public health. Accordingly, Israel is in the process of assessing the effectiveness of a large-scale ED-based counseling intervention. Trial registration number 0230-13-TLV.

  15. Intermittent heating of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, K

    1983-02-01

    Conditions for intermittent heating of buildings are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Thermal behaviour of buildings adn rooms in intermittent heating is simulated by a program based on the convective heat balance equation and by simplified RC-models. The preheat times and the heating energy savings compared with continuous heating are presented for typical lightweight, mediumweight and heavyweight classroom and office modules. Formulaes for estimating the oversizing of the radiator network, the maximum heat output of heat exchangers in district heating and the efficiency of heating boilers in intermittent heating are presented. The preheat times and heating energy savings with different heating control systems are determined also experimentally in eight existing buildings. In addition some principles for the planning and application of intermittent heating systems are suggested.

  16. Alcohol Use among Students with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…

  17. Optimal intermittent search strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E; Wio, H S

    2009-01-01

    We study the search kinetics of a single fixed target by a set of searchers performing an intermittent random walk, jumping between different internal states. Exploiting concepts of multi-state and continuous-time random walks we have calculated the survival probability of a target up to time t, and have 'optimized' (minimized) it with regard to the transition probability among internal states. Our model shows that intermittent strategies always improve target detection, even for simple diffusion states of motion

  18. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  19. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  20. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  1. Feeding and reward: Perspectives from Three Rat Models of Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Rebecca L; Avena, Nicole M.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has focused on understanding how overeating can affect brain reward mechanisms and subsequent behaviors, both preclinically and in clinical research settings. This work is partly driven by the need to uncover the etiology and possible treatments for the ongoing obesity epidemic. However, overeating, or non-homeostatic feeding behavior, can occur independent of obesity. Isolating the variable of overeating from the consequence of increased body weight is of great utility, as it is well known that increased body weight or obesity can impart its own deleterious effects on physiology, neural processes, and behavior. In this review, we present data from three selected animal models of normal-weight non-homeostatic feeding behavior that have been significantly influenced by Bart Hoebel’s 40+-yr career studying motivation, feeding, reinforcement, and the neural mechanisms that participate in the regulation of these processes. First, a model of sugar bingeing is described (Avena/Hoebel), in which animals with repeated, intermittent access to a sugar solution develop behaviors and brain changes that are similar to the effects of some drugs of abuse, serving as the first animal model of food addiction. Second, another model is described (Boggiano) in which a history of dieting and stress can perpetuate further binge eating of palatable and non-palatable food. In addition, a model (Boggiano) is described that allows animals to be classified as having a binge-prone vs. binge-resistant phenotype. Lastly, a limited access model is described (Corwin) in which non-food deprived rats with sporadic limited access to a high-fat food develop binge-type behaviors. These models are considered within the context of their effects on brain reward systems, including dopamine, the opioids, cholinergic systems, serotonin, and GABA. Collectively, the data derived from the use of these models clearly show that behavioral and neuronal consequences of bingeing on a palatable food, even

  2. Alcohol use during the great recession of 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob; Basu, Sanjay; Coutts, Adam; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in alcohol use in the USA during the Great Recession. Drinking participation, drinking frequency, drinking intensity, total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were assessed in a nationally representative sample of 2,050,431 US women and men aged 18 and older, interviewed between 2006 and 2010. The prevalence of any alcohol use significantly declined during the economic recession, from 52.0% in 2006-2007 to 51.6% in 2008-2009 (P Great Recession there was an increase in abstention from alcohol and a rise in frequent binging.

  3. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  4. Examining associations between adolescent binge eating and binge eating in parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Choo, Tse-Hwei J; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents' and friends' self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Girls' binge eating was associated with their male friends' (odds ratio = 2.33; p = 0.03) and fathers' binge eating (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.02), but not with their female friends' or mothers' binge eating (p > 0.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents' or friends' behavior. Adolescent girls' binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The party effect: Prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140

  6. Optimal intermittent search strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina); Wio, H S [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria and CSIC E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2009-03-27

    We study the search kinetics of a single fixed target by a set of searchers performing an intermittent random walk, jumping between different internal states. Exploiting concepts of multi-state and continuous-time random walks we have calculated the survival probability of a target up to time t, and have 'optimized' (minimized) it with regard to the transition probability among internal states. Our model shows that intermittent strategies always improve target detection, even for simple diffusion states of motion.

  7. Intermittency and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  8. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy or Breastfeeding: A National Survey in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Agnès; Toutain, Stéphanie; Simmat-Durand, Laurence

    2017-07-01

    Adverse effects are associated with alcohol drinking during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Data are lacking on the size of the population at risk and on the characteristics of women engaging in risky behaviors such as daily consumption or repeated binge drinking. A cross-sectional survey was carried out by telephone among a nationally representative sample of pregnant and postpartum women. Frequency of alcohol use and binge drinking was retrospectively measured according to distinct time periods. Multivariable regression models were used to identify the characteristics of women reporting risk-taking behaviors. A total of 3,603 women participated. Daily consumption was reported by 0.1% of pregnant women and by 0.4% of breastfeeding women. In early pregnancy, 8.0% of women reported binge drinking (≥1 episode) and 1.2% reported repeated binge drinking (≥3 episodes). Binge drinking was estimated at 1.1% in late pregnancy and at 6.8% during breastfeeding. Characteristics of drinkers varied across these different drinking patterns and subpopulations. Moderate drinking during pregnancy and breastfeeding was associated with higher educational level. Smoking increased with increased frequency of alcohol use. Repeated binge drinking in early pregnancy was associated with late recognition of the pregnancy, while binge drinking in late pregnancy was associated with smoking. Daily alcohol use during pregnancy or breastfeeding was limited, while binge drinking in early pregnancy was reported by a large proportion of women. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of drinkers varied across drinking patterns.

  9. Health and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-06-26

    Heavy drinking among university students has been globally recognized as a major public health burden. In the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, studies on this issue have been scant, country-specific and in different time frames. The aim of this study was to identify social and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 8809 undergraduate university students from 13 universities in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam using self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the associated factors. More than half (62.3%) of the study sample were female with a mean age of 20.5 (SD = 2.0) years. Of total, 12.8% were infrequent (binge drinkers. After adjustment, among males, higher binge drinking remained significantly associated with being in older age groups, living with parents or guardians, lower level of non-organized religious activity, lack of knowledge on alcohol-heart disease relationship, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, poor subjective health status, lower level of life satisfaction, tobacco and illicit drug use, depressive symptoms and high level physical activity. Among females, higher prevalence of binge drinking remained significantly associated with being in the older age groups, poorer family background, living in an upper-middle- or high-income country, lower level of non-organized religious activity, lack of knowledge on alcohol-heart disease relationship, lack of knowledge on alcohol-high blood pressure relationship, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, lower level of life satisfaction, use of other substances such as tobacco and illicit drug, depressive symptoms and high level of physical activity. Findings from

  10. Intermittent Testicular Torsion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... had prior episodes of testicular pain, suggesting that they may have had intermittent torsion before .... None of the patients had antecedent history of sexual exposure, fever, or urinary tract infection .... torsion of the spermatic cord portends an increased risk of acute testicular infarction. J Urol 2008;180 4 ...

  11. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008–December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07–1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence (P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking. PMID:29629034

  12. The Burden of Binge and Heavy Drinking on the Brain: Effects on Adolescent and Young Adult Neural Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cservenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function.Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e.g., gray and white matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and investigated brain response using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Results: Binge and heavy-drinking adolescents and young adults have systematically thinner and lower volume in prefrontal cortex and cerebellar regions, and attenuated white matter development. They also show elevated brain activity in fronto-parietal regions during working memory, verbal learning, and inhibitory control tasks. In response to alcohol cues, relative to controls or light-drinking individuals, binge and heavy drinkers show increased neural response mainly in mesocorticolimbic regions, including the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, hippocampus, and amygdala. Mixed findings are present in risky decision-making tasks, which could be due to large variation in task design and analysis.Conclusions: These findings suggest altered neural structure and activity in binge and heavy-drinking youth may be related to the neurotoxic effects of consuming alcohol in large quantities during a highly plastic neurodevelopmental period, which could result in neural reorganization, and increased risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD.

  13. Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption in female rats with a history of food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Rice, Kenner C; Ubaldi, Massimo; St Laurent, Robyn; Gaetani, Silvana; Massi, Maurizio; Shaham, Yavin; Cifani, Carlo

    2014-08-20

    We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model. We also assessed the role of CRF receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in stress responses and stress-induced drug seeking, in stress-induced binge eating. We used four groups that were first exposed or not exposed to repeated intermittent cycles of regular chow food restriction during which they were also given intermittent access to high-caloric palatable food. On the test day, we either exposed or did not expose the rats to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min (frustration stress) before assessing food consumption for 2 h. We found that systemic injections of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7 dipropylamino pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) (10-20 mg/kg) and BNST (25-50 ng/side) or ventricular (1000 ng) injections of the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41) decreased frustration stress-induced binge eating in rats with a history of food restriction. Frustration stress also increased Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in ventral and dorsal BNST. Results demonstrate a critical role of CRF receptors in BNST in stress-induced binge eating in our rat model. CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for bingeing-related eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411316-09$15.00/0.

  14. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating , are among ... There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. People ...

  15. Binge drinking during pregnancy and risk of seizures in childhood: a study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...

  16. Predicting Alcohol Misuse Among College Students in the US and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yeon; Ahn, Seokhoon; Lim, Tae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examines contributing factors of alcohol misuse among college students in South Korea and the U.S. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on measurements of alcohol expectancy, alcohol efficacy, and accommodation resulted in social and personal causes for alcohol misuse. Social causes alone predicted alcohol misuse for both countries. Social factors constituted a much stronger predictor of alcohol misuse among South Korean students than among American students. Practical implications for effective deterrence of student binge drinking are discussed.

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France

    2009-04-01

    The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors.

  19. Binge-Eating Disorder in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Peat, Christine M.; Lohr, Kathleen N.; Cullen, Katherine E.; Bann, Carla M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. Purpose To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. Data Sources English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. Study Selection 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment. All were randomized trials with low or medium risk of bias. Data Extraction 2 reviewers independently extracted trial data, assessed risk of bias, and graded strength of evidence. Data Synthesis Therapist-led cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) decreased binge-eating frequency and increased binge-eating abstinence (relative risk, 4.95 [95% CI, 3.06 to 8.00], 2.61 [CI, 2.04 to 3.33], and 1.67 [CI, 1.24 to 2.26], respectively). Lisdexamfetamine (mean difference [MD], −6.50 [CI, −8.82 to −4.18]) and SGAs (MD, −3.84 [CI, −6.55 to −1.13]) reduced binge-eating–related obsessions and compulsions, and SGAs reduced symptoms of depression (MD, −1.97 [CI, −3.67 to −0.28]). Headache, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbance, and sympathetic nervous system arousal occurred more frequently with lisdexamfetamine than placebo (relative risk range, 1.63 to 4.28). Other forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and topiramate also increased abstinence and reduced binge-eating frequency and related psychopathology. Topiramate reduced weight and increased sympathetic nervous system arousal, and lisdexamfetamine reduced weight and appetite. Limitations Most study participants were overweight or obese white women aged 20 to 40 years. Many treatments were examined only in single studies. Outcomes were measured inconsistently across trials and rarely

  20. Binge drinking and psychoactive drug use in a cohort of European youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Siliquini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. TEN-D by Night is an international, multicentre, cross-sectional portal survey conducted on a large sample of young people in six European countries. This paper aims to investigate the alcohol and psychoactive drug consumption of this sample, with a focus on the prevalence of binge drinking and the poly-drug habits of the TEN-D cohort. Design and Methods. The study population consisted of 4695 young people attending recreational sites on weekend nights. The intervention included two questionnaires and two psychoactive substance detection tests performed at the entry and exit of the recreational sites. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict the probability of binge drinking. Results. Binge drinking was reported by 20% of the males and 13% of the females (P=0.001 before entry into the recreational sites and by 18% of the males and 11% of the females before entry into the clubs (P<0.001. Poly-drug use was reported by 71% of the males and 66% of the females. Living with a parent (OR 1.57; P=0.01, seeking employment (OR 1.66; P=0.005 and cannabis consumption (several times per month and several times per week, OR 1.94 and 3.66, respectively, P<0.05 were associated with binge drinking. Conclusions. Our survey showed that it is possible to identify individuals and groups at higher risk of binge drinking. This identification would allow for a focus on specific targets and would facilitate the redesign of prevention programmes. The increased use of psychoactive substances among youths should be studied extensively to promote successful prevention campaigns.

  1. Genetic, Psychological, and Personal Network Factors Associated With Changes in Binge Drinking Over 2 Years Among Mexican Heritage Adolescents in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Wilkinson, Anna V; Shete, Sanjay; Koehly, Laura M

    2018-04-24

    Despite prevalent binge drinking and alcohol-dependent symptoms among Hispanics, few studies have examined how multidimensional factors influence Hispanic adolescents' binge drinking. Purpose This study examines the effects of genetic, psychological, and social network factors on binge drinking over time among Mexican heritage adolescents in the USA and whether there are correlations among genetic variants that are associated with binge drinking and psychological and network characteristics. Mexican heritage adolescents (n = 731) participated in a longitudinal study, which included genetic testing at baseline, alcohol use assessments at first and second follow-ups, and questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, and peer and family network characteristics at second follow-up. Logistic regression and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, underlying genetic clustering, and binge drinking at first follow-up, two genetic variants on tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2; rs17110451, rs7963717), sensation seeking and impulsivity, and having a greater fraction of peers who drink or encourage drinking alcohol were associated with greater risk whereas another genetic variant on TPH2 (rs11178999) and having a greater fraction of close family relationships were associated with reduced risk for binge drinking at second follow-up. Genetic variants in TPH1 (rs591556) were associated with sensation seeking and impulsivity, while genetic variants in TPH2 (rs17110451) were associated with the fraction of drinkers in family. Results reveal that genetic variants in the serotonin pathway, behavioral disinhibition traits, and social networks exert joint influences on binge drinking in Mexican heritage adolescents in the USA.

  2. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  3. Quasistatic Dynamics with Intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppänen, Juho; Stenlund, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    We study an intermittent quasistatic dynamical system composed of nonuniformly hyperbolic Pomeau–Manneville maps with time-dependent parameters. We prove an ergodic theorem which shows almost sure convergence of time averages in a certain parameter range, and identify the unique physical family of measures. The theorem also shows convergence in probability in a larger parameter range. In the process, we establish other results that will be useful for further analysis of the statistical properties of the model.

  4. Quasistatic Dynamics with Intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppänen, Juho; Stenlund, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.stenlund@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    We study an intermittent quasistatic dynamical system composed of nonuniformly hyperbolic Pomeau–Manneville maps with time-dependent parameters. We prove an ergodic theorem which shows almost sure convergence of time averages in a certain parameter range, and identify the unique physical family of measures. The theorem also shows convergence in probability in a larger parameter range. In the process, we establish other results that will be useful for further analysis of the statistical properties of the model.

  5. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Suffoletto

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive

  6. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  7. Frequency of Binge Eating Episodes in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Diagnostic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. Terence; Sysko, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective In DSM-IV, to be diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or the provisional diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), an individual must experience episodes of binge eating is “at least twice a week” on average, for three or six months respectively. The purpose of this review was to examine the validity and utility of the frequency criterion for BN and BED. Method Published studies evaluating the frequency criterion were reviewed. Results Our review found little evidence to support the validity or utility of the DSM-IV frequency criterion of twice a week binge eating; however, the number of studies available for our review was limited. Conclusion A number of options are available for the frequency criterion in DSM-V, and the optimal diagnostic threshold for binge eating remains to be determined. PMID:19610014

  8. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  9. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings…

  10. The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sundqvist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530 were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking, at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking. There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35 and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90. After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR=1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women. Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

  11. The importance of thinking styles in predicting binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikčević, A V; Marino, C; Caselli, G; Spada, M M

    2017-08-01

    Impulsivity, Body Mass Index, negative emotions and irrational food beliefs are often reported as predictors of binge eating. In the current study we explored the role played by two thinking styles, namely food thought suppression and desire thinking, in predicting binge eating among young adults controlling for established predictors of this condition. A total of 338 university students (268 females) participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires measuring the study variables. Path analysis revealed that impulsivity was not associated with binge eating, that Body Mass Index and negative emotions predicted binge eating, and that irrational food beliefs only influenced binge eating via food thought suppression and desire thinking. In conclusion, thinking styles appear an important predictor of binge eating and they should be taken into consideration when developing clinical interventions for binge eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Topiramate: use in binge eating disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.

  13. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  14. Inhibition of Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission augments alcohol-induced cardiotoxicity via dysregulated Akt signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Sivakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs still claim high mortality in spite of advancements in prognosis and treatment strategies. Alcohol is one of the most commonly consumed drugs globally and chronic/binge consumption (BAC 0.08 g/dL in 2 hours is a risk factor for CVDs. However, the aetiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of alcohol induced cardiotoxicity are still poorly understood. Mitochondria are the prime site for the ATP demands of the heart and also ethanol metabolism. These subcellular organelles depict dynamic fusion and fission events that are vital for structure and functional integrity. While fused mitochondrial improve ATP production and cell survival, increased fragmentation can be the cause or result of apoptosis. In this study, we proposed to analyze the mechanism of mitochondrial fission protein Drp-1-dependent apoptosis during alcohol toxicity. Male Wistar rats (220-250 kg body weight were given isocaloric sucrose or ethanol for 45 days, orally, via drinking water and intermittent gavage twice a week. Histopathological examination of the heart displayed hypertrophy with mild inflammation. Drp-1 immunoblotting showed over-expression of the protein during ethanol treatment. We next hypothesized that inhibiting Drp-1 could attenuate alcohol-induced cardiotoxicity. Interestingly, silencing Drp-1 with siRNA in-vitro augmented cytotoxicity. Also, crude mitochondrial fraction showed increased Bak aggregation, reduced cytochrome c release but increased SMAC/DIABLO. We analyzed the Akt cell survival signaling and found that PTEN showed over-expression at both transcriptional and translational level with no significant change in total Akt but down-regulation of p-Akt (Ser473. In conclusion, we have shown that inhibition of Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission is not cardioprotective against alcohol-induced apoptotic signaling and augments the cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to interlink cell survival AKT signaling

  15. Acute and long-term Purkinje cell loss following a single ethanol binge during the early third trimester equivalent in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Napper, Ruth M A

    2012-08-01

    In the rat, binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure during the early neonatal period (a developmental period equivalent to the human third trimester) can result in a permanent deficit of cerebellar Purkinje cells (Pcells). However, the consequences of a moderate binge alcohol exposure on a single day during this postnatal period have not been established. This is an issue of importance as many pregnant women binge drink periodically at social drinking levels. This study aimed to identify both the acute and long-term effects of exposure to a single alcohol binge that achieved a mean peak blood EtOH concentration of approximately 250 mg/dl during early postnatal life using a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Acute apoptotic Pcell death 10 hours after a moderate dose binge EtOH exposure from postnatal days (PDs) 0 to 10 was assessed using active caspase-3 immunolabeling. Acute Pcell apoptosis was quantified in cerebellar vermal lobules I-X using the physical disector method. Long-term effects were assessed at PD 60 using stereological methods to determine total Pcell numbers in the vermis, lobule III, and lobule IX, following a moderate dose binge EtOH exposure at PDs 0, 2, or 4. Acute apoptosis was induced by EtOH on PDs 1 to 8 in a time and lobular-dependent manner. For EtOH exposure on PD 2, significant long-term Pcell loss occurred in lobule III. EtOH exposure on PD 4 resulted in significant long-term Pcell loss throughout the entire vermis. These results indicate that a single, early EtOH episode of moderate dose can create significant and permanent Pcell loss in the developing cerebellum. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Frequent binge drinking five to six years after exposure to 9/11: Findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alice E.; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Methods Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003–2004) and Wave 2 (2006–2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0–1), medium (2–3), high (4–5) and very high (6+). Results Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. PMID:24831753

  17. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  18. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  19. A Relationship between Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Enhanced Lateral Hypothalamic Orexin Neuronal Activation in Long-Term Fructose Bingeing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM) display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R) numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day) exposure to the IAM, rats given 8–12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx) neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF), a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day) access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p.) equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  20. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  1. Intermittency in Complex Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Redondo, Jose M.

    2017-04-01

    Experimental results of the complex turbulent wake of a cilinder in 2D [1] and 3D flows [2] were used to investigate the scaling of structure functions, similar research was also performed on wave propagation and breaking in the Ocean [3], in the the stratified Atmosphere (ABL) [4] and in a 100large flume (UPC) for both regular and irregular waves, where long time series of waves propagating and generating breaking turbulence velocity rms and higher order measurements were taken in depth. [3,5] by means of a velocimeter SONTEK3-D. The probability distribution functions of the velocity differences and their non Gaussian distribution related to the energy spectrum indicate that irregularity is an important source of turbulence. From Kolmogorov's K41 and K61 intermittency correction: the p th-order longitudinal velocity structure function δul at scale l in the inertial range of three-dimensional fully developed turbulence is related by ⟨δup⟩ = ⟨(u(x+ l)- u(x))p⟩ ˜ ɛp0/3lp/3 l where ⟨...⟩ represents the spatial average over flow domain, with ɛ0 the mean energy dissipation per unit mass and l is the separation distance. The importance of the random nature of the energy dissipation led to the K62 theory of intermittency, but locality and non-homogeneity are key issues. p p/3 p/3 ξd ⟨δul⟩ ˜ ⟨ɛl ⟩l ˜ l and ξp = p 3 + τp/3 , where now ɛl is a fractal energy dissipation at scale l, τp/3 is the scaling of and ξp is the scaling exponent of the velocity structure function of order p. Both in K41 and K62, the structure functions of third order related to skewness is ξ3 = 1. But this is not true either. We show that scaling exponents ξp do deviate from early studies that only investigated homogeneous turbulence, where a large inertial range dominates. The use of multi-fractal analysis and improvements on Structure function calculations on standard Enhanced mixing is an essential property of turbulence and efforts to alter and to control

  2. Intermittency in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploszajczak, M.; Tucholski, A.

    1990-07-01

    Fluctuations of the fragment size distribution in a percolation model and in nuclear multifragmentation following the breakup of high energy nuclei in the nuclear emulsion are studied using the method of scaled factorial moments. An intermittent patern of fluctuations is found in the data as well as in the percolation lattice calculation. This is a consequence of both a self-similarity in the fragment size distribution and a random character for the scaling law. These fluctuations are in general well-described by percolation model. The multifractal dimensions are calculated and their relevance to the study of possible critical behaviour is pointed out. (orig.)

  3. Underage college students' alcohol displays on Facebook and real-time alcohol behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Cox, Elizabeth D; Young, Henry N; Haaland, Wren

    2015-06-01

    College is often a time of alcohol use initiation and displayed Facebook alcohol references. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine associations between initial references to alcohol on social media and college students' self-reported recent drinking, binge drinking, and excessive drinking. First-year students from two U.S. public universities were randomly selected from registrar lists for recruitment. Data collection included 2 years of monthly Facebook evaluation. When an initial displayed Facebook alcohol reference was identified, these "New Alcohol Displayers" were contacted for phone interviews. Phone interviews used the validated timeline followback method to evaluate recent alcohol use, binge episodes, and excessive drinking. Analyses included calculation of positive predictive value and Poisson regression. A total of 338 participants were enrolled; 56.1% participants were female, 74.8% were Caucasian, and 58.8% were from the Midwestern University. A total of 167 (49.4%) participants became new alcohol displayers during the first 2 years of college. Among new alcohol displayers, 78.5% reported past 28-day alcohol use. Among new alcohol displayers who reported recent alcohol use, 84.9% reported at least one binge episode. Posting an initial Facebook alcohol reference as a profile picture or cover photo was positively associated with excessive drinking (risk ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-3.58). Findings suggest positive associations between references to alcohol on social media and self-reported recent alcohol use. Location of initial reference as a profile picture or cover photo was associated with problematic drinking and may suggest that a student would benefit from clinical investigation or resources. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; van Dalen, Wim

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for non-alcohol branded media exposure. Prospective observational study (11-12- and 14-17-month intervals), using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged model. School-based sample in 181 state-funded schools in Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland. A total of 9075 eligible respondents participated in the survey (mean age 14 years, 49.5% male. Adolescents reported their frequency of past-month drinking and binge drinking. Alcohol marketing exposure was measured by a latent variable with 13 items measuring exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising, alcohol sport sponsorship, music event/festival sponsorship, ownership alcohol-branded promotional items, reception of free samples and exposure to price offers. Confounders were age, gender, education, country, internet use, exposure to non-alcohol sponsored football championships and television programmes without alcohol commercials. The analyses showed one-directional long-term effects of alcohol marketing exposure on drinking (exposure T1 on drinking T2: β = 0.420 (0.058), P  0.05). Similar results were found in the binge drinking model (exposure T1 on binge T2: β = 0.409 (0.054), P  0.05). There appears to be a one-way effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' alcohol use over time, which cannot be explained by either previous drinking or exposure to non-alcohol-branded marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Multidimensional intermittency in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J.; Hwa, R.C.

    1992-06-01

    The study of intermittency in high-energy hadronic collisions by the Monte Carlo code ECCO is extended to 3-dimensional phase space. Strong intermittency is found in agreement with the data. Fluctuation in the impact parameter is responsible for the intermittency in lnp T , and the transverse-momentum conservation leads to negative intermittency slopes in the azimuthal angle φ. The Ochs-Wosiek plots are linear in all dimensions having universal slopes. An exponent ν = 1.448 emerges to characterize multiparticle production in pp collisions. The properties of G moments are also examined, and the fractal dimensions determined

  6. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  7. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.

  8. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  9. Binge size increases with body mass index in women with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Janet L; Kissileff, Harry R; Devlin, Michael J; Zimmerli, Ellen; Walsh, B Timothy

    2002-10-01

    To determine whether meal size is related to body mass index (BMI) in obese subjects with binge-eating disorder (BED). Five groups of subjects each consumed two laboratory-test meals on nonconsecutive days. Forty-two women, categorized by BMI and BED diagnosis, were instructed to "binge" during one meal and to eat "normally" during another. Eighteen women had BMI values >38 kg/m(2) (more-obese) and 17 had BMI values between 28 to 32 kg/m(2) (less-obese). Twelve of the more-obese and nine of the less-obese individuals met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV criteria for BED. Seven normal-weight women also participated as controls. Subjects with BED ate significantly more in both meals than subjects without BED. Binge meals were significantly larger than normal meals only among subjects with BED. The more-obese subjects with BED ate significantly more than the less-obese subjects with BED, but only when they were asked to binge. Intake of the binge meal was significantly, positively correlated with BMI among subjects with BED. Subjects with BED reported significantly higher satiety ratings after the binge than after the normal meal, but subjects without BED reported similar ratings after both meals. Regardless of instructions and diagnosis, obese subjects consumed a significantly higher percentage of energy from fat (38.5%) than did normal-weight subjects (30.8%). During binge meals, the energy intake of subjects with BED is greater than that of individuals of similar body weight without BED and is positively correlated with BMI.

  10. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Animal models of binge drinking, current challenges to improve face validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Rolland, Benjamin; Gierski, Fabien; Martinetti, Margaret P; Naassila, Mickael

    2018-05-05

    Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior. The main challenges for future research are discussed regarding the need of good face validity, construct validity and predictive validity of animal models of BD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and feasibility testing of a novel group intervention for young women who binge drink in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Swanson, Vivien; Dimova, Elena D; Melson, Ambrose J; Fraser, Tracey M; Barbour, Rosaline; Rice, Peter M; Allan, Sheila

    2018-01-01

    Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. Friendship groups of women aged 18-35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community. A face-to-face group intervention, based on the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered over three sessions. Components of the intervention were woven around fun activities, such as making alcohol free cocktails. Women were followed up four months after the intervention was delivered. The target of 24 groups (comprising 97 women) was recruited. The common pattern of drinking was infrequent, heavy drinking (mean consumption on the heaviest drinking day was UK 18.1 units). Process evaluation revealed that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity and acceptability of the study methods was high. The women engaged positively with intervention components and made group decisions about cutting down. Twenty two groups set goals to reduce their drinking, and these were translated into action plans. Retention of individuals at follow up was 87%. This study successfully recruited groups of young women whose patterns of drinking place them at high risk of acute harm. This novel approach to delivering an alcohol intervention has potential to reduce binge drinking among young women. The high levels of engagement with key steps in the behavior change process suggests that the group intervention should be tested in a full randomised controlled trial.

  13. Associations between leisure activities and binge drinking in adults: findings from a Swedish newly sick-listed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annika; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2014-01-01

    Leisure activities and drinking patterns are factors that can affect health and ability to return to work after a sick-leave. Associations between participation in leisure activities and binge drinking among sick-listed individuals have been paid little attention in the research literature. The aim of this study was to examine associations between leisure activities and binge drinking in a sample of newly sick-listed women and men. The study included 2,888 individuals aged 19-64 years. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from the Health Assets Project, Sweden, was used. Participation in 18 leisure activities was estimated. Binge drinking was defined as consuming alcohol at least once a month, and typically consuming five or more glasses. Among women aged 19-30 years who regularly went to concerts (OR 2.36) and wrote (OR 2.39) associations were found with binge drinking. Lower OR was found among women aged 31-64 who regularly went to the cinema (OR 0.43), out in the nature (OR 0.46) or participated in sports (OR 0.57). Among men, associations were found between socializing with friends and binge drinking in both age groups (OR 3.83 respectively 1.63). Among younger men who attended sporting events OR was 2.31, and among older men participating in religious communities OR was 0.28. This study contributes to understanding the interplay between leisure activities and health behavior. In particular, social activities in men were associated with binge drinking while the opposite was true for recreational activities in older women.

  14. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire. BD score was calculated using the AUQ. Three items of the EDE-Q were used to construct a BE score. The predictors of the BD score were determined using a linear regression model. Our results showed that the BE score was correlated with the BD score (β 0 = 0.051 ± 0.022; p = 0.019), but no other DES was associated with BD, including purging behaviors. The severity of BD was also correlated with younger age, male gender, tobacco and cannabis use, and with the 'positive urgency,' 'premeditation,' and 'sensation seeking' UPPS subscores ( R 2 of the model: 25%). Within DES, BE appeared as an independent determinant of the BD severity. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that BE is not a subtype of DES, but more a general vulnerability factor of emotional dysregulation, which could be shared by different behavioral and addictive disorders.

  15. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rolland

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE and other disordered eating symptoms (DES are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q, and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire. BD score was calculated using the AUQ. Three items of the EDE-Q were used to construct a BE score. The predictors of the BD score were determined using a linear regression model. Our results showed that the BE score was correlated with the BD score (β0 = 0.051 ± 0.022; p = 0.019, but no other DES was associated with BD, including purging behaviors. The severity of BD was also correlated with younger age, male gender, tobacco and cannabis use, and with the ‘positive urgency,’ ‘premeditation,’ and ‘sensation seeking’ UPPS subscores (R2 of the model: 25%. Within DES, BE appeared as an independent determinant of the BD severity. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that BE is not a subtype of DES, but more a general vulnerability factor of emotional dysregulation, which could be shared by different behavioral and addictive disorders.

  16. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT FOR A PATIENT WITH ACUTE INTERMITTENT PORPHYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Savić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare metabolic disorder resulting from a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase, enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Its inheritance is autosomal dominant. A deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase is not sufficient by its self to produce acute intermittent porphyria, and other activating factors must also be present. These include some drugs, hormones, infection, injury and alcohol. Besides others, anesthetics have been implicated in the triggering of a number of severe porphyric reactions. Although there is no clinical evidence, the fear of hypothesized porphyrinogenicity of repetitive anesthetics exposures still remains. Despite these doubts, we report here the case of uneventful repeated exposure to anesthetics in a patient suffering from acute intermittent porphyria, within a fifteen- month period. On both occasions, the patient was safely exposed to certain anesthetics included: propofol, sevoflurane, rocuronium, midazolam and fentanyl.

  18. Behavioral and Brain Activity Indices of Cognitive Control Deficits in Binge Drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Molnar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism. Greater conflict-induced activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and thalamus was observed in HED participants and it was positively correlated with alcohol intake and alcohol-related harmful consequences. HEDs maintained intact accuracy but at a cost of prolonged reaction times to high-conflict trials and increased ratings of task difficulty. Greater activation of the areas implicated in cognitive control is consistent with compensatory network expansion to meet higher cognitive demands. These results provide further insight into degradation of cognitive control in HEDs which may benefit development of detection and prevention strategies.

  19. Content analysis of UK newspaper and online news representations of women's and men's 'binge' drinking: a challenge for communicating evidence-based messages about single-episodic drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C; Emslie, C; Mason, O; Fergie, G; Hilton, S

    2016-12-27

    In the UK, men's alcohol-related morbidity and mortality still greatly exceeds women's, despite an increase in women's alcohol consumption in recent decades. New UK alcohol guidelines introduce gender-neutral low-risk alcohol consumption guidance. This study explores how UK newspaper and online news represent women's and men's 'binge' drinking to identify opportunities to better align reporting of harmful drinking with evidence. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 308 articles published in 7 UK national newspapers and the BBC News website between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Articles associated women with 'binge' drinking more frequently than men, and presented women's drinking as more problematic. Men were more frequently characterised as violent or disorderly, while women were characterised as out of control, putting themselves in danger, harming their physical appearance and burdening men. Descriptions of female 'binge' drinkers' clothing and appearance were typically moralistic. The UK news media's disproportionate focus on women's 'binge' drinking is at odds with epidemiological evidence, may reproduce harmful gender stereotypes and may obstruct public understandings of the gender-neutral weekly consumption limits in newly proposed alcohol guidelines. In order to better align reporting of harmful drinking with current evidence, public health advocates may engage with the media with a view to shifting media framing of 'binge' drinking away from specific groups (young people; women) and contexts (public drinking) and towards the health risks of specific drinking behaviours, which affect all groups regardless of context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Burhan A; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Dillard, Denise A

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n = 71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n = 38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n = 54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n = 25) of participants with an additional 18% (n = 29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.

  1. Peer Influence, Genetic Propensity, and Binge Drinking: A Natural Experiment and a Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Li, Yi; Wang, Hongyu; Cai, Tianji; Duncan, Greg J

    2015-11-01

    The authors draw data from the College Roommate Study (ROOM) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to investigate gene-environment interaction effects on youth binge drinking. In ROOM, the environmental influence was measured by the precollege drinking behavior of randomly assigned roommates. Random assignment safeguards against friend selection and removes the threat of gene-environment correlation that makes gene-environment interaction effects difficult to interpret. On average, being randomly assigned a drinking peer as opposed to a nondrinking peer increased college binge drinking by 0.5-1.0 episodes per month, or 20%-40% the average amount of binge drinking. However, this peer influence was found only among youths with a medium level of genetic propensity for alcohol use; those with either a low or high genetic propensity were not influenced by peer drinking. A replication of the findings is provided in data drawn from Add Health. The study shows that gene-environment interaction analysis can uncover social-contextual effects likely to be missed by traditional sociological approaches.

  2. Jocks, gender, binge drinking, and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Donald F; Barnes, Grace M

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport-violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence (family vs. nonfamily), and gender as well as by examining the impact of binge drinking on the sport-violence relationship. Regression analyses using a sample of 608 Western New York adolescents indicated that (a) jock identity (but not athletic participation) was associated with more frequent violence, (b) jock identity predicted nonfamily violence (but not family violence), and (c) the link between jock identity and nonfamily violence was stronger for boys than for girls. Binge drinking predicted family violence among nonjocks only.

  3. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  4. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  5. Efficacy of the homoeopathic similimum on binge eating in males

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M. Tech. Binge eating is defined as eating an inordinate amount of food in a discrete period of time, during which the eater experiences a subjective loss of control (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The event is often followed by emotional distress, including feelings of disgust, shame, fear, guilt or discomfort (Herrin, 2003). Binge eating is found in all eating disturbances, and is especially associated with binge eating disorder, which affects all races and both genders almost ...

  6. Fate in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Gaardsting, O; Hougaard Jensen, K

    1986-01-01

    , or an ankle/arm pressure index below 50% were individually significantly associated with progression of the arteriosclerotic disease. These findings show the importance of peripheral blood pressure measurements in the management of patients with intermittent claudication due to arteriosclerotic disease........ The rate of clinical progression of the arteriosclerotic disease (that is, rest pain or gangrene) of the worst affected leg was 7.5% in the first year after referral. Thereafter the rate was 2.2% a year. An ankle systolic blood pressure below 70 mm Hg, a toe systolic blood pressure below 40 mm Hg...... 113 of the patients (44%) had died. Causes of death were no different from those in the general population. Mortality was twice that of the general population matched for age and sex. Mortality among the men was twice that among the women. In men under 60 mortality was four times that expected...

  7. Parents' provision of alcohol and adolescents' alcohol use - evidence from Swedish data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundborg, N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to study the relationship between parents' willingness to provide various alcoholic beverages and the binge-drinking behaviour of their adolescent children. Parental willingness was reported by the child of the parent. Cross-sectional data on Swedish adolescents aged

  8. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zonisamide Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147

  10. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Alcohol use and related consequences among students with varying levels of involvement in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, J S; Meilman, P W; Presley, C A; Cashin, J R

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol use, binge drinking, and substance abuse-related consequences among students with varying levels of participation in intercollegiate athletics were examined. Between October 1994 and May 1996, 51,483 students at 125 institutions answered questions about their involvement in athletics, ranging from noninvolvement to participant to leadership positions, on the long form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. In comparisons with nonathletes, both male and female athletes consumed significantly more alcohol per week, engaged in binge drinking more often, and suffered more adverse consequences from their substance use. No support was found for the hypothesis that athletic leaders were more responsible than other team participants in using alcohol. Male team leaders appeared to be at significantly greater risk than female team leaders; they also consumed more alcohol, binged more often, and suffered more consequences than other team members.

  12. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  13. Racial and ethnic differences in associations between psychological distress and the presence of binge drinking: Results from the California health interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Bongki; Wang, Kaipeng; Tran, Thanh

    2017-02-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities often suffer from poorer health than Whites given their exposure to more stressors and fewer resources that buffer the effects of stress. Given that alcohol is often consumed to alleviate the negative moods, the present study hypothesized that psychological distress may impact the involvement in binge drinking differently across racial and ethnic groups. We used data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2007 to 2012. The sample consisted of 130,556 adults including African Americans (N=6541), Asians (N=13,508), Latinos (N=18,128), and Whites (N=92,379). Binary logistic regression analysis was used with consideration for complex survey design. The results indicated that psychological distress was significantly associated with binge drinking across all racial and ethnic groups. However, this association differed by race and ethnicity adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education, poverty, and employment status. The results revealed that psychological distress had the largest effect on binge drinking for Asian Americans, particularly Filipinos and South Asians, compared to Whites. This study highlights the importance of examining racial and ethnic differences in the impacts of psychological distress on alcohol consumption. Future research is needed to better understand the potential factors that mediate the effects of psychological distress on binge drinking specific to each racial and ethnic group in order to develop culturally sensitive interventions and hence decrease the alcohol-related racial health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol and Atrial Fibrillation: A Sobering Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Prabhu, Sandeep; Ling, Liang-Han; Kalman, Jonathan M; Kistler, Peter M

    2016-12-13

    Alcohol is popular in Western culture, supported by a perception that modest intake is cardioprotective. However, excessive drinking has detrimental implications for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) following an alcohol binge or the "holiday heart syndrome" is well characterized. However, more modest levels of alcohol intake on a regular basis may also increase the risk of AF. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the relationship between alcohol and AF may include direct toxicity and alcohol's contribution to obesity, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology and pathophysiology by which alcohol may be responsible for AF and determine whether alcohol abstinence is required for patients with AF. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of eating rate on binge size in Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissileff, Harry R; Zimmerli, Ellen J; Torres, Migdalia I; Devlin, Michael J; Walsh, B Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Effect of eating rate on binge size in bulimia nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate of eating contributes to the excessive intake of binge meals has not yet been experimentally tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eating rate on binge size in BN, in order to determine whether binge size is mediated, in part, by rate of eating. Thirteen BN and 14 NC subjects were asked to binge eat a yogurt shake that was served at a fast rate (140g/min) on one occasion and at a slow rate (70g/min) on another. NC subjects consumed 169 g more when eating at the fast rate than when eating at the slow rate. In contrast, consumption rates failed to influence binge size in patients with BN (fast: 1205 g; slow: 1195 g). Consequently, there was a significant group by rate interaction. As expected, patients with BN consumed more overall than NC subjects (1200 g vs. 740 g). When instructed to binge in the eating laboratory, patients with BN ate equally large amounts of food at a slow rate as at a fast rate. NC subjects ate less at a slow rate. These findings indicate that in a structured laboratory meal paradigm binge size is not affected by rate of eating. PMID:17996257

  16. Naftidrofuryl for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, T L M; Vander Stichele, R; Lehert, P; Van Bortel, L

    2008-04-16

    Lifestyle changes and cardiovascular prevention measures are a primary treatment for intermittent claudication (IC). Symptomatic treatment with vasoactive agents (Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) for medicines from the World Health Organisation class CO4A) is controversial. To evaluate evidence on the efficacy and safety of oral naftidrofuryl (ATC CO4 21) versus placebo on the pain-free walking distance (PFWD) of people with IC by using a meta-analysis based on individual patient data (IPD). The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group searched their Trials Register (last searched December 2007) and CENTRAL (last searched 2007, Issue 4). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, the Science Citation Index and contacted the authors and checked the reference lists of retrieved articles. We asked the manufacturing company for IPD. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with low or moderate risk of bias for which the IPD were available. We collected data from the electronic data file or from the case report form and checked the data by a statistical quality control procedure. All randomized patients were analyzed following the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. The geometric mean of the relative improvement in PFWD was calculated for both treatment groups in all identified studies. The effect of the drug was assessed compared with placebo on final walking distance (WDf) using multilevel and random-effect models and adjusting for baseline walking distance (WD0). For the responder analysis, therapeutic success was defined as an improvement of walking distance of at least 50%. We included seven studies in the IPD (n = 1266 patients). One of these studies (n = 183) was only used in the sensitivity analysis so that the main analysis included 1083 patients. The ratio of the relative improvement in PFWD (naftidrofuryl compared with placebo) was 1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32 to 1.51, P < 0.001). The

  17. A Web-based computer-tailored game to reduce binge drinking among 16 to 18 year old Dutch adolescents: development and study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jander, Astrid; Crutzen, Rik; Mercken, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein

    2014-10-09

    In The Netherlands, excessive alcohol use (e.g., binge drinking) is prevalent among adolescents. Alcohol use in general and binge drinking in particular comes with various immediate and long term health risks. Thus, reducing binge drinking among this target group is very important. This article describes a two-arm Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (CRCT) of an intervention aimed at reducing binge drinking in this target group. The intervention is a Web-based, computer-tailored game in which adolescents receive personalized feedback on their drinking behavior aimed at changing motivational determinants related to this behavior. The development of the game is grounded in the I-Change Model. A CRTC is conducted to test the effectiveness of the game. Adolescents are recruited through schools, and schools are randomized into the experimental condition and the control condition. The experimental condition fills in a baseline questionnaire assessing demographic variables, motivational determinants of behavior (attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, intention) and alcohol use. They are also asked to invite their parents to take part in a short parental component that focusses on setting rules and communicating about alcohol. After completing the baseline questionnaire, the experimental condition continues playing the first of three game scenarios. The primary follow-up measurement takes place after four months and a second follow-up after eight months. The control condition only fills in the baseline, four and eight month follow-up measurement and then receives access to the game (i.e., a waiting list control condition). The effectiveness of the intervention to reduce binge drinking in the previous 30 days and alcohol use in the last week will be assessed. Furthermore, intention to drink and binge drink are assessed. Besides main effects, potential subgroup differences pertaining to gender, age, and educational background are explored. The study described in this

  18. A cultural and social cognitive model of differences in acculturation orientations, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S; Huang, Shi

    2013-04-01

    The present study used a cultural and social cognitive conceptual framework to investigate whether alcohol expectancies and valuations would mediate the associations between specific acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors. The sample comprised 1,527 Hispanic students attending colleges and universities in diverse regions of the United States. Respondents completed self-report measures of Hispanic and American cultural practices; alcohol expectancies and valuations; and self-reported frequency of hazardous alcohol use, binge drinking, sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, driving under the influence of alcohol, and riding with a drunk driver. Latent class analysis was used to classify participants into acculturation orientations. Results indicated that acculturation orientations were differentially associated with alcohol-related risk outcomes, with separated bicultural and low bicultural orientations inversely related to all of the alcohol-related risk behaviors except for riding with a drunk driver. Negative expectancy valuations were positively associated with endorsement of binge drinking and drunk driving and negative expectancies were negatively associated with binge drinking, drunk driving, and riding with a drunk driver. With the exception of sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, the associations between acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors were partially mediated by positive alcohol expectancies. Our findings provided relevant data that are informative for preventing alcohol and related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Alcohol-antiretroviral interactive toxicity beliefs as a potential barrier to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa

    2017-07-17

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers as much as 90% protection against HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of PrEP depends on uptake and adherence to even intermittent dosing. Along with intoxication leading to unintentional non-adherence, believing that alcohol mixed with pharmaceuticals is harmful (i.e., interactive toxicity beliefs) may lead to poor uptake and intentional non-adherence. HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men ( N  = 272) at a large Gay Pride event in Atlanta, GA, completed anonymous surveys of demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, alcohol use and PrEP-related alcohol interactive toxicity beliefs. A total of 118 (43%) men surveyed had two or more male sex partners and condomless anal sex in the previous six months. Alcohol use was reported by over 90% of men and it was common for participants to believe that mixing alcohol and antiretrovirals is toxic; 75% endorsed at least one interactive toxicity belief. Among the 118 men who had engaged in condomless anal sex and had multiple sex partners, one in three stated that they were not interested in PrEP and men not interested in PrEP were significantly more likely to binge drink and hold interactive toxicity beliefs. These results mirror studies that find interactive toxicity beliefs are a potent predictor of intentional antiretroviral non-adherence among people living with HIV and suggest interactive toxicity beliefs may impede PrEP uptake and adherence. Messages to increase PrEP awareness and adherence may also take steps to counter erroneous beliefs about mixing alcohol with antiretrovirals in the context of PrEP.

  20. Binge or control? : assessment of the validity, treatment and underlying mechanisms of Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on patients with Binge Eating Disorder. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part the validity of the diagnosis of BED will be discussed. The results of two literature reviews and an empirical cross-sectional study suggested that BED is a distinct eating disorder and

  1. Intermedia and Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Bálint

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that medial reflections have been initiated by attempts to secure the borders of discrete medial forms and to define the modus operandi of each essentialized medial area. Later on, the focus of study has shifted to plurimedial formations and the interactions between predefined medial genres. In the last few decades, taxonomic approaches to various multi-, inter-, and transmedial phenomena dominated the discussions, which offered invaluable support in mapping the terrain, but at the same time hindered the analysis of the ephemeral, time-dependent aspects of plurimedial operations. While we explore the properties of each medial configuration, we lose sight of the actual historical drivers that produce ever-new configurations. My thesis is that any discourse on intermediality should be paralleled by a discourse on cultural intermittency, and consequently, media studies should involve an approach that focuses on the “ecosystem” of the constantly renewing media configurations from the point of view of their vitalizing potential and capability to trigger heightened experiences. This approach draws much inspiration from K. Ludwig Pfeiffer’s media anthropology that gives orientation in my paper.

  2. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Susan C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960 players completed questionnaires (72% response rate. Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2. Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90% were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31% of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3% reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking. Of those who (self completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7% had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6% of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.02, p Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen reported high rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  3. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Savransky, Vladimir; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Bevans, Shannon; Smith, Philip L.; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea, a condition leading to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and a high cardiovascular risk. A causal link between obstructive sleep apnea and atherosclerosis has not been established.

  4. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  5. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N = 112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

  6. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  7. Which Stressors Increase the Odds of College Binge Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2017-01-01

    College binge drinking has been linked to student stress. Which among a variety of stressors are more likely to result in problem drinking? In this paper, the relative influence of three types of stressors on college binge drinking is considered, including the academic, interpersonal, and developmental (e.g., making decisions about the future,…

  8. College Student Binge Eating: Insecure Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole

    2014-01-01

    Because college students who have accomplished developmental tasks less effectively may be at risk for detrimental behavior such as binge eating, we examined emotion regulation as a mediator of attachment insecurity and binge eating. Based on undergraduate and graduate student responses to a Web-based survey ("N" = 381), structural…

  9. Are There Cognitive Consequences of Binge Drinking during College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolian, Teniell L.; An, Brian P.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    For this study we considered the influence of binge drinking behavior in college on students' critical thinking gains. Findings suggest that binge drinking has a negative influence on students' critical thinking gains over 4 years of college and that this effect was driven by students with the lowest levels of precollege critical thinking. In both…

  10. Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.

  11. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  12. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  13. Dynamic characterizers of spatiotemporal intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    Gupte, Neelima; Jabeen, Zahera

    2006-01-01

    Systems of coupled sine circle maps show regimes of spatiotemporally intermittent behaviour with associated scaling exponents which belong to the DP class, as well as regimes of spatially intermittent behaviour (with associated regular dynamical behaviour) which do not belong to the DP class. Both types of behaviour are seen along the bifurcation boundaries of the synchronized solutions, and contribute distinct signatures to the dynamical characterizers of the system, viz. the distribution of...

  14. Gender comparisons in psychological characteristics of obese, binge eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirik-Babb, P; Norring, C

    2005-12-01

    To investigate differences between male and female, obese binge eaters in levels of depression, anxiety and self-esteem. In addition, to make comparisons in these psychological characteristics, for both genders, between obese, binge eaters and obese nonbingers. Participants consisted of 48 female (26 binge eaters and 22 nonbingers) and 13 male (4 binge eaters and 9 nonbingers) outpatients in a hospital weight-loss program. Participants completed the following: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns--Revised, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Females had a significantly higher level of depression (pself-esteem (pself-esteem. In both genders, binge eaters have higher levels of depression and anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem compared to nonbingers.

  15. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Binge abstinence is associated with reduced energy intake after treatment in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Rolls, Barbara J; Mitchell, Diane C; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Effective prevention against risky underage drinking--the need for higher excise taxes on alcoholic beverages in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael; Effertz, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the place of taxation in preventing underage binge drinking in Germany. We reviewed evidence on the role of excise taxes on alcohol in preventing alcohol problems and underage drinking. We analyzed historical German data on tax on alcoholic beverages and compared this with European data, finally calculating tax scenarios and their impact on underage binge drinking. Germany applies lower taxes than many other European countries and alcohol beverage prices have decreased by 30% relative to overall price levels during the last 40 years. An optimal tax rate for reducing underage drinking would be set between the European average tax rates and Scandinavian tax rate levels.

  18. The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2017-01-01

    To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. A sample of 705 respondents who never had a whole drink of alcohol at baseline (mean age 16.9 years, 53.3% female) and a sample of 1036 who never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion (mean age 17.4 years, 55.8% female). Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all advertisements as 'party' or 'non-party' advertisements. Socio-demographics, sensation-seeking, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, approximately half (median = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were 'party' advertisements. If both types of exposures ('party' and 'non-party') were included in the regression model, only 'party' exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 19.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.72-98.79] and binge drinking onset (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.07-13.99) after covariate control. Adolescents and young adults in the United States appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset if they have higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of the amount of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non

  19. Response of recurrent binge eating and weight gain to topiramate in patients with binge eating disorder after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; Kotwal, Renu; McElroy, Susan L

    2005-02-01

    The effectiveness of topiramate was evaluated in the treatment of recurrent binge eating and weight gain in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity who had undergone initially successful bariatric surgery. The records of 3 consecutive patients with BED and obesity who presented to our clinic with recurrent binge eating and weight gain after undergoing initially successful bariatric surgery were reviewed. They were treated with topiramate for an average of 10 months. All three patients reported complete amelioration of their binge eating symptoms and displayed weight loss (31.7 kg in 17 months, 14.5 kg in 9 months, 2 kg in 4 months, respectively) in response to topiramate (mean dose 541 mg). Although anecdotal, these observations suggest that topiramate may be an effective treatment for patients with BED and obesity who experience recurrent binge eating and weight gain after initially successful bariatric surgery.

  20. An applied test of the social learning theory of deviance to college alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Cynthia H; Rice, Ronald E; Saltz, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Several hypotheses about influences on college drinking derived from the social learning theory of deviance were tested and confirmed. The effect of ethnicity on alcohol use was completely mediated by differential association and differential reinforcement, whereas the effect of biological sex on alcohol use was partially mediated. Higher net positive reinforcements to costs for alcohol use predicted increased general use, more underage use, and more frequent binge drinking. Two unexpected finding were the negative relationship between negative expectations and negative experiences, and the substantive difference between nondrinkers and general drinkers compared with illegal or binge drinkers. The discussion considers implications for future campaigns based on Akers's deterrence theory.

  1. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  2. Voluntary Binge Consumption of Ethanol in a Sweetened, Chocolate-Flavored Solution by Male and Female Adolescent Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosová, Dominika; Spear, Linda Patia

    2017-03-01

    The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels. Beginning with a modified schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) procedure, this study examined the suitability of several approaches to induce voluntary binge-like consumption during adolescence in an outbred rat strain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were food deprived to 85% projected free-feeding weights beginning on postnatal day (P) 24 and were given 30 minutes of access to 10% EtOH in chocolate Boost ® or Boost ® alone daily from P28 to P41 (followed later by their daily allocation of food). Animals were tested within operant chambers (Exp. 1a, 1b and Exp. 2) or home and novel cages (Exp. 3). Animals received either scheduled delivery of banana pellets to examine SIP (Exp. 1a,b) or massed pellet presentation (Exp. 2 and Exp. 3). Blood samples were collected via the lateral tail vein on P33 and P41. Intakes produced BECs frequently in the binge range (>80 mg/dl) and modeled binge-like consumption patterns, with high consumption days typically followed by 1 to 2 days of lower consumption; this variability was less evident with Boost ® alone. Consumption was not schedule induced and was generally high across all studies, although consumption in males appeared to be particularly pronounced when animals were tested in the presence of their cage mate. Binge-like patterns of EtOH consumption were produced using these procedures in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes and may prove to be a useful

  3. The Relationship between Alcohol Use and Social Responsibility in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.

    This study examines the relationship between college student alcohol use and the construct of social responsibility. For purposes of the study, alcohol use was defined by average number of drinks a week and frequency of binge drinking; social responsibility was defined by employment, marriage, living with children, living with parents, and hours…

  4. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  5. Parent-Child Communication to Reduce Heavy Alcohol Use among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken

    2008-01-01

    With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…

  6. Alcohol Behaviors and Deviant Behaviors among Adolescents in a Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Stephen; Dunn, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    Study provides a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents in a southern state from four time periods over the past decade. Also examines the relationship between alcohol initiation and binge drinking behaviors and sexual initiation, pregnancy, multiple sex partners, and violence. Regression analyses showed very modest…

  7. Different Molecular/Behavioral Endophenotypes in C57BL/6J Mice Predict the Impact of OX1 Receptor Blockade on Binge-Like Ethanol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alcaraz-Iborra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol (EtOH research has focused on stages of dependence. It is of paramount importance to more deeply understand the neurobehavioral factors promoting increased risk for EtOH binge drinking during the early stages of the addiction cycle. The first objective of this study was to evaluate whether C57BL/6J mice showing high drinking in the dark (DID exhibit neurobehavioral traits known to contribute to EtOH binge-drinking disorders. Comparing high vs. low drinkers (HD/LD, we evaluated different types of basal anxiety-like responses, EtOH preference and sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of EtOH, and basal mRNA expression of the OX1/OX2 receptors (OX1r/OX2r within the prefrontal cortex (PFC and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc. Additionally, we tested binge drinking by LD/HD in response to a selective OX1r antagonist following intermittent episodes of DID (iDID. We report that DID consistently segregates two neurobehavioral endophenotypes, HD vs. LD, showing differences in neophobia and/or impulsivity/compulsivity traits. Additionally, HD mice show decreased basal OX1r and OX2r mRNA expression within the NAcc and elevated OX1r within the PFC. Exposure to several intermittent episodes of EtOH DID triggered a rapid increase in EtOH intake over time in LD mice matching that observed in HD mice. Despite HD/LD endophenotypes did not show differences in EtOH intake, they still predicted the response to a pharmacological challenge with a selective OX1r antagonist. The present data underscore the relevance of HD/LD endophenotypes stemming from DID procedures for exploring neurobehavioral processes underlying the early stages of the addiction cycle and EtOH binge-drinking disorders.

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  9. Intermittency in 197Au fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Cherry, M.L.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jones, W.V.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, B.

    1995-07-01

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Factors Associated with Binge Eating Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohamad, Normasliana; Law, Leh Shii

    2018-01-10

    Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R ² = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents' negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs.

  11. Factors Associated with Binge Eating Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Normasliana

    2018-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R2 = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents’ negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs. PMID:29320461

  12. Understanding Adherence to Daily and Intermittent Regimens of Oral HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mugo, Peter Mwangi; Sanders, Eduard J.; Mutua, Gaudensia; van der Elst, Elisabeth; Anzala, Omu; Barin, Burc; Bangsberg, David R.; Priddy, Frances H.; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative assessment of Kenyan men who have sex with men taking daily and intermittent oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) found stigma, sex work, mobility, and alcohol impacted adherence. We analyzed quantitative data from the same cohort to explore different definitions of intermittent adherence. Volunteers were randomized to daily emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo, or intermittent (prescription: Mondays/Fridays/after sex, maximum 1 dose/day) emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo (2:...

  13. Receptivity to and recall of alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music and alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2014-06-01

    The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. In 2010 to 2011, we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 and 23 years of age, of whom 3,422 (53%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2,541 opted to participate in a subsequent web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Among the 2,541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least 1 alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing, but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and having ever binged on alcohol

  14. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality Dimensions in Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B.; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M.; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Pederson, Melissa W.; Crow, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity and a normal weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Method Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal weight comparison participants. Results Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other three groups, and lower well-being scores compared to the normal weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were re-analyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other three groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal weight comparison group. Conclusions The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and

  16. Personality dimensions in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M; Mitchell, James E; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Pederson, Melissa W; Crow, Scott J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity, and a normal-weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal-weight comparison participants. Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other 3 groups and lower well-being scores compared to the normal-weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal-weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal-weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were reanalyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other 3 groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal-weight comparison group. The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality, and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both, is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

  17. Change in Binge Eating and Binge Eating Disorder Associated with Migration from Mexico to the US

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Sonja A.; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the US. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N=2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mex...

  18. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  19. Screening Obese Adolescents for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: The Adolescent Binge Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Combescure, Christophe; Lanza, Lydia; Carrard, Isabelle; Haller, Dagmar M

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the performance of a simple and developmentally appropriate 10-item questionnaire (Adolescent Binge Eating Scale) for the prediction of binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis in adolescents seen for obesity. We evaluated the performance of the questionnaire in comparison with a clinical interview, in a population of adolescents being seen for obesity. The ? 2 or Fisher exact tests were used. There were 94 adolescents aged 12-18 years (59.6% girls) who completed the study. The questionnaire demonstrated a good association with the clinical interview and distinguished different levels of risk for having a BED: participants who responded positively to questions 1 or 2 and had more than 6 positive answers to the 8 additional questions had a high risk of subclinical and clinical BED (83.3%); participants with 3 or fewer positive answers had a low risk of clinical BED (4%). The Adolescent Binge Eating Scale questionnaire is a potential screening tool to identify adolescents with obesity at high risk of BED and guide referral to a specialist to clarify the diagnosis and provide adequate care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intermittent negative pressure wound therapy with instillation for the treatment of persistent periprosthetic hip infections: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söylemez MS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Salih Söylemez,1 Korhan Özkan,2 Bülent Kılıç,3 Samet Erinç41Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bingöl State Hospital, Bingöl, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Medeniyet University, Istanbul, 3Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Orthopaedic Surgery Clinic, Istanbul Gelişim University, Tekirdağ, 4Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Göztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Intermittent negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi is starting to be used successfully to treat early periprosthetic infections of endoprostheses. However, few articles have reported the outcome of treatment with intermittent NPWTi for late persistent periprosthetic infections of the hip. In this study, we report two cases who underwent several rounds of radical wound debridement for the treatment of a late persistent periprosthetic infection of the hip. Intermittent NPWTi was used in both cases. Patients were treated successfully and there was no recurrence after 3 and 1 years of follow-up, respectively.Keywords: negative pressure, vacuum-assisted, periprosthetic infection, hip

  1. Young people and alcohol: an econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, Petter

    2002-12-01

    To analyse the determinants of youth drinking behaviour within an economic -theoretical framework. The paper focuses especially on the effects of (a) having parents willing to supply alcohol, (b) living in a single-parent household, (c) having parents who are currently unemployed and (d) having received education about alcohol, narcotics and tobacco. A Swedish cross-sectional survey data on 833 individuals aged 12-18 years was used to analyse the effects of the above variables on participation in drinking, frequency of drinking, intensity of drinking and binge drinking. Separate analyses were conducted for beer, wine and spirits. Care was taken in using appropriate econometric methods for the questions posed (negative binomial regression, censored regression and probit regression). Having parents willing to supply alcohol increased frequency (P < 0.05) of beer, wine and spirits consumption, intensity (P < 0.05) of wine, spirits and illicit alcohol consumption, and increased probabilities (P < 0.10) of binge drinking and participation in drinking (P < 0.05). No effects were seen from living in a single-parent household. Having received education about alcohol, narcotics and tobacco had a negative association only with intensity (P < 0.10) of beer consumption. Having a father who was currently unemployed was associated with an increased (P < 0.05) probability of binge drinking but a reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of wine consumption. The positive effect of having parents willing to supply alcohol could reflect that these individuals face lower acquisition costs or lower psychological costs in consumption. It could also reflect a price effect, if the individual receives the alcohol free from his or her parents.

  2. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  4. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  5. Estimating how extra calories from alcohol consumption are likely an overlooked contributor to youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Kate; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-06-01

    Youth obesity rates in Canada continue to rise. In this study, we produced conservative estimates of the potential excess calories from alcohol use across different alcohol consumption patterns common among Canadian youth to assess whether alcohol use should be considered in future obesity prevention strategies. Using data from 10 144 Grade 12 students participating in the COMPASS study (2013/14), we estimated the number of calories consumed per year from alcohol consumption. Our estimates were based on three different generic types of alcoholic beverages, which were grouped according to average calorie content (vodka coolers; beer [5%]; and beer [4%], wine and liquor) across different frequencies of alcohol use and binge drinking. Results indicated high potential caloric intake for students who binge drank, as well as high variability in the estimates for calories consumed based on common consumption patterns for the different beverage types. For instance, 27.2% of students binge drank once per month, meaning they consumed between 6000 and 13 200 calories in one year (equivalent to 0.78 - 1.71 kg of fat). For the 4.9% of students who binge drank twice per week, the total calories in one year would range from 52 000 to 114 400 (equivalent to 6.74 - 14.83 kg of fat). Current recommendations for preventing youth obesity do not generally include any consideration of alcohol use. The high prevalence of frequent alcohol consumption and binge drinking by youth in this study and the substantial number of calories contained in alcoholic beverages suggest alcohol use among youth may warrant consideration in relation to youth obesity prevention.

  6. Intoxication and binge and high-intensity drinking among US young adults in their mid-20s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Patrick, Megan E

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use is a key risk factor for young adult mortality and disease, but limited research has focused on high-risk alcohol use among individuals moving from early young adulthood into building and maintaining an initial structure of adult life. This study estimated the prevalence of a range of alcohol use behaviors among US young adults aged 25/26, examined evidence for historical change in prevalence rates, and estimated associations between alcohol use and key demographic, substance use, and adult social role characteristics. Data were obtained from 3542 individuals selected for follow-up from the nationally representative 12th-grade student Monitoring the Future study. Respondents self-reported alcohol use behaviors at age 25/26 during calendar years 2005-2014. Two fifths (39.9%) of young adults aged 25/26 reported being intoxicated at least once in the past 30 days; 25.6% reported usually experiencing a sustained high of 3 or more hours when drinking alcohol. Past-2-week binge drinking (5+ drinks in a row) was reported by 36.3% of respondents. Past-2-week high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks in a row) was reported by 12.4%. These age 25/26 alcohol use prevalence rates remained stable over the 10 years of data examined, in contrast to significant declines over historical time in alcohol prevalence rates among these same individuals at age 18. High-risk drinking was particularly associated with being male, white, unmarried, employed, a nonparent, and an alcohol user before finishing high school. Among US young adults in their mid-20s, alcohol use was highly normative and frequently included participation in high-risk drinking behaviors. High-risk alcohol use prevention approaches developed specifically to reach young adults in their mid-20s are needed, as well as efforts to increase proactive clinician screening to identify young adults participating in high-risk alcohol use.

  7. Dietary-induced binge eating increases prefrontal cortex neural activation to restraint stress and increases binge food consumption following chronic guanfacine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Nicholas T; Walters, Amy L; Verpeut, Jessica L; Caverly, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30 min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6 weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1 h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2 weeks; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5 mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30 min; twice a week; 8 weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Macinko

    Full Text Available This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986 to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD; as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society.

  9. Eating patterns in patients with spectrum binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003

  10. US Adults Drink 17 Billion Binge Drinks a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in dangerous driving, risky sexual behavior, and violent behavior. Over time, binge drinking also increases the ... Am J Prev Med 2018; 54(4). Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  11. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies.

  12. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and

  13. Factors Associated with Binge Eating Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohamad, Normasliana; Law, Leh Shii

    2018-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, ...

  14. Assessment and treatment of binge eating in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Walmir Ferreira Coutinho

    2006-01-01

    Binge eating is a frequent disorder among obese patient, specialythose undergoing weight loss treatment. Binge eating disorder(BED) is a newly defined diagnostic category, usually associatedwith psychopathology and overweight. Several clinical trialsinvolving psychoterapeutical interventions have shown thatcognitive beahavior therapy and interpersonal therapy can beeffective for the treatment of obese patients with BED.Pharmacotherapy can be also an useful tool for the control ofbinge eating,...

  15. Systemisk/Narrativ gruppebehandling af Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver gruppeterapi på systemisk/narrativt grundlag til patienter med Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Den beskriver, hvordan en problemmættet historie omkring BED-gruppen blev dekonstrueret ved at ændre behandlingens udformning og eksperimentere med socialkonstruktionistiske ideer og......, hvilket har fremmet konsolideringen af foretrukne historier i gruppens refleksioner og styrket terapeuternes evne til at facilitere processen. Nøgleord: Binge Eating Disorder, systemisk narrativ terapi, grupppe...

  16. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  17. Preference for safe over risky options in binge eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi eNeveu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Binge eating has been usually viewed as a preference for risky over safe appetitive rewards although this view has been drawn without manipulating stressing-inducing food cues. In healthy women, stressful cues bias behavior for safer options, raising the question of whether food cues modulate binging patients’ behaviors towards safer options.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with binging patients (20 bulimia nervosa (BN and 23 binging anorexia nervosa (ANB patients and two control groups (22 non-binging restrictive (ANR anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy participants, without any concomitant impulsive disorder. We assessed decisions under risk with a gambling task with known probabilities and decisions under uncertainty with the balloon analog risk taking task (BART with unknown probabilities of winning, in three cued-conditions including neutral, binge food and stressful cues.Results: In the gambling task, binging patients and ANR patients adopted similar safer attitudes and coherently elicited a higher aversion to losses when primed by food as compared to neutral cues. This differential behavior was also observed in the BART in BN and ANR patients only, aligning with the behavior of healthy controls when primed with stressful cues. In ANB patients, similar safer behaviors were observed in food and neutral conditions in the BART but with a higher variability in their choices in food condition. This higher variability was associated with higher difficulties to discard irrelevant information. Conclusion: Decision making under risk and under uncertainty is not fundamentally altered in binging patients but might be disturbed by a concomitant task.

  18. Behavioral evidence of emotion dysregulation in binge eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Chen, Eunice; Boutelle, Kerri N; McCloskey, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Binge eating is the most common disordered eating symptom and can lead to the development of obesity. Previous self-report research has supported the hypothesis that individuals who binge eat report greater levels of general emotion dysregulation, which may facilitate binge-eating behavior. However, to date, no study has experimentally tested the relation between binge eating history and in-vivo emotion dysregulation. To do this, a sample of female college students who either endorsed binge eating (n = 40) or denied the presence of any eating pathology (n = 47) completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and a behavioral distress tolerance task (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computer: PASAT-C) known to induce negative affect and distress. The binge eating group was 2.96 times more likely to quit the PASAT-C early (χ 2  = 5.04, p = 0.025) and reported greater irritability (F(1,84) = 7.09 p = 0.009) and frustration (F(1,84) = 5.00, p = 0.028) after completing the PASAT-C than controls, controlling for initial levels of these emotions. Furthermore, across the entire sample, quitting early was associated with greater emotion dysregulation on the DERS (r pb  = 0.342, p < 0.01). This study is the first to demonstrate that individuals who binge eat show in-vivo emotional dysregulation on a laboratory task. Future studies should examine the PASAT-C to determine its potential clinical utility for individuals with or at risk of developing binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol drinking patterns and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Becker, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with diabetes, but little is known about the role of drinking patterns. We examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and diabetes risk in men and women from the general Danish population. METHODS: This cohort study...... was based on data from the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Of the 76,484 survey participants, 28,704 men and 41,847 women were eligible for this study. Participants were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain information on alcohol drinking patterns......, i.e. frequency of alcohol drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and consumption of wine, beer and spirits, from which we calculated beverage-specific and overall average weekly alcohol intake. Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained from the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox...

  20. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  1. Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra; Danner, Unna; Parks, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm. PMID:29165348

  2. Disulfiram for binge eating disorder: an open trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Anna Maria Giulia; Piras, Simona; Murgia, Magnolia; Chessa, Alessandra; Restivo, Angelo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Agabio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of disulfiram for treatment of binge eating disorder. Two hundred and fifty milligrams per day of disulfiram was administered to 12 patients affected by binge eating disorder for 16 weeks; the number of binge eating episodes per week and the number of participants who reported side effects were evaluated. Nine participants (75.0%) completed the trial, while the other 3 (25.0%) discontinued prematurely. Disulfiram significantly decreased the mean frequency of binge eating episodes per week from 7.9±1.2 to 0.9±0.6 (pbinge eating episodes, and 7 participants (58.3%) achieved remission of binge eating. Eleven participants (91.7%) reported side effects [drowsiness (N=9), headache (N=7), dysgeusia (N=3), tachycardia (N=3), dizziness (N=2), and nausea (N=2)]. While disulfiram reduced the frequency of binge eating episodes, side effects were observed in the majority of participants. Longer-term placebo-controlled studies are warranted to exclude the contribution of a placebo response from these results and to evaluate drugs with similar pharmacological activity but improved tolerability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dingemans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED. Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness, seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm.

  4. Comparing work productivity in obesity and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, Ruth H; Bedrosian, Richard; Wang, Chun

    2012-12-01

    To examine productivity impairment in individuals with obesity and/or binge eating. Based on current weight and eating behavior, 117,272 employees who had completed a health risk appraisal and psychosocial functioning questionnaire were classified into one of four groups. Gender-stratified analyses compared groups on four measures: absenteeism, presenteeism, total work productivity impairment, and (non-work) activity impairment. Overall group differences were statistically significant for all measures with lowest impairment in non-obese men and women without binge eating (n = 34,090, n = 39,198), higher levels in individuals without binge eating (n = 15,570, n = 16,625), yet higher levels in non-obese men and women with binge eating (n = 1,381, n = 2,674), and highest levels in obese men and women with binge eating (Group 4, n = 2,739, n = 4,176). Health initiatives for obese employees should include screening and interventions for employees with binge eating. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Attenuating the alcohol allure: attentional broadening reduces rapid motivational response to alcohol pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B; Gable, Philip A

    2017-04-01

    Past research has found that exposure to alcohol cues causes a narrowing of attentional scope and enhances the neural responses associated with approach motivation. The current research sought to determine if a manipulated broadened (global) attentional scope would reduce approach-motivated neural reactivity to alcohol pictures. In the current study, participants (n = 82) were exposed to alcohol and neutral pictures following either a global or local attentional scope manipulation. Early motivated attentional processing was assessed using the N1 event-related potential (ERP), a neurophysiological marker of rapid motivated attention. A global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures as compared to a local attentional scope. Self-reported binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures, but not to neutral pictures. Individuals with greater binge drinking experience demonstrated increased rapid motivated attentional processing to alcohol pictures. These results suggest that enhancing a global (vs. local) attentional scope attenuates rapid motivated attentional processing of alcohol pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  6. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A

    2018-06-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.

  7. Binge eating disorder and depressive symptoms among females of child-bearing age: the Korea Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, O; Kim, M S; Kim, J; Lee, J E; Jung, H

    2018-01-17

    Most studies regarding the relationship between binge eating disorder (BED) and depression have targeted obese populations. However, nurses, particularly female nurses, are one of the vocations that face these issues due to various reasons including high stress and shift work. This study investigated the prevalence of BED and the correlation between BED and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among female nurses in South Korea. Participants were 7,267 female nurses, of which 502 had symptoms of BED. Using the propensity score matching (PSM) technique, 502 nurses with BED and 502 without BED were included in the analyses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis. The proportion of binge eating disorder was 6.90% among the nurses, and 81.3% of nurses displayed some levels of depressive symptoms. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that age (40 years old and older), alcohol consumption (frequent drinkers), self-rated health, sleep problems, and stress were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. Overall, after adjusting for confounders, nurses with BED had 1.80 times the risk (95% CI = [1.41-2.30]; p-value depression symptoms. Korean female nurse showed a higher prevalence of both binge eating disorder and depressive symptoms, and the association between the two factors was proven in the study. Therefore, hospital management and health policy makers should be alarmed and agreed on both examining nurses on such problems and providing organized and systematic assistance.

  8. Prevalence of Alcohol and Other Substance Use in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Farnaz; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Crow, Scott; Hill, Laura; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Steffen, Kristine J

    2015-11-01

    The major aim of this study was to investigate any association between binge eating and purging and alcohol and substance use. The Eating Disorder Questionnaire was completed by 2966 patients. Each patient was assigned to an approximate diagnostic group based on a DSM-5-based algorithm. Patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) used alcohol/other substances with higher frequencies compared to patients with anorexia nervosa-restricting type (AN-R), binge eating disorder (BED), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; p anorexia nervosa-binge eating/purging type (AN-BP) were more likely to use alcohol/substances than those with AN-R [odds ratio for alcohol use: 3.58 (p < 0.01); odds ratio for substance use: 30.14 (p < 0.01)]. Higher frequencies of binge eating and purging were associated with higher frequencies of substance use. Patients who manifest both binge eating and purging behaviour are at higher risk of substance use which may have important treatment implications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Alcohol in Moderation, Cardioprotection and Neuroprotection: Epidemiological Considerations and Mechanistic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Michael A.; Neafsey, Edward J.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Gray, Mary O.; Parks, Dale A.; Das, Dipak K.; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to many years of important research and clinical attention to the pathological effects of alcohol (ethanol) abuse, the past several decades have seen the publication of a number of peer-reviewed studies indicating beneficial effects of light-moderate, non-binge consumption of varied alcoholic beverages, as well as experimental demonstrations that moderate alcohol exposure can initiate typically cytoprotective mechanisms. A considerable body of epidemiology associates moderate alco...

  10. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Development of Alcoholism: Resilience vs. Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Enoch, M.-A.

    2006-01-01

    The physiological changes of adolescence may promote risk‐taking behaviors, including binge drinking. Approximately 40% of alcoholics were already drinking heavily in late adolescence. Most cases of alcoholism are established by the age of 30 years with the peak prevalence at 18–23 years of age. Therefore the key time frame for the development, and prevention, of alcoholism lies in adolescence and young adulthood. Severe childhood stressors have been associated with increased vulnerability to...

  11. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus......, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....

  12. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  13. Buddhism and adolescent alcohol use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Li, Tiandong; Innadda, Saranya

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 2019 Thai secondary school students in grades equivalent to U.S. 10 through 12 completed a 43-item alcohol expectancy questionnaire in June 2000. Factor analysis revealed four factors: (a) positive expectancies, (b) negative expectancies, (c) sex and power expectancies, and (d) religious expectancies. Practicing Buddhists were less likely to drink than nonpracticing Buddhists and had fewer positive and more negative expectancies about alcohol. Among students who did drink, Buddhist beliefs did not appear to influence whether or not they were binge drinkers. Buddhist beliefs may influence decisions to drink but not decisions related to drinking patterns.

  14. A Hangover and a One-Night Stand: Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…

  15. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  16. Emotional Eating, Binge Eating and Animal Models of Binge-Type Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Robert; Chami, Rayane; Treasure, Janet

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders. Emotional difficulties and neurobiological factors have a role in the aetiology of eating and weight disorders. Precise treatments targeted at these mechanisms may be of help for people who have difficulties with compulsive overeating.

  17. Pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption and academic performance among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverages are widely available in the university environment, particularly at the parties. There are few studies addressing the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance among college students. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the behavior of college students regarding the profile of alcohol consumption and its academic consequences. METHODS: The volunteers (343 students answered a questionnaire about their pattern of alcohol consumption and possible related behaviors, especially academic performance. Participants were classified as "non-drinkers" (ND, "non-binge drinkers" (nBD, "binge drinkers" (BD and "heavy drinkers" (HD. RESULTS: 88.1% of the students reported ingesting alcoholic beverages, 44% as BD. Most of the drinker students (75.5% - nBD, BD or HD stated getting intoxicated at least once a month. Binge drinking was the predominant pattern (66.2% of those who drank. HD students presented a risk 9.2 times higher of not being in the ideal period of the course. DISCUSSION: The college students evaluated presented high rates of alcohol abuse. Binge drinking might have interfered in their academic performance. Organic, social and behavioral consequences were also reported.

  18. Is there an association between traumatic dental injury and social capital, binge drinking and socioeconomic indicators among schoolchildren?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Neves de Paiva

    Full Text Available Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother's schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively.The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588. Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010, those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001 and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235-6.466, p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654-8.535, p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21-3.06, p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury.The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended.

  19. Effect of BMI and binge eating on food reward and energy intake: further evidence for a binge eating subtype of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The psychological characteristics of binge eating have been proposed as a phenotype to further understanding of overconsumption and susceptibility to obesity. This study examined the influence of trait binge eating in lean and overweight or obese women on appetite, food reward and energy intake. 25 lean and 25 overweight or obese women were categorised as either 'binge type' or 'non-binge type' based on their scores on the Binge Eating Scale. Food reward and food intake were assessed in fasted and fed conditions. Overweight or obese binge types (O-B) consumed more energy than overweight or obese non-binge types (O-NB) and lean binge (L-B) and non-binge types (L-NB). Both L-B and O-B exhibited greater preference for sweet foods. In O-NB, L-B and L-NB, lower liking and wanting for sweet foods was exhibited in the fed condition compared to the fasted condition. However, in O-B wanting for sweet foods was greater when they were fed compared to when they were in a fasted state. These findings provide further support for trait binge eating as a hedonic subtype of obesity. Binge types were characterised by greater intake of high-fat sweet foods and increased wanting for these foods when satiated. Additionally, these findings highlight the potential for separation in liking and wanting for food as a marker of susceptibility to overeat.

  20. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  1. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Associations between meal patterns, binge eating, and weight for Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M; Thomas, Colleen; Vela, Alyssa; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a regular pattern of eating is a core element of treatment for binge eating, yet no research to date has examined meal patterns of Latina women. Compare eating patterns of Latinas who binge eat and those who do not, and examine associations between meal patterns and binge episodes, associated distress and concerns, and body mass index (BMI). One-hundred fifty-five Latinas [65 Binge Eating Disorder (BED), 22 Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 68 with no eating disorder] were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. There were no significant differences in eating patterns between groups. Breakfast was the least and dinner the most consumed meal. For the BED group: greater frequency of lunch consumption was associated with higher BMI while more frequent evening snacking was associated with lower BMI and with less weight importance; more frequent breakfast consumption, mid-morning snack consumption and total meals were associated with greater distress regarding binge eating. For the BN group, evening snack frequency was associated with less dietary restriction and more weight and shape concern; total snack frequency was associated with more weight concern. Regular meal eaters reported more episodes of binge eating than those who did not eat meals regularly. Associations with meal patterns differed by eating disorder diagnosis. Study findings mostly are not consistent with results from prior research on primarily White women. CBT treatments may need to be tailored to address the association between binge eating and regular meal consumption for Latinas. Culturally, appropriate modifications that address traditional eating patterns should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:32-39). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  4. Characterization of Binge-Eating Behavior in Individuals With Binge-Eating Disorder in an Adult Population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Manjiri; Solo, Kirk; Valant, Jason; Schmitt, Emily; Nwankwo, Millicent; Herman, Barry K

    2016-10-27

    Characterize the frequency, duration, and severity of binge-eating behaviors in adults meeting DSM-5 criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) in a large US community sample. A representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Wellness Survey was recruited from an online panel and asked to respond to an Internet survey (conducted in October 2013) that included questions designed to assess binge-eating behaviors in relation to DSM-5 BED diagnostic criteria. Of 22,397 respondents, 344 self-reported meeting DSM-5 BED criteria (BED respondents). Most BED respondents reported that binge-eating episodes had occurred for the past 7-12 months (61.0%), and 93.6% reported ≥ 2-3 binge-eating episodes/wk. All BED respondents reported that "extreme" (52.6%) or "great" (47.4%) distress levels were associated with binge-eating episodes. Among BED respondents who agreed to provide detailed binge-eating behavior data after being invited to respond to additional survey questions, 40.6% reported binge eating on average > 1 time/d, and 59.2% reported binge eating 2-3 times/d. For 44.5% of BED respondents, binge-eating duration was 31-60 minutes. BED respondents reported that they "very often" (36.6%) or "often" (34.0%) had urges to binge eat between 7-10 pm. "Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or guilty afterward" was the most bothersome symptom of binge eating for BED respondents (extremely bothersome: 41.9%). Binge-eating frequency among BED respondents averaged once daily. Most BED respondents exhibited binge-eating behavior for 7-12 months, often with severe symptoms. These findings highlight the disease burden of BED and have potential implications for diagnosing and treating BED. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Perceived parental alcohol problems and drinking patterns in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Veronica S C; Holst, Charlotte A; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether young people with parental alcohol problems have different drinking patterns than those without parental alcohol problems. Further, we examined whether the association between parental alcohol problems and young people's drinking patterns differed...... depending on the gender of the child and the parent, and whether more severe parental alcohol problems and cohabitation with the parent with alcohol problems was associated with earlier and heavier drinking patterns. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. 75......,025 high school and vocational school students (15-25years) participated. Drinking patterns were investigated by the following outcomes: non-drinking, weekly alcohol consumption, frequent binge drinking, and early intoxication debut age. The main predictor variables were perceived parental alcohol problems...

  6. CHRONIC ALCOHOL NEUROADAPTATION AND STRESS CONTRIBUTE TO SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR ALCOHOL CRAVING AND RELAPSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    BREESE, GEORGE R.; SINHA, RAJITA; HEILIG, MARKUS

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Major characteristics observed in alcoholics during an initial period of alcohol abstinence are altered physiological functions and a negative emotional state. Evidence suggests that a persistent, cumulative adaptation involving a kindling/allostasis-like process occurs during the course of repeated chronic alcohol exposures that is critical for the negative symptoms observed during alcohol withdrawal. Basic studies have provided evidence for specific neurotransmitters within identified brain sites being responsible for the negative emotion induced by the persistent cumulative adaptation following intermittent-alcohol exposures. After an extended period of abstinence, the cumulative alcohol adaptation increases susceptibility to stress- and alcohol cue-induced negative symptoms and alcohol seeking, both of which can facilitate excessive ingestion of alcohol. In the alcoholic, stressful imagery and alcohol cues alter physiological responses, enhance negative emotion, and induce craving. Brain fMRI imaging following stress and alcohol cues has documented neural changes in specific brain regions of alcoholics not observed in social drinkers. Such altered activity in brain of abstinent alcoholics to stress and alcohol cues is consistent with a continuing ethanol adaptation being responsible. Therapies in alcoholics found to block responses to stress and alcohol cues would presumably be potential treatments by which susceptibility for continued alcohol abuse can be reduced. By continuing to define the neurobiological basis of the sustained alcohol adaptation critical for the increased susceptibility of alcoholics to stress and alcohol cues that facilitate craving, a new era is expected to evolve in which the high rate of relapse in alcoholism is minimized. 250 PMID:20951730

  7. Nocturnal Eating: Association with Binge Eating, Obesity, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Harvey, Kate; DeBar, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical correlates of nocturnal eating, a core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome. Method Data from 285 women who had participated in a two-stage screening for binge eating were utilized. Women (n = 41) who reported one or more nocturnal eating episodes in the past 28 days on the Eating Disorder Examination and women who did not report nocturnal eating (n =244) were compared on eating disorder symptomatology, Body Mass Index (BMI), and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Results Nocturnal eaters were significantly more likely to report binge eating and differed significantly from non-nocturnal eaters (with responses indicating greater disturbance) on weight and shape concern, eating concern, self-esteem, depression, and functional impairment, but not on BMI or dietary restraint. Group differences remained significant in analyses adjusting for binge eating. Conclusions This study confirms the association between nocturnal eating and binge eating previously found in treatment seeking samples yet also suggests that the elevated eating disorder symptoms and decreased psychosocial adjustment observed in nocturnal eaters is not simply a function of binge eating. PMID:19708071

  8. Pharmacological Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder: Update Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Binge-eating disorder (BED), a formal eating-disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5, is characterized by recurrent binge-eating, marked distress about binge-eating, and the absence of extreme weight compensatory behaviors. BED is more prevalent than other eating-disorders, with broader distribution across age, sex, and ethnic/racial groups, and is associated strongly with obesity and heightened risk for psychiatric/medical comorbidities. Areas Covered This article provides an overview of pharmacotherapy for BED with a focus on III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search with minimal methodological inclusion requirements yielded 22 RCTs investigating several different medication classes; most were pharmacotherapy-only trials with eight trials testing combination approaches with psychological-behavioral methods. Expert Opinion The evidence base regarding pharmacotherapy for BED remains limited, although this year the FDA approved the first medication (i.e., lisdexamfetamine dimesylate; LDX) specifically for moderate-to-severe BED. Data from RCTs suggests certain medications are superior to placebo for reducing binge-eating over the short-term; almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of pharmacotherapy for BED. Except for topiramate, which significantly reduces both binge-eating and weight, tested medications yield minimal weight loss and LDX is not indicated for weight loss. Psychological-behavioral and combination approaches with certain medications yield superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy-only acutely and over longer-term follow-up. PMID:26044518

  9. Attitudes as mediators of the longitudinal association between alcohol advertising and youth drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2011-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that changes in alcohol-related attitudes and expectancies mediate the effect of alcohol advertising on youth drinking. Longitudinal survey with a 9-month interval. Twenty-nine public schools in 3 German states. A total of 2130 sixth- to eighth-grade students (age range, 11-17 years; mean, 12.2 years) who were nondrinkers at baseline. Exposure to alcohol and nonalcohol advertising was measured at baseline with masked images of 17 commercial advertisements with all brand information digitally removed; students indicated contact frequency and brand names. Positive attitudes toward alcohol, current alcohol use, lifetime binge drinking. A total of 581 of the students (28%) started to drink alcohol during the observation period. Alcohol use initiation was positively related to baseline alcohol advertisement exposure. This effect of alcohol advertisement exposure on alcohol use was partially mediated by a change in alcohol-related attitudes, which explained about 35% of the total effect after controlling for baseline covariates and exposure to other advertising contents. The analysis revealed similar results for binge-drinking initiation. More favorable attitudes about alcohol may be one path through which alcohol advertising exerts behavioral influence.

  10. Alcohol-induced sexual behavior on campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, P W

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of alcohol-related sexual activity on campus. Since coming to college, 35% of the students had engaged in some form of sexual activity that was influenced by drinking. Because they had been drinking, 18% had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 15% had abandoned safe-sex techniques. For the categories any form of sexual activity and abandonment of safe-sex techniques, a significantly greater percentage of women were affected by alcohol use, but this was not true for sexual intercourse. The survey showed no significant differences between undergraduate and graduate students. All three variables showed a relationship with heavier alcohol use and with binge drinking. Academic excellence was negatively correlated with alcohol-induced sexual intercourse.

  11. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  12. Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: a systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David; Noel, Jonathan; Landon, Jane; Thornton, Nicole; Lobstein, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption is a major global public health concern. Previous reviews have concluded that exposure to alcohol marketing was associated with earlier drinking initiation and higher alcohol consumption among youth. This review examined longitudinal studies published since those earlier reviews. Peer-reviewed papers were identified in medical, scientific and social science databases, supplemented by examination of reference lists. Non-peer-reviewed papers were included if they were published by organizations deemed to be authoritative, were fully referenced and contained primary data not available elsewhere. Papers were restricted to those that included measures of marketing exposure and alcohol consumption for at least 500 underage people. Multiple authors reviewed studies for inclusion and assessed their quality using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Quality Assessment Tool for Observation Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Twelve studies (ranging in duration from 9 months to 8 years), following nine unique cohorts not reported on previously involving 35 219 participants from Europe, Asia and North America, met inclusion criteria. All 12 found evidence of a positive association between level of marketing exposure and level of youth alcohol consumption. Some found significant associations between youth exposure to alcohol marketing and initiation of alcohol use (odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.69), and there were clear associations between exposure and subsequent binge or hazardous drinking (odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.15). Mediators included marketing receptivity, brand recognition and alcohol expectancies. Levels of marketing exposure among younger adolescents were similar to those found among older adolescents and young adults. Young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking. © 2016 Society for the Study of

  13. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Vocht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016 were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C and attempts to reduce consumption. Results Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01. These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %, but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 % compared with other months (P < 0.001, indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support. Conclusions January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.

  14. Time trends in alcohol intake in early pregnancy and official recommendations in Denmark, 1998-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Petersen, Gitte L; Henriksen, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1999, Danish health authorities modified their recommendation to pregnant women, condoning some alcohol intake. In 2007, the recommendation was changed to one of alcohol abstention. We aimed to assess changes in average alcohol intake (drinks/week) and alcohol binge drinking...... in early pregnancy from 1998 to 2013 in relation to the changes in official recommendations in 1999 (condoning some intake) and 2007 (abstention). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University...... on a single occasion), and the timing (gestational week) of these episodes. Additional questions on binge drinking defined as ≥3 drinks on a single occasion were asked separately from 2000. A question assessed the average number of alcohol-containing drinks per week the woman consumed currently at the time...

  15. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cuzzolaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.

  16. Weight Change over the Course of Binge Eating Disorder Treatment: Relationship to Binge Episodes and Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R; Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2018-05-01

    Treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with both excess adiposity and psychological distress, has not typically produced significant weight loss despite reducing binge eating. Characterizing factors that promote or inhibit weight loss in individuals with co-occurring BED and obesity may help explain overall nonsignificant weight changes during treatment. In this study, 189 adults with BED participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of 5 months of cognitive behavioral therapy. Assessments included measured height and weight at baseline, midtreatment, end of treatment (EOT), and 6-month follow-up, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and questionnaires. During treatment, there was a mean weight gain of 1.3 ± 12.0 lb. Twenty-two percent of the sample lost ≥ 5 lb, and 25% of the sample gained ≥ 8 lb. Results showed that baseline objective binge eating episodes predicted weight over treatment. Changes in weight were significantly positively related to concurrent changes in shape concern, weight concern, and disinhibition, but not binge eating episodes. Changes in objective binge eating episodes from baseline to EOT were associated with changes in weight from EOT to follow-up. Further investigation of eating behavior during BED treatment to understand the energy balance contributions to weight change or stability is warranted. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  17. Binge-eating disorder: Clinical and therapeutic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Peter H; Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-02-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder with estimates of 2-5% of the general adult population. Nonetheless, its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Furthermore, there exist few therapeutic options for its effective treatment. Here we review the current state of binge-eating neurobiology and pharmacology, drawing from clinical therapeutic, neuroimaging, cognitive, human genetic and animal model studies. These studies, which are still in their infancy, indicate that while there are many gaps in our knowledge, several key neural substrates appear to underpin binge-eating and may be conserved between human and animals. This observation suggests that behavioral intermediate phenotypes or endophenotypes relevant to BED may be modeled in animals, facilitating the identification and testing of novel pharmacological targets. The development of novel, safe and effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of BED will enhance the ability of clinicians to provide optimal care for people with BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...... use disorder, binging, obesity, food addiction, comorbidity, dopamine, opioid, serotonin, glutamate, and pharmacological treatment were the keywords used in searching. RESULTS: BED shares similar phenomenology to SUD, including significant urges to engage in binging episodes, resulting in distress...... and impairment. Similar neurobiological pathways are found in both BED and SUD and medications based on similar neurobiology have been examined for both disorders. A subset of individuals with BED may have a "food addiction", but there is no clinical agreement on the meaning of "food addiction". Exploring...

  19. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-05-08

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.

  20. Restaurant eating in nonpurge binge-eating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Gayle M

    2006-11-01

    This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fast food eating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption.

  1. Confessions of a 'guilty' couch potato understanding and using context to optimize binge-watching behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Feijter, D.; Khan, J.V.; van Gisbergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Viewers more frequently watch television content whenever they want, using devices they prefer, which stimulated "Binge-watching" (consecutive viewing of television programs). Although binge-watching and health concerns have been studied before, the context in which binge-watching takes place and

  2. The Relation between Binge Drinking and Academic Performance: Considering the Mediating Effects of Academic Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.; Loes, Chad N.; Trolian, Teniell L.

    2017-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from multiple institutions, we focused on the relation between binge drinking and academic performance. Binge drinking exerts a negative influence on grade point average, even after accounting for a host of precollege confounding variables. Furthermore, the number of times a student binge drinks in college is less…

  3. Estrogens stimulate serotonin neurons to inhibit binge-like eating in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binge eating afflicts approximately 5% of US adults, though effective treatments are limited. Here, we showed that estrogen replacement substantially suppresses binge-like eating behavior in ovariectomized female mice. Estrogen-dependent inhibition of binge-like eating was blocked in female mice spe...

  4. Alcohol Use and Transactional Sex among Women in South Africa: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Magni

    Full Text Available Transactional sex is a risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol use may increase the risk of transactional sex. No nationally-representative studies have examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of alcohol use and transactional sex in women in South Africa. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between alcohol dependence, binge drinking and frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex in adult women in South Africa.A cross-sectional study using multi-stage, cluster sampling collected data from a nationally representative sample of 5,969 women aged 16-55 years in 2012. The analysis conducted for this paper was restricted to women reporting sexual activity in the past 12 months (n = 3,594. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sex partner in the past year. Alcohol use measures included: alcohol dependence (≥2 positive responses to the CAGE questionnaire; binge drinking (≥4 drinks for women on one occasion; and drinking frequency in the previous month. Logistic regression models were built to test the hypotheses that each dimension of alcohol use was associated with transactional sex.About 6.3% (n = 225 of sexually active women reported transactional sex. Almost a third (30.6% of sexually active women had ever drunk alcohol, and 19.2% were current (past month drinkers. Among lifetime drinkers, 28.0% were alcohol dependent and 56.6% were binge drinkers. Alcohol dependent women were twice as likely to report transactional sex (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-4.3, p<0.05 than those not alcohol dependent. Binge drinkers were 3.1 times more likely to have had transactional sex (95% CI 1.5-6.6, p<0.01 than non-binge drinkers. There was no significant relationship between frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex.Alcohol dependency and binge drinking are significantly associated with transactional sex in South African women. HIV prevention programmes

  5. Epigenetic regulation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ and corticotropin-releasing factor system genes in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Mariangela; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Giusepponi, Maria Elena; Romano, Adele; Filaferro, Monica; Maccarrone, Mauro; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cifani, Carlo; D'Addario, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that binge eating may be caused by a unique interaction between dieting and stress. We developed a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after a 15-minute exposure to the sight of the palatable food (frustration stress). The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) system genes in selective rat brain regions, using our animal model. Food restriction by itself seems to be responsible in the hypothalamus for the downregulation on messenger RNA levels of CRF-1 receptor, N/OFQ and its receptor (NOP). For the latter, this alteration might be due to selective histone modification changes. Instead, CRF gene appears to be upregulated in the hypothalamus as well as in the ventral tegmental area only when rats are food restricted and exposed to frustration stress, and, of relevance, these changes appear to be due to a reduction in DNA methylation at gene promoters. Moreover, also CRF-1 receptor gene resulted to be differentially regulated in these two brain regions. Epigenetic changes may be viewed as adaptive mechanisms to environmental perturbations concurring to facilitate food consumption in adverse conditions, that is, in this study, under food restriction and stressful conditions. Our data on N/OFQ and CRF signaling provide insight on the use of this binge-eating model for the study of epigenetic modifications in controlled genetic and environmental backgrounds. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Janssen, Tim; Monshouwer, Karin; Boendermaker, Wouter; Pronk, Thomas; Wiers, Reinout; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstream and special education (externalizing behavioral problems). Participants were 534 adolescents between 12 and 14 years at baseline. Executive functioning and alcohol use were assessed four times over a period of two years. Working memory uniquely predicted the onset of first drink (p=.01) and first binge drinking episode (p=.04) while response inhibition only uniquely predicted the initiating of the first drink (p=.01). These results suggest that the association of executive functioning and alcohol consumption found in former studies cannot simply be interpreted as an effect of alcohol consumption, as weaknesses in executive functioning, found in alcohol naïve adolescents, predict the initiating of (binge) drinking. Though, prolonged and heavy alcohol use might further weaken already existing deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Demand, Future Orientation, and Craving Mediate the Relation Between Depressive and Stress Symptoms and Alcohol Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2017-06-01

    Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Compulsive buying and binge eating disorder--a case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Darko; Bolanca, Marina; Rudan, Vlasta

    2006-12-30

    Compulsive buying behaviour has recently received long overdue attention as a clinical issue. Aim of this report is to describe treatment of two female patients diagnosed with compulsive buying disorder in comorbidity with binge eating disorder. In both cases, criteria for diagnosing of other axis I or axis II disorder were not present. Fluvoxamine was used in pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy as a psychotherapeutical approach. We conclude that fluvoxamine and psychodynamic psychotherapy may be effective in treatment of compulsive buyers in comorbidity with binge eating disorder.

  9. Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  10. Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Brant P; Franzen, Peter L; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Prouty, Devin; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; De Bellis, Michael D; Nagel, Bonnie J; Baker, Fiona C; Colrain, Ian M; Clark, Duncan B

    2017-06-01

    Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for

  11. Effects of binge drinking and hangover on response selection sub-processes-a study using EEG and drift diffusion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Hoffmann, Sven; Beste, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Effects of binge drinking on cognitive control and response selection are increasingly recognized in research on alcohol (ethanol) effects. Yet, little is known about how those processes are modulated by hangover effects. Given that acute intoxication and hangover seem to be characterized by partly divergent effects and mechanisms, further research on this topic is needed. In the current study, we hence investigated this with a special focus on potentially differential effects of alcohol intoxication and subsequent hangover on sub-processes involved in the decision to select a response. We do so combining drift diffusion modeling of behavioral data with neurophysiological (EEG) data. Opposed to common sense, the results do not show an impairment of all assessed measures. Instead, they show specific effects of high dose alcohol intoxication and hangover on selective drift diffusion model and EEG parameters (as compared to a sober state). While the acute intoxication induced by binge-drinking decreased the drift rate, it was increased by the subsequent hangover, indicating more efficient information accumulation during hangover. Further, the non-decisional processes of information encoding decreased with intoxication, but not during hangover. These effects were reflected in modulations of the N2, P1 and N1 event-related potentials, which reflect conflict monitoring, perceptual gating and attentional selection processes, respectively. As regards the functional neuroanatomical architecture, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as well as occipital networks seem to be modulated. Even though alcohol is known to have broad neurobiological effects, its effects on cognitive processes are rather specific. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Alcohol, appetite and energy balance: is alcohol intake a risk factor for obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2010-04-26

    The increased recognition that the worldwide increase in incidence of obesity is due to a positive energy balance has lead to a focus on lifestyle choices that may contribute to excess energy intake, including the widespread belief that alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for development of obesity. This brief review examines this issue by contrasting short-term laboratory-based studies of the effects of alcohol on appetite and energy balance and longer-term epidemiological data exploring the relationship between alcohol intake and body weight. Current research clearly shows that energy consumed as alcohol is additive to that from other dietary sources, leading to short-term passive over-consumption of energy when alcohol is consumed. Indeed, alcohol consumed before or with meals tends to increase food intake, probably through enhancing the short-term rewarding effects of food. However, while these data might suggest that alcohol is a risk factor for obesity, epidemiological data suggests that moderate alcohol intake may protect against obesity, particularly in women. In contrast, higher intakes of alcohol in the absence of alcohol dependence may increase the risk of obesity, as may binge-drinking, however these effects may be secondary to personality and habitual beverage preferences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354

  14. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne M

    2010-11-18

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur

  15. Effects of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Game to Reduce Binge Drinking Among Dutch Adolescents: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jander, Astrid; Crutzen, Rik; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2016-02-03

    Binge drinking among Dutch adolescents is among the highest in Europe. Few interventions so far have focused on adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Because binge drinking increases significantly during those years, it is important to develop binge drinking prevention programs for this group. Web-based computer-tailored interventions can be an effective tool for reducing this behavior in adolescents. Embedding the computer-tailored intervention in a serious game may make it more attractive to adolescents. The aim was to assess whether a Web-based computer-tailored intervention is effective in reducing binge drinking in Dutch adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Secondary outcomes were reduction in excessive drinking and overall consumption during the previous week. Personal characteristics associated with program adherence were also investigated. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 34 Dutch schools. Each school was randomized into either an experimental (n=1622) or a control (n=1027) condition. Baseline assessment took place in January and February 2014. At baseline, demographic variables and alcohol use were assessed. Follow-up assessment of alcohol use took place 4 months later (May and June 2014). After the baseline assessment, participants in the experimental condition started with the intervention consisting of a game about alcohol in which computer-tailored feedback regarding motivational characteristics was embedded. Participants in the control condition only received the baseline questionnaire. Both groups received the 4-month follow-up questionnaire. Effects of the intervention were assessed using logistic regression mixed models analyses for binge and excessive drinking and linear regression mixed models analyses for weekly consumption. Factors associated with intervention adherence in the experimental condition were explored by means of a linear regression model. In total, 2649 adolescents participated in the baseline assessment. At follow

  16. A mobile phone intervention to reduce binge drinking among disadvantaged men: study protocol for a randomised controlled cost-effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Petrie, Dennis; Evans, Josie Mm; Emslie, Carol; Jones, Claire; Ricketts, Ian W; Humphris, Gerry; Norrie, John; Rice, Peter; Slane, Peter W

    2014-12-19

    Socially disadvantaged men are at a substantially higher risk of developing alcohol-related problems. The frequency of heavy drinking in a single session is high among disadvantaged men. Brief alcohol interventions were developed for, and are usually delivered in, healthcare settings. The group who binge drink most frequently, young to middle-aged disadvantaged men, have less contact with health services and there is a need for an alternative method of intervention delivery. Text messaging has been used successfully to modify other adverse health behaviours. This study will test whether text messages can reduce the frequency of binge drinking by disadvantaged men. Disadvantaged men aged 25 to 44 years who drank >8 units of alcohol at least twice in the preceding month will be recruited from the community. Two recruitment strategies will be used: contacting men listed in primary care registers, and a community outreach method (time-space sampling). The intended sample of 798 men will be randomised to intervention or control, stratifying by recruitment method. The intervention group will receive a series of text messages designed to reduce the frequency of binge drinking through the formation of specific action plans. The control group will receive behaviourally neutral text messages intended to promote retention in the study. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of men consuming >8 units on at least three occasions in the previous 30 days. Secondary outcomes include total alcohol consumption and the frequency of consuming more than 16 units of alcohol in one session in the previous month. Process measures, developed during a previous feasibility study, will monitor engagement with the key behaviour change components of the intervention. The study will incorporate an economic evaluation comparing the costs of recruitment and intervention delivery with the benefits of reduced alcohol-related harm. This study will assess the effectiveness of a brief

  17. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. New Insights on Neurobiological Mechanisms underlying Alcohol Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Morikawa, Hitoshi; Alvarez, Veronica A.; Stuber, Garret D.; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Kash, Thomas L.; Roberto, Marisa; Wilcox, Mark V.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence/addiction is mediated by complex neural mechanisms that involve multiple brain circuits and neuroadaptive changes in a variety of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems. Although recent studies have provided substantial information on the neurobiological mechanisms that drive alcohol drinking behavior, significant challenges remain in understanding how alcohol-induced neuroadaptations occur and how different neurocircuits and pathways cross-talk. This review article highlights recent progress in understanding neural mechanisms of alcohol addiction from the perspectives of the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence. It provides insights on cross talks of different mechanisms and reviews the latest studies on metaplasticity, structural plasticity, interface of reward and stress pathways, and cross-talk of different neural signaling systems involved in binge-like drinking and alcohol dependence. PMID:23159531

  19. Exposure to Alcohol Use in Motion Pictures and Teen Drinking in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from 2 Latin American countries. We performed a cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style, and media access. Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7), and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing quartiles 4 and 1, 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 2.30) for current drinking, aOR 1.68 (CI 1.39 to 2.02) for binge drinking, and aOR 1.80 (1.52 to 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.76) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to try drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.64). Higher levels of exposure to AUF were associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Metacognitions, metacognitive processes and metacognitive control strategies in people with obesity and binge eating and people with obesity without binge eating

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge eating is often co-morbid with obesity. There is no widely accepted theoretical model for binge eating, this has treatment implications. Research has highlighted the role of metacognitions in psychopathology, including eating disorders. However, metacognitions in obesity and binge eating have not yet been researched. The self-regulatory executive functioning model (S-REF; Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996) conceptualises the role of metacognition in the aetiology and mainten...

  1. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Binge drinking during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with deficits in verbal episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, Carina; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montse

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.

  3. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  4. High-frequency binge eating predicts weight gain among veterans receiving behavioral weight loss treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) Neurocircuitry and Neuropharmacology in Alcohol Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Allyson L; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2018-01-28

    Alcohol use is pervasive in the United States. In the transition from nonhazardous drinking to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder, neuroadaptations occur within brain reward and brain stress systems. One brain signaling system that has received much attention in animal models of excessive alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence is corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The CRF system is composed of CRF, the urocortins, CRF-binding protein, and two receptors - CRF type 1 and CRF type 2. This review summarizes how acute, binge, and chronic alcohol dysregulates CRF signaling in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic brain regions and how this dysregulation may contribute to changes in alcohol reinforcement, excessive alcohol consumption, symptoms of negative affect during withdrawal, and alcohol relapse. In addition, it summarizes clinical work examining CRF type 1 receptor antagonists in humans and discusses why the brain CRF system is still relevant in alcohol research.

  7. Assessing the effect of patterns of cocaine and alcohol use on the risk of adverse acute cocaine intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Castellano, Yolanda; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Espelt, Albert; Bravo, M Jose; de la Fuente, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Although, in the laboratory, most acute adverse effects of cocaine are dose-dependent and alcohol potentiates some of these effects, there are few observational studies, and scarce awareness that the risk of acute cocaine intoxication (ACI) can increase as the amounts of cocaine and alcohol consumed increase. Our objectives were to assess if the risk of ACI increases with the level cocaine use, both in chronic and binge use; and also to determine whether it increases when a cocaine binge is combined with binge drinking or with regular excessive drinking. Hypotheses were evaluated using logistic regression and case-crossover analyses in a sample of 720 young regular cocaine users who did not regularly use heroin, recruited at drug scenes in 2004-2006. All data on ACI, predictor and confounding variables were obtained through a computer-assisted personal interview. The annual prevalence of ACI was 21%. In the last year 10.3% of the participants reported cocaine binges (≥ 0.5 g in 4 h). ACI risk increased considerably in the 4 h following a cocaine binge (odds ratio = 34.6; 95% confidence interval 11.5-170.8). Also, it increased with increases in the average level of cocaine used over a long period and when users regularly drank excessively. Finally, the results suggest that the high risk of ACI associated with cocaine binge may increase even more when combined with binge drinking. Awareness of the dose-dependent effect of cocaine on ACI risk, as well as the possible synergistic effect of alcohol, ought to be incorporated into preventive and care strategies. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Health-service Use in Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, John; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy A.; Lynch, Frances; Wilson, G. Terence; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare health-care utilization between participants who met DSM-IV criteria for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and those engaged in Recurrent Binge Eating (RBE) and to evaluate whether objective binge eating (OBE) days, a key measurement for diagnosing BED, predicted health-care costs. Method We obtained utilization and cost data from electronic medical records to augment patient reported data for 100 adult female members of a large health maintenance organization (HMO) who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to treat binge eating. Results Total costs did not differ between the BED and RBE groups (β=−0.117, z=−0.48, p=0.629), nor did the number of OBE days predictor total costs (β= −0.017, z=−1.01, p=0.313). Conclusions Findings suggest that the medical impairment, as assessed through health care costs, caused by BED may not be greater than impairment caused by RBE. The current threshold number of two OBE days/week as a criterion for BED may need to be reconsidered PMID:21823138

  9. Fraternity Influences on Binge Drinking and Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Suzy; McHugh Engstrom, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    The present study builds on previous findings and analyzes how social climate (Moos, 1988), chapter advisement, and living status differ for members of high- and low-achieving fraternities (as measured by cumulative chapter GPA) and how the interplay of personal and environmental factors influence binge drinking and GPA among college men in…

  10. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun’ichi Noma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.Keywords: milnacipran, specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, binge eating, vomiting, eating disorder, pharmacotherapy

  11. Cardiac parasympathetic regulation in obese women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, H-C; Schild, S; Schellberg, D; Quenter, A; Bode, C; Herzog, W; Zipfel, S

    2006-03-01

    Obese individuals with a binge eating disorder (BED) differ from obese non-binge eaters (NBED) with respect to (a) eating behaviour, (b) psychiatric comorbidity and (c) level of psychosocial distress. The aim of the study was to explore whether these three factors have an influence on cardiac parasympathetic function, that is independent of obesity: as alterations in cardiac parasympathetic function may have a role in the higher cardiovascular mortality that is present in obese individuals. In total, 38 obese women (BMI>30 kg/m(2)), with a BED and 34 age and BMI matched healthy controls (NBED) completed a laboratory stress protocol that incorporated a baseline resting period, Head-up Tilt Testing (HUT) and two challenging mental tasks. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured continuously during the protocol. Parasympathetic cardiac regulation was assessed as the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV-HF). Mental challenge led to an augmented reduction of HRV-HF in obese binge eaters, which was linked to the binge eating frequency and hunger perception, but not to psychiatric comorbidity. During baseline conditions and HUT, no significant differences in parasympathetic measures were observed between the two subject groups. Subjects with a BED showed greater reduction in parasympathetic cardiac control (HRV-HF) during mental stress, suggesting higher stress vulnerability in women with a BED. Longitudinal investigations are necessary to evaluate whether this is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality.

  12. Assessment and treatment of binge eating in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmir Ferreira Coutinho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is a frequent disorder among obese patient, specialythose undergoing weight loss treatment. Binge eating disorder(BED is a newly defined diagnostic category, usually associatedwith psychopathology and overweight. Several clinical trialsinvolving psychoterapeutical interventions have shown thatcognitive beahavior therapy and interpersonal therapy can beeffective for the treatment of obese patients with BED.Pharmacotherapy can be also an useful tool for the control ofbinge eating, as part of a multidimensional therapeutic approach,associated to psychotherapy and eating behavior modification.Although the investigation of pharmacological agents for thetreatment of BED is still in its preliminary stages, somemedications have shown promising results in randomized clinicaltrials. Currently, three main classes of drugs have been evaluatedin randomized controlled trials: antidepressants, anti-obesityagents and anticonvulsants. The most studied drugs were theserotonina selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. Fluoxetine,fluvoxamine, sertralina and citalopram have been shown to causemodest, but significant reduction in the frequency of bingeepisodes and body weight over the short term of the trials. Morerecently, sibutramina and topiramate have been shown tosignificantly reduce the binge eating behavior and the body weightin patients with obesity and binge eating.

  13. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  14. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  15. Correlates and Predictors of Binge Eating among Native American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…

  16. Binge drinking and psychomotor performance in female social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse effects of BD on cognitive functions such as psychomotor skills negatively impact on women's daily living. Methodology: Using a matched-pairs design and snowball sampling method, the present study investigated the relationship between binge drinking and psychomotor performance in a population of female ...

  17. Treatment preferences of patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Michelle L; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2005-05-01

    The current study examined the treatment preferences of obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were 103 consecutive patients with BED who responded to advertisements for treatment studies looking for persons who wanted to "stop binge eating and lose weight." In addition to completing comprehensive assessment batteries, participants were provided descriptions of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss therapy (BWL) after which they were asked to choose and rate their preferred treatment. Sixty-three percent of participants stated they preferred CBT. Treatment preferences were not associated with (1) histories of obesity, dieting, binge eating, or weight cycling, (2) current obesity or eating disorder features, or (3) psychological features such as depression or self-esteem levels. In contrast, participants' stated treatment preferences were aligned with their perception of their primary problem (eating disorder vs. obesity) and their primary goals for treatment (stop binge eating vs. lose weight). The patients who preferred CBT based their treatment selection more on their problem perception than on their primary treatment goal, whereas the patients who preferred BWL selected treatment based more on their primary treatment goal (weight loss) than on their problem perception. Obese patients with BED express treatment preferences that are not associated with variability in their clinical characteristics but are aligned with their perception of their primary problem and with their primary goals for treatment. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  18. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F. Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2...

  20. Intermittent behavior of the logistic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Kress, G.; Haken, H.

    1981-03-01

    In the discrete logistic model a transition to chaotic behavior via intermittency occurs in a neighborhood of periodic bands. Intermittent behavior is also induced if a stable periodic orbit is perturbed by low-level external noise, whereas alterations due to computer digitalisation produce remarkable periodicities. We compare our numerical results with the predictions of Pomeau and Manneville for the Lorenz system.

  1. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Singleton, Michele; Doran, Christopher

    2013-08-07

    While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and

  2. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S.; Snodin, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  3. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  4. College Men and Alcohol Use: Positive Alcohol Expectancies as a Mediator Between Distinct Masculine Norms and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Corbin, William; Lejuez, Carl; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    College men are more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors including risky drinking behavior, and experience more alcohol-related problems, including violence and arrest, as compared to women. The study of masculine norms or societal expectations, defined as beliefs and values about what it means to be a man, is one promising area of investigation that may help explain within-group differences and differential rates of alcohol use among men. Using the gender social learning model, we investigated the role of positive alcohol expectancies as an underlying mediator between masculine norms and alcohol use among college men. Data from 804 college adult men ( Mean age = 20.43) were collected through a web-based assessment. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinks, conformity to masculine norms, and positive alcohol expectancies measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relations between masculine norms, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. The masculine norms of "Playboy" and Risk-Taking were positively related to heavy alcohol use, while Emotional Control and Heterosexual Presentation were both negatively associated with alcohol use, after controlling for fraternity Greek status and positive expectancies. Playboy and Winning norms were positively associated with positive expectancies while Power Over Women was inversely related to positive expectancies which, in turn, were associated with heavier alcohol use. This study was a novel exploration into the multiple pathways and mediators through which positive alcohol expectancies may help explain and provide specificity to the masculinity and alcohol use relationship among college men.

  5. Segmenting and targeting American university students to promote responsible alcohol use: a case for applying social marketing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2011-10-01

    The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed.

  6. [Binge eating disorder: Links with personality and emotionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, G; Khorramian-Pour, M

    2017-04-01

    Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale). The analyses were conducted in a sample of 101 participants (36 men and 65 women), aged 20-59 years (mean age=35.28±9.76) from the general population. We found that 11% of the participants had moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Among them, nearly 4% were overweight and 4% were obese. The correlations analyses indicated that binge eating disorder was associated with two dimensions of personality, the neuroticism (P=0.001) and the consciousness (P=0.010), and with the emotions of joy (P=0.008), tenderness (P=0.036), fear (P=0.011), shame (Pbinge eating disorder get higher scores on EDI-2 subscales: search for thinness (P=0.001), bulimia (Pbinge eating disorder is associated with negative affectivity both as a personality dimension and as an emotional feeling. The patterns of associations, observed with the EDI scale, seem to confirm the good convergent validity of the Binge Eating Scale. Thus, like other eating disorders, emotional functioning should be a prime target for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Family correlates of childhood binge eating: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Liechty, Janet M

    2016-08-01

    Binge Eating Disorder is the most prevalent eating disorder in the US, and binge eating has been identified in children as young as five. As part of a larger registered systematic review, we identified family correlates of binge eating in children (C-BE) aged 12 and under. Using established guidelines, we searched PubMed and PsycInfo for peer-reviewed studies published in English between 1980 and April 2015 that examined family correlates and predictors of C-BE. This yielded 736 records for review; after exclusions fifteen studies were reviewed. Risk of bias was assessed. A risk factor typology was used to classify correlates. Nine of the included studies were cross-sectional and six longitudinal. Family weight teasing and parent emotional unresponsiveness were correlates of C-BE. Parent weight, education/socio-economic situation, and parent race/ethnicity were not associated with C-BE in any study reviewed. There was insufficient or unclear evidence regarding associations between C-BE and parent disordered eating, weight or thinness concern, harsh discipline, maternal dieting, attachment security, and mealtimes and feeding practices. Limitations included too few studies on many of the correlates to summarize, inconsistency of findings, homogenous samples, and predominately cross-sectional designs. Weight-related teasing in families and parental emotional unresponsiveness are correlates of C-BE and important areas to address in parent education and eating disorder prevention programs with families. Further longitudinal studies on putative risk factors for binge eating in childhood are needed to address current limitations, enable synthesis across studies, and inform public health efforts to prevent binge eating problems in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ANISOTROPIC INTERMITTENCY OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, K. T.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2014-01-01

    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multiexponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas

  9. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between Excessive Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Injuries in College Students: A Multi-Center Cross-Sectional Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Takayashiki, Ayumi; Goto, Ryohei; Saito, Go; Kawaida, Kyoko; Hieda, Rika; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Aramaki, Maie; Sakamoto, Naoto; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Takemura, Yousuke C

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related injuries in college students are a major public health problem worldwide. We clarified the association between excessive drinking and alcohol-related injuries in Japanese college students. This was a cross-sectional study with a self-administered questionnaire. From January to March 2013, we sampled all college students and graduate students aged 20 years or older during annual health examinations at three colleges in Mie Prefecture in Japan. The questionnaire assessed the frequency of alcohol drinking, amount of alcohol consumed per day, binge drinking during the past year, alcohol-related injuries during the past year, and demographic data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted on the association between excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related injuries. A total of 2,842 students underwent health examinations, of whom 2,177 (76.6%) completed the questionnaire. Subjects included 1,219 men (56.0%) and 958 women (44.0%). Eighty-eight men (7.2%) and 93 women (9.7%) were classified as excessive weekly drinkers, while 693 men (56.8%) and 458 women (47.8%) were determined to be binge drinkers. Eighty-one men (6.6%) and 26 women (2.7%) had experienced alcohol-related injuries during the past year. In the logistic regression analysis, binge drinkers (odds ratio 25.6 [8.05-81.4]) and excessive weekly drinkers (odds ratio 3.83 [2.41-6.09]) had a history of significantly more alcohol-related injuries, even after adjusting for age and sex. In conclusion, alcohol-related injuries in college students in Japan were strongly associated with excessive drinking. As a strategy for preventing such injuries in this population, an interventional study is required to identify effective methods for reducing excessive alcohol use.

  11. Hazardous alcohol use and cultural adjustment among U.S. college students abroad in Italy: Findings and recommendations for study abroad staff and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael A; Poyrazli, Senel; Broyles, Lauren Matukaitis

    2016-01-01

    Italy is a top destination for U.S. college students studying abroad. Both international and local Italian media outlets, such as city newspapers, have cited the discordance between Italian cultural norms and U.S. college students' drinking behaviors. Hazardous alcohol consumption abroad, such as binge drinking, can result in individual- (e.g., physical injury) and social- (e.g., promotion of negative stereotypes) level adverse consequences. We assessed the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use and recent binge drinking in a sample of U.S. college students studying abroad in Italy (n = 111). We evaluated associations among drinking and cultural adjustment and determined which sociocultural factors predicted binge drinking for students abroad. Forty-six percent of students were classified as hazardous drinkers and 63% reported recent binge drinking. Socializing with American peers was a significant predictor for binge drinking abroad. Binge drinking was quite prevalent in our sample of students studying abroad in Italy. Study abroad advisors, instructors, and staff should consider diverse strategies to screen, educate, prevent, and/or intervene on alcohol misuse with their students. These strategies should be personalized to both the student as well as the host culture's norms.

  12. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  13. Cortisol response and desire to binge following psychological stress: comparison between obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2013-07-30

    While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent Mice Are Resilient to Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety and Changes in Indices of Glutamate Function within the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaziya M; Coelho, Michal A; McGregor, Hadley A; Solton, Noah R; Cohen, Matan; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: (1) withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers; and (2) increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence). Adult and adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 14-day binge-drinking protocol (5, 10, 20 and 40% alcohol (v/v) for 2 h/day), while age-matched controls received water. At 24 h withdrawal, half of the animals from each group were assayed for negative affect, while tissue was sampled from the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) subregions of the remaining mice for immunoblotting analyses. Adult bingers exhibited hyper-anxiety when tested for defensive marble burying. Additionally, adult bingers showed increased mGlu1, mGlu5, and GluN2b expression in the AcbSh and PKCε and CAMKII in the AcbC. Compared to adults, adolescent mice exhibited higher alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentrations (BACs); however, adolescent bingers did not show increased anxiety in the marble-burying test. Furthermore, adolescent bingers also failed to exhibit the same alcohol-induced changes in mGlu and kinase protein expression seen in the adult bingers. Irrespective of age, bingers exhibited behavioral hyperactivity in the forced swim test (FST) compared to water

  15. Adolescent mice are resilient to alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and changes in indices of glutamate function within the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziya M Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb, coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: 1 withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers and 2 increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence. Adult and adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 14-day binge-drinking protocol (5, 10, 20 and 40% alcohol (v/v for 2 h/day, while age-matched controls received water. At 24 h withdrawal, half of the animals from each group were assayed for negative affect, while tissue was sampled from the shell (AcbSh and core (AcbC subregions of the remaining mice for immunoblotting analyses. Adult bingers exhibited hyper-anxiety when tested for defensive marble burying. Additionally, adult bingers showed increased mGlu1, mGlu5, and GluN2b expression in the AcbSh and PKCε and CAMKII in the AcbC. Compared to adults, adolescent mice exhibited higher alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentrations; however, adolescent bingers did not show increased anxiety in the marble-burying test. Furthermore, adolescent bingers also failed to exhibit the same alcohol-induced changes in mGlu and kinase protein expression seen in the adult bingers. Irrespective of age, bingers exhibited behavioral hyperactivity in the forced swim test compared to water drinkers

  16. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  17. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton T.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative?motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increa...

  18. The effects of continuous and intermittent ethanol exposure in adolesence on the aversive properties of ethanol during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Graham, Danielle L

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents is prevalent. Epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol abuse during the adolescent developmental period may result in long-term changes such as an increased susceptibility to alcohol-related problems in adulthood. Laboratory findings suggest that alcohol exposure during the adolescent developmental period, as compared with adulthood, may differentially impact subsequent neurobehavioral responses to alcohol. The present study was designed to examine whether ethanol exposure, continuous versus intermittent, during the adolescent developmental period would alter the aversive properties of ethanol in adult C3H mice. Periadolescent (PD28) male C3H mice were exposed to 64 hours of continuous or intermittent ethanol vapor. As a comparison, adult (PD70) C3H mice were also exposed to 64 hours of continuous or intermittent ethanol vapor. Six weeks after ethanol exposure, taste aversion conditioning was carried out on both ethanol pre-exposed and ethanol-naive animals using a 1-trial, 1-flavor taste-conditioning procedure. Ethanol exposure during the periadolescent period significantly attenuated a subsequent ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion, as compared with control animals. Adult animals exposed to chronic ethanol vapor during adolescence showed less of an aversion to an ethanol-paired flavor than ethanol-naive adults. Intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor during periadolescence produced a greater attenuation. It is suggested that ethanol exposure during the periadolescent period results in long-term neurobehavioral changes, which lessen a conditioned aversion to ethanol in adulthood. It is suggested that this age-related effect may underlie the increased susceptibility to alcohol-related problems which is negatively correlated with the age of onset for alcohol abuse.

  19. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: A longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Petras, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth; b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3,397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large U.S. urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking w...

  20. Effects of stress and coping on binge eating in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L; Dempsey, Jack; Dempsey, Allison G

    2011-08-01

    Limited research exists on the association between stress, coping, and binge eating. To address this paucity, this study explores these associations in a sample of 147 female college students, an at-risk population for binge eating. We hypothesized that emotional and avoidant coping would be positively associated with stress and binge eating. Conversely, we expected that rational and detached coping would be negatively related to stress and binge eating. Furthermore, we expected these coping styles to mediate the relationship between stress and binge eating. As predicted, emotion-focused and avoidant coping were positively associated with stress and binge eating. Additionally, emotion-focused coping partially mediated the relationship between stress and binge eating. However, no association was found between stress, rational or detached coping, and binge eating. These results are discussed within the context of a negative reinforcement model of binge eating. Lastly, the importance of providing evidence-based treatment for individuals with binge eating symptomology is discussed in light of our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Binge drinking and illicit drug use among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Jakelline Cipriano Dos Santos; Costa, Ana Carolina de Queiroz; Valença, Paula Andréa de Melo; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Colares, Viviane; Franca, Carolina da

    2017-09-04

    To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0.05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3.19-5.45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1.154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2014. Foi utilizado o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey, validado para uso com adolescentes brasileiros. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o teste do Qui-quadrado (≤ 0,05) e análise de regressão de Poisson, para estimar razões de prevalência, com intervalos com 95% de confiança. O uso na vida de drogas ilícitas foi quatro vezes mais prevalente entre os estudantes que relataram o binge drinking (IC95% 3,19-5,45). Estar na faixa etária de 16 a 19 anos, ser do sexo masculino e não ter religião também foram significativamente associados ao uso de drogas

  2. Intermittent cranial lung herniation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Carlo; De Simone, Antonio; Valbonetti, Luca; Diana, Alessia

    2007-01-01

    Two aged dogs with chronic obstructive airway disease were evaluated because of intermittent swelling of the ventral cervical region. Radiographs made at expiration and caudal positioning of the forelimbs allowed identification of intermittent cervical lung herniation of the left and right cranial lung lobe in both dogs. Pulmonary hyperinflation, increased expiratory effort, and chronic coughing were considered responsible for the lung herniation. Cervical lung hernia should be included in the differential diagnoses of intermittent cervical swelling in dogs with chronic respiratory disorders associated with increased expiratory effort and chronic coughing.

  3. The iTreAD project: a study protocol for a randomised controlled clinical trial of online treatment and social networking for binge drinking and depression in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Lambkin, F J; Baker, A L; Geddes, J; Hunt, S A; Woodcock, K L; Teesson, M; Oldmeadow, C; Lewin, T J; Bewick, B M; Brady, K; Spring, B; Deady, M; Barrett, E; Thornton, L

    2015-10-06

    Depression and binge drinking behaviours are common clinical problems, which cause substantial functional, economic and health impacts. These conditions peak in young adulthood, and commonly co-occur. Comorbid depression and binge drinking are undertreated in young people, who are reluctant to seek help via traditional pathways to care. The iTreAD project (internet Treatment for Alcohol and Depression) aims to provide and evaluate internet-delivered monitoring and treatment programs for young people with depression and binge drinking concerns. Three hundred sixty nine participants will be recruited to the trial, and will be aged 18-30 years will be eligible for the study if they report current symptoms of depression (score 5 or more on the depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) and concurrent binge drinking practices (5 or more standard drinks at least twice in the prior month). Following screening and online baseline assessment, participants are randomised to: (a) online monthly self-assessments, (b) online monthly self-assessments + 12-months of access to a 4 week online automated cognitive behaviour therapy program for binge drinking and depression (DEAL); or (c) online monthly assessment + DEAL + 12-months of access to a social networking site (Breathing Space). Independent, blind follow-up assessments occur at 26, 39, 52 and 64-weeks post-baseline. The iTreAD project is the first randomised controlled trial combining online cognitive behaviour therapy, social networking and online monitoring for young people reporting concerns with depression and binge drinking. These treatments represent low-cost, wide-reach youth-appropriate treatment, which will have significantly public health implications for service design, delivery and health policy for this important age group. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000310662. Date registered 24 March 2014.

  4. Detecting switching and intermittent causalities in time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Papo, David

    2017-04-01

    During the last decade, complex network representations have emerged as a powerful instrument for describing the cross-talk between different brain regions both at rest and as subjects are carrying out cognitive tasks, in healthy brains and neurological pathologies. The transient nature of such cross-talk has nevertheless by and large been neglected, mainly due to the inherent limitations of some metrics, e.g., causality ones, which require a long time series in order to yield statistically significant results. Here, we present a methodology to account for intermittent causal coupling in neural activity, based on the identification of non-overlapping windows within the original time series in which the causality is strongest. The result is a less coarse-grained assessment of the time-varying properties of brain interactions, which can be used to create a high temporal resolution time-varying network. We apply the proposed methodology to the analysis of the brain activity of control subjects and alcoholic patients performing an image recognition task. Our results show that short-lived, intermittent, local-scale causality is better at discriminating both groups than global network metrics. These results highlight the importance of the transient nature of brain activity, at least under some pathological conditions.

  5. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  7. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  8. Role of hypoxia inducing factor-1β in alcohol-induced autophagy, steatosis and liver injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Min Ni

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol causes liver hypoxia and steatosis, which eventually develops into alcoholic liver disease (ALD. While it has been known that alcohol consumption activates hepatic hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α, conflicting results regarding the role of HIF-1α in alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to use hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice to eliminate the possible compensatory effects of the single knockout of the 1α subunit of HIF to study the role of HIFs in ALD. C57BL/6 wild type mice were treated with acute ethanol to mimic human binge drinking. Matched wild-type and hepatocyte specific HIF-1β knockout mice were also subjected to a recently established Gao-binge alcohol model to mimic chronic plus binge conditions, which is quite common in human alcoholics. We found that acute alcohol treatment increased BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX expression in primary cultured hepatocytes and in mouse livers, suggesting that HIF may be activated in these models. We further found that hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice developed less steatosis and liver injury following the Gao-binge model or acute ethanol treatment compared with their matched wild type mice. Mechanistically, protection against Gao-binge treatment-induced steatosis and liver injury was likely associated with increased FoxO3a activation and subsequent induction of autophagy in hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice.

  9. Use of AUDIT-based measures to identify unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence in primary care: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J Aaron; Lee, Anna; Vinson, Daniel; Seale, J Paul

    2013-01-01

    As programs for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use disseminate, evidence-based approaches for identifying patients with unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence (AD) are needed. While the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Clinician Guide suggests use of a single alcohol screening question (SASQ) for screening and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual checklists for assessment, many SBIRT programs use alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) "zones" for screening and assessment. Validation data for these zones are limited. This study used primary care data from a bi-ethnic southern U.S. population to examine the ability of the AUDIT zones and other AUDIT-based approaches to identify unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Existing data were analyzed from interviews with 625 female and male adult drinkers presenting to 5 southeastern primary care practices. Timeline follow-back was used to identify at-risk drinking, and diagnostic interview schedule was used to identify alcohol abuse and dependence. Validity measures compared performance of AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT dependence domains scores, with and without a 30-day binge drinking measure, for detecting unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Optimal AUDIT scores for detecting unhealthy alcohol use were lower than current commonly used cutoffs (5 for men, 3 for women). Improved performance was obtained by combining AUDIT cutoffs of 6 for men and 4 for women with a 30-day binge drinking measure. AUDIT scores of 15 for men and 13 for women detected AD with 100% specificity but low sensitivity (20 and 18%, respectively). AUDIT dependence subscale scores of 2 or more showed similar specificity (99%) and slightly higher sensitivity (31% for men, 24% for women). Combining lower AUDIT cutoff scores and binge drinking measures may increase the detection of unhealthy alcohol use in primary care. Use of lower cutoff scores and dependence subscale

  10. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  11. Intermittent ileocoecal intususception in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambal, M.; Zonca, P.; Maly, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Aim of our paper is to present a case-report of chronic invagination in adult patient. Material: 28-years old woman with one year history of intermittent abdominal pain with symptoms of subileus state. She has underwent abdominal ultrasonography, abdominal X-ray, colonoscopy, irigography and abdominal CT. Appendectomy indicated for diagnosis of chronic appendicitis did not improve symptoms. Consecutively during acute problems were irigography and CT performed and diagnosis of an incomplete colon transversum obstruction of uncertain origin was established. There was stated suspicion of an intususception and patient was due to a repeated gastrointestinal passage indicated for an explorative laparotomy. During operation there was identified threefold invagination – colo-colonic, ileo-colonic and ileo-ileal. As a leading point of invagination was found in terminal ileum intraluminal polypous tumor 5 cm in diameter. Because of the secondary chronic changes of right colon wall and terminal ileum wall, after partial desinvagination right hemicolectomy was performed. Results: Patient was primary healed and now is without any subjective problems. Conclusion: Invagination is an acute abdominal event of obturative-strangulative type and it mainly occurs in infantile age. It is astonishing how long were patient´s difficulties lasting without obvious acute ileus. It is necessary in clinical practice to think on these rare reasons of gastrointestinal passage disorders. (author)

  12. The role of the opioid system in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Chiara; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable consumption of palatable food within brief periods of time. Excessive intake of palatable food is thought to be driven by hedonic, rather than energy homeostatic, mechanisms. However, reward processing does not only comprise consummatory actions; a key component is represented by the anticipatory phase directed at procuring the reward. This phase is highly influenced by environmental food-associated stimuli, which can robustly enhance the desire to eat even in the absence of physiological needs. The opioid system (endogenous peptides and their receptors) has been strongly linked to the rewarding aspects of palatable food intake, and perhaps represents the key system involved in hedonic overeating. Here we review evidence suggesting that the opioid system can also be regarded as one of the systems that regulates the anticipatory incentive processes preceding binge eating hedonic episodes.

  13. The role of anxiety in binge eating behavior: a critical examination of theory and empirical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Rosenbaum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to expand the understanding of binge eating by reviewing the role of aspects of negative affect. Specifically, this paper will present evidence for further investigation of the bearing that anxiety may have in binge eating development and maintenance. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the relation of binge eating and anxiety was performed. Valuable contributions have been made to the binge eating literature regarding some aspects of negative affect (i.e., depression; however, outside of bulimia nervosa studies, much of the theoretical and empirical binge eating research to date has not directly addressed the role of anxiety. Research supports expansion of investigations of negative emotionality and binge eating to include specific study of anxiety. Greater inclusivity and specificity in the unique contributions of various negative emotions may further the development of temporal models and intervention efforts.

  14. Binge eating as a meaningful experience in bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Clinical studies describe binge eating as a reaction to hunger, negative affect, or the need to dissociate. However, little is known about the meanings that women with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa associate with binge eating. To examine how women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa interpret their experiences of binge eating. Sixteen women who engaged in binge eating and had been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or their subclinical variants were interviewed about their experiences of eating disorder. Interview data were analyzed using phenomenologically-informed thematic analysis. Participants described binge eating as a practice through which the self experiences a sense of release, and existential emptiness is replaced by overwhelming fullness. Meaningful experiences of release and fullness are central to binge eating in bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa, and may contribute to the long-term maintenance of this practice.

  15. Do women give the same information on binge drinking during pregnancy when asked repeatedly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    in question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period...

  16. White adipose tissue coloring by intermittent fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) has been shown to promote metabolic health in several organisms. Two recent papers show that IF induces white adipose tissue beiging and increases thermogenesis, which improves metabolic health in mice.

  17. On-line intermittent connector anomaly detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper investigates a non-traditional use of differential current sensor and current sensor to detect intermittent disconnection problems in connectors. An...

  18. Intermittent chaotic chimeras for coupled rotators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmi, Simona; Martens, Erik Andreas; Thutupalli, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Two symmetrically coupled populations of N oscillators with inertia m display chaotic solutions with broken symmetry similar to experimental observations with mechanical pendulums. In particular, we report evidence of intermittent chaotic chimeras, where one population is synchronized and the other...

  19. Feigenbaum attractor and intermittency in particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the Feigenbaum attractor arising as a limit set in an infinite pichfork bifurcation sequence for unimodal one-dimensional maps underlies the intermittency phenomena in particle collisions. 23 refs.; 8 figs

  20. Binge drinking” y suplementos de selenio: Efectos sobre la actividad y expresión de la glutatión peroxidasa

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén Poza, Pablo Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Desde hace unas décadas, en España, el patrón de consumo intensivo o de fin de semana, tipo “binge drinking”, se ha convertido en el predilecto por los adolescentes. Como consecuencia de este consumo, los jóvenes se ven expuestos semanalmente a altas dosis de alcohol que producen intoxicaciones etílicas, alteraciones de la conducta, episodios de violencia y estrés oxidativo. El selenio (Se), es un mineral importante para la salud al que se le han atribuido propiedades antiin...

  1. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    Denise E Wilfley,1 Leslie Citrome,2 Barry K Herman3 1Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 2Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 3Global Medical Affairs, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Abstract: The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (D...

  2. Electronic supply system ''BING'' for vibrating wire strain gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmler, H.

    1976-02-01

    In the Austrian project Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel-High Temperature Helium Test Rig a great number of strain gauges is to be monitored continuously. For these measurements an electronic supply equipment had to be developed and built. The problem was solved by the ''BING'' system, which transmits an electromagnetic impulse to the string of the strain gauge thus enabling a measurement of frequency and temperature. The equipment has been in use for 1 1/2 years without major troubles. (author)

  3. Binge drinking and illicit drug use among adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Jakelline Cipriano dos Santos Raposo; Ana Carolina de Queiroz Costa; Paula Andréa de Melo Valença; Patrícia Maria Zarzar; Alcides da Silva Diniz; Viviane Colares; Carolina da Franca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolesc...

  4. There has been little progress in implementing comprehensive alcohol control strategies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Nasheeta

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol is the most common substance of addiction and a threat not only to health but also to sustainable human development. Consequently, at least a 10% relative reduction in the harmful use of alcohol has been advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). This perspective describes alcohol use in Africa, strategies to reduce harmful alcohol use, and the ability of African countries to meet this target. Although alcohol consumption in Africa was intermediate compared to other world regions, the total alcohol per capita among alcohol consumers was the second highest (19.5 liters); 19% of Sub-Saharan African men could be classified as binge drinkers. The alcohol industry is the key driver behind the uptake of alcohol use and misuse. The most cost-effective ways to reduce alcohol-related harm is to make alcohol less available and more expensive and to prohibit alcohol advertising. Most African countries have alcohol excise taxes, but these are not adjusted for inflation, meaning that the effectiveness of these taxes will likely decrease with time, leading to greater affordability. The majority of African countries do not have legally binding regulations for alcohol marketing. Alcohol misuse in Africa is not being addressed at a time when available strategies can efficiently and cost-effectively control alcohol-related harm.

  5. Cognitive-behavioural treatment for women who binge eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley-Ummenhofer, Jill; MacMillan, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    A dietitian-administered, shortened form of the Apple and Agras cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) method was evaluated in a group setting to determine its effect on improving obese women's self-esteem and reducing binge-eating behaviours, depression, and negative body image. Participants were recruited through newspaper and radio advertisements. Respondents who met study selection criteria were randomly assigned to either a CBT group (n=13) or a delayed group (D-CBT) (n=9). The treatment was administered over six weekly sessions to the CBT group, and then twice weekly over three weeks to the D-CBT group. Two measures of bingeing behaviour (severity and frequency), three measures of mood (depression, body image, and self-esteem), and body weight were assessed. The intervention did not result in any changes in body weight. There were statistically significant and clinically important changes after treatment (pbody image improved, and self-esteem improved. All changes were greater in the six-week treatment group. The dietitian-administered, group setting CBT program is effective for reducing binge eating and improving emotional state in obese women.

  6. The neurobiological basis of binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Robert M; Hutson, Peter H; Herman, Barry K; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the neuropathophysiology of binge-eating disorder (BED). Here, the evidence from neuroimaging, neurocognitive, genetics, and animal studies are reviewed to synthesize our current understanding of the pathophysiology of BED. Binge-eating disorder may be conceptualized as an impulsive/compulsive disorder, with altered reward sensitivity and food-related attentional biases. Neuroimaging studies suggest there are corticostriatal circuitry alterations in BED similar to those observed in substance abuse, including altered function of prefrontal, insular, and orbitofrontal cortices and the striatum. Human genetics and animal studies suggest that there are changes in neurotransmitter networks, including dopaminergic and opioidergic systems, associated with binge-eating behaviors. Overall, the current evidence suggests that BED may be related to maladaptation of the corticostriatal circuitry regulating motivation and impulse control similar to that found in other impulsive/compulsive disorders. Further studies are needed to understand the genetics of BED and how neurotransmitter activity and neurocircuitry function are altered in BED and how pharmacotherapies may influence these systems to reduce BED symptoms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Body image, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa in male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Blouin, Arthur G; Woodside, D Blake

    2006-03-01

    Male bodybuilders (MBB) exhibit more severe body dissatisfaction, bulimic eating behaviour, and negative psychological characteristics, compared with male athletic and nonathletic control subjects, but few studies have directly compared MBB and men with eating disorders. This study compared men with bulimia nervosa (MBN), competitive male bodybuilders (CMBB), and recreational male bodybuilders (RMBB) on a broad range of eating attitudes and behaviours and psychological characteristics to more accurately determine similarities and differences among these groups. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, weight loss practices, lifetime rates of eating disorders, anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use, and general psychological factors, were completed by 22 MBN, 27 CMBB, and 25 RMBB. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, extreme body modification practices, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa (BN) were reported among MBB, especially among those who competed. CMBB reported higher rates of binge eating, BN, and AAS use compared with RMBB, but exhibited less eating-related and general psychopathology compared with MBN. Few psychological differences were found between CMBB and RMBB. MBB, especially competitors, and MBN appear to share many eating-related features but few general psychological ones. Longitudinal research is needed to determine whether men with a history of disordered eating or BN disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuildin and (or) whether competitive bodybuilding fosters disordered eating, BN, and AAS use.

  8. Interpersonal Problems and Developmental Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Ansell, Emily B.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore associations between specific interpersonal constructs and the developmental progression of behaviors leading to binge eating disorder (BED). Method Eighty-four consecutively evaluated, treatment-seeking obese (BMI ≥ 30) men and women with BED were assessed with structured diagnostic and clinical interviews and completed a battery of established measures to assess the current and developmental eating- and weight-related variables as well as interpersonal functioning. Results Using the interpersonal circumplex structural summary method, amplitude, elevation, the affiliation dimension, and the quadratic coefficient for the dominance dimension were associated with eating and weight-related developmental variables. The amplitude coefficient and more extreme interpersonal problems on the dominance dimension (quadratic)—i.e., problems with being extremely high (domineering) or low in dominance (submissive)—were significantly associated with ayounger age at onset of binge eating, BED, and overweight as well as accounted for significant variance in age at binge eating, BED, and overweight onset. Greater interpersonal problems with having an overly affiliative interpersonal style were significantly associated with, and accounted for significant variance in, ayounger age at diet onset. Discussion Findings provide further support for the importance of interpersonal problems among adults with BED and converge with recent work highlighting the importance of specific types of interpersonal problems for understanding heterogeneity and different developmental trajectories of individuals with BED. PMID:22727087

  9. Salivary Cortisol and Binge Eating Disorder in Obese Women After Surgery for Morbid Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Junilla K.; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Background Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol levels and the awakening cortisol response (ACR) in obese persons showing binge eating after surgery for morbid obesity. Method Sixteen obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) and 18 obese women with...

  10. Bing-Neel Syndrome: Illustrative Cases and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Varettoni, Marzia; Defrancesco, Irene; Diamanti, Luca; Marchioni, Enrico; Farina, Lisa Maria; Pichiecchio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The Bing-Neel syndrome is a rare neurological complication of Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia which results from a direct involvement of central nervous system by malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells. The clinical suspicion of Bing-Neel syndrome may be difficult because neurologic symptoms are heterogeneous, non specific and sometimes underhand. A definitive diagnosis of Bing-Neel syndrome can be confidently made using brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging as well as histopathology an...

  11. Alcohol Increases Delay and Probability Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex: A Novel Vector for Alcohol-Related HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick S; Sweeney, Mary M; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use, especially at binge levels, is associated with sexual HIV risk behavior, but the mechanisms through which alcohol increases sexual risk taking are not well-examined. Delay discounting, that is, devaluation of future consequences as a function of delay to their occurrence, has been implicated in a variety of problem behaviors, including risky sexual behavior. Probability discounting is studied with a similar framework as delay discounting, but is a distinct process in which a consequence is devalued because it is uncertain or probabilistic. Twenty-three, nondependent alcohol users (13 male, 10 female; mean age = 25.3 years old) orally consumed alcohol (1 g/kg) or placebo in 2 separate experimental sessions. During sessions, participants completed tasks examining delay and probability discounting of hypothetical condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task, Sexual Probability Discounting Task) and of hypothetical and real money. Alcohol decreased the likelihood that participants would wait to have condom-protected sex versus having immediate, unprotected sex. Alcohol also decreased the likelihood that participants would use an immediately available condom given a specified level of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. Alcohol did not affect delay discounting of money, but it did increase participants' preferences for larger, probabilistic monetary rewards over smaller, certain rewards. Acute, binge-level alcohol intoxication may increase sexual HIV risk by decreasing willingness to delay sex in order to acquire