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Sample records for intermediate-peaked bl lacertae

  1. Discovery and characterization of the first low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lacertae objects in the very high energy γ-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    and resulted in a vastly improved performance of the MAGIC telescope in monitoring campaigns. The detections of low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects are in line with theoretical expectations, but push the models based on electron shock acceleration and inverse-Compton cooling to their limits. The short variability time scales of the order of one day observed at very high energies show that the γ-rays originate rather close to the putative supermassive black holes in the centers of blazars, corresponding to less than 1000 Schwarzschild radii when taking into account relativistic bulk motion. (orig.)

  2. Discovery and characterization of the first low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lacertae objects in the very high energy {gamma}-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Karsten

    2009-12-19

    . This was successfully achieved and resulted in a vastly improved performance of the MAGIC telescope in monitoring campaigns. The detections of low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects are in line with theoretical expectations, but push the models based on electron shock acceleration and inverse-Compton cooling to their limits. The short variability time scales of the order of one day observed at very high energies show that the {gamma}-rays originate rather close to the putative supermassive black holes in the centers of blazars, corresponding to less than 1000 Schwarzschild radii when taking into account relativistic bulk motion. (orig.)

  3. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  4. Relativistic Beaming and Orientation Effects in BL Lacertae Objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We use the correlation between the core-to-lobe radio luminosity ratio () and the linear size () of a sample of BL Lacertae objects to investigate the relativistic beaming and radio source orientation paradigm for high peaked and low-peaked BL Lacs (X-ray and radio selected BL Lacs respectively) and to ...

  5. Long-Term Optical Spectra Variability of BL Lacertae Object S5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Based on the long-term data from observations, we present an evidence for its spectral index variability behaviour in optical bands for BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714.We find that the spectral index variability period is in agreement with the flux variability period of about 1180 days in optical bands.We also ...

  6. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Deep optical surveys open the avenue for finding large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. Aims: In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. Methods: We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the SDSS spectra. Results: At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag depending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDs for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5 ≤ log 10(νpeak) ≤ 16 with a peak at log 10 ~ 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory under proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the

  7. Multi-Band Intra-Night Optical Variability of BL Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritma Gaur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We monitored BL Lacertae frequently during 2014–2016 when it was generally in a high state. We searched for intra-day variability for 43 nights using quasi-simultaneous measurements in the B, V, R, and I bands (totaling 143 light curves; the typical sampling interval was about eight minutes. On hour-like timescales, BL Lac exhibited significant variations during 13 nights in various optical bands. Significant spectral variations are seen during most of these nights such that the optical spectrum becomes bluer when brighter. The amplitude of variability is usually greater for longer observations but is lower when BL Lac is brighter. No evidence for periodicities or characteristic variability time-scales in the light curves was found. The color variations are mildly chromatic on long timescales.

  8. Sub-Hour X-Ray Variability of High-Energy Peaked BL Lacertae Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidzina Kapanadze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-wavelength flux variability in BL Lacertae objects is very important to discern unstable processes and emission mechanisms underlying their extreme observational features. While the innermost regions of these objects are not accessible from direct observations, we may draw conclusions about their internal structure via the detection of flux variations on various timescales, based on the light-travel argument. In this paper, we review the sub-hour X-ray variability in high-energy peaked BL Lacertae sources (HBLs that are bright at X-rays and provide us with an effective tool to study the details related to the physics of the emitting particles. The X-ray emission of these sources is widely accepted to be a synchrotron radiation from the highest-energy electrons, and the complex spectral variability observed in this band reflects the injection and radiative evolution of freshly-accelerated particles. The detection of sub-hour X-ray flux variability is very important since it can be related to the small-scale jet turbulent structures or triggered by unstable processes occurring in the vicinity of a central supermassive black hole. We summarize the fastest X-ray variability instances detected in bright HBLs and discuss their physical implications.

  9. The effects of intrinsic spectral curvature and flux limits on the measured evolutionary behavior of BL Lacertae objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.

    The effects of modeling the intrinsic curvature of the spectral energy distributions of BL Lacertae objects in the soft x-ray on the V/V M evolutionary statistic were studied. It was found that the power law approximations in the soft x-ray could cause a significant bias in V/V M towards values supporting either negative or positive evolution for BL Lacs. The effects of such a bias on the Sedentary Survey, a large sample of 150 BL Lacertae objects, were found to be negligible on average though individual effects were appreciable. The luminosity function and parametric values of evolution for pure luminosity and pure density evolution were computed for the Sedentary Sample.

  10. Host galaxy subtraction of TeV candidate BL Lacertae objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, K.; Pasanen, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Lindfors, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Ciprini, S.; Pforr, J.

    2007-11-01

    Context: Photometric monitoring of active galactic nuclei is often complicated by the presence of a strong host galaxy component, which adds unwanted flux to the measurement and introduces a seeing-dependence to the flux that can plaque e.g. microvariability studies. We are currently monitoring a sample of 24 TeV candidate BL Lacertae objects, many of which exhibit a prominent host galaxy component, using differential aperture photometry. Aims: In order to study our light curves free from the above effects, we have derived the host galaxy flux in differential aperture photometry as a function of aperture radius and FWHM for 20 resolved sources in our sample. Methods: We created accurate surface brightness models of the targets and any significant nearby sources using high-resolution R-band imaging obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and performed differential aperture photometry of the models over a grid of aperture radii and FWHM values. Results: The results are given as correction tables, that list the fluxes (in mJy) of all “contaminating” sources (host galaxy + significant nearby objects) as a function of aperture radius and FWHM. We found that the derived fluxes depend strongly on aperture radius, but the FWHM has only a minor effect (a few percent). We also discuss the implications of our findings to optical monitoring programs and potential sources of error in our derived fluxes. During this work we have also constructed new calibration star sequences for 9 objects and present the finding charts and calibrated magnitudes. Appendices A and B are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Six-year optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0806+52.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Zhongyi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jianghua [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhou, Xu [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Yuan, Qirong, E-mail: jhwu@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of the first systematic long-term multicolor optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0806+52.4. The monitoring was performed in multiple passbands with a 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope from 2005 December to 2011 February. The overall brightness of this object decreased from 2005 December to 2008 December but was regained after that. A sharp outburst probably occurred around the end of our monitoring program. Overlapping the long-term trend are some short-term small-amplitude oscillations. No intranight variability was found in the object, which is in accordance with the historical observations before 2005. By investigating the color behavior, we found a strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism for the long-term variability of 1ES 0806+52.4. The total amplitudes at the c, i, and o bands are 1.18, 1.12, and 1.02 mag, respectively. The amplitudes tend to increase toward shorter wavelengths, which may be a major cause of the bluer-when-brighter chromatism. Such bluer-when-brighter chromatisms are also found in other blazars, such as S5 0716+714, OJ 287. The hard-X-ray data collected from the Swift/BAT archive was correlated with our optical data. No positive result was found, the reason for which may be that the hard-X-ray flux is a combination of the synchrotron and inverse Compton emission, but with different timescales and cadences under the leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model.

  12. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  13. The collective emission of electromagnetic waves from astrophysical jets - Luminosity gaps, BL Lacertae objects, and efficient energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Benford, Gregory; Eilek, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the inner portions of astrophysical jets is constructed in which a relativistic electron beam is injected from the central engine into the jet plasma. This beam drives electrostatic plasma wave turbulence, which leads to the collective emission of electromagnetic waves. The emitted waves are beamed in the direction of the jet axis, so that end-on viewing of the jet yields an extremely bright source (BL Lacertae object). The relativistic electron beam may also drive long-wavelength electromagnetic plasma instabilities (firehose and Kelvin-Helmholtz) that jumble the jet magnetic field lines. After a sufficient distance from the core source, these instabilities will cause the beamed emission to point in random directions and the jet emission can then be observed from any direction relative to the jet axis. This combination of effects may lead to the gap turn-on of astrophysical jets. The collective emission model leads to different estimates for energy transport and the interpretation of radio spectra than the conventional incoherent synchrotron theory.

  14. Seven-Year Multi-Colour Optical Monitoring of BL Lacertae Object ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We monitored the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in five intermediate optical passbands from 2004 September to 2011 April. The object was active most of the time and intra-day variability was frequently observed. The total variation amplitude tended to decrease with decreasing frequency. Strong ...

  15. Short time scale variability of the BL Lacertae object OJ 287 in the near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a NIR photometric monitoring of the BL Lac object OJ 287 are presented. The standard JHK photometry shows variability of maximum amplitude of about 0.7 mag over the entire observing period of 23 months and about 0.3 mag on time intervals as short as about 3 hr. No spectral variability has been found. A fast monitoring performed in the H band, with a sampling period of about 4 min, provides evidence that variations can occur in this object on time scales of over 4 min and with an rms amplitude of 6-7 percent. These variations show slow increasing and fast decreasing trends, but no clear indication of periodicity is apparent. 30 refs

  16. BL Lacertae Objects Beyond Redshift 1.3 - UV-to-NIR Photometry and Photometric Redshift for Fermi/LAT Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Greiner, J.; Salvato, M.; Ajello, M.; Bottacini, E.; Gehrels, N.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Context. Observations of the gamma-ray sky with Fermi led to significant advances towards understanding blazars, the most extreme class of Active Galactic Nuclei. A large fraction of the population detected by Fermi is formed by BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects, whose sample has always suffered from a severe redshift incompleteness due to the quasi-featureless optical spectra. Aims. Our goal is to provide a significant increase of the number of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac objects contained in the 2 LAC Fermi/LAT catalog. Methods. For 103 Fermi/LAT blazars, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution fitting have been obtained. The photometry includes 13 broad-band filters from the far ultraviolet to the near-IR observed with Swift/UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Data have been taken quasi-simultaneously and the remaining source-intrinsic variability has been corrected for. Results. We release the UV-to-near-IR 13-band photometry for all 103 sources and provide redshift constraints for 75 sources without previously known redshift. Out of those, eight have reliable photometric redshifts at z > or approx. 1.3, while for the other 67 sources we provide upper limits. Six of the former eight are BL Lac objects, which quadruples the sample of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac. This includes three sources with redshifts higher than the previous record for BL Lac, including CRATES J0402-2615, with the best-fit solution at z approx. = 1.9.

  17. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  18. Multifrequency-spectral behavior of the BL Lacertae objects OI 90.4 and 3C 66A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, D. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Puschell, J. J.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Miller, H. R.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    Single-epoch multifrequency data for the BL Lac objects OI 90.4 and 3C 66A, spanning radio through ultraviolet wavelengths, are presented, as well as other measurements relevant to intensity and spectral-shape variability. Both BL Lac objects exhibit spectral curvature in the infrared-to-ultraviolet region, a properity that is inferred to be usual for this object class. Variability in the ultraviolet spectral index of OI 90.4 is found, whereas the spectral index of 3C 66A is the same in two observations 17 months apart. A synchrotron self-Compton jet model is applied to each BL Lac object. The OI 90.4 data are found to be best satisfied by a jet with a relatively high degree of relativistic beaming, but emission at frequencies below about 50 GHz is not described by the model. Furthermore, 3C 66A may not always undergo strong relativistic beaming, and the model may incorporate the small fraction of the total radio emission below about 20 GHz that is from within about 1.5 milliarcsec of the core.

  19. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  20. Rapid X-ray and optical variability in the X-ray selected BL Lacertae object IE 1402.3 + 0416

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giommi, P.; Barr, P.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T.; Schild, R.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge)

    1986-01-01

    Results from X-ray and optical observations of the X-ray-discovered BL Lac object 1E 1402.3 + 0416 are presented, where the X-ray measurements were carried out with the Channel Multiplier Array (CMA) and Medium Energy experiment (ME) detectors on board Exosat. These measurements revealed an intensity decrease by a factor of two on a time scale of a few hours. At maximum flux, the source was significantly greater than at the time of the Einstein Image Proportional Counter (IPC) discovery observation. The 2-6 keV X-ray spectrum was determined by the ME experiment, and IPC, HRI, and CMA data were subsequently compared. The source varied over the years by a factor of five; its brightest state was within the last three years. It is noted that a redshift greater than 0.2 would require that anisotropic emission mechanisms be invoked. 18 references

  1. [Ultrastructure of primordial germ cells of Lacerta muralis and Lacerta viridis. Comparison with Lacerta vivipara (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, J

    1974-01-01

    The ultrastructure of primordial germ cells migrating through the embryo and situated in genital crests is described in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis. It is compared with the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara previously studied. The cytoplasmic ultrastructure is the same in the three Lacertilians, but several nuclear differences are observed. The outline of the nucleus is regular and his shape is spheric in Lacerta vivipara, but in the two others Lacertilians the nucleus shows a very sinuous outline with deep cytoplasmic invaginations. There are fibrous nuclear bodies in the three Lacertilians but the germ cells of Lacerta muralis have in addition granular bodies. The nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis is very different from the annular nucleolus of the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara. It is possible to distinguish three types of nucleoli: a compact nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis, a granular cords nucleolus in Lacerta viridis, a vacuolar nucleolus in Lacerta muralis. Each type can be seen during the migration of the gonocytes or during the colonisation of the genital region. Probably there is a relationship between these different architectures and the activity of nucleolus in synthesis and liberation of ribosomal RNA. However the nuclear fibrillar area which we have previosly called "masse para nucléolaire" in Lacerta vivipara, is present in the germ cells of Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis.

  2. Multi-Wave Luminosity of High-Synchrotron-Peaked TeV BL Lacs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ray emission, and the inverse Compton scattering of circum- nuclear dust is likely to be an important complementary mechanism. Key words. BL Lacertae objects: general—gamma rays: observations— radiation mechanisms: nonthermal. 1.

  3. Phylogenetic Position of Barbus lacerta Heckel, 1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-11-01

    As a result, five clades come out from phylogenetic reconstruction and in phylogenetic tree Barbus lacerta determined to be sister group of Barbus macedonicus, Barbus oligolepis and Barbus plebejus complex.

  4. Phylogenetic Position of Barbus lacerta Heckel, 1843

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Korkmaz; Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Barbus is characterized by a complex taxonomical structure, due to high number of species and its morphological plasticity; it counts more than 25 species in Europe, displaying different ecological preferences. 21 taxon’s from Barbus genus including Barbus lacerta was used in phylogenetic analysis. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence analysis of Barbus lacerta is presented firstly in this study. A phylogenetic tree (neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analysis) was reco...

  5. Clustering environments of BL Lac objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Ronald; Ellingson, Erica; Stocke, John T.; Yee, H. K. C.

    1993-01-01

    We report measurements of the amplitude of the BL Lac galaxy spatial covariance function, B(gb), for the fields of five BL Lacertae objects. We present evidence for rich clusters around MS 1207+39 and MS 1407+59, and confirm high richness for the cluster containing H0414+009. We discuss the ease of 3C 66 A and find evidence for a poor cluster based on an uncertain redshift of z = 0.444. These data suggest that at least some BL Lac objects are consistent with being FR 1 radio galaxies in rich clusters.

  6. Relativistic Beaming and Orientation Effects in BL Lacertae Objects ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stickel, M., Padovani, P., Urry, C. M., Fried, H. 1991, Astrophys. J., 374, 431. Stocke, J. T., Liebert, J., Schmidt, G. et al. 1985, Astrophys. J., 298, 619. Stocke, J. T., Morris, S. L., Giola, I. M. et al. 1991, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 76, 813. Ubachukwu, A. A. 1998, Astrophys. Space Sci., 257, 23. Ubachukwu, A. A. 2002, Astrophys.

  7. Relativistic Beaming and Orientation Effects in BL Lacertae Objects ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects in our sample, we carried out a simple statistical investigation of a possi- ble dependence of D and R on redshift (z). Basically, our analyses involve a linear regression of the D−z and R−z data. The results reveal no significant D−z or R−z correlation (with correlation coefficient r ∼ 0.06 and 0.29 respectively). Although.

  8. Correlation in Radio Galaxies and BL Lacs JA Alhassan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    radio source orientation models in which the core luminosity is expected ... Key words. BL Lacertae objects: general-quasars—galaxies: Seyfert— ... orientation. For a radio source at redshift (z) and with a spectral flux density (Sν) at observing frequency (ν), the core-dominance parameter is given (e.g. Fan & Zhang 2003) by.

  9. Radio two-color diagram for QSOs, spiral galaxies, and BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacht, E.

    1976-01-01

    A radio ''color---color'' diagram is presented for 311 QSOs with known redshifts, 26 BL Lacertae-type objects, and 75 spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies and BL Lac objects are found to cluster in two different almost mutually exclusive regions of the radio two-color diagram. The QSOs display a greater dispersion in their spectra and the dispersion appears to increase with redshift. The mean spectral index i /of the QSOs indicates a flatter spectrum with increasing

  10. Wine industry market strategies. Case study: Lacerta Winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEACSU Nicoleta Andreea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine market in Romania is in constant development. More and more manufacturers appear on the market, and the competition is increasingly fierce. Although it has an area of the largest planted with vines, Romania is not distinguished among major exporters. Using EU funds made available, new manufacturers appear who developed the premium wine sector. Among the investments carried out in recent years in this sector is Lacerta Winery, an Austrian investment, which sold the first wine under the brand Lacerta in 2011.

  11. Some stock parameters of Elops lacerta during estuarine phase of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some stock parameters of Elops lacerta in Ogun State coastal estuary, Nigeria were carried out between February and July, 2014. Data were collected on length–weight distribution, sexes, stages of gonad development, food and feeding habits, growth parameters, length-weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor for 6 ...

  12. An active state of the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 detected by INTEGRAL in April 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pian, E.; Tuerler, M.; Fiocchi, M.; Boissay, R.; Bazzano, A.; Foschini, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Bianchin, V.; Castignani, G.; Ferrigno, C.; Raiteri, C.M.; Villata, M.; Beckmann, V.; D'Ammando, F.; Hudec, René; Malaguti, G.; Maraschi, L.; Pursimo, T.; Romano, P.; Soldi, S.; Stamerra, A.; Treves, A.; Ubertini, P.; Vercellone, S.; Walter, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 570, October (2014), A77/1-A77/9 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA(CZ) GA102/09/0997 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : log-parabolic spectra * xmm- newton observations * radiation mechanisms Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  13. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by Wavelet Method. Hao-Jing Zhang1,2,∗, Jing-Ming Bai1, Yu-Ying Bao3 & Xiong Zhang2. 1Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, ... broad-band spectral indices—periodic variation—methods: numerical: .... corrected for the galactic extinction and the host galaxy contribution has been sub-.

  14. Seven-Year Multi-Colour Optical Monitoring of BL Lacertae Object ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (JD 2,455,626). 3.2 Colour behaviours. The colour behaviours of S5 0716 +714 were investigated on both long and short timescales. Figure 3 gives overall colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the data before and after 2006 December. Although the data points are quite scattered, there are clear BWB trends on both panels.

  15. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We compile R-band data and radio 22 GHz database from the available literature to build the light curves and to calculate broad-band spectral indices. This paper ... Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming, Yunnan 650011, China.

  16. Seven-Year Multi-Colour Optical Monitoring of BL Lacertae Object ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mediate optical passbands from 2004 September to 2011 April. The object was active most of the ... used the intermediate-band e, i and m filters from 2004 to 2006, and then changed into c, i and o filters from ... N. Figure 1. Example frame taken with a 60/90-cm Schmidt telescope and filter i on 2011 April 12. (JD 2,455,664).

  17. Long-Term Optical Spectra Variability of BL Lacertae Object S5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meyers, S. D., Kelly, B. G., Brien, J. J. O. 1993, Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 2858. Nieppola, E., Tornikoski, M., Valtaoja, E. 2006, Astron. Astrophys., 445, 441. Raiteri, C. M., Villata, M., Tosti, G. et al. 2003, Astron. Astrophys., 402, 151. Rieke, G. H., Lebofsky, M. J. 1985, Astrophys. J., 288, 618. Schlegel, D. J., Finkbeiner, D. P., Davis ...

  18. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    object of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) which is well known by the pronounced variability at all wavelengths, from the radio to γ-ray band. It has been one of the targets of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) in two or more observation campaigns after 1999 (see e.g., Villata et al. 2002, 2004, 2009), and has also been.

  19. A case of partial melanism in Lacerta agilis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolinský, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2016), s. 110-112 ISSN 1013-4425 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Lacerta agilis * partial melanism * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2016

  20. Borrelia lusitaniae and green lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Derdáková, Marketa; Víchová, Bronislava; Pet'ko, Branislav

    2006-12-01

    In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%-94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae.

  1. A Serological Investigation of Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) (Sauria: Lacertidae) Populations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ARIKAN, Hüseyin; ATATÜR, Mehmet K.; ÇEVIK, I. Ethem

    1999-01-01

    A total of 58 (24 MM , 34 VV ) Lacerta viridis specimens, which were collected from Turkish Thrace and the Black Sea region of Anatolia, were evaluated serologically. The analyses support the view that a single race of L. viridis (L. v. meridionalis) inhabits Turkey.

  2. [Chemically induced ectropodia in the Lacerta viridis embryo and formation of styliform limbs in reptiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Clergue-Gazeau, M

    1984-01-01

    Administered into the eggs of Lacerta virifis on days 10 and 11 of incubation (at 25 degrees C), Cytosine-arabinofuranoside induces ectropodia in embryos, with a high frequency, which may reach 66%. The resulting styliform limbs display a general structure similar to that of the limbs of several species of serpentiform Reptilia.

  3. [Cutaneous lesions with papillomatous structure associated with viruses in the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1976-10-04

    Numerous papillomata affecting the skin of the dorsal part of the body occur in a population of Lacerta viridis reared in the laboratory. Electron microscopic study of three of these growths revealed the presence of viral particles belonging, from the morphological aspect, to the groups of the viruses of Herpes, Reo and Papova.

  4. New satellite DNA in Lacerta s. str. lizards (Sauria: Lacertidae): evolutionary pathways and phylogenetic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Doina; Grechko, Vernata V; Darevsky, Ilya S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2004-11-15

    A new tandemly repeated (satellite) DNA family namely Agi160, from Lacerta agilis and Lacerta strigata (Lacerta sensu stricto (s. str.), Linnaeus 1758) have been cloned and sequenced. Agi160 is found in the above two species, as well as two other representatives of the same genus, L. viridis and L. media. DNA hybridization did not reveal it in Darevskia, Podarcis, Zootoca, Eremias, Ophisops, and Gallotia - the other genera of the family Lacertidae. The results suggest that Agi160 is a Lacerta s. str. specific family of tandem DNA repeats. However, a comparison between sequences of Agi160 and CLsat repeat units revealed 60 bp regions 62-74% identical. The latter is a satellite DNA family typical for Darevskia (syn. "L. saxicola complex") (Grechko et al., Molecular-genetic classification and phylogenetic relatedness of some species of Lacertidae lizards by taxonoprint data. Mol Biol 32:172-183, 1988.). Both Agi160 and CLsat tandem repeats share several common features (e.g., the same AT content and distribution of multiple short A-T runs, internal structure of repeated units, the presence of conservative regions). These data are indicative of their common origin and a possibly strong selective pressure upon conserving both satellites. A comparative analysis of structure, organization, and abundance of these two families of satDNA reveals evolutionary pathways that led to their formation and divergence. The data are consistent with the hypotheses of the concerted evolution of satellite DNA families. The possibility of use of Agi160 as a phylogenetic tool, defining relationships within Lacerta s. str., as well as within the whole family of Lacertidae is discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Functional anatomy of the lungs of the green lizard, Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meban, C

    1978-02-01

    The gas-exchange area in the lung of Lacerta viridis has been studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The interior of the lung in this species is partitioned into air sacs by radially disposed septa. The surfaces of each septum are covered by a continuous epithelium, the cells of which are termed 'pneumonocytes'. Deep to the epithelium there is a close-meshed plexus of capillaries. The middle layer of the septum contains smooth muscle and fibrous tissue. Two varieties of pneumonocytes can be identified. The type I cells are squamous and give off attenuated sheets of cytoplasm which spread widely over the septal surface; these sheets contain few organelles. The type II cells are more compact and possess many organelles; their osmiophilic inclusion bodies are especially conspicuous. The pulmonary capillaries of Lacerta are evaginated into the air sacs and often display marked attenuation of their endothelium. The possible functional significance of these features is discussed.

  6. Towards the ecology and conservation of sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) populations in Southern England

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) is a rare, elusive and cryptic reptile species of conservation importance in the UK. Knowledge of its ecology and behaviour has limited the development of a reliable and effective methodology for population monitoring; this threatens to compromise conservation effort. The behaviour of sand lizards varies seasonally, with sex and with environmental conditions, none of which are fully understood. This aim of this thesis is to further our ecological knowledge of ...

  7. BL Lac Reunification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.

    1994-05-01

    X-ray-selected BL Lacs (XBLs) are generally thought to outnumber the more extreme radio-selected objects (RBLs), on the grounds that their properties could be understood if the X-ray jet were broader than the radio one. Here we present an alternative explanation: RBLs and XBLs may well be two aspects of the same population, whose main difference is the frequency of the high-energy cut-off in their energy distribution, with XBLs constituting the small subclass with cut-offs at X-ray (or higher) energies. Under this assumption, we are able to reproduce the X-ray number counts of XBLs starting from the radio counts of RBLs. We also calculate the distribution of radio fluxes of BL Lacs in current and future (deeper) X-ray surveys (e.g ROSAT), wherein we predict that a strong selection effect arising from radio constraints will lead to the preferential discovery of objects of the RBL kind. our hypothesis implies that there is a single family of BL Lacs and that, within this family, XBL-like objects are a small minority, contrary to the common belief that they represent the most numerous class.

  8. The Western Green Lizard Lacerta (viridis) bilineata Daudin, 1804 (Sauria: Lacertidae) in Slovenia and Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrtković, Nikola; Lazar, Bojan; Tome, Staša; Grbac, Irena

    1998-01-01

    Through a review of egg incubation times and the colour patterns of hatchlings of green lizards from the left side of the Soča (Isonzo) River, and the island of Cres, it has been found that they belong to a recently established species, Lacerta (viridis) bilineata Daudin 1802. It is from now on a member of the list of the herpetofauna of Slovenia and Croatia. At the same time L. viridis (Laurenti 1768) has been confirmed on the sand dunes around Đurđevac (Croatia). On the basis of the known d...

  9. Response of the regenerating telencephalon of Lacerta viridis to nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, P; Minelli, G

    1980-01-01

    To identify the nature of the dividing cells during the regenerative process of the telencephalon, the authors administered nerve growth factor (NGF) to Lacerta viridis with a wedge of telencephalon removed. Some known centers of cell proliferation were unresponsive to the treatment, whereas the ventral end of the telencephalic ventricle underwent an increase of up to 200% in proliferation rate. On the basis of this observation and data in the literature, the authors propose that the cell proliferation beginning in the medial area during the regeneration of the telencephalic ventricle is due to catecholaminergic neuroblasts still present in the adult.

  10. Spotted fever group rickettsiae detected in immature stages of ticks parasitizing on Iberian endemic lizard Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, M.; Papoušek, I.; Bělohlávek, T.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Široký, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2015), s. 711-714 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Spotted fever group rickettsiae * Rickettsia monacensis * Rickettsia helvetica * Ixodes ricinus * Lacerta schreiberi Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  11. Intestinal helminth communities in the green lizard, lacerta viridis, from bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biserkov; Kostadinova

    1998-09-01

    A data set comprising individual host/parasite lists from 100 Lacerta viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) belonging to four isolated populations in Bulgaria was studied. A total of seven helminth species was recovered (Leptophallus nigrovenosus, Plagiorchis molini, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Spauligodon extenuatus, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni, Physaloptera clausa and Mesocestoides sp.). Lacerta viridis is a new host record for the first five of these species. Communities of intestinal helminths of L. viridis consist of a few species which resulted in a low species richness, abundance and diversity of infracommunities, which exhibit substantial homogeneity among the four samples. A similar pattern of dominance of two nematode species leading to a relatively high community similarity at both infra- and component community levels was observed. While intestinal helminth communities in lizards from 'marginal' habitats were dominated by the host generalist, O. filiformis, those in hosts from 'typical' habitats were dominated by the lizard specialist S. extenuatus. The results indicate that the characteristics of the host's habitat are important in determining the composition rather than structure of intestinal helminth communities in L. viridis.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lacerta bilineata and comparison with its closely related congener L. Viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolora, Sree Rohit; Faria, Rui; Weigert, Anne; Schaffer, Stefan; Grimm, Annegret; Henle, Klaus; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Stadler, Peter F; Nowick, Katja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Schlegel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) using Illumina technology and additional Sanger sequencing. The assembled 17 086 bp mitogenome had a GC content of 40.32% and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region (CR), with a gene order identical to the chordate consensus. In addition, we re-sequenced the mitogenome of the closely related Eastern green lizard L. viridis using the same techniques as for L. bilineata. The mitogenomes of L. bilineata and L. viridis showed a sequence identity of 94.4% and 99.9%, respectively, relative to the previously published L. viridis mitogenome. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on 17 Lacertinae mitogenomes using Anolis carolinensis as the outgroup supported L. bilineata and its sister species L. viridis as distinct lineages.

  13. Lipophilic compounds from the femoral gland secretions of male Hungarian green lizards, Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, only a few studies have examined the role of specific chemical compounds as sexual signals. The secreted chemicals vary widely between species but whether this variation reflects phylogenetic or environmental differences remains unclear. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 40 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male green lizards (Lacerta viridis), including several steroids, alpha-tocopherol, and esters of n-C16 to n-C20 carboxylic acids, and minor components such as alcohols between C12 and C20, squalene, three lactones and one ketone. We compared these chemicals with those previously found in other closely related green lizard species, and discussed how phylogenetical differences and/or environmental conditions could be responsible for the differential presence of chemicals in different lizard species.

  14. Preliminary study of the regenerative processes of the dorsal cortex of the telencephalon of Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, G; del Grande, P; Mambelli, M C

    1977-01-01

    The authors removed from Lacerta viridis specimens part of the dorsal hippocampus of one telencephalic hemisphere. The animals were sacrificed 110 and 260 days after the operation; 24 hours before the operation on the encephalon, each was dosed with 6--3H thymidine. An examination of the historadiographic slides showed a clear remedial process in the operated area which, 260 days after has renewed in thickness but was still minus its characteristic cellular layer. The area of the telencephalon affected by the remedial process was examined by the authors and they have put forward the hypothesis that in relation to the type of operation performed, said area is localized prevalently in the dorsal hippocampus of the caudal half of the telencephalic hemispherg. The authors have also shown that the remedial procress, though attenuated is still in progress. 260 days after the operation.

  15. An hypothesis on the influence of the temperature on the telencephalic reparative processes in Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, G; Del Grande, P

    1980-01-01

    The authors removed a simple plug from the dorsal hippocampus, or from the dorsal hippocampus and part of the medial hippocampus in a telencephalic hemisphere in specimens of Lacerta viridis. The specimens were sacrificed some time after the operation after administration of 6-3 H thymidina. The examination of the emulsified slides showed that in these experimental condition no reparative process is observed, except for an impressive proliferation of cells and fibres which, from the meninx, bridges the cortical gap and, penetrating the telencephalic ventricle, attaches itself to the surrounding nerve tissue. The authors also described a limited cellular proliferation in the ependima of the telencephalic ventricles as a result of resection of the medial hippocampus; this observation is interpreted as a phenomenum connected to compensatory hypertrophy.

  16. Blood parasites in two co-existing species of lizards (Zootoca vivipara and Lacerta agilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Haklová, Božena; Hromada, Martin; Ekner, Anna; Antczak, Marcin; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the occurrence of blood parasites of two lizard species: the common or viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara) and the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) in western Poland. Selected traits of lizard body morphology were studied with respect to the presence and intensity of haematozoan infection in blood samples collected from 218 adult lizards; 88 of the common lizard and 130 of the sand lizard. Haemogregarinid blood parasites were found to be the common parasite of both lizard species in studied locality with prevalence 39.8 (95% CL, 29.5-50.8) for Z. vivipara and 22.3 (95% CL, 15.5-30.4) for L. agilis. Incidence of parasitemia did not differ between sexes and was not correlated with morphological traits or presence of ectoparasites--Ixodes ricinus ticks. However, a significant difference between the two species of lizards was a greater frequency of haemogregarinid parasitism in Z. vivipara.

  17. Lectin cytochemical localisation of glycoconjugates in the olfactory system of the lizards Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, V; Lazzari, M; Ciani, F

    2000-07-01

    To investigate the presence of defined carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface of the olfactory and vomeronasal receptor cells and the projections of the latter into the olfactory bulbs, a lectin binding study was performed on the olfactory system of the lizards: Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula. Both lizards showed a high lectin binding for N-acetyl-glucosamine in the sensory neurons. The lectin binding patterns in Lacerta indicated that the main olfactory system possessed a moderate density of N-acetyl-galactosamine residues and detectable levels of galactose ones. The vomeronasal system on the other hand contained a high density of N-acetyl-galactosamine moieties and a moderate density of glucosamine ones. In Podarcis the main olfactory system and vomeronasal organ contained respectively detectable and moderate levels of galactose residues. The expression of specific glycoconjugates may be associated with outgrowth, guidance and fasciculation of olfactory and vomeronasal axons.

  18. Ecology,ethology and variability of european green lizard Lacerta viridis in Natural reservation Tiché údolí

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The european green lizard, Lacerta viridis is a critically endangered reptile species which is in the region of Bohemia present only in relict isolated populations. These populations are closely linked to slopes with a southern exposition in deeply engorged river valleys. These valleys exhibit a unique climatic effect also known as the river phenomenon which allows numerous animal and plant species to survive far beyond their standard northern range. The chosen locality in Tiché údolí is a su...

  19. Den Blå Drage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    Denne publikation i serien Læselyst tjener tre formål. Den evaluerer læseprojektet Den blå drage i efteråret 2004 på Byskolen i Svendborg ? et projekt ledet af forfatteren Josefine Ottesen. Desuden gøres der rede for nogle af de teorier der støtter og begrunder arbejdsmåde og resultater i projektet...

  20. blé et seigle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    hétérochromatine (séquences d'ADN non codante et riches en bases CG) des génomes d'un triticale primaire et leurs géniteurs, blé tendre et seigle d'une part, d'autre part de localiser les régions organisateurs nucléolaires (N.O.R) , les ...

  1. UV-deprived coloration reduces success in mate acquisition in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Olsson

    Full Text Available Recent work on animal signals has revealed a wide occurrence of UV signals in tetrapods, in particular birds, but also in lizards (and perhaps other Squamate reptiles. Our previous work on the Swedish sand lizard (Lacerta agilis has verified, both in correlative selection analyses in the wild and with laboratory and field experiments, the importance of the green 'badge' on the body sides of adult males for securing mating opportunities, probably mostly through deterring rival males rather than attracting females. The role of UV in communication has, however, never been examined.Here we show that when measured immediately after spring skin shedding, there is also signaling in the UV. By UV-depriving the signal (reflectance with sun block chemicals fixated with permeable, harmless spray dressing, we show that males in the control group (spray dressing only had significantly higher success in mate acquisition than UV-deprived males.These results suggest that at least two colour traits in sand lizards, badge area and UV, contribute to rival deterrence and/or female choice on UV characters, which elevates success in mate acquisition in UV intact male sand lizards.

  2. The importance of habitat resistance for movement decisions in the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajitschek Susanne RK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement behaviour can be influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. Here, we investigate the speed of movement in relation to environmental and individual phenotypic properties in subadult common lizards (Lacerta vivipara. We aim to disentangle the importance of substrate, cover, humidity, basking opportunity and individual phenotype on moving tendencies in 12 treatment combinations, at which each lizard was tested. Results We find that movement behaviour depends on the starting conditions, the physical properties of the dispersal corridor, and on the individuals’ phenotype. Specifically, the presence of cover and substrate providing suitable traction in the corridor had positive effects on individual movement decisions. Additionally, we find high phenotypic variation in the propensity to move dependent on the presence of cover. Individual back patterns also strongly affected movement decisions in interaction with the physical properties of the dispersal corridor. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of understanding the habitat resistance for movement patterns, with humid habitats with covering vegetation providing the best conditions to initiate movement in the common lizard. In addition, population effects, differences in back pattern phenotype and individual plasticity were identified as key parameters influencing movement behaviour.

  3. Optical and UV spectroscopy of the peculiar RS CVn system RT Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemoerder, D. P.; Barden, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    H-alpha and H-beta spectra of the peculiar double-lined RS CVn binary RT Lacertae have been obtained using the IUE, together with a ground-based coude-feed telescope at KPNO. The ground-based spectra show an asymmetry related to the orbital phase in the H-alpha profile. H-beta profiles showed excess emission in one hemisphere and excess absorption in the other, with a broad Gaussian emission component superposed on the excess H-alpha line. A radial velocity curve was derived to estimate the mass ratio and geometry of the system. It is shown that the component of RT Lac fills 80-90 percent of the equilibrium Roche surface. Low-resolution ultraviolet data show that the supposed cooler component is bluer than its companion, suggesting evidence of a scattering shell or a cloud produced by the splash of a gas stream. The phase behavior of the low resolution ultraviolet data support the conclusion that RT Lac is a mass transfer system and that mass transfer is the primary cause of its activity.

  4. Responses of European green lizards Lacerta viridis following administration of Leishmania agamae promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G A; Molyneux, D H

    1984-12-01

    European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) were injected intraperitoneally, subcutaneously or orally with viable Leishmania agamae promastigotes. Neither promastigotes nor amastigotes were later found in blood and tissue impression smears, or in blood and selected organ cultures. However, by the use of an immunoperoxidase technique, parasite antigens were detected in the liver, stomach, small intestine, kidney, gonad, heart, lung and skin but not in the bone marrow, brain or spleen. Non-precipitating antibodies with beta 2-electrophoretic mobility were induced against L. agamae. They were detected in the sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 3-7 days post-infection. The titres increased significantly above background levels (P less than 0.001) and reached maxima after 6-7 weeks, with 27 out of 29 lizards producing antibodies. The mean serum protein concentration significantly increased after infection (P less than 0.005) with no significant differences in mean values between male and female animals. Lizard sera separated into 7 components on cellulose acetate membranes with migration rates comparable to albumin, alpha- and beta-globulins of human serum; gamma-globulins were absent. Significant decreases occurred (P less than 0.05) in the albumin fraction, with significant increases in the beta-globulin region of anti-L. agamae sera. C-reactive protein was not detected in either normal or immune lizard sera.

  5. The sensory component of the facial nerve of a reptile (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, V L

    1979-04-01

    The sensory fibers of the facial nerve in Lacerta viridis have been studied with a silver impregnation method to follow the course of axonal degeneration. Destruction of the geniculate ganglion demonstrated the degenerated sensory component of the facial nerve adjacent to the anterior vestibular root. Within the lateral vestibular area the facial sensory fibers consist of numerous rootlets separated by vestibular fibers and cells. These rootlets may join to form a main or paired sensory tract that passes through the vestibular nuclei to enter the tractus solitarius and divide into a small ascending prefacial component and a major descending prevagal division. A few fibers continue into the postvagal part of tractus solitarius and extend caudally to terminate in the nucleus commissura infima. Prefacial fibers terminate along the periventricular gray while prevagal fibers terminate within the tractus solitarius on the dendrites of cells of nucleus tractus solitarius and near the periphery of the dorsal motor nucleus of X. There was no noticeable degeneration in the descendens tractus trigemini. Terminal degeneration to descendens nucleus trigemini and motor nucleus of VII followed the tractus solitarius course. Most facial sensory fibers are probably related to taste and other visceral information.

  6. The mucosubstance coating the pneumonocytes in the lungs of Xenopus laevis and Lacerta viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meban, C

    1975-01-01

    The layer of mucosubstance that is associated with the free surface membranes of the pneumonocytes in the lungs of the toad Xenopus laevis and the lizard Lacerta viridis was demonstrated by electron microscopy using iron oxide stain. The form and staining reactions of the mucosubstance layer were similar in both animals. In electron micrographs the mucosubstance was represented by a band of densely stained material (25-50 nm thick) which coated the entire free surface of the pneumonocytes. It appeared to be firmly attached to the outer leaflet of the superficial plasma membrane. Short lengths of osmiophilic membranes, presumed to be fragments of pulmonary surfactant, were often observed lying free in the air spaces but they did not show any affinity for iron stain. Incubation of lung sections in a solution of neuraminidase produced a marked decrease in the intensity of the surface staining; no change was detected after incubation in trypsin, papain, hyaluronidase, N-acetyl cysteine, or phosphate buffer. It is, therefore, concluded that the pneumonocyte surface coat consists mainly of a sialomucin.

  7. Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-12-23

    Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male-male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male-male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success.

  8. The primary humoral immune response of European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to Leishmania agamae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G A; Molyneux, D H

    1983-01-01

    European green lizards, Lacerta viridis, produced relatively thermostable, dithiothreitol-sensitive, non-precipitating, agglutinins and complement-fixing antibodies (CFA) to Leishmania agamae administered subcutaneously (SC), intraperitoneally (IP) or orally (OR). Antibodies were also detected by the immobilization test (IMM) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most sensitive method for the detection of stimulated immunoglobulins was ELISA. Antibodies were detected as early as 3 days post-infection with ELISA and between 5 and 7 for CFA, direct agglutination (DA) and indirect haemagglutination (IHA). In the case of IMM, the times of first detection varied from 14 to 28 days. Maximum CFA (2(-8)), DA (2(-8)), IHA (2(-11)) and ELISA (2(-16)) titres were reached from 42 to 49 days with significantly higher values occurring in the OR and IP groups. With IMM, maxima occurred after 5 or 6 weeks. Following exposure, two- to five-fold significant increases in serum lysozyme levels were demonstrated but the concentrations in sera following SC, IP or OR routes of antigen administration were not significantly different when the groups were compared with each other. The highest lysozyme values (approximately 12.3 - 12.5 micrograms ml(-1)) were found in the SC and OR groups when compared to the IP (7.40 micrograms ml(-1)).

  9. Calcium provision to oviparous and viviparous embryos of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Ecay, Tom W; Heulin, Benoit

    2009-08-01

    Embryos of oviparous squamate reptiles typically obtain calcium from both yolk and eggshell but differ from other oviparous amniotes (turtles, birds and crocodilians) because they are heavily dependent on calcium-rich yolk. Eggs of viviparous squamates lack calcareous eggshells, and embryos receive calcium solely from yolk or from both yolk and placenta. The pattern of calcium mobilization by amniote embryos has been predicted to influence the evolution of viviparity if embryos are dependent on calcium from the eggshell and calcium placentotrophy evolves subsequent to viviparity. We studied the pattern of maternal provision and embryonic utilization of calcium of an oviparous and a viviparous population of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta vivipara to test the hypotheses: (1) oviparous embryos are not dependent on eggshell calcium and (2) calcium content of viviparous hatchlings does not differ from oviparous hatchlings. Our findings do not support either of these hypotheses because oviparous females oviposited eggs with heavily calcified shells and calcium-poor yolk, and embryonic mobilization of shell calcium was greater than for other oviparous squamates. The calcium content of yolk from viviparous females did not differ from oviparous yolk, but viviparous eggs lacked calcareous eggshells. Uterine secretion by viviparous females compensated for the low calcium content of yolk, and placental calcium transfer was among the highest recorded for squamates. The pattern of calcium provision in these two populations suggests that dependence on uterine calcium, either stored temporarily in an eggshell or transferred directly across a placenta, did not constrain the evolution of reproductive mode in this lineage.

  10. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the green lizards (Lacerta) in Greece: insights from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Poulakakis, Nikos; Lymberakis, Petros; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2014-07-01

    The green lizards of the genus Lacerta (Sauria, Lacertidae) comprise nine recognized species, which in Europe are mainly restricted to the southern peninsulas. Four of them (L. trilineata, L. viridis, L. bilineata and L. agilis) occur in Greece. The uncertainty of morphological diversification renders the taxonomic assignment into species and subspecies problematic. In this study sequence data derived from two mitochondrial (cytochrome b and 16S rRNA) genes and one nuclear (NKTR) gene were used to (a) evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Lacerta in Greece with emphasis on L. trilineata group and (b) investigate the evolutionary history of the genus through the application of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses, using Gallotia and Timon as outgroups. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of four major clades. The first clade corresponds to L. trilineata group, the second to L. media, the third to L. agilis and the fourth to a complex of L. viridis and L. bilineata. However, the produced phylogenetic relationships are not congruent with the current taxonomy, especially in the first clade in which L. trilineata appeared to be paraphyletic in regard to L. pamphylica. Six distinct lineages were inferred within L. trilineata, despite the current recognition of nine morphological subspecies, the genetic differentiation of which exceeds that of other Lacerta species, imposing a thorough taxonomic revision of the species. Our results suggested a rapid diversification of L. trilineata group during the late Miocene. We believe that the present distribution of the genus in Greece is the result of several dispersal and vicariant events that took place during the late Miocene and early Pliocene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiwavelength observations of the extreme X-ray-selected BL Lacertae object PG 1553+11 (1ES 1553+113)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osterman, M. Angela; Miller, H. Richard; Campbell, Amy M.; Marshall, Kevin; McFarland, John P.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; Fried, Robert E.; Kurtanidze, Omar M.; Nikolashvili, Maria G.; Tornikoski, Merja; Valtaoja, Esko

    PG 1553+11 was the target of a coordinated 3 week multiwavelength campaign during 2003 April and May. A significant X-ray flare was observed during the second half of this campaign. Although no optical flare was recorded during the X-ray campaign, optical observations obtained immediately prior to

  12. [Effects of ablation of the hindlimb on the organization of the ventral horn of the spinal cord in the lumbar region of green lizard embryos (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Clairambault, P

    1978-01-01

    After extirpation of an hind limb in embryos of Lacerta viridis, numerous motor neuroblasts degenerate on the operated side, in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the corresponding motor column is reduced or disappears. The lumbar spinal ganglia are affected and reduced on the operated side.

  13. [Ultrastructural characteristics of several constituants of limb buds in the embryos of the slowworm (Anguis fragilis L.) and the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-06-09

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells of the apical crest, of the mesoblast and of the ventral processes of somites, in the anlage of the anterior limb buds of embryos of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) are described at early stages of the development. Differences between the two species studied are brought to light.

  14. Sédentarité, déplacements et répartition des individus dans une population de Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) (Lacertilia, Lacertidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girons, Saint H.; Bradshaw, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    A mark-and-recapture study was undertaken in August 1983, May and September 1987, and May 1988 of a small discrete population of Lacerta viridis occupying an area of 260 x 11—25 m, along the length of a canal in western France. A total of 21 recaptures, over periods of time varying from four months

  15. Reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovičová, Martina; Černíková, Alena

    2015-06-01

    The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach-attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  17. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Horváth

    Full Text Available Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality or across multiple (behavioural syndrome behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis. We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome, (ii behavioural type (individual mean behaviour and (iii behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation. Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age. Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  18. Der Blütenstand und die Blüte von Korthalsella Dacrydii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekel, J.C.

    1935-01-01

    § 1. Das Ziel der Untersuchung war den Bau des Blütenstandes und der Blüten von Arceuthobium Dacrydii RIDLEY zu ermitteln und festzustellen, ob diese Pflanze wirklich ein Arceuthobium ist oder, wie eine oberflächliche Untersuchung des Blütenstandes es vermuten liess, eine Korthalsella; und falls

  19. Optical Spectra Evolution of BL Lac Objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Many quasi-simultaneous optical observations of nine BL Lac objects are obtained from literature. We study the relationship between the optical spectral index and the luminosity of BL Lac objects, and are tempted to exploit spectral evolution in the optical frequency ranges. Our results show that:.

  20. Long-term behaviour of starspots. III - Active longitudes on the long-period RS CVn star HK Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, K.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen years of photometry were used to study active longitudes on the surface of HK Lacertae. The decaying and forming phenomena of active areas in the years of 1980-1981, 1983-1984, and 1988-1989 are shown. New activity centers suddenly occur near the same orbital phase (0.6) and have lifetimes of several (greater than 6) years. The average rotational period of HK Lac is 24.2852 d; compared to the orbital period of 24.4284 d, this implies a 32 degree/year drift of the active areas on the stellar surface. Two possible interpretations for the period difference are discussed: pseudosynchronism and rigidity of magnetic patterns. The active longitudes on HK Lac are compared with similar phenomena found on the sun.

  1. A case of massive infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata by castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758):

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero, Miguel A.; Gomes, Veronika; Žagar, Anamarija

    2013-01-01

    Infestation by ticks affects several vertebrate groups, including reptiles. Castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread tick species. Here we report an impressive tick infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata found in 2012 in the vicinity of Bilpa cave in the Kolpa valley, Slovenia. Lizards as tick hosts can play an important role in the life cycle of I. ricinus and may also be potential vectors of Lyme disease. Zaprarazitiranost s klopi je pogost pojav pri v...

  2. [Electron microscopic study of the penetration and distribution of somitic cells in the mesoblast of the limb buds of reptiles (Anguis fragilis and Lacerta viridis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-09-29

    Based on characteristics of mitochondria and on the amount of lipid inclusions, a distinction between somitic cells and mesoblastic somatopleural cells is possible, at the early stages of the development of the limb bud in Reptiles (Anguis fragilis and Lacerta viridis). The dislocation of the ventral processes of the somites and the localisation of the somitic cells in the mesoblast of the anterior limb buds could be studied.

  3. Autekologie lokální populace ještěrky zelené (\\kur{Lacerta viridis}) v Českém krasu.

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽEK, David

    2013-01-01

    European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) is critically endangered species. Bohemian populations are usually isolated and with lower degree of genetical variability, which gives them a higher degree of vulnerability. Isolated populations are interesting because animals often live there under ultimate possible life conditions for given species, usually in original environment. For the sake of an effective protection of the species morfological, ethological and ecological data are necessary, as w...

  4. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil

    2003-01-01

    mod den posterolaterale del af kraniebasis. I det typiske tilfælde falder offeret øjeblikkeligt bevidstløs sammen, og døden indtræder efter få minutter. Blødningen udgår enten fra arteria vertebralis på halsen eller fra de intrakraniale basale hjernearterier. I en del tilfælde kan blødningskilden ikke...

  5. Varieties Generated by Standard BL-algebras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2014), s. 15-33 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : substructural logic * fuzzy logic * BL * standard BL-algebra * variety of algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2014

  6. BL-2a and BL-4a: certified uranium reference ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.; Zechanowitsch, G.; Sutarno, R.

    1982-05-01

    Samples of two uranium ores BL-2a and BL-4a from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan, were prepared as compositional reference materials to replace the similar certified ores, BL-2 and BL-4, of which the stock had been exhausted. Each ore was ground to minus 74 μm, blended in one lot and bottled in 200-g units. The homogeneity of the ores with respect to uranium was confirmed by both a neutron activation and a fluorimetric analytical procedure performed by two commercial laboratories. The recommended value for uranium is based on the results of one determination on each of 25 bottles by the volumetric-umpire method performed at CANMET. A statistical analysis of the data gave a recommended value for uranium of 0.426% for BL-2a and 0.1248% for BL-4a

  7. [Effects of cytosine-arabinofuranoside on the development of reptilian embryos (Lacerta viridis, Laur. and Anguis fragilis, L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A

    1982-01-01

    Administered into the yolk sac of eggs of Lacerta viridis as a single dose of 17 to 40 micrograms, cytosine-arabinoside (Ara-C) was compatible with survival of the embryo, from the sixth day of incubation, for at least 20 to 25 days. The LD50 was 40 to 50 micrograms per egg. Doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C introduced in the yolk sac of eggs of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) cultured in vitro, at stages of the allantoid bud of 0,5 mm to 2,5 mm long, killed the embryo in 4 to 8 days (possibly due to alterations of capillary blood vessels of allantois and area vasculosa). In the two species, these doses caused cytotoxic effects on embryonic proliferating tissues, growth inhibition and a variety of developmental defects. In young embryos of Anguis fragilis, similar doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C caused, in 2 to 4 days, death of many cells in the anlagen of growing organs: neural tube, sensory organs, bronchi, mesoderm of the limb bud, subcutaneous mesenchyme, anlage of dorsal skeletal structures, etc.; followed by growth inhibition and malformations. On the other hand, in the limb bud, the apical ridge was less retrogressed than in control embryos; the limb buds showed slightly better development in treated embryos than in controls, but, Ara-C induced severe damage in their mesoderm. In all embryos of Lacerta viridis, treated at the stage of 6 days or of 10 days of incubation by doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C and killed 15 to 35 days later, there was a general reduction of size and of weight and external and internal malformations, more or less severe, were present: modifications of the form of the head, shortening of the lower jaw, labial clefts, microphthalmia, micromelia and other limbs defects, developmental defects of the tail. In some embryos, the only external defects observed were missing fingers and toes; in three of these embryos, the same digits were missing in the four limbs. Modifications of limb morphogenesis induced by Ara-C are

  8. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxygen consumption in the lizard genus Lacerta in relation to diel variation, maximum activity and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, P A

    1978-12-01

    1. Diel recordings of VO2 under a 12 h Light/12 h Dark regime, constant light or constant dark reveal a strong endogenous diurnal rhythm in L. sicula. L. vivipara show an exogeneous rhythm with activity occurring only in the light whilst L. viridis have a weak endogeneous rhythm that is modified by behavioural factors and inhibited by dark. 2. Standard (or basal) VO2 can only be attained after several hours in an 'indifferent' environment, shielded from extraneous stimuli. Measurements must be at night (light or dark) for unrestrained L. sicula and in the dark (day or night, restrained or unrestrained) for L. vivipara and L. viridis. Intrageneric std VO2 (ml h-1 STPD) = 0.328 W0.76 or 0.216 W0.77 for 1- or 3-days starvation at 30 degrees C for 0.2 to 34 g Lacerta. 3. Intrageneric maximum VO2 (determined for 30 to 60 s of provoked activity during the day) = 2.66 W0.747 at 30 degrees C for 1-days starvation. 4. Respiratory exchange ratio, R = 0.75 or 0.85 for std VO2 after 1 or 3 days starvation and 0.95 and 1.45 for mean daily and max VO2. High R values are considered a result of anaerobic metabolism and hyperventilation during activity.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the green lizard Lacerta viridis viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) and its phylogenetic position within squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, M U; Fritzsch, G; Tippmann, A; Schlegel, M; Berendonk, T U

    2007-06-01

    For the first time the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for a member of Lacertidae. Lacerta viridis viridis was sequenced in order to compare the phylogenetic relationships of this family to other reptilian lineages. Using the long-polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) we characterized a mitochondrial genome, 17,156 bp long showing a typical vertebrate pattern with 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and one major noncoding region. The noncoding region of L. v. viridis was characterized by a conspicuous 35 bp tandem repeat at its 5' terminus. A phylogenetic study including all currently available squamate mitochondrial sequences demonstrates the position of Lacertidae within a monophyletic squamate group. We obtained a narrow relationship of Lacertidae to Scincidae, Iguanidae, Varanidae, Anguidae, and Cordylidae. Although, the internal relationships within this group yielded only a weak resolution and low bootstrap support, the revealed relationships were more congruent with morphological studies than with recent molecular analyses.

  11. Typification of the genus Macropsidium Bl. (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    In revising Myrtaceae Blume correctly concluded in 1849 that Psidium rubrum Lour, from Indo-China could not belong to that neotropical genus. He erected a new genus Macropsidium Bl., to accommodate it, adding at the same time the description of a second new species from the Moluccas. It is desirable

  12. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im⁡(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  13. [Cytophotometric studies on the levels of proteins and RNA in the nuclei of the apical crest ane the epiblast of the limb bud of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.) and the blindworm (Anguis fragilis L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Jeanny, J C; Gontcharoff, M

    1975-06-16

    Cytophotometric determinations establish that in the limb buds of young embryos of the slow worm (Anguis fragilis L.) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.) the level of nuclear proteins and RNA is higher in the cells of the apical crest than in the cells of the epiblast on either side of the crest. This relative increase is progressively y reduced.

  14. Phylogeography and demographic history of Lacerta lepida in the Iberian Peninsula: multiple refugia, range expansions and secondary contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt Godfrey M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iberian Peninsula is recognized as an important refugial area for species survival and diversification during the climatic cycles of the Quaternary. Recent phylogeographic studies have revealed Iberia as a complex of multiple refugia. However, most of these studies have focused either on species with narrow distributions within the region or species groups that, although widely distributed, generally have a genetic structure that relates to pre-Quaternary cladogenetic events. In this study we undertake a detailed phylogeographic analysis of the lizard species, Lacerta lepida, whose distribution encompasses the entire Iberian Peninsula. We attempt to identify refugial areas, recolonization routes, zones of secondary contact and date demographic events within this species. Results Results support the existence of 6 evolutionary lineages (phylogroups with a strong association between genetic variation and geography, suggesting a history of allopatric divergence in different refugia. Diversification within phylogroups is concordant with the onset of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. The southern regions of several phylogroups show a high incidence of ancestral alleles in contrast with high incidence of recently derived alleles in northern regions. All phylogroups show signs of recent demographic and spatial expansions. We have further identified several zones of secondary contact, with divergent mitochondrial haplotypes occurring in narrow zones of sympatry. Conclusions The concordant patterns of spatial and demographic expansions detected within phylogroups, together with the high incidence of ancestral haplotypes in southern regions of several phylogroups, suggests a pattern of contraction of populations into southern refugia during adverse climatic conditions from which subsequent northern expansions occurred. This study supports the emergent pattern of multiple refugia within Iberia but adds to it by identifying a

  15. [Demonstration, by means of electron microscopy, of the penetration of somitic cells into the mesoblast of the limb buds of reptile embryos (Anguis fragilis, Lacerta viridis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscopic study of the components of anterior limb buds of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) (embryos of Anguis whose allantoic bud reach 0,7 to 4 mm of length; embryos of Lacerta 2 to 7 days old) provides data on the cytological characteristics of the components of the limb bud at these early stages. 1. The cells of the distal extremity of the somitic processes extending in the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta, are elongated cells with ovoid nuclei containing large nucleolus; they possess mitochondria always thin and with dense matrix; they are rich in lipid droplets; they possess cilia; they are devoid of myofilaments; endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes and polyribosomes are abundant. Golgi networks display signs of activity. These characteristics are also observed in the cells of the "dermatome" layer of the dermo-myotome; and so, it appears probable that the cells of the "dermatome". Furthermore, in Anguis embryos, the cells of the distal extremities of the somitic processes possess numerous lysosomes and a certain number of cells among them, degenerate early. 2. The somatopleural mesoblastic cells of the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta embryos keep the characters of the cells of the mesodermic layer of lateral plate from which they originate; they have rounded nuclei, cilia, and their mitochondria are always larger and more transparent to electrons, than the ones of cells of the somitic processes and of cells of the epiblastic apical crest. Golgi networks are well developped, endoplasmic reticulum is abundant, lipid droplets are rare. 3. The processes of somites which extend in the dorsal part of the limb bud of Anguis embryos are cords of cells with thin lumina; at the stage of the allantoic bud of 0,6 to 0,8 mm long, the distal extremity of these processes dislocate in group of cells which afterwards dissociate, releasing individual somitic cells which are integrated among the mesoblastic somatopleural

  16. The gBL transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-05-01

    The transport equations arising from the ''generalized Balescu- Lenard'' (gBL) collision operator are obtained, and some of their properties examined. The equations contain neoclassical and turbulent transport as two special cases, having the same structure. The resultant theory offers potential explanation for a number of results not well understood, including the anomalous pinch, observed ratios of Q/ΓT on TFTR, and numerical reproduction of ASDEX profiles by a model for turbulent transport invoked without derivation, but by analogy to neoclassical theory. The general equations are specialized to consideration of a number of particular transport mechanisms of interest. 10 refs

  17. Sterile neutrinos and B-L symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Murgui, Clara

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the relation between the neutrino masses and the spontaneous breaking of the B-L gauge symmetry. We discuss the main scenarios for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and point out two simple mechanisms for neutrino masses. In this context the neutrino masses can be generated either at tree level or at quantum level and one predicts the existence of very light sterile neutrinos with masses below the eV scale. The predictions for lepton number violating processes such as μ → e and μ → eγ are discussed in detail. The impact from the cosmological constraints on the effective number of relativistic degree of freedom is investigated.

  18. Bump masses for BL Her stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    The masses of classical Cepheids can be determined by using the phase of the Hertzsprung bump on the light or velocity curve, Cox-Stewart opacities, and nonlinear pulsation theory. The fact that these bump masses are some 60% lower than the evolutionary masses raises some questions about this approach. In support of our method, we calculate the light curve for BL Her, a population II Cepheid, with an observed bump on the declining portion of its light curve. The nonlinear hydrodynamic model we use (Davis and Davison - 1978) resolves the light curve by dynamic zoning and allows us the opportunity to make a direct comparison of the calculated light curve to the observations, using a prescribed mass, luminosity and effective temperature. The parameters for BL Her are from a linear model (Hodson, Cox, and King - 1982) that has nearly the correct period (1./sup d/2) and the correct period ratio from resonance theory (π 2 /π 0 = 0.53) for a bump to appear on the declining portion of the light curve as observed. These parameters are: M = 0.55 M, L = 95.0 L, and T/sub eff/ = 6500 K. This mass is near the evolutionary mass as described by Schwartzschild and Haerm (1970). The model results agree well with the observations and the color-T/sub eff/ relation has the same slope as that observed for RR Lyrae stars by the Oke, Giver and Searle (1965) relationship

  19. Spatial distribution-patterns on the Northern Dobrogean mainland ( of the species belonging to ”green lizards” group of the Lacerta genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Zsolt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of field investigations carried out in 1994 – 2008 period, the author established the general distributional patterns in the northern part of the Dobrogean mainland of three lizard species. The Sand Lizards (Lacerta agilis populates habitats with linear shape, the species being present along river valleys and some roads. The Balkan Green Lizards (L. trilineata and the Green Lizards (L. viridis were recorded mostly nearby or inside the forests (or plantations. In case of L. trilineata and L. viridis there is quite obvious the spatial segregation: in areas where the two species were present, the Balkan Green Lizard (L. trilineata occurs mostly at lower altitudes, meanwhile the Green Lizard (L. viridis was more frequently present at higher altitudes.

  20. Blåt friluftsliv i Nationalpark Skjoldungernes Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Kaae, Berit Charlotte; Draux, Hélène

    Formålet med nærværende rapport er at dokumentere og redegøre for karakteren og udbredelsen af blåt friluftsliv i Nationalpark Skjoldungernes Land som input til den kommende nationalparkplan. Blåt friluftsliv skal i denne forbindelse forstås som vandorienterede friluftsliv, dvs. rekreative...

  1. 76 FR 21946 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 990-BL; Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Form 6069

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Initial Excise Tax Return for Black Lung Benefit Trusts and Certain Related Persons, and Form 6069, Return of Excise Tax on Excess Contributions to Black Lung Benefit Trust Under Section 4953 and Computation...: Form 990-BL, Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Information and Initial Excise Tax Return for Black Lung Benefit...

  2. Consistent chromosome abnormalities in LS/BL murine lymphosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraskova, V.

    1987-01-01

    LS/BL lymphosarcoma was induced by radiation in a C57BL/10 mouse in 1963 and was converted to ascites form in the first mouse transfer generation. In the course of cultivation in vivo the modal number of chromosomes dropped from the initial value 42 to 41 to 39 (73%). The cytogenetic characterization of the LS/BL tumor was carried out using the G-banding technique. Chromosome abnormalities were consistent in the cell line and involved chromosomes Nos. 3, 6, 12, 13, 16 and X. The most frequent abnormality was the presence of three markers and trisomy of chromosome No. 16. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  3. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-01-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing

  4. Radium-226 in certified uranium reference ores DL-1a, BL-4a, DH-1a and BL-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.

    1983-05-01

    Radium-226 radioactivity in uranium reference ores BL-4a and BL-5 and uranium-thorium reference ores DL-1a and DH-1a was determined in an interlaboratory program. Twelve of thirteen participants used certified radium solutions from the United States National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for calibration purposes. Recommended values of sup(226)Ra activity and associated parameters were calculated by statistical treatment of the results. In all cases, the recommended values are within 2 percent of activities predicted assuming secular equilibrium in the sup(238)U decay series. The recommended values for radium activity are 1.40, 15.5, 31.5 and 857 Bq/ for DL-1a, BL-4a, DH-1a and BL-5, respectively

  5. Identification of the linkage group of the Z sex chromosomes of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis, Lacertidae) and elucidation of karyotype evolution in lacertid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Olsson, Mats; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-12-01

    The sand lizard (Lacerta agilis, Lacertidae) has a chromosome number of 2n = 38, with 17 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes, one pair of microchromosomes, a large acrocentric Z chromosome, and a micro-W chromosome. To investigate the process of karyotype evolution in L. agilis, we performed chromosome banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization for gene mapping and constructed a cytogenetic map with 86 functional genes. Chromosome banding revealed that the Z chromosome is the fifth largest chromosome. The cytogenetic map revealed homology of the L. agilis Z chromosome with chicken chromosomes 6 and 9. Comparison of the L. agilis cytogenetic map with those of four Toxicofera species with many microchromosomes (Elaphe quadrivirgata, Varanus salvator macromaculatus, Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata, and Anolis carolinensis) showed highly conserved linkage homology of L. agilis chromosomes (LAG) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5(Z), 7, 8, 9, and 10 with macrochromosomes and/or macrochromosome segments of the four Toxicofera species. Most of the genes located on the microchromosomes of Toxicofera were localized to LAG6, small acrocentric chromosomes (LAG11-18), and a microchromosome (LAG19) in L. agilis. These results suggest that the L. agilis karyotype resulted from frequent fusions of microchromosomes, which occurred in the ancestral karyotype of Toxicofera and led to the disappearance of microchromosomes and the appearance of many small macrochromosomes.

  6. Temporal distributions, habitat associations and behaviour of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata and wall lizard (Podarcis muralis on roads in a fragmented landscape in Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Meek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata and wall lizard (Podarcis muralis on roads in Western France indicated that basking close to the road edge was the predominant activity in L. bilineata but P. muralis mostly foraged. Spatial locations of road mortalities in both species reflected this with the median distances from the road edge greater in P. muralis. Temporal differences in road presence, based on mortality counts and those of live lizards, indicated significantly more lizards were present on roads during late summer and autumn, especially in P. muralis. A significant correlation was found between the monthly presence of live lizards and monthly road mortalities in P. muralis (r = 0.73 but not in L. bilineata (r = 0.64.  Numbers of L. bilineata found on roads bisecting low-density urban areas and roads bordered by hedgerows were higher than expected in relation to the occurrence of these habitats at roadsides. In P. muralis higher than expected numbers were found alongside low-density urban areas and roads bisecting woodland. Generally both species were less commonly seen on roads alongside agricultural areas with no hedgerow border.

  7. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3π PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r P1 - and i P1 -band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M V ∼ –12) located at projected distances of 20.°3 and 10.°5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756 +44 -28 kpc and 772 +61 -56 kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 ± 7 kpc and 144 +6 -4 kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r h = 4.2 +0.4 -0.5 arcmin or 912 +124 -93 pc for Lac I; r h = 6.5 +1.2 -1.0 arcmin or 1456 ± 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness (μ 0 ∼ 26.0 mag arcsec –2 ), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3π Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  8. The B-L scotogenic models for Dirac neutrino masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijian; Wang, Ruihong; Han, Zhi-Long; Han, Jin-Zhong

    2017-12-01

    We construct the one-loop and two-loop scotogenic models for Dirac neutrino mass generation in the context of U(1)_{B-L} extensions of standard model. It is indicated that the total number of intermediate fermion singlets is uniquely fixed by the anomaly free condition and the new particles may have exotic B-L charges so that the direct SM Yukawa mass term \\bar{ν }_Lν _R\\overline{φ ^0} and the Majorana mass term (m_N/2)\\overline{ν _R^C}ν _R are naturally forbidden. After the spontaneous breaking of the U(1)_{B-L} symmetry, the discrete Z2 or Z3 symmetry appears as the residual symmetry and gives rise to the stability of intermediate fields as DM candidates. Phenomenological aspects of lepton flavor violation, DM, leptogenesis and LHC signatures are discussed.

  9. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3{pi} PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Finkbeiner, Douglas P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Price, Paul A., E-mail: nicolas.martin@astro.unistra.fr [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r{sub P1}- and i{sub P1}-band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M{sub V} {approx} -12) located at projected distances of 20. Degree-Sign 3 and 10. Degree-Sign 5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756{sup +44}{sub -28} kpc and 772{sup +61}{sub -56} kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 {+-} 7 kpc and 144{sup +6}{sub -4} kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r{sub h} = 4.2{sup +0.4}{sub -0.5} arcmin or 912{sup +124}{sub -93} pc for Lac I; r{sub h} = 6.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} arcmin or 1456 {+-} 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness ({mu}{sub 0} {approx} 26.0 mag arcsec{sup -2}), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3{pi} Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  10. Period of Light Variability in BL Lac ON 231

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the authors have compiled the data of about 100 years in B-band of the BL Lac ON 231 and used this database to analyze periodicity signals in the optical light curve. Two different methods were applied: the wavelet analysis and the Discrete Correlation Function (DCF) method. We revealed ...

  11. RADIO-WEAK BL LAC OBJECTS IN THE FERMI ERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Marchesini, E. J. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino (UniTO), via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); D’Abrusco, R.; Smith, Howard A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, 02138 Cambridge, MA (United States); Masetti, N. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Andruchow, I. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-01-10

    The existence of “radio-weak BL Lac objects” (RWBLs) has been an open question, and has remained unsolved since the discovery that quasars could be radio-quiet or radio-loud. Recently, several groups identified RWBL candidates, mostly found while searching for low-energy counterparts of the unidentified or unassociated gamma-ray sources listed in the Fermi catalogs. Confirming RWBLs is a challenging task since they could be confused with white dwarfs (WDs) or weak emission line quasars (WELQs) when there are not sufficient data to precisely draw their broadband spectral energy distribution, and their classification is mainly based on a featureless optical spectra. Motivated by the recent discovery that Fermi BL Lacs appear to have very peculiar mid-IR emission, we show that it is possible to distinguish between WDs, WELQs, and BL Lacs using the [3.4]–[4.6]–[12] μ m color–color plot built using the WISE magnitudes when the optical spectrum is available. On the basis of this analysis, we identify WISE J064459.38+603131 and WISE J141046.00+740511.2 as the first two genuine RWBLs, both potentially associated with Fermi sources. Finally, to strengthen our identification of these objects as true RWBLs, we present multifrequency observations for these two candidates to show that their spectral behavior is indeed consistent with that of the BL Lac population.

  12. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schmitz, K. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI)

    2013-05-15

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying {Omega}{sub GW}h{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -13}-10{sup -8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  13. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain BL23.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maze, A.; Boel, G.; Zuniga, M.; Bourand, A.; Loux, V.; Yebra, M.J.; Monedero, V.; Correia, K.; Jacques, N.; Beaufils, S.; Poncet, S.; Joyet, P.; Milohanic, E.; Casaregola, S.; Auffray, Y.; Perez-Martinez, G.; Gibrat, J.F.; Zagorec, M.; Francke, C.; Hartke, A.; Deutscher, J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar.

  14. Asymmetric Gepner models III. B-L lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-06-21

    In the same spirit as heterotic weight lifting, B-L lifting is a way of replacing the superfluous and ubiquitous U(1){sub B-L} with something else with the same modular properties, but different conformal weights and ground state dimensions. This method works in principle for all variants of (2,2) constructions, such as orbifolds, Calabi-Yau manifolds, free bosons and fermions and Gepner models, since it only modifies the universal SO(10)xE{sub 8} part of the CFT. However, it can only yield chiral spectra if the 'internal' sector of the theory provides a simple current of order 5. Here we apply this new method to Gepner models. Including exceptional invariants, 86 of them have the required order 5 simple current, and 69 of these yield chiral spectra. Three family spectra occur abundantly.

  15. Hydrogeologic Characterization of the U-3bl Collapse Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Geotechnical Services

    2006-01-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing. Borehole U-3bl-D2 is a 45-degree-angle hole drilled from the edge of the crater under the waste cell to intercept the U-3bl collapse zone, the disturbed alluvium between the crater (surface collapse sink) and the nuclear test cavity. A casing-advance system with an air percussion hammer was used to drill the borehole, and air was used as the drilling fluid. Properties of the U-3bl crater collapse zone were determined from cores collected within the interval, 42.1 to 96.6 meters (138 to 317 feet) below the ground surface. Selected core samples were analyzed for particle density, particle size, bulk density, water retention, hydraulic conductivity, water content, water potential, chloride, carbonate, stable isotopes, and tritium. Physical and hydraulic properties were typical of alluvial valley sediments at the NTS. No visual evidence of preferential pathways for water transport was observed in the core samples. Soil parameters showed no trends with depth. Volumetric water content values ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 cubic meters per cubic meter, and tended to increase with depth. Water-retention relations were typical for soils of similar texture. Water potentials ranged from -1.9 MegaPascals at a depth of 42

  16. On the independence of axioms in BL and MTL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvalovský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 197, 16 June (2012), s. 123-129 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018; GA ČR GD401/09/H007 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 73109/2009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : non-classical logics * basic fuzzy logic (BL) * monoidal t-norm based logic (MTL) * Hilbert-style calculi * independence of axioms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2012

  17. Opening of material analysis beamline (BL-5) at NewSUBARU for industrial enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takayuki; Uemura, Masaharu; Tsurui, Takafumi; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Amemiya, Kenta; Fukushima, Sei; Ohta, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Muneyuki; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A material analysis beamline for the industrial enterprises' use was completed at BL-5 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility in University of Hyogo in March 2008. BL-5 consists of two branch lines, one is a double crystal monochromator beamline (BL-5A) for the use in the higher-energy region (1300-4000 eV) and the other is a varied line spacing plane grating (VLSPG) monochromator beamline (BL-5B) for the use in the lower-energy region (50-1300 eV). These two branch lines can be operated simultaneously. BL-5 covers the soft X-ray region from 50 to 4000 eV and X-ray absorption spectrum can be measured with a high-energy resolution. The XAFS measurements in the total electron yield (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) can be performed at BL-5A and BL-5B. In addition, the XPS spectra can be measured at BL-5B. BL-5 will be managed and maintained by the Synchrotron Analysis L.L.C. (SALLC), which is composed of the industrial companies, in cooperation with the staffs of the Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry in University of Hyogo. Industrial users can be assisted by staffs of SALLC in the measurement at BL-5. (author)

  18. 1 SEXUALITY AND SUBJECTIVITY IN CHIKA UNIGWE'S O BL CK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    SEXUALITY AND SUBJECTIVITY IN CHIKA. UNIGWE'S. O BL CK SISTERS' STREET. Uchechukwu Peter Umezurike. Department of English. University of Port Harcourt Nigeria. Abstract. СО ЩЫОЯКХОЧМО ШП ЭСО ПОЦКХО ЯШТМО ТЧ ЭСТЬ КРО ШП РХШЛКХТЬКЭТШЧ ЬТРЧТПТОЬ К. ЧОа НТЫОМЭТШЧ ТЧ ...

  19. Optical Spectra Evolution of BL Lac Objects XW Bi1,∗ , BZ Wang2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Many quasi-simultaneous optical observations of nine BL. Lac objects are obtained from literature. We study the relationship between the optical spectral index and the luminosity of BL Lac objects, and are tempted to exploit spectral evolution in the optical frequency ranges. Our results show that: (i) The optical ...

  20. Mild impairment of motor nerve repair in mice lacking PTP-BL tyrosine phosphatase activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, D.G.; Peters, W.J.M; Schaafsma, I.; Sutmuller, R.P.M.; Oerlemans, F.T.J.J.; Adema, G.J.; Wieringa, B.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Mouse PTP-BL is a large, nontransmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase of unclear physiological function that consists of a KIND domain, a FERM domain, five PDZ domains, and a COOH-terminal catalytic PTP domain. PTP-BL and its human ortholog PTP-BAS have been proposed to play a role in the

  1. Blæksprutter beskyttes på niveau med hvirveldyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2015-01-01

    beskyttede. Et af de bedst studerede hvirvelløse dyr er blæksprutten, navnlig Octopus vulgaris. Vores viden om nerveimpulsen udbredelse stammer netop fra blæksprutter, da de har meget store nerveceller, der let lader sig undersøge. De to forskere fik faktisk Nobelprisen i 1963 for opdagelsen. Siden da har...

  2. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Meinsma, Rutger J.; Bosma, Peter; Kemp, Stephan; Caron, Huib N.; Kuilenburg, Andre B.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype

  3. Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, T., E-mail: nonaka@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Dohmae, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagai, Y.; Hirose, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Nagakute Aichi 480-1192 Japan (Japan); Araki, T. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE UK (United Kingdom); Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H. [RIKEN Harima Institute 1-1-1 Koto Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Yumoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S. [JASRI/SPring-8 1-1-1 Koto Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8 is an undulator beamline developed to assist in the study of various automotive-related materials. The light source is a tapered in-vacuum undulator that provides a variable energy band width as well as a high brilliance X-ray beam. Two different optical arrangements are available: Optics 1 and Optics 2. Optics 1 is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), and consists of two channel-cut crystal monochromators and four water-cooled flat Si mirrors. The Si(111) and Si(220) monochromator crystals cover an energy range of 4.0–46.0 keV and are driven by high-speed AC servo motors. These monochromators, in conjunction with the tapered undulator, enable high-quality XAFS data acquisition with a temporal resolution of 10 ms. Optics 2 is optimized for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging and includes a recently installed double crystal monochromator, two water-cooled flat Si mirrors and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing mirrors. The monochromator incorporates parallel mounted Si(111) and Si(311) crystals and covers an energy range of 4.5–70 keV. The beamline provides two experimental stations: Exp. Hutch 2 and Exp. Hutch 3. The gas supply system and mass spectrometers installed in Exp. Hutch 2 allow in-operando measurements under various atmospheres. The scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (scanning 3DXRD) microscopy instrumentation developed and installed in Exp. Hutch 3 enables non-destructive orientation and stress mapping of 1 mm-thick steel specimens using a high energy microbeam.

  4. On the Redshift of TeV BL Lac Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiano, Simona; Falomo, Renato [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5 I-35122 Padova (PD) (Italy); Landoni, Marco; Righi, Chiara [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46 I-23807 Merate (Italy); Treves, Aldo [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11 I-22100 Como (Italy); Scarpa, Riccardo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/O Via Lactea, s/n E38205—La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2017-03-10

    We report results of a spectroscopic campaign carried out at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias for a sample of 22 BL Lac objects detected (or candidates) at TeV energies, aiming to determine or constrain their redshift. This is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their emission models and for population studies and is also mandatory for studying the interaction of high-energy photons with the extragalactic background light using TeV sources. Optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios in the range 4250–10000 Å were obtained to search for faint emission or absorption lines from both the host galaxy and the nucleus. We determine a new redshift for PKS 1424+240 ( z = 0.604) and a tentative one for 1ES 0033+595 ( z = 0.467). We are able to set new spectroscopic redshift lower limits for three other sources on the basis of Mg ii and Ca ii intervening absorption features: BZB J1243+3627 ( z > 0.483), BZB J1540+8155 ( z > 0.672), and BZB 0J2323+4210 ( z > 0.267). We confirm previous redshift estimates for four blazars: S3 0218+357 ( z = 0.944), 1ES 1215+303 ( z = 0.129), W Comae ( z = 0.102), and MS 1221.8+2452 ( z = 0.218). For the remaining targets, in seven cases (S2 0109+22, 3C 66A, VER J0521+211, S4 0954+65, BZB J1120+4214, S3 1227+25, BZB J2323+4210), we do not validate the proposed redshift. Finally, for all sources of still-unknown redshift, we set a lower limit based on the minimum equivalent width of absorption features expected from the host galaxy.

  5. Antiparasitic activities of acridone alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rattray, Lauren; Croft, Simon L. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

    2009-07-01

    Eleven acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. were examined for in vitro activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 and Leishmania donovani L82. An assay with KB cells was developed in order to compare in vitro toxicity of alkaloids with the selective action on the parasites. Nine of the compounds had IC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.3 to 11.6 {mu}M against P. falciparum. In contrast, a small number of compounds showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and none had activity against L. donovani. Among the alkaloids three had IC{sub 50} < 1.0 {mu}M against P. falciparum, whereas against T. b. rhodesiense five had IC{sub 50} < 10 {mu}M. The characterization of the acridone alkaloids, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-10-methyl-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)acridin-9 (10H)-one (1), 2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro [3,2-b] acridin-5(10H)-one (2) and 3,4-dihydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-2Hpyrano[ 2,3-a]acridin-12(7H)-one (3), is discussed, as well as the structure-activity relationship of all compounds assayed. Isolation and spectral data of alkaloids 1-3 are described for the first time although their cytotoxicities to cancer cells have been described before. (author)

  6. Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, T.; Dohmae, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagai, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Araki, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H.; Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Yumoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8 is an undulator beamline developed to assist in the study of various automotive-related materials. The light source is a tapered in-vacuum undulator that provides a variable energy band width as well as a high brilliance X-ray beam. Two different optical arrangements are available: Optics 1 and Optics 2. Optics 1 is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), and consists of two channel-cut crystal monochromators and four water-cooled flat Si mirrors. The Si(111) and Si(220) monochromator crystals cover an energy range of 4.0–46.0 keV and are driven by high-speed AC servo motors. These monochromators, in conjunction with the tapered undulator, enable high-quality XAFS data acquisition with a temporal resolution of 10 ms. Optics 2 is optimized for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging and includes a recently installed double crystal monochromator, two water-cooled flat Si mirrors and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing mirrors. The monochromator incorporates parallel mounted Si(111) and Si(311) crystals and covers an energy range of 4.5–70 keV. The beamline provides two experimental stations: Exp. Hutch 2 and Exp. Hutch 3. The gas supply system and mass spectrometers installed in Exp. Hutch 2 allow in-operando measurements under various atmospheres. The scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (scanning 3DXRD) microscopy instrumentation developed and installed in Exp. Hutch 3 enables non-destructive orientation and stress mapping of 1 mm-thick steel specimens using a high energy microbeam.

  7. Emilie Bláhová (13. 6. 1931 - 9. 10. 2016)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, 1-2 (2017), s. 275-277 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Bláhová, Emilie * obituary * paleoslavistics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  8. The B-L phase transition. Implications for cosmology and neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Kai

    2012-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that the hot thermal phase of the early universe is ignited in consequence of the B-L phase transition, which represents the cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with B-L, the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. Prior to the B-L phase transition, the universe experiences a stage of hybrid inflation. Towards the end of inflation, the false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry decays, which entails tachyonic preheating as well as the production of cosmic strings. Observational constraints on this scenario require the B-L phase transition to take place at the scale of grand unification. The dynamics of the B-L breaking Higgs field and the B-L gauge degrees of freedom, in combination with thermal processes, generate an abundance of heavy (s)neutrinos. These (s)neutrinos decay into radiation, thereby reheating the universe, generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe and setting the stage for the thermal production of gravitinos. The B-L phase transition along with the (s)neutrino-driven reheating process hence represents an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. We study the B-L phase transition in the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model, for which we derive and discuss the Lagrangian in arbitrary and unitary gauge. As for the subsequent reheating process, we formulate the complete set of Boltzmann equations, the solutions of which enable us to give a detailed and time-resolved description of the evolution of all particle abundances during reheating. Assuming the gravitino to be the lightest superparticle (LSP), the requirement of consistency between hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10GeV. As an alternative to gravitino dark matter, we consider the case of

  9. The B-L phase transition. Implications for cosmology and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Kai

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the possibility that the hot thermal phase of the early universe is ignited in consequence of the B-L phase transition, which represents the cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with B-L, the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. Prior to the B-L phase transition, the universe experiences a stage of hybrid inflation. Towards the end of inflation, the false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry decays, which entails tachyonic preheating as well as the production of cosmic strings. Observational constraints on this scenario require the B-L phase transition to take place at the scale of grand unification. The dynamics of the B-L breaking Higgs field and the B-L gauge degrees of freedom, in combination with thermal processes, generate an abundance of heavy (s)neutrinos. These (s)neutrinos decay into radiation, thereby reheating the universe, generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe and setting the stage for the thermal production of gravitinos. The B-L phase transition along with the (s)neutrino-driven reheating process hence represents an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. We study the B-L phase transition in the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model, for which we derive and discuss the Lagrangian in arbitrary and unitary gauge. As for the subsequent reheating process, we formulate the complete set of Boltzmann equations, the solutions of which enable us to give a detailed and time-resolved description of the evolution of all particle abundances during reheating. Assuming the gravitino to be the lightest superparticle (LSP), the requirement of consistency between hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10GeV. As an alternative to gravitino dark matter, we consider the case of

  10. Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BL23 Prevents Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Jacouton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a major role in intestinal health, and an imbalance in its composition can lead to chronic gut inflammation and a predisposition to developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Currently, the use of probiotic bacteria represents an emerging alternative to treat and prevent cancer. Moreover, consumption of these beneficial bacteria may also favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, which has been described in several studies to play an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of oral treatment with Lactobacillus casei BL23, a probiotic strain well known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. First, CRC was induced in C57BL6 mice by a single intraperitoneal injection with azoxymethane (8 mg/kg, followed by four courses of dextran sodium sulfate (2.5% in drinking water that were separated by an adjustable recovery period. At the time of sacrifice (day 46, tumor incidence, histological scores, and epithelial proliferation were determined in colon samples. Our results show that L. casei BL23 significantly protected mice against CRC development; specifically, L. casei BL23 treatment reduced histological scores and proliferative index values. In addition, our analysis revealed that L. casei BL23 had an immunomodulatory effect, mediated through the downregulation of the IL-22 cytokine, and an antiproliferative effect, mediated through the upregulation of caspase-7, caspase-9, and Bik. Finally, L. casei BL23 treatment tended to counterbalance CRC-induced dysbiosis in mice, as demonstrated by an analysis of fecal microbiota. Altogether our results demonstrate the high potential of L. casei BL23 for the development of new, probiotic-based strategies to fight CRC.

  11. Evolutionary behaviour of AGN: Investigations on BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, V.

    2000-12-01

    The evolution and nature of AGN is still one of the enigmatic questions in astrophysics. While large and complete Quasar samples are available, special classes of AGN, like BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies, are still rare objects. In this work I present two new AGN samples. The first one is the HRX-BL Lac survey, resulting in a sample of X-ray selected BL Lac objects. This sample results from 223 BL Lac candidates based on a correlation of X-ray sources with radio sources. The identification of this sample is 98% complete. 77 objects have been identified as BL Lac objects and form the HRX-BL Lac complete sample, the largest homogeneous sample of BL Lac objects existing today. For this sample, redshifts are now known for 62 objects (81 %). In total I present 101 BL Lac objects in the enlarged HRX-BL Lac survey, for which redshift information is available for 84 objects. During the HRX-BL Lac survey I found several objects of special interest. 1ES 1517+656 turned out to be the brightest known BL Lac object in the universe. 1ES 0927+500 could be the first BL Lac object with a line detected in the X-ray region. RX J1211+2242 is probably the the counterpart of the up to now unidentified gamma-ray source 3EG J1212+2304. Additionally I present seven candidates for ultra high frequency peaked BL Lac objects. RX J1054+3855 and RX J1153+3517 are rare high redshift X-ray bright QSO or accreting binary systems with huge magnetic fields. For the BL Lac objects I suggest an unified scenario in which giant elliptical galaxies, formed by merging events of spiral galaxies at z > 2, start as powerful, radio dominated BL Lacs. As the jet gets less powerful, the BL Lacs start to get more X-ray dominated, showing less total luminosities (for z definition to objects with a calcium break up to 40%, but do not support for the HBL the idea of allowing emission lines in the spectra of BL Lac galaxies. A way to find high redshift BL Lac objects might be the identification of faint X

  12. Thermostable Bacteriocin BL8 from Bacillus licheniformis isolated from marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S; Bhat, S G

    2013-03-01

    To isolate and characterize bacteriocin, BL8, from the bacteria identified as Bacillus licheniformis from marine environment. One-hundred and twelve bacterial isolates from sediment and water samples collected off the coast of Cochin, India, were screened for antibacterial activity. Strain BTHT8, identified as Bacillus licheniformis, inhibited the growth of Gram-positive test organisms. The active component labelled as bacteriocin BL8 was partially purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and was subjected to glycine SDS-PAGE. The band exhibiting antimicrobial activity was electroeluted and analysed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and the molecular mass was determined as 1.4 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of BL8 gave a 13 amino acid sequence stretch. Bacteriocin BL8 was stable even after boiling at 100 °C for 30 min and over a wide pH range of 1-12. A novel, pH-tolerant and thermostable bacteriocin BL8, active against the tested Gram-positive bacteria, was isolated from Bacillus licheniformis. This study reports a stable, low molecular weight bacteriocin from Bacillus licheniformis. This bacteriocin can be used to address two important applications: as a therapeutic agent and as a biopreservative in food processing industry. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

  14. Scanning hard X-ray microscope with tantalum phase zone plate at the Hyogo-BL (BL24XU) of SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Kagoshima, Y; Ibuki, T; Yokoyama, Y; Hashida, T; Yokoyama, K; Takeda, S; Urakawa, M; Miyamoto, N; Tsusaka, Y; Matsui, J; Aino, M

    2001-01-01

    A scanning hard X-ray microscope using a phase zone plate made of tantalum as its X-ray focusing device is in operation at the Hyogo-BL (BL24XU) of SPring-8. The X-ray microbeam has a size of 0.8 mu mx0.7 mu m at the photon energy of 10 keV, which can make visible structures as fine as 250-nm line-and-space pattern. The photon flux density at the sample position is approx 2x10 sup 9 phs/s/mu m sup 2 and the gain of the phase zone plate is approx 3000. The minimum detection limits irradiated by the microbeam are evaluated to be around 10 ppm for some trace elements contained in standard reference materials of glass matrices. X-ray images obtained so far demonstrate a high feasibility of the microscope.

  15. [New opinion on the mechanism of Dazhu (BL 11) for gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Peng, Wannian

    2017-09-12

    The effect of Dazhu (BL 11) for gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction is remarkable, and its mechanism of action is interpreted as the influential point of bone treating bone diseases. However, through the exploration of a variety of literature, the relevant classical research, the views of senior experts, and combined with the author's experience, we put forward some new ideas and views for reference. Through in-depth analysis about pathogenesis of gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction and the functional attributes of Dazhu (BL 11), combining meridian tendons differentiation and myofascial meridians, we consider that Dazhu (BL 11), with its unique "location" advantage, plays the role of regulating multiple viscera, meridians, meridian tendons and myofascial meridians, which is the mechanism for gonalgia with flexion-extension dysfunction.

  16. Virulence assessment of a Neospora caninum isolate for inbred C57BL/6 mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum (N. caninum is an apicomplexan parasite and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. In this study, we evaluate the virulence of a N. caninum isolate on mouse strain C57BL/6. Six groups of five mice C57BL/6 were intraperitoneally inoculated with 1 × l07, 1.5 × l07, 2 × l07, 3 × l07 and 4 × l07 tachyzoites and a control inoculum of DMEM, respectively. Clinical signs and mortality rate were recorded and confirmed by histopathological findings and molecular method. The results of this study indicated that LD50 was 2.5 × l07 tachyzoites of N. caninum per C57BL/6 mouse. This can be used as a lethal challenge model in vaccine development studies.

  17. (M,N-Soft Intersection BL-Algebras and Their Congruences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a foundation for providing a new soft algebraic tool in considering many problems containing uncertainties. In order to provide these new soft algebraic structures, we discuss a new soft set-(M, N-soft intersection set, which is a generalization of soft intersection sets. We introduce the concepts of (M, N-SI filters of BL-algebras and establish some characterizations. Especially, (M, N-soft congruences in BL-algebras are concerned.

  18. Environmental Enrichment Reduces the Likelihood of Alopecia in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison; Meagher, Rebecca; Mason, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Barbering (incessant grooming) is an abnormal behavior causing alopecia and commonly affects various strains of laboratory mice, including C57BL/6J. Barbering-induced alopecia is a potential symptom of brain impairment and can indicate a stressful environment. We compared alopecia prevalence and severity in mice housed in enriched or standard cages. Providing an enriched environment delayed the onset and reduced the prevalence and overall severity of alopecia in C57BL/6J mice. Husbandry methods that reduce adult alopecia are likely to promote the wellbeing of the animals. We suggest that environmental enrichment is a simple and economic way to reduce alopecia in mouse colonies. PMID:21439209

  19. Studies on emerging radiation leukemia virus variants in C57BL/Ka mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassart, E.; Shang, M.; Boie, Y.; Jolicoeur, P.

    1986-01-01

    To analyze the emergence of radiation leukemia virus (RadLV) variants in primary X-ray-induced C57BL/Ka thymoma and to identify the virus responsible for the very high leukemogenic potential of passaged Kaplan strain BL/VL3 preparation, we cloned several primary and passaged ecotropic RadLV infectious genomes. By restriction analysis, we found that BL/VL3 cells harbor three related but different ecotropic RadLVs. Their restriction map differs significantly from those of primary RadLVs. Hybridization analysis also indicated that BL/VL3 and primary RadLVs differ in their p15E and long terminal repeat (LTR) regions. The LTR sequence of primary weakly leukemogenic RadLV has only one change, a C-rich sequence, generating a 6-base-pair direct repeat just in front of the promotor. The LTR of the primary nonleukemogenic RadLV only showed few base changes, mainly clustered in R and U5. The LTR from a moderately leukemogenic passaged BL/VL3 RadLV had conserved the C-rich sequence and acquired a 43-base-pair direct repeat in U3 and several other point mutations, small insertions, and deletions scattered in U3, R, and U5. All cloned primary RadLVs were fibrotropic, and some were weakly leukemogenic. All cloned BL/VL3 RadLVs were thymotropic and nonfibrotropic. The block of their replication was found to be after the synthesis of unintegrated linear and supercoiled viral DNA. Most of the BL/VL3 RadLVs were moderately leukemogenic, and one (V-13) was highly leukemogenic, being as virulent as the Moloney strain. We propose a model for the emergence of the RadLV variants and show that the virus responsible for the high leukemogenic potential of BL/VL3 preparation is a nondefective, ecotropic, lymphotropic, nonfibrotropic, unique retrovirus which most likely arose from a parental primary RadLV similar to those studied here

  20. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Das, Gangadhar; Chowdhury, Anupam; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  1. The Perceptions of “Healing” in BL (Boys’ Love) Reading and the Situational Triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Chieh-Yu Chang; Chi-Shiou Lin

    2015-01-01

    Boys’ Love (BL) is a fiction genre now enjoying high visibility and popularity among the young women in Taiwan. Inspired by the reader response theory, this study adopted a grounded theory approach to analyze female readers’ perception of “healing” generated from BL reading. Based on the in-depth interviews with 22 readers, this study revealed three types of “healing” perception and four types of situations that prompted the emergence of the feelings. The three types of “healing” perception i...

  2. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  3. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, M. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Das, Gangadhar, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Chowdhury, Anupam, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  4. Multi-wavelength studies of TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Sarah Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of TeV γ-ray emission of BL Lac objects gave new insights in the particle acceleration and the emission processes of the highly relativistic jets. To shed light on the conditions in the high energetic jets of the TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects, I have studied in great detail the spectral energy distribution (SED) of sources with different characteristics. BL Lac objects with exceptional very high energy spectra (soft and hard spectra) and with large differences in the emission peak frequencies, to cover the different classes of BL Lac objects, have been chosen. The basic aim of this thesis was, to study with new, simultaneous multi- avelength (MWL) observations, if the emission processes of these extreme cases of TeV BL Lac objects can be explained by the synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model which is well established for the class of BL Lac objects at lower energies. We proposed MWL observations in the optical, UV and X-ray regime, to be conducted simultaneous to very high energy observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment, to study the emission processes. Simultaneous observations are crucial, since BL Lac objects are variable at all wavebands. I have analysed the MWL observations and conducted detailed variability and spectral studies in each wavelength range. The different kind of absorption at each wavelength as well as the influence of the host galaxy of the AGN has been considered to obtain the intrinsic jet spectrum. I have then applied the commonly used theoretical jet model, the SSC model, to the SED. I conducted a MWL campaign on a BL Lac object with the softest TeV spectrum, PKS 2005-489, during which it was observed in a very bright X-ray state. The good spectral coverage of the emission peaks allowed a detailed study of the SSC model. The extreme BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 exhibits a hard intrinsic TeV spectrum. With my MWL campaign I found a clear cut-off in the optical range and therefore a high minimum Lorentz factor is needed to

  5. F1 hybrids of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mouse strains respond differently ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of C57BL/6 with SENCAR mice were more resistant to car- cinogenic .... After hybridization, the slides were washed in wash- .... After washing the excess unbound primary antibodies, the slide was incubated with secondary antibody solution consisting of goat anti- mouse secondary antibody labelled with Cy3 in TNT buffer.

  6. The lectotypification of Acrostichum acuminatum Willd. and the reinstatement of the name Photinopteris speciosa (Bl.) Presl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennipman, E.

    1974-01-01

    The name Acrostichum acuminatum Willdenow (1810) was designated by Morton (1967) as the basionym of Photinopteris acuminata (Willd.) Morton. As a consequence the generally accepted name Photinopteris speciosa (Bl.) Presl (bas.: Lomaria speciosa Blume, 1828) was sunk by him into synonymy. The

  7. The inhibitory efficacy of methylseleninic acid against colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. We tested the hypoththesis that oral dosing methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a methylselenol precursor, inhibits the growth of colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice fed a Se adequate diet. In this...

  8. Anti-hypertensive effect of Gastrodia elata Bl leaf extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the probable antihypertensive effects of Gastrodia elata Bl. extract (GEBE) in renovascular hypertensive rats as well as the ... have been introduced to the market, they still possess serious side effects. On the ..... hypertension: from Goldblatt to genetic engineering. Cardiovasc Res 1998; 39: 77–88. 9.

  9. Dynamical Black Hole Masses of BL Lac Objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Trager, Scott C.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshifts out to z ∼ 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black

  10. Modelling the IDV Emissions of the BL Lac Objects with a Langevin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we introduce a simplified model for explain- ing the observations of optical intra-day variability (IDV) of the BL. Lac Objects. We assume that the source of the IDV are the stochastic oscillations of an accretion disk around a supermassive black hole. The stochastic fluctuations on the vertical direction of ...

  11. Photo-translocation of anti-HIV-1 drugs into TZM-bl cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Targeted drug delivery into HIV-1 infected cells offers a reduction in toxicity and side effect. Using a femtosecond (fs) laser of different beam shapes anti-HIV-1 drugs are efficiently delivered into TZM-bl cells....

  12. The effect of altered gut flora on glucose intolerance in C57BL/6NTac mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Ellekilde, Merete

    Background Recent studies have shown that long term broad spectrum antibiotic treatment improves glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesize that it is primarily the early life altering of the gut microbiota, which will have an impact on glucose intolerance. Study setup 40 C57BL/6NTac mice were...

  13. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE IN DRINKING WATER IMPAIRS GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN C57BL/6 MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines in vivo diabetogenic effects of iAs in an animal model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice received deionized water containing iAs(III) (25 ...

  14. Dynamical black hole masses of BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R. M.; Markoff, S.; Trager, S. C.; Anderson, S. F.

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts out to z˜ 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black hole mass -

  15. Dynamical black hole masses of BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R. M.; Markoff, S.; Trager, S. C.; Anderson, S. F.

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts out to z similar to 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black

  16. Dynamical black hole masses of BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Trager, S.C.; Anderson, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts out to z∼ 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black hole mass -

  17. Identification of Salt-Tolerant Sinorhizobium sp Strain BL3 Membrane Proteins Based on Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Mohammed, Shabaz; Matthiesen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 is a salt-tolerant strain that can fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with leguminous host plants under salt-stress conditions. Since cell membranes are the first barrier to environmental change, it is interesting to explore the membrane proteins within this protective...

  18. Modelling the IDV Emissions of the BL Lac Objects with a Langevin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    random, white noise type force. Furthermore, preliminary numerical sim- ulation results are presented, which are based on the numerical analysis of the Langevin stochastic differential equation. Key words. Langevin type stochastic differential equation—BL Lac objects. 1. Introduction. Intraday variability is usually defined as ...

  19. Regulation of methane oxidation in the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Andreas R; Ali, M Hanif; Radajewski, Stefan; Dumont, Marc G; Dunfield, Peter F; McDonald, Ian R; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Miguez, Carlos B; Murrell, J Colin

    2005-11-01

    The molecular regulation of methane oxidation in the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2 was assessed during growth on methane and acetate. Problems of poor growth of Methylocella spp. in small-scale batch culture were overcome by growth in fermentor culture. The genes encoding soluble methane monooxygenase were cloned and sequenced, which revealed that the structural genes for soluble methane monooxygenase, mmoXYBZDC, were adjacent to two genes, mmoR and mmoG, encoding a sigma54 transcriptional activator and a putative GroEL-like chaperone, located downstream (3') of mmoC. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the genes were all cotranscribed from a sigma54-dependent promoter located upstream (5') of mmo X. The transcriptional start site was mapped. Transcriptional analysis of soluble methane monooxygenase genes and expression studies on fermentor grown cultures showed that acetate repressed transcription of sMMO in M. silvestris BL2. The possibility of the presence of a particulate, membrane-bound methane monooxygenase enzyme in M. silvestris BL2 and the copper-mediated regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase was investigated. Both were shown to be absent. A promoter probe vector was constructed and used to assay transcription of the promoter of the soluble methane monoxygenase genes of M. silvestris BL2 grown under various conditions and with different substrates. These data represent the first insights into the molecular physiology of a facultative methanotroph.

  20. Analysis of Optical Variations of BL Lac Object AO 0235+ 164

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Historical optical BVRI band data are combined on the BL Lac object AO 0235 + 164. In order to examine the possible existence of lags and correlations between variations in different optical bands from this source, a statistical analysis is performed through the Discrete Correlation Function (DCF) method.

  1. Computing Optical Variable Periods of BL Lac Object S5 0716+714 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... From a large volume of literature, we have collected effective observation of BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in the optical band, and constructed its long-term light curve from 1994 to 2006 AD. The light curve shows that S5 0716+714 is very active and exhibits very complicated non-sinusoidal variations.

  2. Computing Optical Variable Periods of BL Lac Object S5 0716+ 714 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... From a large volume of literature, we have collected effective observation of BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in the optical band, and constructed its long-term light curve from 1994 to 2006 AD. The light curve shows that S5 0716+714 is very active and exhibits very complicated non-sinusoidal variations.

  3. Three-dimensional optokinetic eye movements in the C57BL/6J mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Alphen (Bart); B.H.J. Winkelman (Beerend); M.A. Frens (Maarten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To study three-dimensional optokinetic eye movements of wild-type C57BL/6J mice, the most commonly used mouse in oculomotor physiology. Optokinetic eye movements are reflexive eye movements that use visual feedback to minimize image motion across the retina. These

  4. A spontaneous mutation characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis in C57BL mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, H.; Gijbels, M. J.; Offerman, E.; van Hooft, J.; van Bekkum, D. W.; Zurcher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a new spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice. Breeding results suggest an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Mutant mice develop skin lesions at the age of 5 to 6 weeks. The lesions occur in the ventral and dorsal skin of the body, whereas ears, footpads, and

  5. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Wyss

    Full Text Available The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/- mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/- mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/- mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd ventricle in JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  6. Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-C Deficient C57BL/6 Mice Develop a Severe Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H.; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H.; Imhof, Beat A.; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C−/− mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C−/− mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C−/− mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3rd ventricle in JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C. PMID:23029139

  7. StagBL : A Scalable, Portable, High-Performance Discretization and Solver Layer for Geodynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanan, P.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.; Kaus, B. J. P.; May, D.

    2017-12-01

    StagBL is an open-source parallel solver and discretization library for geodynamic simulation,encapsulating and optimizing operations essential to staggered-grid finite volume Stokes flow solvers.It provides a parallel staggered-grid abstraction with a high-level interface in C and Fortran.On top of this abstraction, tools are available to define boundary conditions and interact with particle systems.Tools and examples to efficiently solve Stokes systems defined on the grid are provided in small (direct solver), medium (simple preconditioners), and large (block factorization and multigrid) model regimes.By working directly with leading application codes (StagYY, I3ELVIS, and LaMEM) and providing an API and examples to integrate with others, StagBL aims to become a community tool supplying scalable, portable, reproducible performance toward novel science in regional- and planet-scale geodynamics and planetary science.By implementing kernels used by many research groups beneath a uniform abstraction layer, the library will enable optimization for modern hardware, thus reducing community barriers to large- or extreme-scale parallel simulation on modern architectures. In particular, the library will include CPU-, Manycore-, and GPU-optimized variants of matrix-free operators and multigrid components.The common layer provides a framework upon which to introduce innovative new tools.StagBL will leverage p4est to provide distributed adaptive meshes, and incorporate a multigrid convergence analysis tool.These options, in addition to a wealth of solver options provided by an interface to PETSc, will make the most modern solution techniques available from a common interface. StagBL in turn provides a PETSc interface, DMStag, to its central staggered grid abstraction.We present public version 0.5 of StagBL, including preliminary integration with application codes and demonstrations with its own demonstration application, StagBLDemo. Central to StagBL is the notion of an

  8. The polarization and beaming effect for GRBs

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, K. S.; Fan, J. H.; Dai, Z. G.

    1999-01-01

    Both observations and theoretical models suggest that the emissions in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the afterglows are beamed. We argue that the recent polarization measured in the afterglows gives further evidence of beaming in GRBs. In this approach, we adopted the polarization-magnitude relation of BL Lacertae objects to 4 GRBs with available polarization measurements and found that the data of the 4 GRBs are consistent with the relation of BL Lacertae objects. This result suggests that the...

  9. TrmBL2 from Pyrococcus furiosus Interacts Both with Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wierer

    Full Text Available In many hyperthermophilic archaea the DNA binding protein TrmBL2 or one of its homologues is abundantly expressed. TrmBL2 is thought to play a significant role in modulating the chromatin architecture in combination with the archaeal histone proteins and Alba. However, its precise physiological role is poorly understood. It has been previously shown that upon binding TrmBL2 covers double-stranded DNA, which leads to the formation of a thick and fibrous filament. Here we investigated the filament formation process as well as the stabilization of DNA by TrmBL2 from Pyroccocus furiosus in detail. We used magnetic tweezers that allow to monitor changes of the DNA mechanical properties upon TrmBL2 binding on the single-molecule level. Extended filaments formed in a cooperative manner and were considerably stiffer than bare double-stranded DNA. Unlike Alba, TrmBL2 did not form DNA cross-bridges. The protein was found to bind double- and single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. In mechanical disruption experiments of DNA hairpins this led to stabilization of both, the double- (before disruption and the single-stranded (after disruption DNA forms. Combined, these findings suggest that the biological function of TrmBL2 is not limited to modulating genome architecture and acting as a global repressor but that the protein acts additionally as a stabilizer of DNA secondary structure.

  10. Postnatal hematopoiesis and gut microbiota in NOD mice deviate from C57BL/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate...... from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1-4 in NOD mice. Furthermore......, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface...

  11. From QCD instantons at HERA to electroweak B+L violation at VLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2003-02-01

    This review emphasizes the close analogy between hard QCD instanton-induced chirality violating processes in deep-inelastic scattering and electroweak instanton-induced baryon plus lepton number (B+L) violating processes in Quantum Flavor Dynamics (QFD). Recent information about QCD instantons, both from lattice simulations and from the H1 experiment at HERA, can be used to learn about the fate of electroweak B+L violation at future high energy colliders in the hundreds of TeV regime, such as the projected very large hadron collider (VLHC). The cross-sections turn out to be unobservably small in a conservative fiducial kinematical region inferred from the above mentioned QCD-QFD analogy. An extrapolation - still compatible with lattice results and HERA - beyond this conservative limit indicates possible observability at VLHC. (orig.)

  12. The influences of age on T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the age related changes of T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice and immune function. Multi-color immunofluorescence techniques that were used to analyse relative numbers of T lymphocyte subsets include CD4+, CD8+, naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood of C57BL/6 mice from different age groups (Group I: 2 months old; Group II: 7 months old; Group III: 21 months old; Splenocytes isolated from different group mice were stimulated with Con A to evaluate the proliferative ability. Compared with group I, group II had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells, while group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of CD8+, memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood. Compared with group II, group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of naive CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood. The T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro showed that groups II and III had a lower proliferative capacity than group I, between groups II and III, there was not a significant difference. We provide relative values for the T lymphocyte subsets in the different age groups of C57BL/6 mice. The immune system began aging at 7 months old in C57BL/6 mice under a specific pathogen free environment.

  13. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Crombie, Andrew; Rahman, M Tanvir; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Theisen, Andreas R; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-07-01

    Methylocella silvestris BL2 is an aerobic methanotroph originally isolated from an acidic forest soil in Germany. It is the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph. It grows not only on methane and other one-carbon (C(1)) substrates, but also on some compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds, such as acetate, pyruvate, propane, and succinate. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Facultative Methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Crombie, Andrew; Rahman, M. Tanvir; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Theisen, Andreas R.; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Methylocella silvestris BL2 is an aerobic methanotroph originally isolated from an acidic forest soil in Germany. It is the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph. It grows not only on methane and other one-carbon (C1) substrates, but also on some compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds, such as acetate, pyruvate, propane, and succinate. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20472789

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Facultative Methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yin; Crombie, Andrew; Rahman, M. Tanvir; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Theisen, Andreas R.; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Methylocella silvestris BL2 is an aerobic methanotroph originally isolated from an acidic forest soil in Germany. It is the first fully authenticated facultative methanotroph. It grows not only on methane and other one-carbon (C1) substrates, but also on some compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds, such as acetate, pyruvate, propane, and succinate. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  16. Autoimmune hair loss induced by alloantigen in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhi-ping; Matsui, Shinobu; Li, Ai-li; Katsuda, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Nobuo

    2003-02-01

    Exponentially growing Meth-A cells expressing H-2K(d).D (d) antigen were found to induce alopecia when injected intraperitoneally into normal C57BL/6 mice, which express the H-2K(b).D (b) antigen. However, the capacity to induce alopecia disappeared when Meth-A cells were treated with K252a, which inhibits protein kinases. Histologically, skin in affected areas showed dense mononuclear cell infiltration and a focal foreign-body giant-cell reaction in hair follicles. The subtyping of lymphocytes in peripheral blood demonstrated a significant difference between normal mice and Meth-A cell-injected mice. To further examine the mechanism by which the alloantigen induces alopecia, lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of normal C57BL/6 mice were cultured in medium containing Meth-A cell homogenate, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and recombinant mouse interleukin-2 (rm IL-2), and intravenously injected into normal C57BL/6 mice. The adoptive transfer of the lymphocytes induced alopecia in a similar way. These findings suggest that the protein kinase-modulated alloantigen induces alopecia by disturbing the immunological homeostasis, and that lymphokine-activated killer cells play an important role in induction of alopecia by cross-reacting with hair follicles.

  17. Total alkaloid content in various fractions of Tabernaemonata sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, N.; Ningsih, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) is one of the Apocynaceae family plants containing alkaloid compound. Traditionally, it is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. It is found to have a new bisindole alkaloid compound that shows a potent cytotoxic activity in human cancer. This study aimed to know the total alkaloid content in some fractions of ethanolic extract of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. leaf powder was extracted by maceration method in 70% ethanol solvent. Then, the extract was fractionated in a separatory funnel using water, ethyl acetate, and hexane. The total alkaloid content in each fraction was analyzed with visible spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG). The total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction were (0.0312±0.0009)% and (0.0281±0.0014)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total alkaloid content in hexane was not detected. The statistical analysis, performed in SPSS, resulted in a significant difference between the total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The total alkaloid in water fraction of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. was higher than the one in ethyl acetate fraction.

  18. Screening of sugarcane somaclones of variety bl4 for agronomic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S.; Qamarunnisa, S.; Jamil, I.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the environmental conditions of Pakistan where sugarcane breeding is constrained due to non viable fuzz (seeds) production. Somaclonal variation could prove to be a useful tool to overcome the difficulties in cane breeding. In the present study, 324 sugarcane somaclones regenerated from immature leaf roll callus of sugarcane variety BL4 were evaluated for their yield and yield contributing characters and the quality traits of cane. The field trial of somaclones showed variation in 160 somaclones from the mother plant in at least one character observed. Most of the somaclones showed variation in weight of stalks per plant; however, only twenty four out of 89 clones showed increase in the weight of the stalks per clump. The second highly variable trait was the number of stalks, 88 plants showed either increase or decrease in the number of stalks. It is noteworthy that the sucrose accumulation was not increased in any of the somaclones. Twenty one somaclones were selected for their increased yield potential. The comparative performance of these selected clones revealed that clones 'K-250, K-265, K-251, K-109, K-106, K-300 and K-315 gave better sugar yield /plant as compared to BL4. Maximum sugar yield/plant was observed in Clone 'K-250' (2.5 Kg) followed by K-265 (2.44 Kg), whereas the average sugar yield of BL4 was 1.2 Kg/plant. (author)

  19. Neutrino mass, leptogenesis and FIMP dark matter in a U(1){sub B-L} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Anirban; Khan, Sarif [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Mumbai (India); Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Mumbai (India); AlbaNova University Center, Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-12-15

    The Standard Model (SM) is inadequate to explain the origin of tiny neutrino masses, the dark matter (DM) relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In this work, to address all three puzzles, we extend the SM by a local U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, three right-handed (RH) neutrinos for the cancellation of gauge anomalies and two complex scalars having non-zero U(1){sub B-L} charges. All the newly added particles become massive after the breaking of the U(1){sub B-L} symmetry by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of one of the scalar fields φ{sub H}. The other scalar field, φ{sub DM}, which does not have any VEV, becomes automatically stable and can be a viable DM candidate. Neutrino masses are generated using the Type-I seesaw mechanism, while the required lepton asymmetry to reproduce the observed baryon asymmetry can be attained from the CP violating out of equilibrium decays of the RH neutrinos in TeV scale. More importantly within this framework, we study in detail the production of DM via the freeze-in mechanism considering all possible annihilation and decay processes. Finally, we find a situation when DM is dominantly produced from the annihilation of the RH neutrinos, which are at the same time also responsible for neutrino mass generation and leptogenesis. (orig.)

  20. Sex differences in cocaine conditioned place preference in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Elisa R; Lasek, Amy W

    2014-01-22

    Men and women respond differently to the subjective effects of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues, which has implications for the development and maintenance of cocaine addiction. Preclinical studies performed in rats, modeling various aspects of cocaine addiction, have largely validated these results, indicating that female rats may be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of cocaine. The molecular mechanisms leading to sex differences in cocaine reward have largely not been determined, although sex hormones are thought to play a role. The mouse is commonly used as a model organism to study the molecular and genetic factors that influence a variety of psychiatric disorders. In particular, the inbred C57BL/6 mouse strain is often used for behavioral studies related to substance abuse. To begin to understand the hormonal, molecular and genetic mechanisms that might affect cocaine reward, we directly compared male and female C57BL/6J mice in cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), a test that examines the rewarding and cue-associated properties of drugs of abuse. We conditioned mice at three doses of cocaine and examined preference and extinction of preference. We found that the acquisition of cocaine CPP did not differ between male and female mice. However, extinction of cocaine CPP was delayed in male mice compared with females at the lowest dose of cocaine. We conclude that sex differences in cocaine CPP can be observed in C57BL/6J mice at very low doses of cocaine.

  1. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Guetta, Dafne [INAF-Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  2. Neutrino mass, leptogenesis and FIMP dark matter in a U(1)_{B-L} model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Anirban; Choubey, Sandhya; Khan, Sarif

    2017-12-01

    The Standard Model (SM) is inadequate to explain the origin of tiny neutrino masses, the dark matter (DM) relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In this work, to address all three puzzles, we extend the SM by a local U(1)_{B-L} gauge symmetry, three right-handed (RH) neutrinos for the cancellation of gauge anomalies and two complex scalars having non-zero U(1)_{B-L} charges. All the newly added particles become massive after the breaking of the U(1)_{B-L} symmetry by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of one of the scalar fields φ _H. The other scalar field, φ _DM, which does not have any VEV, becomes automatically stable and can be a viable DM candidate. Neutrino masses are generated using the Type-I seesaw mechanism, while the required lepton asymmetry to reproduce the observed baryon asymmetry can be attained from the CP violating out of equilibrium decays of the RH neutrinos in TeV scale. More importantly within this framework, we study in detail the production of DM via the freeze-in mechanism considering all possible annihilation and decay processes. Finally, we find a situation when DM is dominantly produced from the annihilation of the RH neutrinos, which are at the same time also responsible for neutrino mass generation and leptogenesis.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íria Márcia PEREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI. All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c or resistance (C57BL/6 were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  4. Type II Cepheids: evidence for Na-O anticorrelation for BL Her type stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtyukh, V.; Yegorova, I.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Saviane, I.; Lemasle, B.; Chekhonadskikh, F.; Belik, S.

    2018-03-01

    The chemical composition of 28 Population II Cepheids and one RR Lyrae variable has been studied using high-resolution spectra. The chemical composition of W Vir variable stars (with periods longer than 8 days) is typical for the halo and thick disc stars. However, the chemical composition of BL Her variables (with periods of 0.8-4 days) is drastically different while it does not differ essentially from that of the stars belonging to globular clusters. In particular, the sodium overabundance ([Na/Fe]≈0.4) is reported for most of these stars, and the Na-O anti-correlation is also possible. The evolutionary tracks for BL Her variables (with a progenitor mass value of 0.8 solar masses) indicate that mostly helium-overabundant stars (Y=0.30-0.35) can fall into the instability strip region. We suppose that it is the helium overabundance that accounts not just for the existence of BL Her variable stars, but also for the observed abnormalities in the chemical composition of this small group of pulsating variables.

  5. Characterization of (357439) 2004 BL86 on its close approach to Earth in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; Turcu, V.; Pop, A.; Dumitru, B.; Stevance, F.; Vaduvescu, O.; Moldovan, D.; Rocher, P.; Sonka, A.; Mircea, L.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (357439) 2004 BL86 grazed Earth on January 26, 2015 at a distance of about 1.2 million km. This favorable geometry allowed observing it to derive its physical and dynamical parameters. (357439) 2004 BL86 was previously estimated to be a 500-m body. We study it also considering possible mechanisms that might mitigate the effect of asteroids that might become dangerous for Earth. Aims: Physical and dynamical investigations of this peculiar object were performed to be able to characterize this object. Methods: We used spectral observations obtained in the visible (V) using the Isaac Newton Telescope and in the near-infrared (NIR) using the InfraRed Telescope Facility. A complementary photometric survey during two nights was also provided by the Astronomical Observatory Cluj-Feleacu station in Romania. We anlyzed the data using reliable mathematical tools that were previously published under the acronym M4AST. Results: VNIR spectral observations classify (357439) 2004 BL86 as V-type asteroid. The mineralogical analysis reveals its similarities to howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. The band analysis reveals that the object is more similar to a eucritic and howarditic composition, and that it originated from the crust of a large parent body. The analysis yields a mineralogical solution of Wo17Fs39 with an error bar of 4%. Based on the average value of the thermal albedo for V-type objects, its diameter was re-estimated to a value of 290 ± 30 m. The dynamical analysis shows a chaotical behavior of (357439) 2004 BL86. The statistics on meteorite falls show that (357439) 2004 BL86 does not appear to significantly contribute to the current howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorite flux. For the two photometrical observing runs the following values of the rotational period and peak-to-peak amplitude were estimated for the light curves: 2.637 ± 0.024 h, 0.105 ± 0.007 mag, and 2.616 ± 0.061 h, 0.109 ± 0.018 mag

  6. Effects of BCL oral administation and herbal acupuncture at BL18, BL19 on Liver function changes induced by Alcohol in the mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa-Hyun Park

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation was designed to evaluate the effect of BCL(refinded Bambusae Caulis in Liqua-men oral administration and herbal acupuncture on alcohol metabolism and liver function. For this study. mice were damaged by a large quantity of alcohol and received treatment of either BCL 1 mg/kg in oral or BCL 250㎍/kg in herbal acupuncture-BL18 . BL19 bilateral. and then such parameters as GOT. GPT. catalase and superoxide dismustase(CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD were measured. The results of the experiments were summarized as follows. 1. Compared with control group, the proper degree of alcohol in serum was not significantly differ from oral administration group and herbal acupuncture group. 2. Compared with control group. the activity of GOT in serum was significantly reduced both oral administration and herbal acupuncture group. 3. Compared with control group. the activity of GPT in serum was significantly reduced both oral administration and herbal acupuncture group. 4. The activity of catalase in liver cell tissue, compared with control group. was not sigificantly affected either by oral administration and herbal acupuncture group. 5. The activity of CuZn-SOD in liver cell tissue was not significantly change in herbal acupuncture and oral administration group. The activity of Mn-SOD was significantly increased in oral administration group. while it was not the case in acupuncture group. In conclusion. we consider that BCL oral administration and herbal acupuncture is highly effetive in recovering alcohol metabolism and liver disfunction induced by alcohol.

  7. Variable effects of gender and Western diet on lipid and glucose homeostasis in aged PCSK9-deficient C57BL/6 mice CSK9PC57BL/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbikay, Majambu; Sirois, Francine; Gyamera-Acheampong, Charles; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Rippstein, Peter; Chen, Andrew; Mayne, Janice; Scott, Fraser W; Chrétien, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) downregulates clearance of plasma cholesterol by liver. Its inactivation increases this clearance, reducing cardiovascular risk. However, a lack of PCSK9 could also lead to cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islet beta cells, impairing insulin secretion. We reported earlier that 4-month-old male PCSK9-deficient (KO) C57BL/6 mice were hyperglycemic and insulin-insufficient relative to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Here, we examined how gender and diet affect lipid and glucose homeostasis in these mice at 8 months of age. After being fed a normal diet or a Western diet for over 6 months, KO mice were compared with same-gender WT mice for fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucose, and insulin; for glucose disposal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); and for pancreatic islet morphology. A. Females: On normal diet, KO mice showed lower plasma TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, higher plasma glucose, and normal glucose disposal despite impaired GSIS. On Western diet, they showed comparable plasma TC and HDL-C, but lower LDL-C, higher plasma glucose, and normal glucose disposal despite impaired GSIS. B. Males: On normal and Western diets, KO mice showed lower plasma TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, similarly elevated plasma glucose, glucose intolerance, and impaired GSIS. C. Both: KO mice on either diet showed pancreatic islet dysmorphism, with larger, possibly immature secretory granules. Lower LDL-C and impaired GSIS are two major phenotypes in aged PCSK9-deficient C57BL/6 mice. These phenotypes are modulated by gender and diet. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in hepatocytes of C57BL/10 mice: A time-course study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Siersema (Peter); M.I. Cleton-Soeteman (Maud); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); F.J.W. ten Kate (Fiebo); H.G. van Eijk (Henk); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTo establish the time-sequence relationship between ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in livers of C57BL/10 mice, a biochemical, morphological and morphometrical study was performed. Uroporphyria was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of

  9. A high density physical map of chromosome 1BL supports evolutionary studies, map-based cloning and sequencing in wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Philippe, R.; Paux, E.; Bertin, I.; Sourdille, P.; Choulet, F.; Laugier, Ch.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Bellec, A.; Vautrin, S.; Frenkel, Z.; Cattonaro, F.; Magni, F.; Scalabrin, S.; Martis, M.M.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Korol, A.; Berges, H.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Feuillet, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2013) ISSN 1465-6906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : chromosome 1BL * evolution * gene space Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.465, year: 2013

  10. Disruptions and Disturbance as Challenges in a Blended Learning (BL) Environment and the Role of Embodied Habit Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Ryberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyse two cases where BL courses have been run since the summer 2012 (Teachers´ and the radiography educational programmes at University College North in Denmark (UCN). In this study it was clear that the majority of students preferred face-to-face instructions and interaction...... over the implemented BL approach and they felt more disrupted and disturbed when required to work more online and from home. In the paper we therefore discuss how disruptions and disturbances have an influence on students’ study and learning activities in a BL environment. We argue how disturbances...... and discuss how students’ orientation in different learning environments influence their navigation, and how disruptions and disturbances affect their orientation. The findings illustrate and discuss students’ challenges of adapting to the BL approach and how students’ prior experiences and habits challenge...

  11. Quantitative trait loci for tibial bone strength in C57BL/6J and C3H ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ inbred strains of mice. J. Genet. 89, 21–27]. Introduction. In the last decade, mouse model has increasingly been used in the identification of genetic factors that regulate osteo- porosis related traits such as bone mineral density (BMD). A F2 population derived from the cross between C57BL/6J.

  12. Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Ferreira

    Full Text Available A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu; 92 (Ser/Leu; 93 (Ile/Thr; 95 (Arg/Gly and 97 (Leu/Ser. CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp = 43 µM and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp = 8.6 µM, but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the β-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (∼645 Å(2. The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal β-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells. The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells.

  13. Identification of riboflavin: revealing different metabolic characteristics between Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinran; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-06-01

    There are many physiological differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains, owing to their different origins. Deeper insight into the metabolic and regulative mechanisms of these strains will inform improved usage of these industrial workhorses. In the present study, we observed that BL21 fermentation broth gradually turned yellow during cultivation. By spectral analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identification, we confirmed for the first time that the yellow substance accumulated in the fermentation broth is riboflavin. Comparing the enzyme sequences involved in riboflavin metabolism between BL21 and MG1655, we identified a site mutation on the 115 residue of bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenylyltransferase (RibF) in BL21. This His115Leu mutation was found to reduce enzyme activity to 55% of that of MG1655, which is probably one reason for riboflavin accumulation in BL21. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that genes of the entire branch of the riboflavin and FAD biosynthesis pathways in BL21 were up-regulated. Several physiological and metabolic characteristics of BL21 and MG1655 were found to be different, and may also be related to the riboflavin accumulation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A Librational Model for the Propeller Blériot in the Saturnian Ring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, M.; Sremčević, M.; Seiß, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Spahn, F.

    2017-05-01

    The reconstruction of the orbital evolution of the propeller structure Blériot orbiting in Saturn’s A ring from recurrent observations in Cassini ISS images yielded a considerable offset motion from the expected Keplerian orbit. This offset motion can be composed by three sinusoidal harmonics with amplitudes and periods of 1845, 152, 58 km and 11.1, 3.7, and 2.2 years, respectively. In this paper we present results from N-body simulations, where we integrated the orbital evolution of a moonlet, which is placed at the radial position of Blériot under the gravitational action of the Saturnian satellites. Our simulations yield that, especially the gravitational interactions with Prometheus, Pandora, and Mimas are forcing the moonlet to librate with the right frequencies, but the libration amplitudes are too small to explain the observations. Thus, further mechanisms are needed to explain the amplitudes of the forced librations—e.g., moonlet-ring interactions. Here, we develop a model, where the moonlet is allowed to be slightly displaced with respect to its created gaps breaking the point symmetry and causing a repulsive force in this way. As a result, the evolution of the moonlet’s longitude can be described by a harmonic oscillator. In the presence of external forcing by the outer moons, the libration amplitudes get the more amplified the closer the forcing frequency is to the eigenfrequency of the disturbed propeller oscillator. Applying our model to Blériot, it is possible to reproduce a libration period of 13 years with an amplitude of about 2000 km.

  15. A Librational Model for the Propeller Blériot in the Saturnian Ring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, M.; Seiß, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Spahn, F.; Sremčević, M.

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of the orbital evolution of the propeller structure Blériot orbiting in Saturn’s A ring from recurrent observations in Cassini ISS images yielded a considerable offset motion from the expected Keplerian orbit. This offset motion can be composed by three sinusoidal harmonics with amplitudes and periods of 1845, 152, 58 km and 11.1, 3.7, and 2.2 years, respectively. In this paper we present results from N -body simulations, where we integrated the orbital evolution of a moonlet, which is placed at the radial position of Blériot under the gravitational action of the Saturnian satellites. Our simulations yield that, especially the gravitational interactions with Prometheus, Pandora, and Mimas are forcing the moonlet to librate with the right frequencies, but the libration amplitudes are too small to explain the observations. Thus, further mechanisms are needed to explain the amplitudes of the forced librations—e.g., moonlet–ring interactions. Here, we develop a model, where the moonlet is allowed to be slightly displaced with respect to its created gaps breaking the point symmetry and causing a repulsive force in this way. As a result, the evolution of the moonlet’s longitude can be described by a harmonic oscillator. In the presence of external forcing by the outer moons, the libration amplitudes get the more amplified the closer the forcing frequency is to the eigenfrequency of the disturbed propeller oscillator. Applying our model to Blériot, it is possible to reproduce a libration period of 13 years with an amplitude of about 2000 km.

  16. Behavioral architecture of opioid reward and aversion in C57BL/6 substrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Kirkpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug liking versus drug disliking is a subjective motivational measure in humans that assesses the addiction liability of drugs. Variation in this trait is hypothesized to influence vulnerability versus resilience toward substance abuse disorders and likely contains a genetic component. In rodents and humans, conditioned place preference (CPP / aversion (CPA is a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm whereby a learned preference for the drug-paired environment is used to infer drug liking whereas a learned avoidance or aversion is used to infer drug disliking. C57BL/6 inbred mouse substrains are nearly genetically identical, yet demonstrate robust differences in addiction-relevant behaviors, including locomotor sensitization to cocaine and consumption of ethanol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that B6 substrains would demonstrate differences in the rewarding properties of the mu opioid receptor agonist oxycodone (5 mg/kg, i.p. and the aversive properties of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.. Both substrains showed similar degrees of oxycodone-induced CPP; however, there was a three-fold enhancement of naloxone-induced CPA in agonist-naïve C57BL/6J relative to C57Bl/6NJ mice. Exploratory factor analysis of CPP and CPA identified unique factors that explain variance in behavioral expression of reward versus aversion. Conditioned Opioid-Like Behavior was a reward-based factor whereby drug-free locomotor variables resembling opioid treatment co-varied with the degree of CPP. Avoidance and Freezing was an aversion-based factor, whereby the increase in the number of freezing bouts co-varied with the degree of aversion. These results provide new insight into the behavioral architecture of the motivational properties of opioids. Future studies will use quantitative trait locus mapping in B6 substrains to identify novel genetic factors that contribute to the marked strain difference in NAL-CPA.

  17. Attenuation of Colitis by Lactobacillus casei BL23 Is Dependent on the Dairy Delivery Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung; Yin, Xiaochen; Griffey, Stephen M; Marco, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The role of the food delivery matrix in probiotic performance in the intestine is not well understood. Because probiotics are often provided to consumers in dairy products, we investigated the contributions of milk to the health-benefiting performance of Lactobacillus casei BL23 in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine model of ulcerative colitis. L. casei BL23 protected against the development of colitis when ingested in milk but not in a nutrient-free buffer simulating consumption as a nutritional supplement. Consumption of (acidified) milk alone also provided some protection against weight loss and intestinal inflammation but was not as effective as L. casei and milk in combination. In contrast, L. casei mutants deficient in DltD (lipoteichoic acid d-alanine transfer protein) or RecA (recombinase A) were unable to protect against DSS-induced colitis, even when consumed in the presence of milk. Mice fed either L. casei or milk contained reduced quantities of colonic proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that the L. casei DltD(-) and RecA(-) mutants as well as L. casei BL23 in nutrient-free buffer were effective at modulating immune responses. However, there was not a direct correlation between colitis and quantities of these cytokines at the time of sacrifice. Identification of the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that L. casei in milk enriched for Comamonadaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae; however, the consumption of neither L. casei nor milk resulted in the restoration of the microbiota to resemble that of healthy animals. These findings strongly indicate that probiotic strain efficacy can be influenced by the food/supplement delivery matrix. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Identification of a Gene Cluster Enabling Lactobacillus casei BL23 To Utilize myo-Inositol▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra, María Jesús; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei BL23 revealed that, compared to L. casei ATCC 334, it carries a 12.8-kb DNA insertion containing genes involved in the catabolism of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol (MI). Indeed, L. casei ATCC 334 does not ferment MI, whereas strain BL23 is able to utilize this carbon source. The inserted DNA consists of an iolR gene encoding a DeoR family transcriptional repressor and a divergently transcribed iolTABCDG1G2EJK operon, encoding a complete MI catabolic pathway, in which the iolK gene probably codes for a malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase. The presence of iolK suggests that L. casei has two alternative pathways for the metabolism of malonic semialdehyde: (i) the classical MI catabolic pathway in which IolA (malonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from malonic semialdehyde and (ii) the conversion of malonic semialdehyde to acetaldehyde catalyzed by the product of iolK. The function of the iol genes was verified by the disruption of iolA, iolT, and iolD, which provided MI-negative strains. By contrast, the disruption of iolK resulted in a strain with no obvious defect in MI utilization. Transcriptional analyses conducted with different mutant strains showed that the iolTABCDG1G2EJK cluster is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor IolR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This is the first example of an operon for MI utilization in lactic acid bacteria and illustrates the versatility of carbohydrate utilization in L. casei BL23. PMID:17449687

  19. Fermi Transient J1544–0649: A Flaring Radio-weak BL Lac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Gabriele; Panessa, Francesca; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Chavushyan, Vahram; Peña-Herazo, Harold A.; Hernández-García, Lorena; Bazzano, Angela; Ubertini, Pietro; Kraus, Alex

    2018-02-01

    On 2017 May 15, the FERMI/LAT gamma-ray telescope observed a transient source not present in any previous high-energy catalog: J1544–0649. It was visible for two consecutive weeks, with a flux peak on May 21. Subsequently observed by a Swift/XRT follow-up starting on May 26, the X-ray counterpart position was coincident with the optical transient ASASSN-17gs = AT2017egv, detected on May 25, with a potential host galaxy at z = 0.171. We conducted a 4-month follow-up in radio (Effelsberg-100 m) and optical (San Pedro Mártir, 2.1 m) bands, in order to build the overall Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of this object. The radio data from 5 to 15 GHz confirmed the flat spectrum of the source, favoring a line of sight close to the jet axis, not showing significant variability in the explored post-burst time window. The Rx ratio, a common indicator of radio loudness, gives a value at the border between the radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) populations. The CaII H&K break value (0.29 ± 0.05) is compatible with the range expected for the long-sought intermediate population between BL Lacs and FRI radio galaxies. An overall SED fitting from the radio to gamma-ray band shows properties typical of a low-power BL Lac. As a whole, these results suggest that this transient could be a new example of the recently discovered class of radio-weak BL Lac, showing for the first time a flare in the gamma/X-ray bands.

  20. A Librational Model for the Propeller Blériot in the Saturnian Ring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, M.; Seiß, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Spahn, F. [Theoretical Physics Group, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Sremčević, M., E-mail: miseiler@uni-potsdam.de [LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The reconstruction of the orbital evolution of the propeller structure Blériot orbiting in Saturn’s A ring from recurrent observations in Cassini ISS images yielded a considerable offset motion from the expected Keplerian orbit. This offset motion can be composed by three sinusoidal harmonics with amplitudes and periods of 1845, 152, 58 km and 11.1, 3.7, and 2.2 years, respectively. In this paper we present results from N -body simulations, where we integrated the orbital evolution of a moonlet, which is placed at the radial position of Blériot under the gravitational action of the Saturnian satellites. Our simulations yield that, especially the gravitational interactions with Prometheus, Pandora, and Mimas are forcing the moonlet to librate with the right frequencies, but the libration amplitudes are too small to explain the observations. Thus, further mechanisms are needed to explain the amplitudes of the forced librations—e.g., moonlet–ring interactions. Here, we develop a model, where the moonlet is allowed to be slightly displaced with respect to its created gaps breaking the point symmetry and causing a repulsive force in this way. As a result, the evolution of the moonlet’s longitude can be described by a harmonic oscillator. In the presence of external forcing by the outer moons, the libration amplitudes get the more amplified the closer the forcing frequency is to the eigenfrequency of the disturbed propeller oscillator. Applying our model to Blériot, it is possible to reproduce a libration period of 13 years with an amplitude of about 2000 km.

  1. Supersymmetric U(1)Y‧⊗ U(1)B-L extension of the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J. C.; Pleitez, V.; Sánchez-Vega, B. L.; Rodriguez, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    We build a supersymmetric version with SU(3)C ⊗ SU(2)L ⊗ U(1)Y‧⊗ U(1)B-L gauge symmetry, where Y‧ is a new charge and B and L are the usual baryonic and leptonic numbers. The model has three right-handed neutrinos with identical B - L charges, and can accommodate all fermion masses at the tree level. In particular, the type I seesaw mechanism is implemented for the generation of the active neutrino masses. We obtain the mass spectra of all sectors and for the scalar one we also give the flat directions allowed by the model.

  2. Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine Administration Impairs Contextual Fear Conditioning in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jennifer A.; James, John R.; Siegel, Steven J.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of acute nicotine administration (0.09 mg/kg nicotine), chronic nicotine administration (6.3 mg/kg/d nicotine for 14 d), and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice were examined. Mice were trained using two coterminating conditioned stimulus (30 s; 85 dB white noise)– unconditioned stimulus (2 s; 0.57 mA foot shock) pairings and tested 24 h later for contextual and cued fear conditioning. Acute nicotine administration enhanced contextu...

  3. The effect of altered gut flora on glucose intolerance in C57BL/6NTac mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    Background Recent studies have shown that long term broad spectrum antibiotic treatment improves glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesize that it is primarily the early life altering of the gut microbiota, which will have an impact on glucose intolerance. Study setup 40 C57BL/6NTac mice were...... no clustering was evident. Discussion Our results substantiate the theory implying an effect of gut microbiota on glucose tolerance. Furthermore, it seems evident that a window of opportunity for altering the host-microbial interaction response exists only in early life when host immunity is still developing...

  4. BL2D-SMC, the supramolecular crystallography beamline at the Pohang Light Source II, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong Won; Eom, Kisu; Moon, Dohyun

    2016-01-01

    BL2D-SMC at the Pohang Light Source II is a supramolecular crystallography beamline based on a bending magnet. The beamline delivers high-flux tunable X-rays with energies from 8.3 to 20.7 keV and a 100 µm (horizontal) × 85 µm (vertical) full width at half-maximum focal spot. Experiments involving variable temperature, photo-excitation and gas sorption are supported by ancillary equipment and software in the beamline. The design of the beamline, its role and the main components are described.

  5. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 ?L per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in...

  6. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in mouse lymphosarcoma SL/BL cells by fluorocitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.; Juraskova, V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments using 3 H-thymidine incorporation in mouse lymphosarcoma LS/BL cells proved that the in vitro blocking of the citric acid cycle by fluorocitrate (3.6 and 7.2 mM) was accompanied by a decrease in DNA synthesis by 40 to 60 %, as compared to control cells. A similar inhibitory ejfect upon DNA synthesis was also found in cells cultivated in the abdominal cavity of host mice injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg of sodium fluoroacetate. Following the injection, fluorocitrate formed in vivo by way of Peters' lethal synthesis. (author)

  7. Transcriptional profiling of thymidine-producing strain recombineered from Escherichia coli BL21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sook Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA microarrays were used to compare the expression profiles of a thymidine overproducing strain (BLT013 and its isogenic parent, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3, when each was grown under well-defined thymidine production conditions with glycerol as carbon source. Here we describe the experimental procedures and methods in detail to reproduce the results and provide resource to be applied to similar engineering approach (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE69963. Taken together, the microarray data provide a basis for new testable hypotheses regarding enhancement of thymidine productivity and attaining a more complete understanding of nucleotide metabolism in bacteria.

  8. Mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in C7Bl and DBA mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Gairola, C G; Wu, H; Gupta, R C; Diana, J N

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which is largely composed of the sidestream cigarette smoke, has been implicated in increased incidence of cancer among nonsmokers. The present study was conducted to compare the potential of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke to induce DNA adducts in mice. Groups of female C57Bl and DBA mice were exposed twice daily for 65-70 weeks to mainstream or sidestream smoke from the University of Kentucky reference cigarettes (2R1) in a nose-only ...

  9. Postnatal Craniofacial Skeletal Development of Female C57BL/6NCrl Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The craniofacial skeleton is a complex and unique structure. The perturbation of its development can lead to craniofacial dysmorphology and associated morbidities. Our ability to prevent or mitigate craniofacial skeletal anomalies is at least partly dependent on our understanding of the unique physiological development of the craniofacial skeleton. Mouse models are critical tools for the study of craniofacial developmental abnormalities. However, there is a lack of detailed normative data of mouse craniofacial skeletal development in the literature. In this report, we employed high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT in combination with morphometric measurements to analyze the postnatal craniofacial skeletal development from day 7 (P7 through day 390 (P390 of female C57BL/6NCrl mice, a widely used mouse strain. Our data demonstrates a unique craniofacial skeletal development pattern in female C57BL/6NCrl mice, and differentiates the early vs. late craniofacial growth patterns. Additionally, our data documents the complex and differential changes in bone parameters (thickness, bone volume, bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, and tissue mineral density of various craniofacial bones with different embryonic origins and ossification mechanisms during postnatal growth, which underscores the complexity of craniofacial bone development and provides a reference standard for future quantitative analysis of craniofacial bones.

  10. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing: dyeing of acrylic fabrics C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, M M; Helmy, H M; Mashaly, H M; Kafafy, H H

    2010-01-01

    The dyeing of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% has been studied with both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effect of dye concentration, dye bath pH, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with both techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic than with conventional heating. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were studied. X-ray and Scanning Electron Microscope SEM were carried out on dyed samples using both methods of dyeing to find out an explanation for the better dyeability of acrylic fabrics with (US) method. Dyeing kinetics of acrylic fabrics using C.I. Astrazon Basic Red 5BL 200% using conventional and ultrasonic conditions were compared. The time/dye-uptake isotherms are revealing the enhanced dye-uptake in the second phase of dyeing. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time of dyeing and standard affinity and ultrasonic efficiency have been calculated and discussed.

  11. Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R., E-mail: alsuwaidia@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Albawardi, Alia, E-mail: alia.albawardi@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Almarzooqi, Saeeda, E-mail: saeeda.almarzooqi@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Benedict, Sheela, E-mail: sheela.benedict@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Othman, Aws R., E-mail: aws.rashad@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Hartwig, Stacey M., E-mail: stacey-hartwig@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Varga, Steven M., E-mail: steven-varga@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Souid, Abdul-Kader, E-mail: asouid@uaeu.ac.ae [Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-04-15

    We have previously reported that lung cellular bioenergetics (cellular respiration and ATP) increased in 4–10 week-old BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study examined the kinetics and changes in cellular bioenergetics in ≤2-week-old C57BL/6 mice following RSV infection. Mice (5–14 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV and the lungs were examined on days 1–10 post-infection. Histopathology and electron microscopy revealed preserved pneumocyte architectures and organelles. Increased lung cellular bioenergetics was noted from days 1–10 post-infection. Cellular GSH remained unchanged. These results indicate that the increased lung cellular respiration (measured by mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption) and ATP following RSV infection is independent of either age or genetic background of the host. - Highlights: • RSV infection increases lung cellular respiration and ATP in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. • Increased lung cellular bioenergetics is a biomarker of RSV infection. • Lung cellular glutathione remains unchanged in RSV infection.

  12. Anomalous energy exchange in the gBL and quasilinear theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1992-02-01

    The rate of turbulence-induced energy exchange W o between species is computed in the framework of the quasilinear and gBL transport theories, and the relationship between these two theories, and the relationship between these two similar theories is thereby elucidated. For both theories, general formal expressions for W o are developed, and then applied to the trapped electron mode for illustration. The general expressions for W o in the two theories are formally closely related, but can yield predictions of very different magnitude in concrete applications. The fact that quasilinear theory is not valid for saturated steady-state turbulence gives rise to certain peculiarities in its predictions for this normal experimental situation, such as permitting energy to flow from the cooler to the hotter species, even in the limit of thermal equilibrium, where real-space gradients vanish. The gBL theory may be viewed as a modification of quasilinear theory to be valid for steady-state turbulence, keeping extra terms due to the self-consistent back reaction of particles on the fluctuations, which are just such as to eliminate these peculiarities

  13. Sex differences in memory for landmark arrays in C57BL/J6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Tania J; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2013-11-01

    The most robust sex differences in cognition across polygynous mammalian species are the sex-specific patterns of the use of spatial cues during encoding and orientation. In laboratory rats, wild rodents, and humans, females orient preferentially to the features and arrangement of local landmarks, while males preferentially attend to distant landmarks. Yet this sex-specific pattern is often absent or reversed in the laboratory mouse, a species representing a major laboratory model of neural mechanisms. We explored sex differences in the C57BL/J6 strain of laboratory mouse by employing tasks that were motivated by the natural patterns of exploration. We predicted that such tasks would unmask the predicted default polygynous patterns of cue use by females and males. We used two standard tasks, a novel object recognition task and a five-stage serial object dishabituation task. On the first task, the results showed a female advantage in detecting the novel object, as predicted by prior results from other polygynous species. In the second task, we found, also as predicted, a male advantage in performance when the polarization of the array was distorted and a female advantage in performance when the local array was re-arranged. The pattern of sex-specific advantages in performance in C57BL/J6 mouse is thus concordant with that found in other polygynous mammals.

  14. KEEFEKTIFAN MODEL PjBL DENGAN TUGAS CREATIVE MIND-MAP UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KONEKSI MATEMATIK SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfa Ainurrizqiyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui  peningkatan kemampuan koneksi matematik, apakah terdapat perbedaan serta manakah yang lebih baik antara pembelajaran dengan model PjBL dengan tugas creative mind-map dan pembelajaran ekspositori pada siswa kelas X materi Trigonometri. Penelitian eksperimen yang dilakukan dengan pre and posttest control group design ini memiliki populasi yakni siswa kelas X SMAN 1 Sukorejo tahun ajaran 2014/2015. Dengan menggunakan cluster random sampling, terpilih sampel yaitu siswa kelas XB sebagai kelas kontrol dengan pembelajaran ekspositori dan XC sebagai kelas eksperimen dengan model PjBL dengan tugas creative mind-map. Data kemampuan koneksi matematik dianalisis menggunakan uji proporsi, uji beda rata-rata. Berdasarkan uji proporsi, diperoleh lebih dari 75 % siswa kelas eksperimen mencapai nilai ketuntasan belajar, yaitu 75. Selain itu, diperoleh adanya perbedaan hasil kemampuan koneksi matematik antar kedua kelas dimana kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada siswa kelas kontrol. Sedangkan untuk peningkatan menggunakan uji t berpasangan dan gain ternormalisasi dengan hasilnya yaitu terdapat peningkatan kemampuan koneksi matematik pada kelas eksperimen dengan kriteria tinggi.

  15. An Analysis of Periodic Components in BL Lac Object S5 0716 +714 with MUSIC Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithms are introduced to the estimation of the period of variation of BL Lac objects.The principle of MUSIC spectral analysis method and theoretical analysis of the resolution of frequency spectrum using analog signals are included. From a lot of literatures, we have collected a lot of effective observation data of BL Lac object S5 0716 + 714 in V, R, I bands from 1994 to 2008. The light variation periods of S5 0716 +714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC spectral analysis method and periodogram spectral analysis method. There exist two major periods: (3.33±0.08) years and (1.24±0.01) years for all bands. The estimation of the period of variation of the algorithm based on the MUSIC spectral analysis method is compared with that of the algorithm based on the periodogram spectral analysis method. It is a super-resolution algorithm with small data length, and could be used to detect the period of variation of weak signals.

  16. Double crystal monochromator controlled by integrated computing on BL07A in New SUBARU, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okui, Masato, E-mail: okui@kohzu.co.jp [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15, Kurigi, Asao-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan); Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan); Yato, Naoki; Watanabe, Akinobu; Lin, Baiming; Murayama, Norio [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15, Kurigi, Asao-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan); Fukushima, Sei, E-mail: FUKUSHIMA.Sei@nims.go.jp [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan); National Institute for Material Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The BL07A beamline in New SUBARU, University of Hyogo, has been used for many studies of new materials. A new double crystal monochromator controlled by integrated computing was designed and installed in the beamline in 2014. In this report we will discuss the unique features of this new monochromator, MKZ-7NS. This monochromator was not designed exclusively for use in BL07A; on the contrary, it was designed to be installed at low cost in various beamlines to facilitate the industrial applications of medium-scale synchrotron radiation facilities. Thus, the design of the monochromator utilized common packages that can satisfy the wide variety of specifications required at different synchrotron radiation facilities. This monochromator can be easily optimized for any beamline due to the fact that a few control parameters can be suitably customized. The beam offset can be fixed precisely even if one of the two slave axes is omitted. This design reduces the convolution of mechanical errors. Moreover, the monochromator’s control mechanism is very compact, making it possible to reduce the size of the vacuum chamber can be made smaller.

  17. Beam parameters of FLASH beamline BL1 from Hartmann wavefront measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, Bernhard; Juranic, Pavle; Grossmann, Peter; Kapitzki, Svea; Keitel, Barbara; Mann, Klaus; Ploenjes, Elke; Schaefer, Bernd; Tiedtke, Kai

    2011-01-01

    We report on online measurements of beam parameters in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range at the free-electron laser FLASH. A compact, self-supporting Hartmann sensor operating in the wavelength range from 6 to 30 nm was used to determine the wavefront quality of individual free-electron laser (FEL) pulses. Beam characterization and alignment of beamline BL1 was performed with λ 13.5nm /90 accuracy for wavefront rms (w rms ). A spot size of 159 μm (second moment) and other beam parameters are computed using a spherical reference wavefront generated by a 5 μm pinhole. Beam parameters are also computed relative to a reference wavefront created by a laser-driven plasma source of low coherence, proving the feasibility of such a calibration and reaching λ 13.5nm /7.5 w rms accuracy. The sensor was used for alignment of the toroidal focusing mirror of beamline BL1, resulting in a reduction of w rms by 25%, and to investigate wavefront distortions induced by thin solid filters.

  18. Protein crystallography beamline (PX-BL21); its utilization and research highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Ghosh, Biplab; Singh, Rahul; Makde, Ravindra; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2016-01-01

    The protein crystallography beamline (PX-BL21) is sourced on 1.5 T bending magnet of 2.5 GeV Indus-2 synchrotron. This beamline has been designed to perform monochromatic and anomalous diffraction experiments on single crystals of biological macromolecules such as protein, DNA and their complexes. PX beamline also has a state-of-art ancillary biochemical laboratory to prepare single crystals of biological macromolecules. Since the commissioning of the beamline, it has been utilized by more than 70% of research groups working in the area of protein crystallography in India. About 30 crystal structures of proteins, determined using this beamline, have been deposited in Protein Data Bank (PDB). Some of these structures have been determined using experimental phasing, such as the single wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) experiments. The energy tunability of the synchrotron have been exploited to carry our various SAD experiments: Selenium-SAD, Zinc-SAD and Manganese-SAD and Sulphar-SAD. In the present talk, the key results from the PX-BL21 beamline will be discussed. (author)

  19. Anxiety and memory deficits induced by tannery effluent in C57BL/6J female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Ferreira, Raissa; de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; de LimaRodrigues, Aline Sueli; de Melo E Silva, Daniela; Costa, Renata Mazaro E; da Silva Castro, André Luis; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of female C57Bl/6J mice exposed to tannery effluents diluted in drinking water. Female mice were divided into a control group, in which the animals received only drinking water, and experimental groups, which received raw tannery effluent in 7.5 and 15 % concentrations diluted in water (period of 60 days). In the last experimental week, the mice (in diestrus phase) were subjected to different behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze, open-field test, forced swim test, and object recognition test. Our data demonstrated that exposure to tannery effluent increased the anxiety index of animals and decreased the locomotion ratio in the central quadrants/total, indicating an increase in anxiety-like behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, we did not observe changes in the evaluated behaviors. There were no statistically significant differences in the recognition index of the novel and familiar object in the groups exposed to tannery effluent compared with the control group, indicating a possible influence of the constituents of tannery effluent on cognition. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that effluents, containing neurotoxic substances, could cause behavioral disruptions in female C57Bl/6J mice.

  20. Lack of evidence for neonatal misoprostol neurodevelopmental toxicity in C57BL6/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Koenig

    Full Text Available Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c. with 0.4, 4 or 40 µg/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth.

  1. Lack of Evidence for Neonatal Misoprostol Neurodevelopmental Toxicity in C57BL6/J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Claire M.; Walker, Cheryl K.; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 0.4, 4 or 40 µg/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth. PMID:22719983

  2. Cis-bifenthrin induces immunotoxicity in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Gao, Xingli; He, Bingnan; Zhu, Jiawei; Lou, Huihui; Hu, Qinglian; Jin, Yuanxiang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF) is an important synthetic pyrethroid. Previous studies have demonstrated that cis-BF exhibits toxic effects on development, the neurological, reproductive and endocrine system. In this study, we evaluated the immunotoxicity caused by cis-BF in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were exposed orally to 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks. The results showed that body weight, spleen weight, and splenic cellularity decreased in mice exposed to 20 mg/kg/d cis-BF. Additionally, we found that the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and TNF-α, in peritoneal macrophages, the spleen, and the thymus were inhibited in the cis-BF-treated groups. Moreover, MTT assays demonstrated that cis-BF inhibited splenocyte proliferation stimulated by LPS or Con A, as well as the secretion of IFN-γ on Con A stimulation. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that exposure to cis-BF has the potential to induce immunotoxicity in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Removal of Grey BL from Dye Wastewater by Derris (Pongamia Glabra Leaf Powder by Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mugugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dye, Grey BL was adsorbed on an adsorbent prepared from mature leaves of the Pungan tree (Pongamia glabra. A batch adsorption study was carried out with variable adsorbate concentration, adsorbent amount and pH. Ninety three percent of the dye could be removed by 2 g of the derris leaf powder from 1 L of an aqueous solution containing 25 mg of the dye at 300 K. The adsorption followed pseudo first order kinetics with a mean rate constant of 3.73 ×10-3 min-1 and an intraparticle diffusion rate constant of 6.36 x10-2 mg g-1 min-0.5. A possible mechanism of adsorption was suggested on the basis of concurrently operating surface adsorption and pore diffusion. The experimental data yielded excellent fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The Langmuir monolayer capacity had a mean value of 8.27 mg g-1. The results indicated that the dye, Grey BL, strongly interacts with a biomass-based adsorbent, the Derris (Pongamia glabra leaf powder.

  4. Protein crystallography beamline BL2S1 at the Aichi synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Nagae, Takayuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Tomita, Ayana; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Tabuchi, Masao (Nagoya); (Photon)

    2017-01-01

    The protein crystallography beamline BL2S1, constructed at one of the 5 T superconducting bending-magnet ports of the Aichi synchrotron, is available to users associated with academic and industrial organizations. The beamline is mainly intended for use in X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystals of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Diffraction measurements for crystals of other materials are also possible, such as inorganic and organic compounds. BL2S1 covers the energy range 7–17 keV (1.8–0.7 Å) with an asymmetric-cut curved single-crystal monochromator [Ge(111) or Ge(220)], and a platinum-coated Si mirror is used for vertical focusing and as a higher-order cutoff filter. The beamline is equipped with a single-axis goniometer, a CCD detector, and an open-flow cryogenic sample cooler. Lastly, high-pressure protein crystallography with a diamond anvil cell can also be performed using this beamline.

  5. Spontaneous autoimmunity in 129 and C57BL/6 mice-implications for autoimmunity described in gene-targeted mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Bygrave

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem autoimmune disorder in which complex genetic factors play an important role. Several strains of gene-targeted mice have been reported to develop SLE, implicating the null genes in the causation of disease. However, hybrid strains between 129 and C57BL/6 mice, widely used in the generation of gene-targeted mice, develop spontaneous autoimmunity. Furthermore, the genetic background markedly influences the autoimmune phenotype of SLE in gene-targeted mice. This suggests an important role in the expression of autoimmunity of as-yet-uncharacterised background genes originating from these parental mouse strains. Using genome-wide linkage analysis, we identified several susceptibility loci, derived from 129 and C57BL/6 mice, mapped in the lupus-prone hybrid (129 x C57BL/6 model. By creating a C57BL/6 congenic strain carrying a 129-derived Chromosome 1 segment, we found that this 129 interval was sufficient to mediate the loss of tolerance to nuclear antigens, which had previously been attributed to a disrupted gene. These results demonstrate important epistatic modifiers of autoimmunity in 129 and C57BL/6 mouse strains, widely used in gene targeting. These background gene influences may account for some, or even all, of the autoimmune traits described in some gene-targeted models of SLE.

  6. Pengaruh Pembelajaran Project Based Learning (PjBL pada Materi Ekosistem terhadap Sikap dan Hasil Belajar Siswa SMAN 2 Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susriyati Mahanal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the effect of Project Based Learning (PjBL to the attitude and student cognitive achievement in SMAN 2 Malang. This research applied quasy experimental with non-equivalent control group design. The populations of this research is all student of class X SMAN 2 Malang on academic year 2008/2009. The samples of this research were class X7 as experimental (PjBL and class X8 as control (conventional. The instrument of this research namely cognitive achievement test and attitude scale questionnaire to river ecosystem. This research data are quantitative data consisted by score cognitive achievement and attitude scale questionnaire to river ecosystem, collected on 14 Maret until 31 May 2009. Data were analysed by bilinear covariant statistical analysis (Ancova, continued with LSD test. The result of this research indicated that there were PjBL toward the cognitive achievement and student attitude to river ecosystem. Students with PjBl having attitude higher 11,65% from conventional students. Beside, students with PjBl having cognitive achievement higher 81,05% from conventional students. Based on this research, the researcher suggest to the teacher that this strategy can be implemented in biology learning.   Kata kunci: Project Based Learning, sikap terhadap ekosistem sungai, hasil belajar

  7. Behavioral Differences Between C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 Hybrid Mice: Relation to Control of Ethanol Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Ozburn, A. R.; Harris, R. A.; Blednov, Y. A.

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 (B6 × FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 × NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 × NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 × FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and we...

  8. Possible Role of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Activity of Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 on Symbiosis with Mung Bean and Determinate Nodule Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Sripakdi, Sudarat; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Teaumroong, Neung

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 forms symbiotic interactions with mung bean (Vigna radiata) and contains lrpL-acdS genes, which encode the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of plant ethylene synthesis. Since ethylene interferes with nodule formation in some legumes and plays a role in senescence in plant cells, BL3-enhancing ACC deaminase activity (BL3+) and defective mutant (BL3−) strains were constructed in order to investigate the effects of this enzyme on symbiosis and nodule senescence. Nodulation competitiveness was weaker in BL3− than in the wild-type, but was stronger in BL3+. The inoculation of BL3− into mung bean resulted in less plant growth, a lower nodule dry weight, and smaller nodule number than those in the wild-type, whereas the inoculation of BL3+ had no marked effects. However, similar nitrogenase activity was observed with all treatments; it was strongly detected 3 weeks after the inoculation and gradually declined with time, indicating senescence. The rate of plant nodulation by BL3+ increased in a time-dependent manner. Nodules occupied by BL3− formed smaller symbiosomes, and bacteroid degradation was more prominent than that in the wild-type 7 weeks after the inoculation. Changes in biochemical molecules during nodulation were tracked by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and the results obtained confirmed that aging processes differed in nodules occupied by BL3 and BL3−. This is the first study to show the possible role of ACC deaminase activity in senescence in determinate nodules. Our results suggest that an increase in ACC deaminase activity in this strain does not extend the lifespan of nodules, whereas the lack of this activity may accelerate nodule senescence. PMID:26657304

  9. Acute Immune Response to Mycobacterium massiliense in C57BL/6 and BALB/c Mice ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins de Sousa, Eduardo; Bonfim de Bortoli, Fernando; Amaral, Eduardo Pinheiro; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Liberman Kipnis, Thereza; Marques Cardoso, Alessandra; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium massiliense is an environmental opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with soft tissue infection after minor surgery. We studied the acute immune response of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice infected intravenously with 106 CFU of an M. massiliense strain isolated from a nosocomial infection in Brazil. The results presented here show that M. massiliense is virulent and pathogenic to both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, inducing a granulomatous inflammatory reaction that involves the activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells induced by gamma interferon and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in C57BL/6 mice and by IL-12 in BALB/c mice. PMID:20123718

  10. Antihyperglycaemic effect of laser acupuncture treatment at BL20 in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Becerril-Chávez, Flavia; Carlín-Vargas, Gabriel; Ordoñez-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Abrajan-González, María Del Carmen; de la Cruz-Ramírez, Rosario; Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the antihyperglycaemic activity of laser acupuncture stimulation at 650 and 980 nm at BL20 in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Seventy healthy adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 250±50 g were divided into seven groups of 10 animals each. Groups I-III comprised healthy control rats which were untreated (I) or stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 nm (II) and 980 nm (III), respectively. Groups IV-VII underwent induction of diabetes with a single intraperitoneal administration of STZ at 50 mg/kg. Animals with blood glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL on the fifth day were used for the experiments and were left untreated (group IV), treated with glibenclamide (group V) or stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 nm (group VI) and 980 nm (group VII), respectively. Laser acupuncture was applied at BL20 on alternate days for a total of 12 sessions over a 28-day period. After 28 days of treatment, STZ-induced diabetic rats stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 and 980 nm had significantly lower glucose levels compared with untreated diabetic rats (242.0±65.0 and 129.8±33.2 vs 376.5±10.0 mg/dL, both p≤0.05). Treatment at 980 nm also attenuated the increase in glucose between day 1 and day 28 compared with the glibenclamide-treated diabetic group (41.5±19.6 mg/dL vs 164.1±13.7 g/dL, pacupuncture treatment did not affect the blood count or biochemical profile and was not associated with any morphological changes in the pancreas, liver, kidney or spleen. Stimulation with laser acupuncture at 650 and 980 nm at BL20 in STZ-induced diabetic rats has antihyperglycaemic activity. The results support further evaluation of laser acupuncture as an alternative or complementary treatment for the control of hyperglycaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Data on morphometric analysis of the pancreatic islets from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Aparecido da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine portion of the pancreas, which is characterized by pancreatic islets, has been widely investigated among different species. The BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are extensively used in experimental research, and the morphometric differences in the pancreatic islets of these animals have not been evaluated so far. Thus, our data have a comparative perspective related to the morphometric analysis of area, diameters, circularity, and density of pancreatic islets from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The data presented here are focused to evaluate the differences in morphology of pancreatic islets of two common laboratory mouse strains.

  12. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  13. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Redshift of the BL Lac Object TXS 0506+056

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiano, Simona; Falomo, Renato; Treves, Aldo; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2018-02-01

    The bright BL Lac object TXS 0506+056 is the most likely counterpart of the IceCube neutrino event EHE 170922A. The lack of this redshift prevents a comprehensive understanding of the modeling of the source. We present high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy, in the range 4100–9000 Å, obtained at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. The spectrum is characterized by a power-law continuum and is marked by faint interstellar features. In the regions unaffected by these features, we found three very weak (EW ∼ 0.1 Å) emission lines that we identify with [O II] 3727 Å, [O III] 5007 Å, and [N II] 6583 Å, yielding the redshift z = 0.3365 ± 0.0010.

  15. Spectroscopy of 10 γ -Ray BL Lac Objects at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiano, Simona; Falomo, Renato [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Landoni, Marco [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Treves, Aldo [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Scarpa, Riccardo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/O Via Lactea, s/n E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2017-08-01

    We present optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio of 10 BL Lac objects detected at GeV energies by the Fermi satellite (3FGL catalog), which previous observations suggested are at relatively high redshift. The new observations, obtained at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, allowed us to find the redshift for J0814.5+2943 ( z = 0.703), and we can set a spectroscopic lower limit for J0008.0+4713 ( z > 1.659) and J1107.7+0222 ( z > 1.0735) on the basis of Mg ii intervening absorption features. In addition we confirm the redshifts for J0505.5+0416 ( z = 0.423) and J1450+5200 ( z > 2.470). Finally we contradict the previous z estimates for five objects (J0049.7+0237, J0243.5+7119, J0802.0+1005, J1109.4+2411, and J2116.1+3339).

  16. Rare codons effect on expression of recombinant gene cassette in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Esmaeili-Bandboni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the sensitivity of expression of fusion genes to existence of a large number of rare codons in recombinant gene sequenced. Methods: Primers for amplification of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were designed by Primer3 software and synthesized. All of these 3 genes were cloned. Then the genes were fused together by restriction sites and enzymatic method. Two linkers were used as a flexible bridge in connection of these genes. Results: Cloning and fusion of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were done correctly. After that, expression of the recombinant gene construction was surveyed. Conclusions: According to what was seen, because of the accumulation of 12 rare codons of Shiga toxin B and 19 rare codons of cholera toxin B in this gene cassette, the expression of the recombinant gene cassette, in Escherichia coli BL21, failed.

  17. Newly designed double surface bimorph mirror for BL-15A of the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki.igarashi@kek.jp; Nitani, Hiroaki; Takeichi, Yasuo; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Kimura, Masao; Mori, Takeharu; Nagatani, Yasuko; Kosuge, Takashi; Kamijo, Ai; Koyama, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobutaka [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, Hiromasa [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd. 20F Carrot Tower 4-1-1 Taishido, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8520 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    BL-15A is a new x-ray undulator beamline at the Photon Factory. It will be dedicated to two independent research activities, simultaneous XAFS/XRF/XRD experiments, and SAXS/WAXS/GI-SAXS studies. In order to supply a choice of micro-focus, low-divergence and collimated beams, a double surface bimorph mirror was recently developed. To achieve further mirror surface optimization, the pencil beam scanning method was applied for “in-situ” beam inspection and the Inverse Matrix method was used for determination of optimal voltages on the piezoelectric actuators. The corrected beam profiles at every focal spot gave good agreement with the theoretical values and the resultant beam performance is promising for both techniques. Quick and stable switching between highly focused and intense collimated beams was established using this new mirror with the simple motorized stages.

  18. The bio-crystallography beamline (BL41XU) at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, M; Kamiya, N

    2001-01-01

    The bio-crystallography beamline (BL41XU), one of two pilot beamlines at SPring-8, was constructed using a standard in-vacuum-type undulator and opened for general users from domestic and overseas countries. Many tests and improvements were carried out on beamline elements and equipment for macromolecular crystallography, especially on the so-called 'pin-post' water cooling crystal of rotated-inclined double crystal monochromator. The maximum brilliance at sample position reached to 4x10 sup 1 sup 5 photons/s/mm sup 2 /mrad sup 2 at an X-ray energy of 11 keV. Commercially available X-ray detectors of CCD and imaging plate were installed in the experimental station. A beamline control software system for beam tracking and an on-line reader for large-format imaging plate were newly developed.

  19. The effect of cage size on reproductive performance and behavior of C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Julia; Moy, Sheryl S; Saville, Benjamin R; Godfrey, Virginia; Nielsen, Judith; Bellinger, Dwight; Bradfield, John

    2007-11-01

    Scientific research has yet to conclusively determine the optimal cage size for mice. The authors examined the effect of cage size on mouse breeding performance and on offspring behavior, which can serve as indications of overall well-being. They housed breeding trios of C57BL/6Tac mice in standard or large individually ventilated cages and measured four reproductive parameters: litter size; litter survival to weaning age; average pup weight at 7, 14 and 21 days; and the number of days between litter births. They investigated the behavior of a subset of male and female pups from parents housed in cages of each size in the elevated plus maze test, the open field assay and the acoustic startle test. Cage size had no significant effect on any of the reproductive parameters measured and few or inconsistent effects on behavior in weaned pups.

  20. [Presbycusis: neural degeneration and aging on the auditory receptor of C57/BL6J mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, E; Carricondo, F; Bartolomé, M V; Vicente-Torres, A; Poch Broto, J; Gil-Loyzaga, P

    2006-11-01

    Presbycusis is a progressive hearing impairment associated with aging, characterized by hearing loss and a degeneration of cochlear structures. In this paper we analyze the effects of aging on the auditory system of C57/BL6J mice, with electrophysiological and morphological studies. With this aim the auditory potentials of mice aging 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months were recorded, and then the morphology of the cochleal were analyzed. Auditory potentials revealed an increase in wave latencies, as well as a decrease in their amplitudes during aging. Morphological results showed a total Corti's organ degeneration, being replaced by a flat epithelial layer, and a total absence of hair cells.

  1. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in mouse lymphosarcoma LS/BL cells by fluorocitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, L; Jurásková, V

    1975-01-01

    Fluorocitrate is a specific inhibitor of aconitase activity (EC 4.2.1.3). It causes an inhibition of citric acid cycle reactions and consequently reduces the oxygen consumption, as well as the total volume of oxidative phosphorylations. Experiments using 3H-thymidine incorporation into mouse lymphosarcoma LS/BL cells proved that the in vitro blocking of citric acid cycle by fluorocitrate (3.6 and 7.2 mM) was accompanied by a decrease in DNA synthesis by 40 to 60 percent, as compared to control cells. A similar inhibitory effect upon DNA synthesis was also found in cells cultured in the abdominal cavity of host mice injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg./kg. of sodium fluoroacetate. Following the injection, fluorocitrate is formed in vivo by way of Peters' lethal synthesis.

  2. Sex differences in response to activity-based anorexia model in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamrah, Najate; Nobis, Séverine; Goichon, Alexis; Breton, Jonathan; Legrand, Romain; do Rego, Jean Luc; do Rego, Jean Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O; Belmonte, Liliana; Coëffier, Moïse

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe eating disorder often associated with physical hyperactivity and is more frequently observed in female sex. Activity-Based Anorexia (ABA) model combines physical activity (PA) and reduced food intake and thus allows a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anorexia nervosa. We aimed to assess sex differences in response to ABA model in C57Bl/6 mice. Twenty four male and 16 female C57BL/6 mice were studied. ABA mice were placed in individual cages with a continuously recorded activity wheel. ABA mice had a progressive limited food access from 6h/day (day 6) to 3h/day (day 9) until the end of the protocol (day 17). Body weight and food intake were daily measured. We studied physical activity during 24h, during the dark phase (D-PA) and the light phase (L-PA). We also evaluated the feeding anticipatory physical activity (A-PA), the physical activity during food intake period (FI-PA) and the post-prandial physical activity (PP-PA). We observed 16.7% of mortality in males (4 out of 24 mice) during ABA protocol while no female mice died (p=0.09). At day 17, food intake was significantly higher in females than in males (pweight loss than in females (pactivity were observed. From day 9, A-PA significantly increased over time in males (pactivities and, respectively, food intake and body weight loss showed gender differences, in particularly for L-PA and A-PA. Our results suggest a greater susceptibility of male mice to develop ABA, males and females exhibit different patterns of physical activity after limitation of food access. Underlying mechanisms should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attentional processing in C57BL/6J mice exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R Harms

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests that Developmental Vitamin D (DVD deficiency is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in mice is associated with altered behaviour, however there has been no detailed investigation of cognitive behaviours in DVD-deficient mice. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of DVD deficiency on a range of cognitive tasks assessing attentional processing in C57BL/6J mice. DVD deficiency was established by feeding female C57BL/6J mice a vitamin D-deficient diet from four weeks of age. After six weeks on the diet, vitamin D-deficient and control females were mated with vitamin D-normal males and upon birth of the pups, all dams were returned to a diet containing vitamin D. The adult offspring were tested on a range of cognitive behavioural tests, including the five-choice serial reaction task (5C-SRT and five-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT, as well as latent inhibition using a fear conditioning paradigm. DVD deficiency was not associated with altered attentional performance on the 5C-SRT. In the 5C-CPT DVD-deficient male mice exhibited an impairment in inhibiting repetitive responses by making more perseverative responses, with no changes in premature or false alarm responding. DVD deficiency did not affect the acquisition or retention of cued fear conditioning, nor did it affect the expression of latent inhibition using a fear conditioning paradigm. DVD-deficient mice exhibited no major impairments in any of the cognitive domains tested. However, impairments in perseverative responding in DVD-deficient mice may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  4. Developing and validating trace fear conditioning protocols in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Michael A; Simmons, Cassandra A; Hughes, Miles; Lei, Lei

    2014-01-30

    Classical fear conditioning is commonly used to study the biology of fear, anxiety and memory. Previous research demonstrated that delay conditioning requires a neural circuit involving the amygdala, but not usually the hippocampus. Trace and contextual fear conditioning require the amygdala and hippocampus. While these paradigms were developed primarily using rat models, they are increasingly being used in mice. The current studies develop trace fear conditioning and control paradigms to allow for the assessment of trace and delay fear conditioning in C57BL/6N mice. Our initial protocol yielded clear delay and contextual conditioning. However, trace conditioning failed to differentiate from an unpaired group and was not hippocampus-dependent. These results suggested that the protocol needed to be modified to specifically accommodate trace conditioning the mice. In order to reduce unconditioned freezing and increase learning, the final protocol was developed by decreasing the intensity of the tone and by increasing the inter-trial interval. Our final protocol produced trace conditioned freezing that was significantly greater than that followed unpaired stimulus exposure and was disrupted by hippocampus lesions. A review of the literature produced 90 articles using trace conditioning in mice. Few of those articles used any kind of behavioral control group, which is required to rule out non-associative factors causing fearful behavior. Fewer used unpaired groups involving tones and shocks within a session, which is the optimal control group. Our final trace conditioning protocol can be used in future studies examining genetically modified C57BL/6N mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative genomic analyses of the cyanobacterium, Lyngbya aestuarii BL J, a powerful hydrogen producer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita eKothari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii is an important contributor to marine intertidal microbial mats system worldwide. The recent isolate L. aestuarii BL J, is an unusually powerful hydrogen producer. Here we report a morphological, ultrastructural and genomic characterization of this strain to set the basis for future systems studies and applications of this organism. The filaments contain circa 17 μm wide trichomes, composed of stacked disk-like short cells (2 μm long, encased in a prominent, laminated exopolysaccharide sheath. Cellular division occurs by transversal centripetal growth of cross-walls, where several rounds of division proceed simultaneously. Filament division occurs by cell self-immolation of one or groups of cells (necridial cells at the breakage point. Short, sheath-less, motile filaments (hormogonia are also formed. Morphologically and phylogenetically L. aestuarii belongs to a clade of important cyanobacteria that include members of the marine Trichodesmiun and Hydrocoleum genera, as well as terrestrial Microcoleus vaginatus strains, and alkalyphilic strains of Arthrospira. A draft genome of strain BL J was compared to those of other cyanobacteria in order to ascertain some of its ecological constraints and biotechnological potential. The genome had an average GC content of 41.1 %. Of the 6.87 Mb sequenced, 6.44 Mb was present as large contigs (>10,000 bp. It contained 6515 putative protein-encoding genes, of which, 43 % encode proteins of known functional role, 26 % corresponded to proteins with domain or family assignments, 19.6 % encode conserved hypothetical proteins, and 11.3 % encode apparently unique hypothetical proteins. The strain’s genome reveals its adaptations to a life of exposure to intense solar radiation and desiccation. It likely employs the storage compounds, glycogen and cyanophycin but no polyhydroxyalkanoates, and can produce the osmolytes, trehalose and glycine

  6. Bisphenol A impairs hepatic glucose sensing in C57BL/6 male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Perreault

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose sensing (eg. glucokinase activity becomes impaired in the development of type 2 diabetes, the etiology of which is unclear. Estrogen can stimulate glucokinase activity, whereas the pervasive environmental pollutant bisphenol A (BPA can inhibit estrogen action, hence we aimed to determine the effect of BPA on glucokinase activity directly. METHODS: To evaluate a potential acute effect on hepatic glucokinase activity, BPA in water (n = 5 vs. water alone (n = 5 was administered at the EPA's purported "safe dose" (50 µg/kg by gavage to lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice. Two hours later, animals were euthanized and hepatic glucokinase activity measured over glucose levels from 1-20 mmol/l in liver homogenate. To determine the effect of chronic BPA exposure on hepatic glucokinase activity, lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice were provided with water (n = 15 or water with 1.75 mM BPA (∼50 µg/kg/day; n = 14 for 2 weeks. Following the 2-week exposure, animals were euthanized and glucokinase activity measured as above. RESULTS: Hepatic glucokinase activity was signficantly suppressed after 2 hours in animals given an oral BPA bolus compared to those who received only water (p = 0.002-0.029 at glucose 5-20 mmol/l; overall treatment effect p<0.001. Exposure to BPA over 2 weeks also suppressed hepatic glucokinase activity in exposed vs. unexposed mice (overall treatment effect, p = 0.003. In both experiments, the Hill coefficient was higher and Vmax lower in mice treated with BPA. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Both acute and chronic exposure to BPA significantly impair hepatic glucokinase activity and function. These findings identify a potential mechanism for how BPA may increase risk for diabetes.

  7. Cornu cervi pantotrichum Pharmacopuncture Solution Facilitate Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Yong Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP has been widely used in Korean and China, as an anti-fatigue, anti-aging, and tonic agent to enhance the functions of the reproductive and the immune systems. Because CCP has various growth factors that play important roles in the development of hair follicles, we examined whether CCP pharmacopuncture solution (CCPPS was capable of promoting hair growth in an animal model. Methods: One day after hair depilation, CCPPS were topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 15 days. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using macro- and microscopic observations. Dorsal skin tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7 were examined by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was also conducted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expression of FGF-7. Results: CCPPS induced more active hair growth than normal saline. Histologic analysis showed enlargement of the dermal papilla, elongation of the hair shaft, and expansion of hair thickness in CCPPS treated mice, indicating that CCPPS effectively induced the development of anagen. CCPPS treatment markedly increased the expressions of BrdU and PCNA in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, CCPPS up regulated the expression of FGF-7, which plays an important role in the development of hair follicles. Conclusion: These results reveal that CCPPS facilitates hair re-growth by proliferation of hair follicular cells and up-regulation of FGF-7 and suggest that CCPPS can potentially be applied as an alternative treatment for patients with alopecia.

  8. High-level production of membrane proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) by omitting the inducer IPTG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kuipers, Grietje; Niemiec, Łukasz; Baumgarten, Thomas; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Hjelm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For membrane protein production, the Escherichia coli T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP)-based protein production strain BL21(DE3) in combination with T7-promoter based expression vectors is widely used. Cells are routinely cultured in Lysogeny broth (LB medium) and expression of the

  9. Effects of LAR and PTP-BL phosphatase deficiency on adult mouse retinal cells activated by lens injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorber, B.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Berry, M.; Logan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Using intact and lens-lesioned wildtype, leucocyte common antigen-related phosphatase deficient (LARDeltaP) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-BAS-like phosphatase deficient (PTP-BLDeltaP) mice, we have evaluated the role of LAR and PTP-BL in retinal ganglion cell survival and neuritogenesis,

  10. METHANOL EXPOSURE DURING GASTRULATION CAUSES HOLOPROSENCEPHALY, FACIAL DYSGENESIS AND CERVICAL VERTEBRAL MALFORMATIONS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice to methanol during the period of gastrulation results in exencephaly, cleft palate, and cervical vertebra malformations (Rogers and Mole, 1997, Teratology 55, 364). C57BL/6J mice are sensitive to the teratogenicity of ethanol; fetuses of this strai...

  11. Modulation of ambient temperature promotes inflammation and initiates atherosclerosis in wild type C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Giles

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: In sum, our novel data in WT C57Bl/6 mice suggest that modulation of a single environmental variable, temperature, dramatically alters mouse physiology, metabolism, and inflammation, allowing for an improved mouse model of atherosclerosis. Thus, thermoneutral housing of mice shows promise in yielding a better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of diverse diseases.

  12. Organ culture of C57BL/6 mouse arteries with LPS as an in vitro model of vascular inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Emilie Middelbo; Mehryar, Rahila; Boonen, Harrie C.M.

    an in vitro model for studying vascular inflammation and function in cultured arteries from C57BL/6 mice. Methods: Segments of abdominal aorta and mesenteric arteries (MA) were incubated for 24 hours at 37̊C and 95% O2/5% CO2 in DMEM ± 100 ng/mL LPS. Aorta segments were frozen for molecular studies...... was achieved at a normalisation factor of 0.9 (0.91 ± 0.06, mean ± SEM, n = 9) as observed (0.85 ± 0.06, mean ± SEM, n = 3) and previously described in rat MA (Mulvany and Halpern, 1977). Furthermore, preliminary findings show that organ culture with 100 ng/mL LPS decreases endothelium-dependent dilation of C......57BL/6 MA along with increased expression of inflammatory markers in aorta. Conclusions: In C57BL/6 MA, maximum active wall tension was achieved with a normalisation factor of 0.9. Furthermore, organ culture with LPS induces vascular inflammation and functional changes in C57BL/6 arteries...

  13. Ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in hepatocytes of C57BL/10 mice: a time-course study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siersema, P. D.; Cleton-Soeteman, M. I.; de Bruijn, W. C.; ten Kate, F. J.; van Eijk, H. G.; Wilson, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the time-sequence relationship between ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in livers of C57BL/10 mice, a biochemical, morphological and morphometrical study was performed. Uroporphyria was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of hexachlorobenzene plus iron

  14. p75(NTR) independent oligodendrocyte death in cuprizone-induced demyelination in C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, JCVM; Kust, BM; Mantingh-Otter, [No Value; Boddeke, HWGM

    2005-01-01

    Feeding C57Bl/6 J mice the copper chelator cuprizone leads to selective apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes and concomitant demyelination predominantly in the corpus callosum. The process of oligodendrocyte apoptosis in this animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS) involves early microglial

  15. Stimulation of the growth of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus Acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium Lactis BL-04, by selected prebiotic canditates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Knudsen, Anne; Bandsholm, O.

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotics have been shown to support the growth of probiotic bacteria thereby having a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected and structurally different carbohydrate prebiotic candidate by measuring their capability to stimulate the growth of the two pro...... probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acdophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis BL-04....

  16. Maternal inhalation of surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) in C57BL/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Halappanavar, Sabina; Hougaard, Karin Sorig

    2013-01-01

    We investigated effects of maternal pulmonary exposure to titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) on prenatally exposed offspring. Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were inhalation exposed (1 h/day to 42 mg UV-Titan/m(3) aerosolised powder or filtered air) during gestation days (GDs) 8-18. We evaluated DNA...

  17. Strawinsky: Ragtime, Oktett für Bläser, Neeme Järvi / Werner Pfister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pfister, Werner

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strawinsky: Ragtime, Oktett für Bläser, Die Geschichte vom Soldaten (Suite), Petruschka. Royal Scottish National Orchestra, Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, Neeme Järvi". (AD: 1986-93). Chandos/Koch CD 9291 (WD:74'40")

  18. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: We demonstrated...

  19. Construction of a Wide-range High-resolution Beamline BL05 in NewSUBARU for Soft X-ray Spectroscopic Analysis on Industrial Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K; Hasegawa, T; Uemura, M; Niibe, M; Haruyama, Y; Motoyama, M; Amemiya, K; Fukushima, S; Ohta, T

    2013-01-01

    A material analysis beamline which is designed to useable in the wide energy range, 50∼4000 eV for the various industrial demands, was constructed at BL05 in NewSUBARU for industrial companies' use in cooperation with the Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo and well-informed researchers in the industrial world. BL05 consists of two branch lines, which is mounted with a double crystal monochromator at BL05A and grating monochromator at BL05B. XAFS measurements in the total electron yield mode and partial fluorescence yield mode using a silicon drift detector can be performed at the both branch lines. In addition, the photoelectron spectra can be measured at BL05B. The maintenance and management of BL05 are performed by Synchrotron Analysis LLC (SALLC), which is a consortium of user companies of BL05, under the supervision of the LASTI staff. If industrial users want help with measurements at BL05, operators of SALLC can assist them.

  20. Construction of a Wide-range High-resolution Beamline BL05 in NewSUBARU for Soft X-ray Spectroscopic Analysis on Industrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Uemura, M.; Niibe, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Motoyama, M.; Amemiya, K.; Fukushima, S.; Ohta, T.

    2013-03-01

    A material analysis beamline which is designed to useable in the wide energy range, 50~4000 eV for the various industrial demands, was constructed at BL05 in NewSUBARU for industrial companies' use in cooperation with the Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo and well-informed researchers in the industrial world. BL05 consists of two branch lines, which is mounted with a double crystal monochromator at BL05A and grating monochromator at BL05B. XAFS measurements in the total electron yield mode and partial fluorescence yield mode using a silicon drift detector can be performed at the both branch lines. In addition, the photoelectron spectra can be measured at BL05B. The maintenance and management of BL05 are performed by Synchrotron Analysis LLC (SALLC), which is a consortium of user companies of BL05, under the supervision of the LASTI staff. If industrial users want help with measurements at BL05, operators of SALLC can assist them.

  1. Indomethacin treatment prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, but not glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: We performed experiments to examine the metabolic consequences of inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF/HS diet for 7 weeks under thermoneutral conditio...

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 induces a G1-phase arrest in neuroblastoma cells through altered expression of cell cycle proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Krista; de Ruijter, Annemieke J. M.; van Bree, Chris; Caron, Huib N.; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.

    2005-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been discovered as potential drugs for cancer treatment. The effect of BL1521, a novel HDACi, on the cell cycle distribution and the induction of apoptosis was investigated in a panel of MYCN single copy and MYCN amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. BL1521

  3. Iterative solution of multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics using the BL-QMR algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Finite-element discretizations of time-harmonic acoustic wave problems in exterior domains result in large sparse systems of linear equations with complex symmetric coefficient matrices. In many situations, these matrix problems need to be solved repeatedly for different right-hand sides, but with the same coefficient matrix. For instance, multiple right-hand sides arise in radiation problems due to multiple load cases, and also in scattering problems when multiple angles of incidence of an incoming plane wave need to be considered. In this talk, we discuss the iterative solution of multiple linear systems arising in radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics by means of a complex symmetric variant of the BL-QMR method. First, we summarize the governing partial differential equations for time-harmonic structural acoustics, the finite-element discretization of these equations, and the resulting complex symmetric matrix problem. Next, we sketch the special version of BL-QMR method that exploits complex symmetry, and we describe the preconditioners we have used in conjunction with BL-QMR. Finally, we report some typical results of our extensive numerical tests to illustrate the typical convergence behavior of BL-QMR method for multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics, to identify appropriate preconditioners for these problems, and to demonstrate the importance of deflation in block Krylov-subspace methods. Our numerical results show that the multiple systems arising in structural acoustics can be solved very efficiently with the preconditioned BL-QMR method. In fact, for multiple systems with up to 40 and more different right-hand sides we get consistent and significant speed-ups over solving the systems individually.

  4. Acupuncture at BL67 for mild postpartum depression: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chen Bin

    2018-03-14

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of acupuncture on mild postpartum depression (PPD). 15 patients diagnosed with PPD were enrolled in the study. Patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria received acupuncture therapy eight times over 4 weeks in the form of two 20-min treatment sessions per week. The treatment site was the BL67 acupuncture point (on the outside of the fifth toenail). After disinfecting the skin on the toes, sterile steel needles were gently inserted into the acupuncture point until the patient started to feel numb or swollen, a sensation known as de qi . Acupuncture was performed by the same doctor using HuanQiu stainless steel needles that were 0.2 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) was used to evaluate the clinical effects of this therapy. Questionnaires were distributed to patients before therapy and 1 week after therapy and were immediately completed and checked. Treatment was associated with symptomatic improvement for all patients who adhered to therapy. The nine patients who completed treatment had an average pain score of 6.66 (SD 0.86); these patients' average pre-treatment pain score was 10.83 (SD 1.47). Six patients who did not complete treatment had an average pain score of 11.23 (SD 1.48); the average pre-treatment pain score of these patients was 10.5 (SD 2.21). Thus, symptoms did not significantly improve for patients who failed to adhere to the therapy. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to HAMD score before treatment (P=0.363). By contrast, asignificant between-group difference in post-treatment HAMD score was detected (P=0.001). Two patients discontinued treatment due to haemorrhage at the site of needling, and four patients discontinued treatment due to the inconvenience of traffic. There were no significant complications. Acupuncture therapy at BL67 may alleviate symptoms of mild PPD, however controlled clinical investigations are

  5. Erionite induces production of autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Peña, Cecelia [Northwest Nazarene University, Nampa, ID (United States); Ng, Kok Wei [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Pfau, Jean C., E-mail: pfaujean@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Background: Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives: We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in the kidneys. Results: Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the T{sub H}17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in the kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. - Highlights: • Erionite, a fibrous mineral, is a current public health concern in the western USA. • Erionite exposure induces antinuclear autoantibodies in exposed mice. • Erionite induces a clear Th17 cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. • These responses were

  6. Erionite induces production of autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad; Peña, Cecelia; Ng, Kok Wei; Pfau, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives: We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in the kidneys. Results: Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the T H 17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in the kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. - Highlights: • Erionite, a fibrous mineral, is a current public health concern in the western USA. • Erionite exposure induces antinuclear autoantibodies in exposed mice. • Erionite induces a clear Th17 cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. • These responses were distinct

  7. Efecto de la ciclosporina A en ratones C57BL/6 infectados con Encephalitozoon intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luz Galván

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Encephalitozoon intestinalis es un microsporidio parásito del intestino, que puede diseminarse en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Existen referencias de modelos animales inmunosuprimidos para el estudio de la microsporidiosis utilizando fármacos que producen supresión total de la respuesta inmune; sin embargo, no se han estudiado los efectos de inmunosupresores con acción selectiva sobre los componentes de esta respuesta. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la inmunosupresión con ciclosporina A (CsA en ratones C57BL/6 infectados con E. intestinalis. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 80 ratones C57BL/6 distribuidos en cuatro grupos: infectados, inmunosuprimidos e infectados, inmunosuprimidos no infectados y controles. La inmunosupresión con CsA (50 mg/kg se realizó vía intraperitoneal durante todo el estudio. En la semanas 2, 3, 4 y 6 posteriores a la infección se obtuvo sangre para determinar los anticuerpos, y materia fecal para evaluar la cinética de excreción de esporas. Además, se extrajeron varios órganos para estudiar la histopatología y observar la posible diseminación del parásito. Resultados. La producción de anticuerpos IgG fue mayor en los ratones inmunocompetentes infectados que en los inmunosuprimidos infectados con E. intestinalis. No se encontró el parásito en órganos diferentes al intestino delgado en los dos grupos infectados. Sin embargo, la excreción de esporas, tanto en heces como en líquido duodenal, fue mayor en el grupo inmunosuprimido infectado. Conclusión. La CsA en el modelo en ratón no indujo la diseminación de E. intestinalis ni la exacerbación de la enfermedad, pero contribuyó al aumento en la cinética de excreción de esporas y la disminución de la producción de anticuerpos IgG en los ratones inmunosuprimidos infectados.

  8. Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine Administration Impairs Contextual Fear Conditioning in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer A.; James, John R.; Siegel, Steven J.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acute nicotine administration (0.09 mg/kg nicotine), chronic nicotine administration (6.3 mg/kg/d nicotine for 14 d), and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice were examined. Mice were trained using two coterminating conditioned stimulus (30 s; 85 dB white noise)– unconditioned stimulus (2 s; 0.57 mA foot shock) pairings and tested 24 h later for contextual and cued fear conditioning. Acute nicotine administration enhanced contextual fear conditioning, chronic nicotine administration had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration impaired contextual fear conditioning. Plasma nicotine concentrations were similar after acute and chronic treatment and were within the range reported for smokers. During withdrawal, concentrations of nicotine were undetectable. An acute dose of nicotine (0.09 mg/kg) during withdrawal from chronic nicotine treatment reversed withdrawal-associated deficits in contextual fear conditioning. The results suggest that tolerance to the effects of nicotine on contextual fear conditioning develops with chronic nicotine treatment at a physiologically relevant dose, and withdrawal from this chronic nicotine treatment is associated with impairments in contextual fear conditioning. These findings provide a model of how the effects of nicotine on learning may contribute to the development and maintenance of nicotine addiction. PMID:16177040

  9. Effect of heat treatment on precipitation on V-5Cr-5Ti heat BL63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Li, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The microstructures of V-5Cr-5Ti heat BL63 are compared following heat treatments at 1125{degrees}C for 1 h and 1125{degrees}C for 1 h followed by 890{degrees}C for 24 h. Following the 890{degrees}C treatment, precipitate density was increased due to the presence of a moderate density of highly elongated particles. Microchemical analysis showed that these particles often contained both Ti and V, some particles showed minor amounts of Si, S, and P, but it was also possible to show that these precipitates were enriched in O rather than C or N. Following the 1125{degrees}C heat treatment, only Si was found as a minor impurity in large particles, but S could be identified at grain boundaries, which were coated with a fine distribution of precipitates. The embrittlement observed is ascribed to a combination of interstitial solid solution hardening and grain boundary embrittlement, with interstitial hardening likely the dominant factor.

  10. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room. PMID:27423146

  11. Characterization of a wheat-Thinopyrum bessarabicum (T2JS-2BS.2BL) translocation line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zengjun; Du, Pei; Qian, Baoli; Zhuang, Lifang; Chen, Huafeng; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Jian; Guo, Jie; Feng, Yigao; Pei, Ziyou

    2010-08-01

    Thinopyrum bessarabicum (2n = 2x = 14, JJ or E(b)E(b)) is an important genetic resource for wheat improvement due to its salinity tolerance and disease resistance. Development of wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. In this study, a novel wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation line T2JS-2BS.2BL, which carries a segment of Th. bessarabicum chromosome arm 2JS was identified and further characterized using sequential chromosome C-banding, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), dual-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA markers. The translocation breakpoint was mapped within bin C-2BS1-0.53 of chromosome 2B through marker analysis. Compared to the Chinese Spring (CS) parent and to CS-type lines, the translocation line has more fertile spikes per plant, longer spikes, more grains per spike and higher yield per plant, which suggests that the alien segment carries yield-related genes. However, plants with the translocation are also taller, head later and have lower 1,000-kernel weight than CS or CS-type lines. By using markers specific to the barley photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1, it was determined that the late heading date was conferred by a recessive allele located on the 2JS segment. In addition, four markers specific for the translocated segment were identified, which can be used for marker-aided screening.

  12. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  13. Effect of Modified Alkaline Supplementation on Syngenic Melanoma Growth in CB57/BL Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Azzarito

    Full Text Available Tumor extracellular acidity is a hallmark of malignant cancers. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a commercially available water alkalizer (Basenpulver® (BP on tumor growth in a syngenic melanoma mouse model. The alkalizer was administered daily by oral gavage starting one week after tumor implantation in CB57/BL mice. Tumors were calipered and their acidity measured by in vivo MRI guided 31P MRS. Furthermore, urine pH was monitored for potential metabolic alkalosis. BP administration significantly reduced melanoma growth in mice; the optimal dose in terms of tolerability and efficacy was 8 g/l (p< 0.05. The in vivo results were supported by in vitro experiments, wherein BP-treated human and murine melanoma cell cultures exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell growth. This investigation provides the first proof of concept that systemic buffering can improve tumor control by itself and that this approach may represent a new strategy in prevention and/or treatment of cancers.

  14. Probiotics lower plasma glucose in the high-fat fed C57BL/6J mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, U; Bränning, C; Ahrné, S; Molin, G; Alenfall, J; Onning, G; Nyman, M; Holm, C

    2010-06-01

    Today, the gut microbiota is considered a key organ in host nutritional metabolism and recent data have suggested that alterations in gut microbiota contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Accordingly, a whole range of beneficial effects relating to inflammation and gut health have been observed following administration of probiotics to both humans and different animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of an oral probiotic supplement, Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313, to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice, a model of human obesity and early diabetes. The mice were fed the experimental diets for 20 weeks, after which the HFD had induced an insulin-resistant state in both groups compared to the start of the study. The increase in body weight during the HFD feeding was higher in the probiotic group than in the control group, however, there were no significant differences in body fat content. Fasting plasma glucose levels were lower in the group fed the probiotic supplement, whereas insulin and lipids were not different. Caecal levels of short-chain fatty acids were not significantly different between the groups. An oral glucose tolerance test showed that the group fed probiotics had a significantly lower insulin release compared to the control group, although the rate of glucose clearance was not different. Taken together, these data indicate that L. plantarum DSM 15313 has anti-diabetic properties when fed together with an HFD.

  15. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Thomas W; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  16. Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Experimental Autoimune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi Jahromi, Soodeh; Ghaemi, Amir; Alizadeh, Akram; Sabetghadam, Fatemeh; Moradi Tabriz, Hedieh; Togha, Mansoureh

    2016-06-01

    Several religions recommend periods of fasting. One of the most frequently asked questions of MS patients before the holy month of Ramadan is weather fasting might have an unfavorable effect on their disease course. This debate became more challenging after the publication of experimental studies suggesting that calorie restriction prior to disease induction attenuates disease severity. We conducted this study to assess early and late effects of fasting on the animal model of MS, known as autoimmune encephalomyelitis. EAE was induced in the C57BL/6 mice, using Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycopeptide  (MOG) 35-55 and they fasted every other day either after the appearance of the first clinical sign or 30 days after disease induction for ten days. Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed for further histological and immunological evaluations. Intermittent fasting after the establishment of EAE did not have any unfavorable effect on the course of disease. Moreover, fasting at the early phase of disease alleviated EAE severity by ameliorating spinal cord demyelination. Fasting suppressed the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α and raised IL-10 production in splenocytes. Fasting was also associated with a lower percent of cytotoxicity. Intermittent fasting not only had no unfavorable effect on EAE but also reduced EAE severity if started at early phase of disease.

  17. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  18. Antiatherogenic effects of structured lipid containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Ki-Teak; Kim, Mee Ree

    2005-09-07

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were enzymatically acidolyzed with olive oil to produce structured lipids (SL), and their antiatherosclerotic properties were investigated in C57BL/6J mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups and fed control diet or atherogenic diets supplemented with high cholesterol and high fat (HCHF) containing 5% of lard, olive oil, or SL based on control diet for 4 weeks. The supplementation of SL diet (0.6% CLA) significantly reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol and total triglyceride and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as compared to lard and olive oil diet groups (p PE) (0.47 mol %) than in phosphatidylcholine (PC) (0.05 mol %) of hepatic phospholipids. Hepatic phospholipids (PC and PE) of mice fed the SL diet contained reduced contents of arachidonic and linoleic acid compared with mice fed the olive oil or lard diet. The present study suggests that SL could be considered as a functional oil for preventing risks of atheroscelerosis.

  19. The effects of breeding protocol in C57BL/6J mice on adult offspring behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Foldi

    Full Text Available Animal experiments have demonstrated that a wide range of prenatal exposures can impact on the behaviour of the offspring. However, there is a lack of evidence as to whether the duration of sire exposure could affect such outcomes. We compared two widely used methods for breeding offspring for behavioural studies. The first involved housing male and female C57Bl/6J mice together for a period of time (usually 10-12 days and checking for pregnancy by the presence of a distended abdomen (Pair-housed; PH. The second involved daily introduction of female breeders to the male homecage followed by daily checks for pregnancy by the presence of vaginal plugs (Time-mated; TM. Male and female offspring were tested at 10 weeks of age on a behavioural test battery including the elevated plus-maze, hole board, light/dark emergence, forced swim test, novelty-suppressed feeding, active avoidance and extinction, tests for nociception and for prepulse inhibition (PPI of the acoustic startle response. We found that length of sire exposure (LSE had no significant effects on offspring behaviour, suggesting that the two breeding protocols do not differentially affect the behavioural outcomes of interest. The absence of LSE effects on the selected variables examined does not detract from the relevance of this study. Information regarding the potential influences of breeding protocol is not only absent from the literature, but also likely to be of particular interest to researchers studying the influence of prenatal manipulations on adult behaviour.

  20. Morphological changes in lymph nodes and spleen upon EAE induction in C57BL/6 mic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslovarić Irina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG is a protein widely used in the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE for studying human multiple sclerosis (MS. In C57BL/6 female mice aged eight weeks, we administered subcutaneously MOG35-55 peptide in CFA (complete Freund’s adjuvant along with pertussis vaccine injected intraperitoneally. We observed the sign of flaccid tail as early as thirteen days post-immunization in five of twelve animals. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of paraffin-embedded sections of lymph nodes and spleen revealed the presence of germinal centers in the immunized animals. In the control group of animals, lymphoid follicles without germinal centers were observed. Immunohistochemical staining of spleen sections revealed an expression of MHC II molecules in the EAE-induced group. We would like to point out that even though the clinical signs are mild, the morphological changes are apparent in the lymph nodes and spleen of MOG35-55-immunized mice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. M-175050

  1. Nutrient composition and starch characteristics of Quercus glandulifera Bl. seeds from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songnan; Zhou, Yibin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Shengnan

    2015-10-15

    The chemical composition and starch characteristics of acorn (Quercus glandulifera Bl.) were studied. The moisture content of acorn seeds was 7.55%. The crude fat, crude protein, dietary fiber, total ash, and nitrogen-free extract contents of acorn seed were 4.20%, 10.16%, 2.95%, 0.03%, and 82.66%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic were the most predominant fatty acids. UFA:SFA and SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratios were 2.6:1 and 1.25:1.34:1, respectively. The essential amino acid content from acorn seeds was low based on FAO reference values. Acorn seeds were a good source of Fe, Zn, and Mn. The contents of vitamins A and E were 1.40 mg RE/100g and 10.78 mg/100 g, respectively. Starch extracted from acorn seeds had round, triangle, and elliptical morphology with granule size of 3.3-126.2 μm. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin contents was 25.39:72.94. Acorn starch had a typical A-type crystal pattern with 23.53% relative crystallinity. The gelatinization temperature was 66.53 °C and the transition enthalpy was 4.33 J/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Elston

    Full Text Available There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  3. Aniracetam Does Not Alter Cognitive and Affective Behavior in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Thomas W.; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D.; Holley, Andrew J.; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs. PMID:25099639

  4. Construction and performance of BL28 of the Photon Factory for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagoshima, Y.; Muto, S.; Miyahara, T.; Koide, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Kitamura, H.

    1992-01-01

    A branch beamline, BL28A, has been constructed for the application of circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The radiation can be obtained in the helical undulator operation mode of an insertion device, EMPW number-sign 28, which is also cut for elliptically polarized hard x-ray radiation. T first harmonic of the helical undulator radiation can be tuned from 40 to 350 eV with its corresponding K value from 3 to 0.2. A monochromator working basically with constant deviation optics was installed, and has started its operation. A circularly polarized flux of ∼10 10 photons/s has been achieved with energy resolution of around 500--1000 at the first harmonic peak. The circular polarization after the monochromator was estimated to be higher than 70% by comparing theory and experiment on the magnetic circular dichroism of nickel films in the 3p-3d excitation region. The design philosophy of the beamline and recent results on the performance tests are presented

  5. Hepatitis B virus core antigen determines viral persistence in a C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Huang, Li-Rung; Yang, Hung-Chih; Tzeng, Horng-Tay; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Wu, Hui-Lin; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2010-05-18

    We recently developed a mouse model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence, in which a single i.v. hydrodynamic injection of HBV DNA to C57BL/6 mice allows HBV replication and induces a partial immune response, so that about 20-30% of the mice carry HBV for more than 6 months. The model was used to identify the viral antigen crucial for HBV persistence. We knocked out individual HBV genes by introducing a premature termination codon to the HBV core, HBeAg, HBx, and polymerase ORFs. The specific-gene-deficient HBV mutants were hydrodynamically injected into mice and the HBV profiles of the mice were monitored. About 90% of the mice that received the HBcAg-mutated HBV plasmid exhibited high levels of hepatitis B surface antigenemia and maintained HBsAg expression for more than 6 months after injection. To map the region of HBcAg essential for viral clearance, we constructed a set of serial HBcAg deletion mutants for hydrodynamic injection. We localized the essential region of HBcAg to the carboxyl terminus, specifically to the 10 terminal amino acids (HBcAg176-185). The majority of mice receiving this HBV mutant DNA did not elicit a proper HBcAg-specific IFN-gamma response and expressed HBV virions for 6 months. These results indicate that the immune response triggered in mice by HBcAg during exposure to HBV is important in determining HBV persistence.

  6. Ethanol consumption affects lipoprotein lipase gene expression in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudráková, E; Kovár, J

    2007-01-01

    The activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is increased after alcohol consumption and can contribute to an increased level of HDL-cholesterol, which is considered to play a key role in the ethanol-mediated protective effect against cardiovascular disease. The increase in HDL-cholesterol concentration can be also due to an ethanol-enhanced synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) from hepatocytes. Therefore, the hypothesis that ethanol consumption affects the LPL and apo A-I gene (LPL and APOA1, respectively) expression was tested in male C57BL/6 mice drinking 5 % ethanol or water and fed a standard chow or high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks. The LPL expression was determined in the heart, epididymal and dorsolumbal adipose tissues, the APOA1 expression in the liver. Alcohol consumption did not affect lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in the serum. The LPL expression was increased in the heart of mice given ethanol and HF diet compared to mice on chow and ethanol (pconsumption. Our data suggest that ethanol consumption upregulates LPL expression in a tissue- and diet-dependent manner.

  7. Development of a system for genetic manipulation of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Andrew; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the metabolism and metabolic regulation of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris BL2 is required to understand its role in methane oxidation in the environment, and methods for genetics manipulation are essential tools in these investigations. In addition, the ability to engineer the metabolic capabilities of M. silvestris may well have useful biotechnological applications. We describe a simple and effective method of genetic manipulation for this organism which relies on the electroporation of a linear DNA fragment to introduce chromosomal gene deletions. In a two-step procedure, the gene of interest is first replaced with an antibiotic-resistance cassette which is subsequently removed, resulting in an unmarked gene deletion. This method is illustrated by the deletion of isocitrate lyase, which abolished growth on one-carbon and severely disabled growth on two-carbon compounds. Subsequent complementation with the wild-type gene and promoter restored growth, demonstrating stable transcription from the broad-host-range plasmid employed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Seed Maturity, Temperature and Storage Period on Vigor of Picrasma javanica Bl. Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINIK SETYOWATI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of seed maturity, temperature and period of storage on vigor of Picrasma javanica Bl. seedling was conducted at the Macropropagation Laboratory, Research Centre of Biology, LIPI, Cibinong, from March to September 2008. The research was arranged using Randomized Block Design with 3 factors and 3 replications, in which each replication had 20 samples. The first factor was stage of seed maturation with 2 levels i.e. pre-mature and mature stage; the second factor was storage temperature with 3 levels i.e. ambient temperature (28±1ºC, 20ºC and 5ºC; and the third factor was storage period with 4 levels i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 months. The result showed that the germination time of Picrasma javanica seed was varies between 11-23 days. The mature seeds had better growth as compared to pre-mature seeds. Storage on the ambient temperature (28±1ºC caused decrease of seed vigor, so is not suggested to seeds store in the ambient temperature. The storage under lower temperature (5ºC and 20ºC was able to maintain seed vigor until 3 months storage.

  9. Neural stem cell isolation and culture from C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Koirala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A widely used in vitro culture, the neurosphere assay (NSA has provided a means to retrospectively identify neural progenitor cells as well as to determine both their selfrenewal capacity. Objective of study was to isolate and compare growth of the embryonic neuronal stem cell and adult neuronal stem cells in presence of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF and Fibroblastic Growth Factor (FGF2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Embryonic neuronal stem cell were collected from cortical plate of dorsal telencephalon of fifteen C57BL/6 transgenic mice using stereoscopic microscope on 11th gestational day (GD. Adult mammalian neuronal stem cells taken from subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were cultured. The growth for the neurosphere was then observed in interval of 24 and 72 hours. RESULT The adult stem cell culture showed few intact cells with high amount of debris and 9% heterogeneous sphere after 24 hours while only 20 % was observed at the end of 72 hours. Higher proliferation rate was observed in embryonic neurospheres than the adult stem cell culture. CONCLUSION Presence of EGF and basic FGF2 is essential for culture of neurospheres.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12946 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 1-3

  10. Effects of spaceflight on the immunoglobulin repertoire of unimmunized C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Claire; Rettig, Trisha A.; Hlavacek, Savannah; Bye, Bailey A.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2018-02-01

    Spaceflight has been shown to suppress the adaptive immune response, altering the distribution and function of lymphocyte populations. B lymphocytes express highly specific and highly diversified receptors, known as immunoglobulins (Ig), that directly bind and neutralize pathogens. Ig diversity is achieved through the enzymatic splicing of gene segments within the genomic DNA of each B cell in a host. The collection of Ig specificities within a host, or Ig repertoire, has been increasingly characterized in both basic research and clinical settings using high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS). We utilized HTS to test the hypothesis that spaceflight affects the B-cell repertoire. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the impact of spaceflight on the unimmunized Ig repertoire of C57BL/6 mice that were flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the Rodent Research One validation flight in comparison to ground controls. Individual gene segment usage was similar between ground control and flight animals, however, gene segment combinations and the junctions in which gene segments combine was varied among animals within and between treatment groups. We also found that spontaneous somatic mutations in the IgH and Igκ gene loci were not increased. These data suggest that space flight did not affect the B cell repertoire of mice flown and housed on the ISS over a short period of time.

  11. Lactobacillus casei BL23 Produces Microvesicles Carrying Proteins That Have Been Associated with Its Probiotic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paula Domínguez Rubio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaea, bacteria, and eukarya secrete membrane microvesicles (MVs as a mechanism for intercellular communication. We report the isolation and characterization of MVs from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. MVs were characterized using analytical high performance techniques, DLS, AFM and TEM. Similar to what has been described for other Gram-positive bacteria, MVs were on the nanometric size range (30–50 nm. MVs carried cytoplasmic components such as DNA, RNA and proteins. Using a proteomic approach (LC-MS, we identified a total of 103 proteins; 13 exclusively present in the MVs. The MVs content included cell envelope associated and secretory proteins, heat and cold shock proteins, several metabolic enzymes, proteases, structural components of the ribosome, membrane transporters, cell wall-associated hydrolases and phage related proteins. In particular, we identified proteins described as mediators of Lactobacillus’ probiotic effects such as p40, p75 and the product of LCABL_31160, annotated as an adhesion protein. The presence of these proteins suggests a role for the MVs in the bacteria-gastrointestinal cells interface. The expression and further encapsulation of proteins into MVs of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe bacteria could represent a scientific novelty, with applications in food, nutraceuticals and clinical therapies.

  12. Cannabidiol (CBD) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaus, Peer W F; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R; Kaminski, Norbert E; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2013-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a plant-derived cannabinoid that has been predominantly characterized as anti-inflammatory. However, it is clear that immune effects of cannabinoids can vary with cannabinoid concentration, or type or magnitude of immune stimulus. The present studies demonstrate that oral administration of CBD enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. The enhanced inflammatory cell infiltrate as observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was comprised mainly of neutrophils, with some monocytes. Concomitantly, CBD enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA production, including tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfa), interleukins (IL)-5 and -23 (Il6, Il23), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). These results demonstrate that the CBD-mediated enhancement of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated at the level of transcription of a variety of pro-inflammatory genes. The significance of these studies is that CBD is part of a therapeutic currently in use for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis patients, and therefore it is important to further understand mechanisms by which CBD alters immune function.

  13. Anomalous viral expression in radiogenic lymphomas of C57BL/Ka mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, M.; Kaplan, H.S.; Decleve, A.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation-induced lumphomas of C57BL/Ka mice differ strikingly from those induced by the passaged virus originally obtained from them in that viral antigen is either absent or only minimally detectable in the thymic lymphoma cells by the immunofluorescence procedure employed. The status of the virus in these mice is not presently known. As a working hypothesis, we postulate that irradiation of the animal leads to a derepression or activation of a latent viral genome and that thereafter only partial virus expression is required to initiate transformation in susceptible cell types. A very small fraction of the virus population may proceed to complete expression of all virus-associated properties, including antigenicity and infectivity. Although this fraction is too small to be detected initially by the methods used, it is sufficient to infect and transform susceptible host cells after inoculation, although with low efficiency. Serial, in vivo viral passage thereafter leads to marked and fairly rapid increases in both antigenic expression and infectivity, but the mechanisms through which these changes are effected are not known. An interesting feature, manifested after infection of fibroblasts in vitro with subcellular extracts from radiogenic lymphomas, is that the emergent virus may exhibit N-tropism

  14. BL4S, or how CERN sets the stage for teenage scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Launched in 2014, the Beamline for Schools (BL4S) competition allows high-school students between 16 and 18 years old to run a real experiment at CERN’s PS accelerator (see here). For two years, students and schools worldwide have risen to the challenge and taken part enthusiastically in the competition. To ensure that it runs smoothly and enjoyably, over 100 CERN people work behind the scenes. The Bulletin lifts the curtain.   Student teams from Greece and the Netherlands – the winners of CERN’s first Beamline for schools competition – came to CERN to work on their experiments using a test beam. Turning young high-school students into real physicists who use a high-energy beam, set up an experiment and deal with data acquisition and analysis, is no game. For the people at CERN, the first step is to select the best proposals from those received from schools worldwide. “In 2015, over 40 scientists helped us select the best proposa...

  15. Variable quasi-stellar sources with particular emphasis on objects of the BL Lac type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinman, T.D.

    1975-01-01

    The optically variable quasars tend to have steep optical spectra and to show variable polarization; they tend to be associated with compact radio sources which have flat radio spectra at GHz frequencies. Objects are known which have continuous spectra (like BL Lac and OJ 287), but whose other properties closely parallel those of the variable quasars and N galaxies; in fact no sharp distinction can be drawn between them. The variation in the visibility of emission lines in quasars and N galaxies could be due to variations in the strength and spectral index of the radiation from the non-thermal source and from the differences in the amount and disposition of the material around it; it does not seem likely that a combination of these factors accounts for the observed range in emission line strength. The systematic difference in optical spectral index between continuous-spectrum objects (and OVV variables) on the one hand and those with emission lines on the other will produce a difference in K term between them, which may be expected to affect their distributions with respect to apparent magnitude. (Auth.)

  16. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a

  17. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dolores; Martín, Sara; Fernández-Lorente, Gloria; Filice, Marco; Guisán, José Manuel; Ventosa, Antonio; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a lipolytic enzyme from a halophilic bacterium M. lipolyticus

  18. A high-fat diet delays age-related hearing loss progression in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fujita

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (AHL, or presbycusis, is the most common sensory disorder among the elderly. We used C57BL/6J mice as an AHL model to determine a possible association between AHL and a high-fat diet (HFD.Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a control or HFD group. Each group was divided into the following subgroups: 1-, 3-, 5- and 12-month groups (HFD, n = 5/subgroup; control, n = 5/subgroup. Nine CBA/N-slc mice were also used as a 12-month control (n = 5 or 12-month HFD (n = 4 group. The mice were fed a HFD or normal (control diet throughout this study. Hearing function was evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 12 months using auditory evoked brainstem responses (ABRs. Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs were also counted.The elevation of ABR thresholds (at 4 and 32 kHz at 3 and 5 months was significantly suppressed in the HFD group compared with the control groups for C57BL/6J mice. After 12 months, the elevation of ABR thresholds was significantly suppressed in the HFD group at all frequencies for C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CBA/N-slc mice displayed opposite outcomes, as ABR thresholds at all frequencies at 12 months were significantly elevated in the HFD group compared with the control group. For the C57BL/6J mice at 12 months, SGC numbers significantly decreased in all parts of the cochleae in the control group compared with the HFD groups. In contrast, for the CBA/N-slc mice, SGC numbers significantly decreased, particularly in the upper parts of the cochleae in the HFD group compared with the control groups.The elevation in ABR thresholds and SGC loss associated with aging in the HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were significantly suppressed compared with those in the normal diet-fed mice. These results suggest that HFD delays AHL progression in the C57B/6J mice.

  19. A High-Fat Diet Delays Age-Related Hearing Loss Progression in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Uehara, Natsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Hasegawa, Shingo; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age-related hearing loss (AHL), or presbycusis, is the most common sensory disorder among the elderly. We used C57BL/6J mice as an AHL model to determine a possible association between AHL and a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a control or HFD group. Each group was divided into the following subgroups: 1-, 3-, 5- and 12-month groups (HFD, n = 5/subgroup; control, n = 5/subgroup). Nine CBA/N-slc mice were also used as a 12-month control (n = 5) or 12-month HFD (n = 4) group. The mice were fed a HFD or normal (control) diet throughout this study. Hearing function was evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 12 months using auditory evoked brainstem responses (ABRs). Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) were also counted. Results The elevation of ABR thresholds (at 4 and 32 kHz) at 3 and 5 months was significantly suppressed in the HFD group compared with the control groups for C57BL/6J mice. After 12 months, the elevation of ABR thresholds was significantly suppressed in the HFD group at all frequencies for C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CBA/N-slc mice displayed opposite outcomes, as ABR thresholds at all frequencies at 12 months were significantly elevated in the HFD group compared with the control group. For the C57BL/6J mice at 12 months, SGC numbers significantly decreased in all parts of the cochleae in the control group compared with the HFD groups. In contrast, for the CBA/N-slc mice, SGC numbers significantly decreased, particularly in the upper parts of the cochleae in the HFD group compared with the control groups. Conclusions The elevation in ABR thresholds and SGC loss associated with aging in the HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were significantly suppressed compared with those in the normal diet-fed mice. These results suggest that HFD delays AHL progression in the C57B/6J mice. PMID:25625852

  20. Multi-Band Spectral Properties of Fermi Blazars Benzhong Dai ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galaxies: active—BL Lacertae objects—general—gamma rays—observations. 1. Introduction. The First Fermi-LAT Catalogue (1LAC) of AGN, corresponding to 11 months of data collected in scientific operation mode, includes 709 AGNs, comprising 300 BL. Lacs, 296 FSRQs, 41 AGNs of other types and 72 AGNs of ...

  1. Differential Insulin Secretion of High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6NN and C57BL/6NJ Mice: Implications of Mixed Genetic Background in Metabolic Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Attané

    Full Text Available Many metabolic studies employ tissue-specific gene knockout mice, which requires breeding of floxed gene mice, available mostly on C57BL/6N (NN genetic background, with cre or Flp recombinase-expressing mice, available on C57BL/6J (JJ background, resulting in the generation of mixed C57BL/6NJ (NJ genetic background mice. Recent awareness of many genetic differences between NN and JJ strains including the deletion of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (nnt, necessitates examination of the consequence of mixed NJ background on glucose tolerance, beta cell function and other metabolic parameters. Male mice with NN and NJ genetic background were fed with normal or high fat diets (HFD for 12 weeks and glucose and insulin homeostasis were studied. Genotype had no effect on body weight and food intake in mice fed normal or high fat diets. Insulinemia in the fed and fasted states and after a glucose challenge was lower in HFD-fed NJ mice, even though their glycemia and insulin sensitivity were similar to NN mice. NJ mice showed mild glucose intolerance. Moreover, glucose- but not KCl-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets was decreased in HFD-fed NJ vs NN mice without changes in insulin content and beta cell mass. Under normal diet, besides reduced fed insulinemia, NN and NJ mice presented similar metabolic parameters. However, HFD-fed NJ mice displayed lower fed and fasted insulinemia and glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo and ex vivo, as compared to NN mice. These results strongly caution against using unmatched mixed genetic background C57BL/6 mice for comparisons, particularly under HFD conditions.

  2. C57BL/6 mice need MHC class II Aq to develop collagen-induced arthritis dependent on autoreactive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcklund, Johan; Li, Cuiqin; Jansson, Erik; Carlsen, Stefan; Merky, Patrick; Nandakumar, Kutty-Selva; Haag, Sabrina; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Zubarev, Roman A; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2013-07-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) has traditionally been performed in MHC class II A(q)-expressing mice, whereas most genetically modified mice are on the C57BL/6 background (expressing the b haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region). However, C57BL/6 mice develop arthritis after immunisation with chicken-derived collagen type II (CII), but arthritis susceptibility has been variable, and the immune specificity has not been clarified. To establish a CIA model on the C57BL/6 background with a more predictable and defined immune response to CII. Both chicken and rat CII were arthritogenic in C57BL/6 mice provided they were introduced with high doses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis adjuvant. However, contaminating pepsin was strongly immunogenic and was essential for arthritis development. H-2(b)-restricted T cell epitopes on chicken or rat CII could not be identified, but expression of A(q) on the C57BL/6 background induced T cell response to the CII260-270 epitope, and also prolonged the arthritis to be more chronic. The putative (auto)antigen and its arthritogenic determinants in C57BL/6 mice remains undisclosed, questioning the value of the model for addressing T cell-driven pathological pathways in arthritis. To circumvent this impediment, we recommend MHC class II congenic C57BL/6N.Q mice, expressing A(q), with which T cell determinants have been thoroughly characterised.

  3. Computational design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001) with apoptosis-inducing mechanisms in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Fu, Leilei; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yonghui; Ouyang, Liang; He, Gu; Huang, Jian

    2015-03-30

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) plays a crucial role in the resistance of apoptosis in carcinogenesis; however, its targeted small-molecule inhibitors still remain to be discovered. Thus, in this study, we computationally and experimentally screened a series of small-molecule inhibitors targeting ERK toward different types of human breast cancer cells. Subsequently, we synthesized some candidate ERK inhibitors, identified a novel ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001) with anti-proliferative activities, and analyzed the BL-EI001/ERK complex. Moreover, we found that BL-EI001 induced breast cancer cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway but independent on Ras/Raf/MEK pathway. In addition, we carried out proteomics analyses for exploring some possible BL-EI001-induced apoptotic pathways, and further found that BL-EI001-induced apoptosis affected ERK phosphorylation in breast cancer. Further, we found that BL-EI001 bear anti-tumor activities without remarkable toxicities, and also induced mitochondrial apoptosis by targeting ERK in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in silico design and experimental discovery of a synthesized small-molecule ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001)as a potential novel apoptosis-inducing drug in the treatment of breast cancer.

  4. Acupuncture of Weizhong (BL 40) and Zusanli (ST 36) on the study of brain function by PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Guangrui; Chen Ying; Yan Bin; Liu Cheng; Wang Guangcai; Tan Qiwen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between acupuncture of the points and certain functional areas of brain by PET/CT imaging. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were acupunctured separately in the point Weizhong (BL 40, right leg) and Zusanli(ST 36, right leg), and 5 consecutive PET/CT images were taken, statistical parameter map (SPM) paired t-test was analyzed between the different activated brain PET/CT imagings. Results: Changes of PET/CT imaging were found in acupuncture of the point Weizhong (BL 40) and Zusanli(ST 36) in 12 healthy volunteers. High metabolic areas were demonstrated in multiple brain regions, the data of two groups had significant difference between 2 points (t>4.03, P< 0.01). Conclusion: Acupuncturing the different point resulted activation of the glucose metabolism in different brain areas. (authors)

  5. The effects of benzil amino purin (BAP and gibberellin with in vitro seedling growth of pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Status kelangkaan pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. termasuk rawan (vulnerable karena tingginya permintaan dan mahalnya harga menyebabkan eksploitasi pulesari di hutan meningkat sedangkan upaya konservasi dan budidayanya belum ada. Selama ini perbanyakan pulesari hanya mengandalkan biji di alam. Benih pulesari persentase perkecambahannya tergolong sangat rendah, waktu lama dan sulit diperbanyak secara vegetatif. Memperhatikan sulitnya mendapatkan bibit pulesari secara konvensional maka perlu dilakukan dengan cara kultur jaringan. Metode: Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium kultur jaringan Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional Tawangmangu selama tiga bulan. Bibit A. reinwardtii Bl. diperoleh dari Pringgondani Forest, Tawangmangu. Biji kupas dan dikeringkan selama lima hari, dicuci menggunakan aquadest steril, direndam pada 0,5% Agrept 5 menit kemudian pada 2,125% natrium hipochorida 5 menit dan dibilas menggunakan aquades steril. Media Murashige dan Skoog (MS disiapkan sesuai komposisi. Penelitian ini rancangan acak lengkap (RAL pola faktorial. Faktor pertama konsentrasi zat pengatur tumbuh BAP pada konsentrasi 3, 4 dan 5 mg/l dan faktor kedua konsentrasi giberelin dari 1, 2 dan 3 mg/l. Media MS yang dimodifikasi dengan penambahan BAP konsentrasi 3, 4, dan 5 mg/l dan giberelin konsentrasi 1, 2, dan 3 mg/l sehingga diperoleh 9 kombinasi perlakuan. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi perlakuan zat pengatur tumbuh BAP  mg/l dan giberelin 2 mg/l pada media MS terbentuk tunas dan akar. Tunas terbentuk pada 30 hari setelah tanam dengan tinggi 2 cm dan akar muncul pada 45 hari setelah tanam dalam satu kali percobaan. Kesimpulan: Pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. dapat diperbanyak melalui kultur jaringan menggunakan biji sebagai eksplan. Kaca kunci : pulesari, Alyxia reinwardtii Bl, BAP dan giberelin Abstract Background: Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. in natural habitat becomes rare and reaches

  6. BL-7010 demonstrates specific binding to gliadin and reduces gluten-associated pathology in a chronic mouse model of gliadin sensitivity.

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    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder in individuals that carry DQ2 or DQ8 MHC class II haplotypes, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. There is no current treatment other than a gluten-free diet (GFD. We have previously shown that the BL-7010 copolymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate (P(HEMA-co-SS binds with higher efficiency to gliadin than to other proteins present in the small intestine, ameliorating gliadin-induced pathology in the HLA-HCD4/DQ8 model of gluten sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of two batches of BL-7010 to interact with gliadin, essential vitamins and digestive enzymes not previously tested, and to assess the ability of the copolymer to reduce gluten-associated pathology using the NOD-DQ8 mouse model, which exhibits more significant small intestinal damage when challenged with gluten than HCD4/DQ8 mice. In addition, the safety and systemic exposure of BL-7010 was evaluated in vivo (in rats and in vitro (genetic toxicity studies. In vitro binding data showed that BL-7010 interacted with high affinity with gliadin and that BL-7010 had no interaction with the tested vitamins and digestive enzymes. BL-7010 was effective at preventing gluten-induced decreases in villus-to-crypt ratios, intraepithelial lymphocytosis and alterations in paracellular permeability and putative anion transporter-1 mRNA expression in the small intestine. In rats, BL-7010 was well-tolerated and safe following 14 days of daily repeated administration of 3000 mg/kg. BL-7010 did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the genetic toxicity studies. Using complementary animal models and chronic gluten exposure the results demonstrate that administration of BL-7010 is effective and safe and that it is able to decrease pathology associated with gliadin sensitization warranting the progression to Phase I trials in humans.

  7. Affinity labelling in situ of the bL12 protein on E. coli 70S ribosomes by means of a tRNA dialdehyde derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hountondji, Codjo; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Le Caër, Jean-Pierre; Lancelot, Véronique; Cognet, Jean A H; Baouz, Soria

    2017-12-01

    In this report, we have used periodate-oxidized tRNA (tRNAox) as an affinity laleling reagent to demonstrate that: (i) the bL12 protein contacts the CCA-arm of P-site bound tRNA on the Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes; (ii) the stoichiometry of labelling is one molecule of tRNAox bound to one polypeptide chain of endogenous bL12; (iii) cross-linking in situ of bL12 with tRNAox on the ribosomes provokes the loss of activity; (iv) intact tRNA protects bL12 in the 70S ribosomes against cross-linking with tRNAox; (v) both tRNAox and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) compete for the same or for proximal cross-linking site(s) on bL12 inside the ribosome; (vi) the stoichiometry of cross-linking of PLP to the recombinant E. coli bL12 protein is one molecule of PLP covalently bound per polypeptide chain; (vii) the amino acid residue of recombinant bL12 cross-linked with PLP is Lys-65; (viii) Lys-65 of E. coli bL12 corresponds to Lys-53 of eL42 which was previously shown to cross-link with P-site bound tRNAox on human 80S ribosomes in situ; (ix) finally, E. coli bL12 and human eL42 proteins display significant primary structure similarities, which argues for evolutionary conservation of these two proteins located at the tRNA-CCA binding site on eubacterial and eukaryal ribosomes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Ontogeny of fear-, anxiety- and depression-related behavior across adolescence in C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hefner, Kathryn; Holmes, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by behavioral traits such as emotional lability and impulsivity that are associated with increased vulnerability to affective illness and addictions. Research in rodents has found that adolescent rats and mice differ from adults on measures of anxiety-like behavior, novelty-seeking and stress-responsivity. The present study sought to extend these data by evaluating fear-, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in male C57BL/6J mice aged four (early adolescent),...

  9. Exacerbation of substrate toxicity by IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) carrying a synthetic metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Chrast, Lukas; Nikel, Pablo I; Fedr, Radek; Soucek, Karel; Sedlackova, Miroslava; Chaloupkova, Radka; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Prokop, Zbynek; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-12-21

    Heterologous expression systems based on promoters inducible with isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), e.g., Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and cognate LacI(Q)/P(lacUV5)-T7 vectors, are commonly used for production of recombinant proteins and metabolic pathways. The applicability of such cell factories is limited by the complex physiological burden imposed by overexpression of the exogenous genes during a bioprocess. This burden originates from a combination of stresses that may include competition for the expression machinery, side-reactions due to the activity of the recombinant proteins, or the toxicity of their substrates, products and intermediates. However, the physiological impact of IPTG-induced conditional expression on the recombinant host under such harsh conditions is often overlooked. The physiological responses to IPTG of the E. coli BL21(DE3) strain and three different recombinants carrying a synthetic metabolic pathway for biodegradation of the toxic anthropogenic pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) were investigated using plating, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. Collected data revealed unexpected negative synergistic effect of inducer of the expression system and toxic substrate resulting in pronounced physiological stress. Replacing IPTG with the natural sugar effector lactose greatly reduced such stress, demonstrating that the effect was due to the original inducer's chemical properties. IPTG is not an innocuous inducer; instead, it exacerbates the toxicity of haloalkane substrate and causes appreciable damage to the E. coli BL21(DE3) host, which is already bearing a metabolic burden due to its content of plasmids carrying the genes of the synthetic metabolic pathway. The concentration of IPTG can be effectively tuned to mitigate this negative effect. Importantly, we show that induction with lactose, the natural inducer of P lac , dramatically lightens the burden without reducing the efficiency of the synthetic TCP degradation

  10. Analyse génomique chez le triticale (8x) et leurs géniteurs (blé et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    séquences d'ADN non codante et riches en bases CG) des génomes d'un triticale primaire et leurs géniteurs, blé tendre et seigle d'une part, d'autre part de localiser les régions organisateurs nucléolaires (N.O.R) , les gènes ribosomiques (5S et ...

  11. BLENDED LEARNING (BL AS PEDAGOGICAL ALTERNATIVE TO TEACH BUSINESS COMMUNICATION COURSE: Case Study of UUM Executive Diploma Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham DZAKIRIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally, blended learning (BL technologies have been increasingly applied in a variety of fields, both public and private sectors. In recent years, universities, public and private businesses and organizations are among those employing blended learning methods and technologies in training and re-training of professionals in the workforce. In Malaysia, the increasing use of blended learning to enhance learning and enriching of soft skills among professionals and individuals in the work place is evident. The advancement of technology is an onset to many new avenues and tool for learning and teaching, and it is the coalescing of these various technologies with particular pedagogy or andragogy has helped to popularize BL. However, when an institution makes the critical choice of delivery methods, it is pertinent that the university needs to consider various success factors. One in particular is student-centered approach that entails the need to understand the students as the beneficiary of learning, and the support system they need to help them learn. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of a small group of students undertaking Executive Diplomas at Executive Development Centre (EDC, Universiti Utara Malaysia as they progress through their Executive program. This paper looks at learning experiences as described by the learners- it is their story, their experience, and their perspective. This study suggests that BL offered a comfortable middle ground, and has lots of potential in higher education in Malaysia. It is a pedagogical alternative that could play a significant role not only for teaching Business Communication, but has the potential to promote lifelong learning initiatives in Malaysia in a much meaningful and inviting way. Although this study shows that BL contributed a significant and meaningful learning particularly for adult learners, it needs more definitive studies. Such information can be used to guide policy makers

  12. Effet de la substitution partielle de la farine de blé par la purée de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La production de la pulpe séchée peut se faire à moindre coût. Mots clés : Substitution partielle, Farine de blé, Pulpe séchée, Purée de banane plantain Musa AAB, Gâteaux de plantain. Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with mashed ripe plantain (Musa AAB) on pastry products quality. Objective: Plantain, third food ...

  13. Fertilité des sols agricoles sous vigne et sous blé de la région de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de ce travail est l'évaluation agronomique de la qualité du sol sous vigne et sous blé dans la région Mohammedia-Benslimane au Maroc, à travers les indicateurs chimiques de la qualité du sol (pH, CE, CaCO3, Carbone organique total, Azote, Phosphore et Potassium). Les résultats de cette étude montrent que ...

  14. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88□0.82 g gallic acid/100 g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15□1.58 mg cyaniding chloride/100 g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Response of C57Bl/6 mice to a carbohydrate-free diet

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    Borghjid Saihan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High fat feeding in rodents generally leads to obesity and insulin resistance whereas in humans this is only seen if dietary carbohydrate is also high, the result of the anabolic effect of poor regulation of glucose and insulin. A previous study of C57Bl/6 mice (Kennedy AR, et al.: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2007 262 E1724-1739 appeared to show the kind of beneficial effects of calorie restriction that is seen in humans but that diet was unusually low in protein (5%. In the current study, we tested a zero-carbohydrate diet that had a higher protein content (20%. Mice on the zero-carbohydrate diet, despite similar caloric intake, consistently gained more weight than animals consuming standard chow, attaining a dramatic difference by week 16 (46.1 ± 1.38 g vs. 30.4 ± 1.00 g for the chow group. Consistent with the obese phenotype, experimental mice had fatty livers and hearts as well as large fat deposits in the abdomino-pelvic cavity, and showed impaired glucose clearance after intraperitoneal injection. In sum, the response of mice to a carbohydrate-free diet was greater weight gain and metabolic disruptions in distinction to the response in humans where low carbohydrate diets cause greater weight loss than isocaloric controls. The results suggest that rodent models of obesity may be most valuable in the understanding of how metabolic mechanisms can work in ways different from the effect in humans.

  16. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

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    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  17. Thymic PTH Increases After Thyroparathyroidectomy in C57BL/KaLwRij Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangari, Maurizio; Yoo, Hanna; Shin, Ikjae; Kim, Bumjun; Edmondson, Ricky; Morgan, Gareth J; Suva, Larry J; Yoon, Donghoon

    2018-04-01

    We previously reported a substantial correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and the myeloma response to proteasome inhibition that suggests a crucial role for the PTH receptor 1 system in the control of myeloma tumor growth. While investigating the role of PTH in the antimyeloma effect, we observed the recovery of serum PTH levels after thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX). Although the presence of thymus-derived PTH has been reported previously, the existence or role of thymic PTH in the serum remains controversial. Here, TPTX was performed in 8- to 12-week-old C57BL/KaLwRij mice to delineate the potential source(s) for the recovery of serum PTH. Immediately after TPTX, the expected loss of measurable serum PTH was observed. Serum PTH levels recovered 3 to 4 weeks after TPTX. Thirteen endocrine organs from mice with recovered serum PTH were examined. The thymus from control mice expressed measurable and detectable Pth transcripts; however, the Pth transcript level was substantially elevated in tissue from TPTX mice. Western blot analysis of the thymus demonstrated a reproducible and distinct PTH band in thymus tissue that was significantly increased after TPTX. To directly confirm the identity of the distinct PTH band, immunoprecipitated proteins were isolated and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. After fragmentation and direct peptide sequencing, PTH peptides PTH(1-13) and PTH(54-70), diagnostic for PTH, were identified. These data demonstrate that the murine thymus produces PTH and that after TPTX the thymus becomes the major source of serum PTH, compensating for the loss of the parathyroid glands and returning circulating PTH levels to normal.

  18. Effects of ethanol on offspring of C57BL/6J mice alcoholized during gestation

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    Grinfeld Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed in the gestation and offspring of alcoholized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed overnight with stud males and the presence of a sperm plug in the next morning indicated the onset of gestation. Pregnant mice were distributed in two weight-matched groups. In the alcoholized group, the mice received a high protein liquid diet ad libitum containing 27.5% of ethanol-derived calories (5.28% v/v from gestation day 5 to 19. The control group received the same volume of diet containing isocaloric amounts of maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol. After postnatal day zero, the dams received food pellets and tap water ad libitum. On postnatal day 6 the pups were counted and weighed at variable intervals up to the 60th day of life. The majority of the pregnant dams that have received ethanol completed the gestational period, and the chronic consumption of alcohol did not interfere with the number of dams that gave birth. The alcoholized and control dams gained an equivalent weight and consumed an equivalent volume of diet throughout the gestation. The number of pups from alcohol diet dams was 46,26% smaller compared with the control group. There were less male than female pups in the offspring of alcoholized mice. Teratogeny like gastroschisis and limb malformation were present in the offspring of alcoholized dams. The body weight of the offspring of alcoholized mice increased from the 18th to the 36th postnatal day.

  19. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Bezençon, Carole; Darimont, Christian; le Coutre, Johannes; Damak, Sami

    2013-02-08

    Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  20. Metabolic response to chronic bisphenol A exposure in C57bl/6n mice

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    Bhavini B. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA has induced obesity and increased glucose intolerance. We hypothesized that chronic BPA exposure would worsen the obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high fat diet (HFD. The drinking water of C57bl/6n dams was treated with vehicle (VEH or BPA (25 ng/ml from gestation day 11.5 to postnatal day 21. Another group was treated with oral diethylstilbestrol (DES, 1 μg/kg/day during gestation. Progeny were treated with VEH (VEH and DES groups or BPA (2.5 ng/ml in the drinking water and fed either a control diet (CD or HFD from weaning until euthanasia at 4 months of age. CD-fed mice were similar in size; however HFD-BPA males and HFD-DES mice were smaller than HFD-VEH mice. No CD-fed mice were glucose intolerant. All HFD-fed mice were glucose intolerant. Cholesterol and triglyceride were increased in HFD-VEH mice and HFD-BPA males. Total fat weight and adipocyte area were similar in HFD-VEH and HFD-BPA mice and reduced in HFD-DES mice. HFD-BPA females increased perirenal and reduced gonadal fat weights. Reduced leptin and increased IL-6 in CD-BPA and CD-DES mice were not found in their HFD-cohorts. Adiponectin levels were similar. Thus, although chronic BPA exposure did not increase body size or increase glucose intolerance, it induced an adipokine imbalance in CD-fed mice and sex-specifically altered the lipid response and adipose deposition when fed the HFD.

  1. Aqueous stability and oral pharmacokinetics of meloxicam and carprofen in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrao, Joelle C; Johnson, Ron; Tor, Elizabeth; Gu, Yu; Litman, Marcus; Turner, Patricia V

    2013-09-01

    We found that carprofen and meloxicam under 3 environmental conditions (ambient dark, ambient light, and 4 °C) remained stable for at least 7 d. We then evaluated the oral pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (20 mg/kg) and carprofen (10 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6 mice after oral gavage or administration in the drinking water. Mice did not drink meloxicam-medicated water but readily consumed carprofen-medicated water, consuming an average of 14.19 mL carprofen-medicated water per 100 g body weight daily; mice drank more during the dark phase than during the light phase. Plasma analyzed by HPLC (meloxicam) and tandem mass spectrometry (carprofen) revealed that the peak meloxicam and carprofen concentrations were 16.7 and 20.3 μg/mL and occurred at 4 and 2 h after oral gavage, respectively. Similar blood levels were achieved after 12 h access to the carprofen-medicated water bottle. At 24 h after oral gavage, the drugs were not detectable in plasma. Meloxicam plasma AUC, elimination half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and apparent oral clearance were 160.4 mg/L × h, 7.4 h, 0.36 L/kg, and 0.125 mL/h × kg, respectively. Carprofen plasma AUC, elimination half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and apparent oral clearance were 160.8 mg/L × h, 7.4 h, 0.42 L/kg, and 0.062 mL/h × kg, respectively. No gross or microscopic evidence of toxicity was seen in any mouse. Our findings indicate that carprofen can be administered in drinking water to mice and that medicated water bottles should be placed 12 to 24 h prior to painful procedures.

  2. Complex discriminative stimulus properties of (+)lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneyworth, Michael A; Smith, Randy L; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2005-06-01

    The drug discrimination procedure is the most frequently used in vivo model of hallucinogen activity. Historically, most drug discrimination studies have been conducted in the rat. With the development of genetically modified mice, a powerful new tool has become available for investigating the mechanisms of drug-induced behavior. The current paper is part of an ongoing effort to determine the utility of the drug discrimination technique for evaluating hallucinogenic drugs in mice. To establish the training procedures and characterize the stimulus properties of (+)lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in mice. Using a two-lever drug discrimination procedure, C57Bl/6J mice were trained to discriminate 0.45 mg/kg LSD vs saline on a VI30 sec schedule of reinforcement, with vanilla-flavored Ensure serving as the reinforcer. As in rats, acquisition was orderly, but the training dose was nearly five-fold higher for mice than rats. LSD lever selection was dose-dependent. Time-course studies revealed a rapid loss of the LSD stimulus effects. The 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine [(-)DOB] (1.0 mg/kg), substituted fully for LSD and the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (1.6 mg/kg), substituted partially for LSD. Pretreatment with the 5-HT(2A) receptor-selective antagonist, MDL 100907, or the 5-HT(1A)-selective antagonist WAY 100635, showed that each antagonist only partially blocked LSD discrimination. Substitution of 1.0 mg/kg (-)DOB for LSD was fully blocked by pretreatment with MDL 100907 but unaltered by WAY 100635 pretreatment. These data suggest that in mice the stimulus effects of LSD have both a 5-HT(2A) receptor and a 5-HT(1A) receptor component.

  3. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  4. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  5. Collagen-induced arthritis in C57BL/6 mice is associated with a robust and sustained T-cell response to type II collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Inglis, Julia J; Criado, Gabriel; Medghalchi, Mino; Andrews, Melanie; Sandison, Ann; Feldmann, Marc; Williams, Richard O

    2007-01-01

    Many genetically modified mouse strains are now available on a C57BL/6 (H-2b) background, a strain that is relatively resistant to collagen-induced arthritis. To facilitate the molecular understanding of autoimmune arthritis, we characterised the induction of arthritis in C57BL/6 mice and then validated the disease as a relevant pre-clinical model for rheumatoid arthritis. C57BL/6 mice were immunised with type II collagen using different protocols, and arthritis incidence, severity, and respo...

  6. [Nomenclature of Feiyang (BL 58) and its connotation exploration based on A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuangshuang; Hou, Zhongwei

    2018-04-12

    A - B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion ( Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing ) is the earliest and existed well-known work on acupuncture and moxibustion, with irreplaceable literature values and huge impacts on the later generations. Feiyang (BL 58) is the luo -connecting point of the bladder meridian and recorded 11 times in A - B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion . This book is the representative for the exploration on the acupoint nomenclature and clinical connotation. Through the investigation on the textual connotation of the specified terms and the alias of Feiyang (BL 58), it was discovered that the nomenclature of this acupoint was based on the main symptoms, the characters of the running course of meridian and acupuncture effects. It was proved that the unique property of this acupoint was as rising, dispersing and flying of meridian qi . In comparison of Huangdi Three - Version of A - B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion ( Huangdi Sanbu Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing ) of the printed edition of the Song Dynasty version and Meridian - Collateral and Acupoints ( Zhen Jiu Shu Xue Xue ), it was found that the indications and connotation of Feiyang (BL 58) were more extensively richer than the records in teaching materials. Those study results contribute to the extension of the clinical application of this acupoint.

  7. Magnolia Extract (BL153 Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153 for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD. Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and hexokinase II (HK II expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney.

  8. Gauged B-L number and neutron-antineutron oscillation: long-range forces mediated by baryophotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea; Berezhiani, Zurab; Kamyshkov, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    Transformation of a neutron to an antineutron n → {\\tilde{n}} has not yet been experimentally observed. In principle, it can occur with free neutrons in the vacuum or with neutrons bound inside the nuclei. In a nuclear medium the neutron and the antineutron have different potentials and for that reason n-{\\tilde{n}} conversion in nuclei is heavily suppressed. This transformation can also be suppressed for free neutrons in the presence of an environmental vector field that distinguishes the neutron from the antineutron. We consider the case of a gauge field coupled to the B-L charge of the particles (B-L photon), and we show that discovery of n-{\\tilde{n}} oscillation in experiment will lead to few order of magnitudes stronger limits on its coupling constant than present limits from the tests of the equivalence principle. If n-{\\tilde{n}} oscillation will be discovered via nuclear instability, but not in free neutron oscillations at a corresponding level, this would indicate the presence of such environmental fifth forces. In the latter case the B-L potential can be measurable by varying the external magnetic field for achieving the resonance conditions for n-{\\tilde{n}} conversion. As for neutron-mirror neutron oscillation, such potentials should have no effect once the fifth forces are associated to a common quantum number (B-L)-(B'-L') shared by the ordinary and mirror particles.

  9. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Cong

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK. We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice.

  10. Enhanced production of tetramethylpyrazine in Bacillus licheniformis BL1 by bdhA disruption and 2,3-butanediol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wu; Xiao, Dongguang; Wang, Ruiming

    2016-03-01

    The 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) dehydrogenase gene (bdhA) of Bacillus licheniformis BL1 was disrupted to construct the tetramethylpyrazine (TMP)-producing BLA strain. During microaerobic fermentation, the bdhA-disrupted BLA strain produced 46.98 g TMP/l, and this yield was 23.99% higher than that produced by the parent BL1 strain. In addition, the yield of acetoin, which is a TMP precursor, also increased by 28.98% in BLA. The TMP production by BL1 was enhanced by supplementing the fermentation medium with 2,3-BD. The yield of TMP improved from 37.89 to 44.77 g/l as the concentration of 2,3-BD increased from 0 to 2 g/l. The maximum TMP and acetoin yields increased by 18.16 and 17.87%, respectively with the increase in 2,3-BD concentration from 0 to 2 g/l. However, no increase was observed when the concentration of 2,3-BD in the matrix was ≥3 g/l. This study provides a valuable strategy to enhance TMP and acetoin productivity of mutagenic strains by gene manipulation and optimizing fermentation conditions.

  11. Systematic comparison of co-expression of multiple recombinant thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2017-06-01

    The precise control of multiple heterologous enzyme expression levels in one Escherichia coli strain is important for cascade biocatalysis, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, natural product synthesis, and studies of complexed proteins. We systematically investigated the co-expression of up to four thermophilic enzymes (i.e., α-glucan phosphorylase (αGP), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH)) in E. coli BL21(DE3) by adding T7 promoter or T7 terminator of each gene for multiple genes in tandem, changing gene alignment, and comparing one or two plasmid systems. It was found that the addition of T7 terminator after each gene was useful to decrease the influence of the upstream gene. The co-expression of the four enzymes in E. coli BL21(DE3) was demonstrated to generate two NADPH molecules from one glucose unit of maltodextrin, where NADPH was oxidized to convert xylose to xylitol. The best four-gene co-expression system was based on two plasmids (pET and pACYC) which harbored two genes. As a result, apparent enzymatic activities of the four enzymes were regulated to be at similar levels and the overall four-enzyme activity was the highest based on the formation of xylitol. This study provides useful information for the precise control of multi-enzyme-coordinated expression in E. coli BL21(DE3).

  12. High-level production of membrane proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) by omitting the inducer IPTG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kuipers, Grietje; Niemiec, Łukasz; Baumgarten, Thomas; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Hjelm, Anna

    2015-09-16

    For membrane protein production, the Escherichia coli T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP)-based protein production strain BL21(DE3) in combination with T7-promoter based expression vectors is widely used. Cells are routinely cultured in Lysogeny broth (LB medium) and expression of the chromosomally localized t7rnap gene is governed by the isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) inducible lacUV5 promoter. The T7 RNAP drives the expression of the plasmid borne gene encoding the recombinant membrane protein. Production of membrane proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane rather than in inclusion bodies in a misfolded state is usually preferred, but often hampered due to saturation of the capacity of the Sec-translocon, resulting in low yields. Contrary to expectation we observed that omission of IPTG from BL21(DE3) cells cultured in LB medium can lead to significantly higher membrane protein production yields than when IPTG is added. In the complete absence of IPTG cultures stably produce membrane proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas upon the addition of IPTG membrane proteins aggregate in the cytoplasm and non-producing clones are selected for. Furthermore, in the absence of IPTG, membrane proteins are produced at a lower rate than in the presence of IPTG. These observations indicate that in the absence of IPTG the Sec-translocon capacity is not/hardly saturated, leading to enhanced membrane protein production yields in the cytoplasmic membrane. Importantly, for more than half of the targets tested the yields obtained using un-induced BL21(DE3) cells were higher than the yields obtained in the widely used membrane protein production strains C41(DE3) and C43(DE3). Since most secretory proteins reach the periplasm via the Sec-translocon, we also monitored the production of three secretory recombinant proteins in the periplasm of BL21(DE3) cells in the presence and absence of IPTG. For all three targets tested omitting IPTG led to the highest production levels in the

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF GLYPHOSATE AND 2.4 D AMIN HERBICIDES TO CONTROL WEEDS UNDER Shorea selanica Bl. PLANTATION IN CARITA TRIAL GARDEN, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wibowo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in Carita, West Java, to identify the effectiveness of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide to control weeds under Shorea selanica Bl. plantation. The trial was conducted through the application of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide with dosages of 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 liter per ha and compared with Glyphosate herbicide 5 liter per ha, manual treatment, and control (no treatment. The result showed that Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide could be used to control weeds in order to maintaining S. selanica Bl. plantation. Minimum dosage of 6 liter/ha was effective to control weeds such as Chromolaena odorata DC, Mikania micrantha Will, Lantana camara L, Imperata cylindrica Beauv., Melastoma malabathricum L, and Boreria latifolia Bl. Furthermore, there was no symptom of poison on S. selanica Bl. plantation after herbicide application with all dosages applied.

  14. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, María E.; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R.

    2016-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds

  15. Physiological and behavioral responses to intermittent starvation in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Na; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Morgan, David G; Clapham, John C; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-18

    The dual intervention point model states that body mass is controlled by upper and lower intervention points, above and below which animals (and humans) intervene physiologically to bring their body mass back into the acceptable range. It has been further suggested that the lower intervention point may be defined by the risk of starvation, while the upper intervention point may be defined by the risk of predation. The objective of the present study was to test whether the risk of starvation determines the lower intervention point and to examine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that underpin the regulation of body mass, when the risk of starvation is increased. Sixty-four mice were exposed to random days of complete fasting or 50% food restriction and their body mass and fat mass responses were measured. Food intake, physical activity and body temperature were measured throughout the experiment. In addition, plasma leptin and insulin, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids, along with hypothalamic neuropeptides gene expression in the arcuate nucleus were assessed after 13 and 42 days of treatment. We found that C57BL/6J mice increased body mass and fatness in response to a short-term (13 days) intermittent fasting, which was restored to baseline as the treatment was prolonged. In contrast, intermittently 50% food restricted mice showed no significant changes in body mass or fatness. Over the first 13 days of treatment the data were consistent with the dual intervention point model as the mice showed both increased body mass and adiposity over this period. Over the more protracted period of 42 days the effect waned and was therefore inconsistent with the model. The body mass and fat mass gains in intermittently fasted mice were mainly accounted for by increased food intake. Elevated NPY gene expression after 13 days (three 24 h fasting events) may have driven the increase in food intake. However, no changes were observed in such neuropeptides as POMC

  16. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Meneses

    Full Text Available Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%, LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%, triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%, hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52% and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8, as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of

  17. Identification of membrane proteins associated with phenylpropanoid tolerance and transport in Escherichia coli BL21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Wang, Kui; Xu, Sha; Wu, Junjun; Liu, Peiran; Du, Guocheng; Li, Jianghua; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-15

    Phenylpropanoids are phytochemicals produced by some plants and possess a wide variety of biological activities. These compounds exist in plants in low amounts. Production of them in genetically engineered microorganisms has many advantages. A majority of functional phenylpropanoids are toxic to microbial hosts. Export of these compounds may relieve the cellular toxicity and increase the yield. However, proteins and mechanisms involved in phenylpropanoids transport and tolerance remain poorly understood. In this study, 16 membrane proteins that were differentially expressed in Escherichia coli in response to three typical phenylpropanoids (resveratrol, naringenin and rutin) were identified using a membrane proteomics approach. These proteins included outer membrane proteins OmpA, OmpF, OmpW, FadL, TolC, LamB, and YaeT, peripheral membrane proteins AtpD, AtpH, YgaU, OppA, MalK, and MalE, and cytoplasmic membrane proteins OppD, PotG, and ManX. Functions of these proteins were determined by using gene overexpression and silencing. The results suggest that OmpA and FadL may play important roles in the transmembrane export of phenylpropanoids in E. coli. LamB, MalE, MalK and ManX may participate in phenylpropanoid uptake. The role of YgaU in enhancing the tolerance to phenylpropanoids remains to be determined. These results may assist the engineering of microorganisms with enhanced phenylpropanoid producing capabilities. Phenylpropanoids are phytochemicals produced by some plants and possess a wide variety of biological activities. Both the tolerance and the transport of phenylpropanoids play important roles in systematic metabolic engineering of microorganisms to produce these phytochemicals. Both specific and non-specific transporters are essential for these functions but remain poorly understood. This research utilized membrane proteomics to identify E. coli BL21 (DE3) membrane proteins that may be involved in phenylpropanoid transport and tolerance. These results

  18. Defective Bone Repair in C57Bl6 Mice With Acute Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, D A; Hui, D; Gao, C; Awlia, A; Al-Saran, Y; Li, A; Henderson, J E; Martineau, P A

    2017-03-01

    Bone repair is initiated with a local inflammatory response to injury. The presence of systemic inflammation impairs bone healing and often leads to malunion, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Our research objective was to use a mouse model of cortical bone repair to determine the effect of systemic inflammation on cells in the bone healing microenvironment. QUESTION/PURPOSES: (1) Does systemic inflammation, induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration affect the quantity and quality of regenerating bone in primary bone healing? (2) Does systemic inflammation alter vascularization and the number or activity of inflammatory cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts in the bone healing microenvironment? Cortical defects were drilled in the femoral diaphysis of female and male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 to 9 months that were treated with daily systemic injections of LPS or physiologic saline as control for 7 days. Mice were euthanized at 1 week (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), 2 weeks (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), and 6 weeks (Control, n = 9; LPS, n = 8) after surgery. The quantity (bone volume per tissue volume [BV/TV]) and microarchitecture (trabecular separation and thickness, porosity) of bone in the defect were quantified with time using microCT. The presence or activity of vascular endothelial cells (CD34), macrophages (F4/80), osteoblasts (alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and osteoclasts (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]) were evaluated using histochemical analyses. Only one of eight defects was bridged completely 6 weeks after surgery in LPS-injected mouse bones compared with seven of nine defects in the control mouse bones (odds ratio [OR], 0.04; 95% CI, 0.003-0.560; p = 0.007). The decrease in cortical bone in LPS-treated mice was reflected in reduced BV/TV (21% ± 4% vs 39% ± 10%; p inflammation reduced the amount and impaired the quality of bone regenerated in mouse femurs. The effects were associated with impaired revascularization

  19. Effects of light regime and substrain on behavioral profiles of male C57BL/6 mice in three tests of unconditioned anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Labots, M.; Zheng, Xiaochu; Moattari, Golnaz; Ohl, F.; van Lith, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Substrains of the C57BL/6 inbred mouse are widely used in genetic, behavioral and physiological research, as well as models for human disease. Throughout, the choice of the respective substrain can have a large influence on experimental results. Likewise, the conditions under which experiments are performed, such as the light regime, can significantly affect the outcome of an experiment, especially when aiming at experimental behavior. Here, two commonly used mouse substrains, C57BL/6JOlaHsd ...

  20. BL153 Partially Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Liver Damage Probably via Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate whether a magnolia extract, named BL153, can prevent obesity-induced liver damage and identify the possible protective mechanism. To this end, obese mice were induced by feeding with high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal as fat and the age-matched control mice were fed with control diet (10% kcal as fat for 6 months. Simultaneously these mice were treated with or without BL153 daily at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by gavage. HFD feeding significantly increased the body weight and the liver weight. Administration of BL153 significantly reduced the liver weight but without effects on body weight. As a critical step of the development of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis was induced in the mice fed with HFD, shown by upregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1, which were significantly attenuated by BL153 in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism study revealed that BL153 significantly suppressed HFD induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress and slightly prevented liver inflammation. These results suggest that HFD induced fibrosis in the liver can be prevented partially by BL153, probably due to reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. Differential fate of metabolism of a disperse dye by microorganisms Galactomyces geotrichum and Brevibacillus laterosporus and their consortium GG-BL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kurade, Mayur B; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate Brown 3 REL degrading potential of developed microbial consortium GG-BL using two microbial cultures, Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 (GG) and Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298 (BL). Microbial consortium GG-BL showed 100% decolorization of a dye Brown 3 REL, while individually G. geotrichum MTCC 1360 and B. laterosporus MTCC 2298 showed 26% and 86% decolorization under aerobic condition (shaking) respectively. Measurements of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (76%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (68%) were done after decolorization by consortium GG-BL. No induction in activities of oxidoreductive enzymes found in G. geotrichum while B. laterosporus showed induction of veratryl alcohol oxidase, Nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide-dichlorophenol indophenol (NADH-DCIP) reductase and riboflavin reductase indicating their role in dye metabolism. Consortium GG-BL showed induction in the activities of laccase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase, NADH-DCIP reductase and riboflavin reductase. Two different sets of induced enzymes from G. geotrichum and B. laterosporus work together in consortium GG-BL resulting in faster degradation of dye. The degradation of Brown 3 REL was analyzed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Phytotoxicity study revealed that metabolites formed after degradation was significantly less toxic in nature.

  2. Collagen-induced arthritis in C57BL/6 mice is associated with a robust and sustained T-cell response to type II collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Julia J; Criado, Gabriel; Medghalchi, Mino; Andrews, Melanie; Sandison, Ann; Feldmann, Marc; Williams, Richard O

    2007-01-01

    Many genetically modified mouse strains are now available on a C57BL/6 (H-2b) background, a strain that is relatively resistant to collagen-induced arthritis. To facilitate the molecular understanding of autoimmune arthritis, we characterised the induction of arthritis in C57BL/6 mice and then validated the disease as a relevant pre-clinical model for rheumatoid arthritis. C57BL/6 mice were immunised with type II collagen using different protocols, and arthritis incidence, severity, and response to commonly used anti-arthritic drugs were assessed and compared with DBA/1 mice. We confirmed that C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to arthritis induced by immunisation with chicken type II collagen and develop strong and sustained T-cell responses to type II collagen. Arthritis was milder in C57BL/6 mice than DBA/1 mice and more closely resembled rheumatoid arthritis in its response to therapeutic intervention. Our findings show that C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis, providing a valuable model for assessing the role of specific genes involved in the induction and/or maintenance of arthritis and for evaluating the efficacy of novel drugs, particularly those targeted at T cells.

  3. Novel pathogenic epitopes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarasse, Cecile; Smith, Paul; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a minor protein of the central nervous system myelin, is recognized as a potential target in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The extracellular domain of MOG is commonly used in a wide range of mouse strains and other animals to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune animal model of multiple sclerosis, because it is a target for antibody-mediated attack. Previous studies, using selected peptides, have indicated that MOG35–55 peptide is an encephalitogenic epitope in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. A more systematic analysis of both T-cell and B-cell responses following immunization of C57BL/6 mice with either recombinant extracellular mouse MOG protein (1–116) or with overlapping peptides spanning the whole sequence of MOG, before assessment of responses to 15 mer and 23 mer peptides was undertaken. The studies identified T-cell responses within the MOG35–55 (extracellular domain) but also two new immunogenic and encephalitogenic T-cell epitopes within residues MOG113–127, MOG120–134 (localized in the transmembrane region) and MOG183–197 (in the second hydrophobic MOG domain). In addition, residue MOG113–127 was found to be a B-cell epitope, suggesting that this may be a useful adjunct for the induction of EAE as well as for immunological studies in C57BL/6 mice, which are increasingly being used to study immune function through the use of transgenic and gene knockout technology. PMID:23876060

  4. Toxicity assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate using acute and subchronic male C57BL/6J mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jichun; Wang, Eryin; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a principal representative and the final degradation product of several commercially produced perfluorinated compounds. However, PFOS has a high bioaccumulation potential and therefore can exert toxicity on aquatic organisms, animals, and cells. Considering the widespread concern this phenomenon has attracted, we examined the acute and subchronic toxic effects of varying doses of PFOS on adult male C57BL/6 mice. The acute oral LD 50 value of PFOS in male C57BL/6J mice was 0.579 g/kg body weight (BW). Exposure to the subchronic oral toxicity of PFOS at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg PFOS/kg BW/day for 30 days disrupted the homeostasis of antioxidative systems, induced hepatocellular apoptosis (as revealed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay), triggered liver injury (as evidenced by the increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and by the altered histology), and ultimately increased the liver size and relative weight of the mice. PFOS treatment caused liver damage but only slightly affected the kidneys and spleen of the mice. This study provided insights into the toxicological effects of PFOS. - Highlights: • The acute and subchronic toxicity of PFOS was systematically investigated. • The acute oral LD 50 value for PFOS in C57BL/6J mice was 0.579 g/kg body weight. • PFOS disrupted the homeostasis of antioxidative systems. • PFOS induced hepatocellular apoptosis and triggered liver injury. - PFOS disrupted the homeostasis of antioxidative systems, induced hepatocellular apoptosis, and triggered liver injury.

  5. Establishment of a Novel Autoimmune Experimental Model of Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xing-Wei; Liu, Bo-Ke; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Zhong-Hua; Shao, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to identify whether vaccinating twice with bladder homogenate can establish a new model of experimental autoimmune cystitis (EAC) in C57BL/6 strain mice. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with bladder homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and boost immunized with bladder homogenate in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) after 2 weeks were used as the EAC model. Mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in CFA or IFA were used as the control. Micturition habits and suprapubic-pelvic pain threshold were measured 4 weeks after primary immunization. Bladder to body weight ratios and expression of inflammatory cytokines and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) were then examined. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of the bladder was carried out, and IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α production by the kidneys, liver, and lungs was also tested. Double-immunized mice were extensively sensitive to pressure applied on the pelvic area (P < 0.001). Compared to single-immunized mice or controls, double-immunized mice showed more micturition frequency, lower urine output per micturition, higher bladder to body weight ratio, and significant elevation in the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α (all P < 0.05). NK1R gene expression was significantly increased in double-immunized mice compared to the other three groups (P < 0.001). A nonspecific immune response occurred in the liver but was much weaker than bladder inflammation. Our dual immunization EAC model in C57BL/6 mice can effectively mimic the symptoms and pathophysiologic characteristics of BPS/IC and thus can be widely used to investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of BPS/IC.

  6. Insight into the nature of the candidate Extreme BL Lac object RBS 0723 with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, A.; Lombardi, S.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the past years, the MAGIC Telescopes have performed observation campaigns on candidates Extreme BL Lac objects (EHBL). These sources are known to show an extreme frequency of their synchrotron and inverse Compton peaks in the spectral energy distribution (in the hard X-ray and TeV bands respectively). Furthermore, they are characterized by the extreme hardness of the UV-X-ray and (de-absorbed) TeV continua. These characteristics are usually explained in a leptonic synchrotron+SSC emission model under the assumption that the energy distribution of the emitting relativistic electrons has a large value of the minimum Lorentz factor (˜ 105) coupled with a rather low magnetic field intensity (˜ 10-2 G); although alternative models including contributions from hadrons in the jet are also proposed. This aspect points out a significant difference with respect to the parameters usually used in 'classical' TeV BL Lacs modelling. Thus, EHBL are important and very interesting targets as their observation allows to investigate the properties of blazars belonging to a poorly known category of sources described by peculiar values of the relevant physical quantities of their jets. Despite the remarkable scientific interest, observations of the hard but faint high energy emission from EHBLs are still sparse, and only a handful of these has been discovered at TeV energies. The BL Lac object RBS 0723 fits quite well within the EHBL subclass. The source was detected on January 2014 by the MAGIC telescopes with a statistical significance of more than 5 standard deviations. Although with large uncertainties, the source shows a relatively soft spectrum. Furthermore, the non-detection in the earlier data taken in December and in the subsequent months points to a possible VHE flux variability at variance with the general view of these sources, commonly thought to be relatively steady objects.

  7. Acute tryptophan depletion in C57BL/6 mice does not induce central serotonin reduction or affective behavioural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkelaar, Eva L; Blokland, Arjan; Lieben, Cindy K J; Kenis, Gunter; Ferrington, Linda; Kelly, Paul A T; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Prickaerts, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion is extensively used to investigate the implication of serotonin in the onset of depressive disorders. In rats, it lowers peripheral tryptophan and decreases central serotonin concentrations. We aimed to establish the rat model of acute tryptophan depletion in the mouse for potential application as serotonin challenge tool in genetic mouse models of depression. Pharmacokinetic and behavioural effects of a tryptophan-free diet were examined in Swiss and C57BL/6 mice. Peripheral amino acids were measured and central tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were compared with anxiety and depression-like behaviour in the elevated zero-maze, forced swimming test or tail suspension test. While acute tryptophan depletion resulted in a 74% reduction of the plasma ratio tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids in Swiss mice 1h after administration (2x10 ml/kg, 30 min interval), there was only a 40% reduction in C57BL/6 mice. The latter did not show anxiety in the elevated zero-maze or increased immobility in the forced swimming test or tail suspension test. A higher dose (2x20 ml/kg) with a longer interval (60 min) reduced the ratio with 68% in C57BL/6 mice, lowered hippocampal serotonin turnover and had no functional effect when tested in the elevated zero-maze and forced swimming test. These findings have important implications for the use of acute tryptophan depletion in general and in particular for its application in mice. Although in healthy mice no clear central serotonin or functional effects were observed, further research is indicated using mice with pre-existing serotonin dysfunction, as they might be more vulnerable to acute tryptophan depletion. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of buprenorphine and meloxicam analgesia on induced cerebral ischemia in C57BL/6 male mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Fauerby, Natasha; Raida, Zindy

    2013-01-01

    investigated whether buprenorphine and meloxicam, at clinically relevant doses provided pain relief without altering infarct volume in male C57BL/6 mice. Common known side-effects of buprenorphine, including decreased food consumption, were noted after surgery in buprenorphine-treated mice, but these effects......Laboratory mice constitute an extensively used model to study the pathologic and functional outcomes of cerebral ischemic stroke. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model requires surgical intervention, which potentially can result in postsurgical pain and stress. In the present study, we...

  9. Effet de la substitution partielle de la farine de blé par la purée de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2014 ... séchoir solaire type NRI et Conditionnée dans des sachets de polyéthylène de 80 microns d'épaisseur, à température ambiante. Les gâteaux ont été ... Lorsque la proportion de purée de banane augmente le gâteau devient moins énergétique, plus dense et plus tendre. La formule 30/70 (farine de blé ...

  10. Superficial nephrons in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice facilitate in vivo multiphoton microscopy of the kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Maria Schießl

    Full Text Available Multiphoton microscopy (MPM offers a unique approach for addressing both the function and structure of an organ in near-real time in the live animal. The method however is limited by the tissue-specific penetration depth of the excitation laser. In the kidney, structures in the range of 100 µm from the surface are accessible for MPM. This limitation of MPM aggravates the investigation of the function of structures located deeper in the renal cortex, like the glomerulus and the juxtaglomerular apparatus. In view of the relevance of gene-targeted mice for investigating the function of these structures, we aimed to identify a mouse strain with a high percentage of superficially located glomeruli. The mean distance of the 30 most superficial glomeruli from the kidney surface was determined in 10 commonly used mouse strains. The mean depth of glomeruli was 118.4±3.4, 123.0±2.7, 133.7±3.0, 132.3±2.6, 141.0±4.0, 145.3±4.3, 148.9±4.2, 151.6±2.7, 167.7±3.9, and 207.8±3.2 µm in kidney sections from 4-week-old C3H/HeN, BALB/cAnN, SJL/J, C57BL/6N, DBA/2N, CD1 (CRI, 129S2/SvPas, CB6F1, FVB/N and NMRI (Han mice, respectively (n = 5 animals from each strain. The mean distance from the kidney surface of the most superficial glomeruli was significantly lower in the strains C3H/HeN Crl, BALB/cAnN, DBA/2NCrl, and C57BL/6N when compared to a peer group consisting of all the other strains (p<.0001. In 10-week-old mice, the most superficial glomeruli were located deeper in the cortex when compared to 4-week-old animals, with BALB/cAnN and C57BL/6N being the strains with the highest percentage of superficial glomeruli (25% percentile 116.7 and 121.9 µm, respectively. In summary, due to significantly more superficial glomeruli compared to other commonly used strains, BALB/cAnN and C57BL/6N mice appear to be particularly suitable for the investigation of glomerular function using MPM.

  11. Determination of basic state parameters and characterization of optical, dielectric and fluorescence properties of calcium boro lactate (CaBL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, A.; Balraj, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of basic solid state parameters like penn gap, plasma energy, polarizability and fermi energy for calcium boro lactate single crystal. calcium boro lactate crystals were developed by solution growth method. Single crystal diffraction studies carried out and calculated basic solid state criterion for the CaBL compound. optical nature of these compound explained by using UV-Visible spectrum. Electro-optic behaviour of the crystal explained by dielectric studies. Light emitting properties explained by fluorescence studies. (author)

  12. Differential replicative ability of clinical dengue virus isolates in an immunocompetent C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Veridiana Ester; dos Santos-Junior, Nilton Nascimento; Amarilla, Alberto Anastacio; Soares, Adriana Moreira; Lourencini, Rafael; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Aquino, Victor Hugo

    2015-09-29

    Several experimental animal models have been used to study the pathogenesis of dengue disease; however, most of the studies used laboratory-adapted viruses, which lack the virulence of viruses circulating in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of clinical Dengue virus (DENV) isolates (D2/BR/RP/RMB/09 and D3/BR/SL3/02) to infect immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Two strategies of intraperitoneal infection, which were based on the concept of the antibody dependent enhancement phenomenon, were used. In one strategy, the animals were inoculated with macrophages infected in vitro with dengue viruses, which were incubated with enhancing antibodies, and in the other strategy, the animals were inoculated with a complex of enhancing antibodies and dengue viruses. The D3/BR/SL3/08 isolate showed a higher ability of infection (virus RNA was more frequently detected in the serum and in several organs) in the experimental model compared to both the D2/BR/RP/RMB/2009 isolate and a laboratory adapted DENV-1 strain (Mochizuki strain), regardless of the infection strategy used. The main features of the D3/BR/SL3/08 isolate were its neuroinvasiveness and the induction of an extended period of viremia. Enhancing antibodies did not influence on the infection of animals when macrophages were used, but the level of viremia was increased when they were used as a complex with a D3/BR/SL3/02 isolate. We showed that DENV isolates could infect immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, which have has been previously used to study some aspect of dengue disease when infected with laboratory adapted strains. DENV genome was detected in the same organs found in humans when autopsy and biopsy samples were analyzed, showing that C57BL/6 mice reproduce some aspects of the DENV tropism observed in humans. The main difference observed between the D3/BR/SL3/02 and D2/BR/RP/RMB/2009 clinical isolates was the neuroinvasive ability of the first one. Neuroinvasiveness has been described in some DENV

  13. Gliadin affects glucose homeostasis and intestinal metagenome in C57BL6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Bahl, Martin Iain

    limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gliadin on glucose homeostasis and intestinal ecology in the mouse. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet containing either 4% gliadin or no gliadin for 22 weeks. Gliadin consumption significantly increased the HbA1c level over...... time, with a borderline significance of higher HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) after 22 weeks. Sequencing of the V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that gliadin altered the abundance of 81 bacterial taxa, separating the intestinal microbial profile...

  14. Gliadin affects glucose homeostasis and intestinal metagenome in C57BL/6 mice fed and high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Dietary gluten and its component gliadin are well-known environmental triggers of celiac disease and important actors in type-1 diabetes, and are reported to induce alterations in the intestinal microbiota. However, research on the impact of gluten on type-2 diabetes in non-celiac subjects is more...... limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gliadin on glucose homeostasis and intestinal ecology in the mouse. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet containing either 4% gliadin or no gliadin for 22 weeks. Gliadin consumption significantly increased the HbA1c level over...

  15. NK cell activite in C157BL/Ka mice during the development of radiation induced thymic lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, A.; Schaaf-Lafontaine, N.; Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, J.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of C57BL/Ka mice with a split dose whole-body irradiation (four weekly irradiations of 1,75 Gy) induces the development of thymic lymphomas. NK activity of spleen cells has been determined at several internals after leukemogenic treatment. Two days after irradiations, NK activity is normal and decreases strongly after one week. This period of decline persists during about one month. Then, NK activity restores and reaches control values. Lymphomas appear in spite of NK activity restauration. The diminution of NK activity during the preleukemic period could favour preleukemic cells apparition [fr

  16. Microwave-Assisted Isolation of Essential oil of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Bl.: Comparison with Conventional Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duang Buddhasukh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assistedhydrodistillation was used to isolate an essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomuminers Reinw. ex Bl., and the results compared with those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation. The composition of the oil from both methods was found to be similar, and (--linalool was found as the main component (30-50 %. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained by both methods was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation methods, all of which indicated the same but insignificant activity.

  17. Neutrinophilic two Higgs doublet model with dark matter under an alternative U(1)_{B-L} gauge symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We propose a Dirac type active neutrino with rank two mass matrix and a Majorana fermion dark matter candidate with an alternative local U(1)_{B-L} extension of neutrinophilic two Higgs doublet model. Our dark matter candidate can be stabilized due to charge assignment under the gauge symmetry without imposing extra discrete Z_2 symmetry and the relic density is obtained from an Z' boson exchanging process. Taking into account collider constraints on the Z' boson mass and coupling, we estimate the relic density.

  18. Design and construction of UVSOR-BL4A2 beam line for nano-structure processing

    CERN Document Server

    Takezoe, N; Tanaka, T; Kurosawa, K; Nonogaki, Y; Noda, H; Mekaru, H; Urisu, T

    2001-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a new beam line BL4A2 at UVSOR mainly for nano-structure fabrication based on synchrotron radiation stimulated surface photochemical reactions. In order to obtain high-photon flux, we use white ray beam focused with only one mirror. The beam line is connected with ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope for in-situ atomic scale observations, low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscope for surface crystal structure characterization, and photo-stimulated surface reaction chamber. In order to monitor the optical properties with atomic scale, a near field optical microscope is planned to be installed.

  19. Molecular profiles of drinking alcohol to intoxication in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Megan K; Rhodes, Justin S; Crabbe, John C; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron; Ponomarev, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Alcohol addiction develops through a series of stages, and mechanistic studies are needed to understand the transition from initial drug use to sustained controlled alcohol consumption followed by abuse and physical dependence. The focus of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary alcohol consumption on brain gene expression profiles using a mouse model of binge drinking. The main goal was to identify alcohol-responsive genes and functional categories after a single episode of drinking to intoxication. We used a modification of a "Drinking In the Dark" (DID) procedure (Rhodes et al., 2005) that allows mice to experience physiologically relevant amounts of alcohol in a non-stressful environment and also allows for detection of alcohol-sensitive molecular changes in a dose-dependent manner. C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to either 20% ethanol solution or water (single bottle) starting 3 hours after lights off for 4 hours and brains were harvested immediately after the drinking session. cDNA microarrays were used to assess the effects of voluntary drinking on global gene expression in 6 brain regions. We employed three statistical approaches to analyze microarray data. A commonly used approach that applies a strict statistical threshold identified the eight top statistically significant genes whose expression was significantly correlated with blood ethanol concentration (BEC) in one of the brain regions. We then used a systems network approach to examine brain region-specific transcriptomes and identify modules of co-expressed (correlated) genes. In each brain region, we identified alcohol-responsive modules, i.e., modules significantly enriched for genes whose expression was correlated with BEC. A functional over-representation analysis was then applied to examine the organizing principles of alcohol-responsive modules. Genes were clustered into modules according to their roles in different physiological processes, functional groups, and cell types

  20. Behavioral Differences Between C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 Hybrid Mice: Relation to Control of Ethanol Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Blednov, Y. A.

    2011-01-01

    C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 (B6 × FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 × NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 × NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 × FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and were less sensitive to ethanol- induced loss of righting reflex than B6 × NZB. Both hybrids demonstrated ethanol-induced place preference and a low ethanol withdrawal severity. We found that these hybrids differ in their sensitivity to the aversive and sedative, but not rewarding, effects of ethanol. Results of elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, and locomotor tests reveal B6 × FVB mice are less anxious and more active than B6 × NZB mice. Results obtained offer insights about factors that determine SAP and RAP in these new genetic models of alcohol consumption. PMID:20364436

  1. Behavioral differences between C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ F1 hybrid mice: relation to control of ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, A R; Harris, R A; Blednov, Y A

    2010-07-01

    C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ F1 (B6 x FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 x NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 x NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 x FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and were less sensitive to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex than B6 x NZB. Both hybrids demonstrated ethanol-induced place preference and a low ethanol withdrawal severity. We found that these hybrids differ in their sensitivity to the aversive and sedative, but not rewarding, effects of ethanol. Results of elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, and locomotor tests reveal B6 x FVB mice are less anxious and more active than B6 x NZB mice. Results obtained offer insights about factors that determine SAP and RAP in these new genetic models of alcohol consumption.

  2. Emotion and cognition in high and low stress sensitive mouse strains: a combined neuroendocrine and behavioral study in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing experiences and stress influence cognitive processes and vice versa. Understanding the relations and interactions between these three systems forms the core of this study. We tested two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6J; male; 3-month-old for glucocorticoid stress system markers (expression of MR and GR mRNA and protein in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex; blood plasma corticosterone, used behavioral tasks for emotions and cognitive performance (elevated plus maze, holeboard to assess the interdependence of these factors. We hypothesize that BALB/c mice have a stress-vulnerable neuroendocrine phenotype and that emotional expressions in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice will differentially contribute to learning and memory. We applied factor analyses on emotional and cognitive parameters to determine the behavioral structure of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Glucocorticoid stress system markers indeed show that BALB/c mice are more stress-vulnerable than C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, emotional and explorative factors differed between naïve BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/c mice display high movement in anxiogenic zones and high risk assessment, while C57BL/6J mice show little movement in anxiogenic zones and display high vertical exploration. Furthermore, BALB/c mice are superior learners, showing learning related behavior which is highly structured and emotionally biased when exposed to a novel or changing situation. In contrast, C57BL/6J mice display a rather ‘‘chaotic’’ behavioral structure during learning in absence of an emotional factor. These results show that stress vulnerability coincides with more emotionality, which drives well orchestrated goal directed behavior to the benefit of cognition. Both phenotypes have their advantage depending on environmental demands.

  3. A combined cryo-EM and molecular dynamics approach reveals the mechanism of ErmBL-mediated translation arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, Stefan; Bock, Lars V.; Graf, Michael; Innis, C. Axel; Beckmann, Roland; Grubmüller, Helmut; Vaiana, Andrea C.; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2016-07-01

    Nascent polypeptides can induce ribosome stalling, regulating downstream genes. Stalling of ErmBL peptide translation in the presence of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin leads to resistance in Streptococcus sanguis. To reveal this stalling mechanism we obtained 3.6-Å-resolution cryo-EM structures of ErmBL-stalled ribosomes with erythromycin. The nascent peptide adopts an unusual conformation with the C-terminal Asp10 side chain in a previously unseen rotated position. Together with molecular dynamics simulations, the structures indicate that peptide-bond formation is inhibited by displacement of the peptidyl-tRNA A76 ribose from its canonical position, and by non-productive interactions of the A-tRNA Lys11 side chain with the A-site crevice. These two effects combine to perturb peptide-bond formation by increasing the distance between the attacking Lys11 amine and the Asp10 carbonyl carbon. The interplay between drug, peptide and ribosome uncovered here also provides insight into the fundamental mechanism of peptide-bond formation.

  4. P7C3 Attenuates the Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairments in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Song, Lu; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Memory impairment is the most common symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the memory enhancing effects of P7C3, a recently identified compound with robust proneurogenic and neuroprotective effects, on the cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Different behavior tests including the Y-maze, Morris water maze, and passive avoidance tests were performed to measure cognitive functions. Scopolamine significantly decreased the spontaneous alternation and step-through latency of C57BL/6J mice in Y-maze test and passive avoidance test, whereas increased the time of mice spent to find the hidden platform in Morris water maze test. Importantly, intraperitoneal administration of P7C3 effectively reversed those Scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, P7C3 treatment significantly enhanced the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in the cortex and hippocampus, and the usage of selective BDNF signaling inhibitor fully blocked the anti-amnesic effects of P7C3. Therefore, these findings suggest that P7C3 could improve the scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment possibly through activation of BDNF signaling pathway, thereby exhibiting a cognition-enhancing potential.

  5. [Comparative analysis of a new human cell line 4BL karyotype at long-term cultivation. Ploidy of chromosomal set].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, H R; Huleiuk, N L; Kushniruk, V O; Mykytenko, D O; Iatsyshyna, A P; Lukash, L L

    2013-01-01

    Long-term cultivation of human cells, including stem cells, can lead to substantial transformation of the karyotype and occurrence of genetic instability. The aim of this research was a comparative cytogenetic study of the karyotype of a new human stem cell line 4BL at 160 and 205 passages. The absence of 10 and 13 pairs of chromosomes and the monosomy of chromosomes 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, X were observed; also six regular marker chromosomes were detected. Chromosomes 1, 15 and 21 are involved in translocations t(l;11), t(5;15), t(12; 15), t(16;21). Modal class of the karyotype is within 41-43 chromosomes at both 160 and 205 passages. The frequency of polyploid cells have been increased from 2.8% at 160 passage up to 36% at 205 passage. Cells with a near-haploid karyotype were not detected at 205 passage (in contrast to 24.6% at 160 passages) and a decline of the level of premature separation of chromatids was observed. We assume stabilization of karyotype of the cell line 4BL at 205 passage and consider that further research is needed to predict the direction of karyotypic evolution of these cells in vitro.

  6. Impact of superovulation and mating on the wellbeing of juvenile and adult C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Thomas; Sheety, Sarjoun; Walter, Ingrid; Palme, Rupert; Rülicke, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Superovulation of mice is routinely used to increase the number of obtainable ova per female. Because of the better outcome, prepubescent females are preferentially used. Here, we provide results of the impact of superovulation and mating on the wellbeing of juvenile compared with adult C57BL/6N mice. Two groups of mice (3-4 weeks vs 7-8 weeks old) were superovulated and mated. Observation of mating behaviour showed that reluctant adult females tended to fight the male's approach, whereas juveniles preferred to take flight. Faeces were collected daily for the analysis of stress hormones. There was no difference in the levels of glucocorticoid metabolites either between age groups or between treated animals and their controls. Histology after mating revealed intact vaginal mucosa without any detectable lesions in all animals regardless of age. In contrast to adults, almost all juveniles were synchronised in oestrus and produced significantly more ova. Taken together, our results reveal no increased welfare problem from using juvenile mice for superovulation and mating. Considering the higher yield of fertilisable oocytes and zygotes, it is advisable to use C57BL/6N prepubescent mice in order to reduce the number of donor females required.

  7. Knockout of the TauT gene predisposes C57BL/6 mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Han

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the world. Although tremendous efforts have been made, scientists have yet to identify an ideal animal model that can reproduce the characteristics of human diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we hypothesize that taurine insufficiency is a critical risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy associated with diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in vivo in TauT heterozygous (TauT+/- and homozygous (TauT-/- knockout in C57BL/6 background mice. We have shown that alteration of the TauT gene (also known as SLC6A6 has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to development of extensive diabetic kidney disease in both TauT+/- and TauT-/-mouse models of diabetes. These animals developed histological changes characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy that included glomerulosclerosis, nodular lesions, arteriosclerosis, arteriolar dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining of molecular markers of smooth muscle actin, CD34, Ki67 and collagen IV further confirmed these observations. Our results demonstrated that both homozygous and heterozygous TauT gene deletion predispose C57BL/6 mice to develop end-stage diabetic kidney disease, which closely replicates the pathological features of diabetic nephropathy in human diabetic patients.

  8. An Analysis of Light Periods of BL Lac Object S5 0716+714 with the MUSIC Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is introduced to the estimation of light periods of BL Lac objects. The principle of the MUSIC algorithm is given, together with a testing on its spectral resolution by using a simulative signal. From a lot of literature, we have collected a large number of effective observational data of the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in the three optical wavebands V, R, and I from 1994 to 2008. The light periods of S5 0716+714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC algorithm and average periodogram algorithm, respectively. It is found that there exist two major periodic components, one is the period of (3.33±0.08) yr, another is the period of (1.24±0.01) yr. The comparison of the performances of periodicity analysis of two algorithms indicates that the MUSIC algorithm has a smaller requirement on the sample length, as well as a good spectral resolution and anti-noise ability, to improve the accuracy of periodicity analysis in the case of short sample length.

  9. Research of the influencing factors of the immobilized redox mediators accelerating Cr(Ⅵ reduction by Escherichia coli BL21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng PING

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influencing factors of non-dissolved redox mediators on Cr (Ⅵ bioreduction, the accelerating effect of non-dissolved redox mediators immobilized by cellulose acetate (CA on the reduction of Cr(Ⅵ by Escherichia coli BL21 is investigated. The results show that the accelerating order is 1-chloroanthraquinone>1,5-dichloroanthraquinone>2-chloroanthraquinone>1,8-dichloroanthraquinone>anthraquinone>1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthtaquinone; the optimal concentration of 1-chloroanthraquinone pH and initial Cr(Ⅵ concentration are 0.048 mol/L, 7.00 and 30 mg/L, respectively; the removal rate increases with the increasing temperature when it is in the range of 20~60 ℃; after 6 times of recycling experiments, and the Cr(Ⅵ bioreduction rate with the immobilized 1-chloroanthraquinone maintains above 5 times of margin bacterium's. It indicates that non-dissolved redox mediators immobilized by CA can effectively accelerate the reduction rate of Cr(Ⅵ by Escherichia coli BL21, which has favourable application value.

  10. Analysis of inorganic elements in biological samples of C57BL/6J mouse strain using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Kovacs, Luciana; Bueno Junior, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    The research for new medicine, vaccines and other products of interest in health area, for any disease, requires several in vivo tests using animal models on experiments for clinical analysis of actions in organism, focusing on the relation between these and the responses or reactions to their use, allowing or not their use in human being. The present investigation deals with the determination of elements concentration (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na) of clinical relevance in kidney and liver of C57BL/6J mice strain using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Particularly, the C57BL/6J strain is one of the most widely used mice genetically modified for human disease studies. The biological samples were collected from 2 month old adult mice bred in the Biotherium (animal breeding) of UNIFESP (Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and at Human Genome Research Center (University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and Biotechnology Center (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brasil). The measurements were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN. These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time, by knowing the basal reference values in blood and organs of this strain. Additionally, this analytical procedure meets the needs of the world tendency that emphasizes the requirements to propose alternative methods for clinical research that contribute to animal welfare. (author)

  11. Analysis of inorganic elements in biological samples of C57BL/6J mouse strain using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Kovacs, Luciana, E-mail: metairon@usp.br, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br, E-mail: mfsuzuki@ipen.br, E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno Junior, Carlos R., E-mail: carmao11@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IB/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Centro de Estudos do Genoma Humano

    2013-07-01

    The research for new medicine, vaccines and other products of interest in health area, for any disease, requires several in vivo tests using animal models on experiments for clinical analysis of actions in organism, focusing on the relation between these and the responses or reactions to their use, allowing or not their use in human being. The present investigation deals with the determination of elements concentration (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na) of clinical relevance in kidney and liver of C57BL/6J mice strain using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Particularly, the C57BL/6J strain is one of the most widely used mice genetically modified for human disease studies. The biological samples were collected from 2 month old adult mice bred in the Biotherium (animal breeding) of UNIFESP (Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and at Human Genome Research Center (University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and Biotechnology Center (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brasil). The measurements were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN. These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time, by knowing the basal reference values in blood and organs of this strain. Additionally, this analytical procedure meets the needs of the world tendency that emphasizes the requirements to propose alternative methods for clinical research that contribute to animal welfare. (author)

  12. Intranasal Delivery of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Pulmonary Toxicity and Fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Hu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Kai; Xu, Yuqiao; Chen, Suning; Zhang, Jian

    2018-03-14

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used as catalysts or semiconductors in material fields. Recent studies have suggested that CuO NPs have adverse genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects on various cells. However, little is known about the toxicity of CuO NPs following exposure to murine lungs. The purpose of this fundamental research was to investigate whether CuO NPs could induce epithelial cell injury, pulmonary inflammation, and eventually fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. Our studies showed that CuO NPs aggravated pulmonary inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. CuO NPs induced apoptosis of epithelial cells as indicated by TUNEL staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis, which was partially caused by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, CuO NPs exposure promoted collagen accumulation and expression of the progressive fibrosis marker α-SMA in the lung tissues, indicating that CuO NP inhalation could induce pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. All data provide novel evidence that there is an urgent need to prevent the adverse effects of CuO NPs in the human respiratory system.

  13. High time resolution CCD camera with X-ray image intensifier for SPring-8 BL40XU

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, T; Yagi, N

    2003-01-01

    SPring-8 BL40XU is designed to use high flux X-ray for small angle X-ray scattering and multi purpose. The flux at the experimental hutch is about 1 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 photons/sec at 12.4 KeV, which is larger 2 approx 3 figures than other beamlines at SPring-8. To utilize the high flux X-ray efficiently, new high-speed detector is needed. Therefore, a high frame rate CCD camera C7770 (Hamamatsu) and a new 6-inch X-ray image intensifier V5445P (Hamamatsu) were developed for BL40XU. The CCD camera has three CCD chips to increase the readout speed. Three identical images are created by a prism system in the CCD camera and projected onto the three chips. The pixel number of the CCD is 640 x 480 and the frame rate is 291 frames/sec. Reduction of the number of horizontal lines leads to a faster frame rate up to a few thousands. The combination of the CCD and with an X-ray shutter also leads to faster discrete data acquisition. (author)

  14. Central ghrelin signaling mediates the metabolic response of C57BL/6 male mice to chronic social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Z R; Khazall, R; Mackay, H; Anisman, H; Abizaid, A

    2013-03-01

    Chronic stressors promote metabolic disturbances, including obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ghrelin, a peptide that promotes appetite and the accumulation of adipose tissue, is also secreted in response to stressors to protect the brain and peripheral tissues from the effects of these stressors. Here we demonstrate that elevated ghrelin levels produced by chronic exposure to social stress are associated with increased caloric intake and body weight gain in male C57BL mice. In contrast, stressed mice lacking ghrelin receptors (GHSR KO mice) or C57BL mice receiving chronic intracerebroventricular delivery of the ghrelin receptor antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 show attenuated weight gain and feeding responses under the same social stress paradigm. Interestingly, stressed GHSR KO mice showed depleted sc and intrascapular brown fat depots, whereas stressed young wild-type mice did not. In old wild-type mice, chronic social defeat increased visceral and intrascapular brown fat depots in association with increases in obesity markers like hyperleptinemia and hyperinsulinemia along with increased hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and Agouti related peptide. Importantly, the elevated expression of these peptides persisted least for 2 weeks after cessation of the stressor regimen. In contrast, old GHSR KO mice did not show these alterations after chronic social defeat. These results suggest that ghrelin plays an important role in the metabolic adaptations necessary to meet the energetic demands posed by stressors, but chronic exposure to stress-induced ghrelin elevations ultimately could lead to long lasting metabolic dysfunctions.

  15. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Yeung-Ju; Park, Eui Seong; Park, Kun-Young

    2017-06-01

    The effects of Korean solar salt on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer C57BL/6 mouse model were studied. Korean solar salt samples (SS-S, solar salt from S salt field; SS-Yb, solar salt from Yb salt field), nine-time-baked bamboo salt (BS-9x, made from SS-Yb), purified salt (PS), and SS-G (solar salt from Guérande, France) were orally administered at a concentration of 1% during AOM/DSS colon cancer induction, and compared for their protective effects during colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. SS-S and SS-Yb suppressed colon length shortening and tumor counts in mouse colons. Histological evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining also revealed suppression of tumorigenesis by SS-S. Conversely, PS and SS-G did not show a similar suppressive efficacy as Korean solar salt. SS-S and SS-Yb promoted colon mRNA expression of an apoptosis-related factor and cell-cycle-related gene and suppressed pro-inflammatory factor. SS-Yb baked into BS-9x further promoted these anti-carcinogenic efficacies. Taken together, the results indicate that Korean solar salt, especially SS-S and SS-Yb, exhibited anti-cancer activity by modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene expression during colon carcinogenesis in mice, and bamboo salt baked from SS-Yb showed enhanced anti-cancer functionality.

  16. Ursolic acid and rosiglitazone combination alleviates metabolic syndrome in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Arjunan; Harini, Ranganathan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the combined effect of ursolic acid (UA) and rosiglitazone (RSG) on metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice. Upon feeding high fat diet (HFD) C57BL/6J mice developed obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The male mice were randomly divided into six groups, and fed normal diet, normal diet plus UA and RSG, HFD alone, HFD plus UA, HFD plus RSG, and HFD plus UA and RSG, respectively. HFD fed mice showed increase in body weight, elevated plasma glucose and insulin. Activities of gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase increased while the activity of glycolytic enzyme, glucokinase, decreased in the liver along with glycogen content. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fatty acid levels significantly increased in the plasma, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased in high fat diet fed mice. In addition, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was increased significantly. Combined treatment with UA and RSG improved the above parameters towards normality and pronounced more responses than UA or RSG lone treatment. The inclusion of UA in treatment with RSG may reduce the body weight gain, one of adverse side effect associated with the RSG-therapy.

  17. Fermentation of hexoses and pentoses from hydrolyzed soybean hull into ethanol and xylitol by Candida guilliermondii BL 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. da Cunha-Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract This work investigated the ability of a recently isolated strain of Candida guilliermondii to convert hexoses and pentoses obtained from acid-enzymatic soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and, in smaller amounts, into xylitol. Operational conditions and media formulation were optimized concerning ethanol production using experimental designs (Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Design. Results showed that C. guilliermondii BL 13 was capable of growing in non-supplemented, non-detoxified biomass hydrolysates, and the best culture conditions were determined to be 28 °C, pH 5.0, and 109 CFU mL-1 of inoculum size. Ethanol productivity reached 1.4 g L-1 h-1, and maximal yields of 0.41 g g-1 were obtained, representing 80.4 % of the expected theoretical yields, whereas small amounts of xylitol were also produced. These results suggest that C. guilliermondii BL13 is a potentially useful yeast strain to be applied in second-generation ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass based on its natural capacity to metabolize C-5 and C-6 sugars.

  18. Tert-butylhydroquinone reduces lipid accumulation in C57BL/6 mice with lower body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Sang-Ki; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk

    2013-07-01

    tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on body weight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P body weight gain in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6 mice, and the oral administration of tBHQ (1.5 mg/kg) reduced 47.5 % (P body weight gain in normal diet fed db/db mice. The HFD increased lipid deposit in adipocytes, but these were reduced significantly by tBHQ treatment in C57BL/6 mice. tBHQ supplementation significantly lowered the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol, with reduced size of accumulated fat mass. The rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation (ACOX1) was significantly over-expressed in the liver with tBHQ treatment. These results indicate that tBHQ suppresses body weight gain in mice, possibly at least related to the up-regulation of ACOX1 gene expression.

  19. Alternate day fasting impacts the brain insulin-signaling pathway of young adult male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianghua; E, Lezi; Wang, Wenfang; Frontera, Jennifer; Zhu, Hao; Wang, Wen-Tung; Lee, Phil; Choi, In Young; Brooks, William M; Burns, Jeffrey M; Aires, Daniel; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2011-04-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) has recognized health benefits that may extend to brain. We examined how DR affects bioenergetics-relevant enzymes and signaling pathways in the brains of C57BL/6 mice. Five-month-old male mice were placed in ad libitum or one of two repeated fasting and refeeding (RFR) groups, an alternate day (intermittent fed; IF) or alternate day plus antioxidants (blueberry, pomegranate, and green tea extracts) (IF + AO) fed group. During the 24-h fast blood glucose levels initially fell but stabilized within 6 h of starting the fast, thus avoiding frank hypoglycemia. DR in general appeared to enhance insulin sensitivity. After six weeks brain AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta phosphorylation were lower in the RFR mice, suggesting RFR reduced brain insulin-signaling pathway activity. Pathways that mediate mitochondrial biogenesis were not activated; AMP kinase phosphorylation, silent information regulator 2 phosphorylation, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha levels, and cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 levels did not change. ATP levels also did not decline, which suggests the RFR protocols did not directly impact brain bioenergetics. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect the brain parameters we evaluated. Our data indicate in young adult male C57BL/6 mice, RFR primarily affects brain energy metabolism by reducing brain insulin signaling, which potentially results indirectly as a consequence of reduced peripheral insulin production. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Comparison of dynamic expressions of Tim-3 and PD-1 in the brains between toxoplasmic encephalitis-resistant BALB/c and -susceptible C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Fu, Xiaoyin; Huang, Bo; Tong, Xinxin; Zheng, Huanqin; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2014-04-01

    T cells and IFN-γ are essential for controlling the reactivation of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), regardless of whether mice are susceptible or resistant to TE. It has been demonstrated that CD8(+) T cells exhausted in chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection result in TE reactivation in C57BL/6 mice. However, this phenomenon had not been reported in genetically TE-resistant BALB/c mice. To explore the immune mechanism of TE in different backgrounds of mice, the dynamic expressions of Tim-3, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and their ligands (galectin-9, PD-L1, PD-L2) in brain tissues were compared between TE-resistant BALB/c and -susceptible C57BL/6 mice infected with Prugniaud (Pru, a type II strain) of T. gondii in this study. Compared with infected BALB/c mice, there were remarkable pathological changes with significantly higher histological scores in the brains of C57BL/6 mice at 14, 35, 50, and 70 days postinfection (p.i., P L1 in the brain of C57BL/6 mice than that in BALB/c mice at all the times p.i. (P L1 expressions may contribute to the different immune responses between TE-resistant BALB/c and -susceptible C57BL/6 mice infected with Pru strain of T. gondii.

  1. The GH5 1,4-β-mannanase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 possesses a low-affinity mannan-binding module and highlights the diversity of mannanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrill, Johan; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Sulewska, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    , we report the biochemical properties of the first family 5 subfamily 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH5_8) mannanase from the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (BlMan5_8). BlMan5_8 possesses a novel low affinity carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specific for soluble mannan...... properties to support specialization towards a preferred substrate, which is likely to confer an advantage in the adaptation to competitive ecological niches....

  2. Evaluation du potentiel de la télédétection par drone pour l'agriculture: cas du blé

    OpenAIRE

    Jubelin, G.

    2006-01-01

    / L'objectif de ce stage est d'évaluer les apports de la télédétection à très haute résolution spatiale (THRS) par drone pour l'agriculture de précision, sur un cas d'espèce : la culture du blé. Cette étude consiste à extraire des paramètres biophysiques des couverts de blé par télédétection, à estimer la qualité des données produites et à en conclure sur les bénéfices et limites de cette méthode d'acquisition. Pour cela un essai de blé, un champ contenant des parcelles identiques de petit...

  3. Comparison of the sensitivity of C57BL/6J and AKR/J mice to airborne molecules of isovaleric acid and amyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtier, L; Sicard, G

    1990-07-01

    Wysocki et al. (1977) have previously compared the abilities of several inbred strains of mice to avoid odorized drinks after odor-aversion conditioning and have proposed C57BL/6 mice as an animal model to study the specific anosmia to isovaleric acid. We have compared the olfactory performances of C57BL/6J mice and AKR/J mice using one-bottle and two-bottle tests to study the latencies of contacts with odorized or control drinks after odor-aversion conditioning. In both inbred strains, sensitivities to airborne molecules of amyl acetate (control odor) or isovaleric acid are demonstrated. Differences in behavioral strategies are suggested but the results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective hyposmia to isovaleric acid in C57BL/6J mice.

  4. Superovulation using the combined administration of inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin increases the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Takeo

    Full Text Available Superovulation is a reproductive technique generally used to produce genetically engineered mice. Superovulation in mice involves the administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG to promote follicle growth and then that of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG to induce ovulation. Previously, some published studies reported that inhibin antiserum (IAS increased the number of ovulated oocytes in ddY and wild-derived strains of mice. However, the effect of IAS on the C57BL/6 strain, which is the most widely used inbred strain for the production of genetically engineered mice, has not been investigated. In addition, the combined effect of IAS and eCG (IASe on the number of ovulated oocytes in superovulation treatment has not been examined. In this study, we examined the effect of IAS and eCG on the number of ovulated oocytes in immature female mice of the C57BL/6 strain in superovulation treatment. Furthermore, we evaluated the quality of obtained oocytes produced by superovulation using IASe by in vitro fertilization (IVF with sperm from C57BL/6 or genetically engineered mice. The developmental ability of fresh or cryopreserved embryos was examined by embryo transfer. The administration of IAS or eCG had a similar effect on the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice. The number of ovulated oocytes increased to about 3-fold by the administration of IASe than by the administration of IAS or eCG alone. Oocytes derived from superovulation using IASe normally developed into 2-cell embryos by IVF using sperm from C57BL/6 mice. Fresh or cryopreserved 2-cell embryos produced by IVF between oocytes of C57BL/6 mice and sperm from genetically engineered mice normally developed into live pups following embryo transfer. In summary, a novel technique of superovulation using IASe is extremely useful for producing a great number of oocytes and offspring from genetically engineered mice.

  5. WHAT IS THE REDSHIFT OF THE GAMMA-RAY BL LAC SOURCE S4 0954+65?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landoni, M. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Falomo, R. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Treves, A. [Universita’ degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 (Italy); Scarpa, R.; Payá, D. Reverte, E-mail: marco.landoni@brera.inaf.it [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, C/O Via Lactea, s/n E38205—La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    High signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations of the BL Lac object S4 0954+65 at the alleged redshift z = 0.367 are presented. This source was detected at gamma frequencies by the MAGIC (TeV) and FERMI (GeV) telescopes during a remarkable outburst that occurred in 2015 February, making the determination of its distance particularly relevant for our understanding of the properties of the extragalactic background light. Contrary to previous reports on the redshift, we found that the optical spectrum is featureless at an equivalent width limit of ∼0.1 Å. A critical analysis of the existing observations indicates that the redshift is still unknown. Based on the new data we estimate a lower limit to the redshift at z ≥ 0.45.

  6. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (the Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya [Structural Biology research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through β-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-hong; Xiang, Li-Jun; Shi, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Li-ping; Cai, Ping-tao; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Lin, Bei-Bei; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Guo, Ding-Jiong; Li, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of FGFs induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to the control group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles of the FGFs-treated group. These results suggest that FGFs promote hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:25685806

  8. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  9. Syngeneic GvH induced in popliteal lymph nodes by spleen cells of old C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozes, Y.; Umiel, T.; Meshorer, A.; Trainin, N.

    1978-01-01

    The frequency of autoimmune processes seems to increase with age. We have studied here whether lymphoid cells of aged mice have the potential to express autoreactivity by the use of the in vivo graft-vs-host (GvH) assay. It was found that spleen cells from old (104 weeks) C57BL mice caused significant enlargement of the popliteal lymph node upon injection into the footpads of syngeneic young or old recipients. Histologically this enlargement presented characteristics of a GvH reaction. This effect, which was not abolished by irradiation of the hosts, was totally cancelled by in vitro irradiation or by anti-theta treatment of the donor cells. These results indicate that T cells from aged mice have the potential to manifest autoimmune reactivity

  10. The Neurotropic Properties of AAV-PHP.B Are Limited to C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordeaux, Juliette; Wang, Qiang; Katz, Nathan; Buza, Elizabeth L; Bell, Peter; Wilson, James M

    2018-03-07

    Improved delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the CNS will greatly enhance their clinical utility. Selection of AAV9 variants in a mouse model led to the isolation of a capsid called PHP.B, which resulted in remarkable transduction of the CNS following intravenous infusion. However, we now show here that this enhanced CNS tropism is restricted to the model in which it was selected, i.e., a Cre transgenic mouse in a C57BL/6J background, and was not found in nonhuman primates or the other commonly used mouse strain BALB/cJ. We also report the potential for serious acute toxicity in NHP after systemic administration of high dose of AAV. Copyright © 2018 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BL-Hi-C is an efficient and sensitive approach for capturing structural and regulatory chromatin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengyu; Li, Guipeng; Wang, Zejun; Djekidel, Mohamed Nadhir; Li, Yanjian; Qian, Min-Ping; Zhang, Michael Q; Chen, Yang

    2017-11-20

    In human cells, DNA is hierarchically organized and assembled with histones and DNA-binding proteins in three dimensions. Chromatin interactions play important roles in genome architecture and gene regulation, including robustness in the developmental stages and flexibility during the cell cycle. Here we propose in situ Hi-C method named Bridge Linker-Hi-C (BL-Hi-C) for capturing structural and regulatory chromatin interactions by restriction enzyme targeting and two-step proximity ligation. This method improves the sensitivity and specificity of active chromatin loop detection and can reveal the regulatory enhancer-promoter architecture better than conventional methods at a lower sequencing depth and with a simpler protocol. We demonstrate its utility with two well-studied developmental loci: the beta-globin and HOXC cluster regions.

  12. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille; Nielsen, Dennis S; Wegener, Gregers; Hansen, Axel K; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. Magnesium deficiency altered behavior. The duration of magnesium deficiency is suggested to influence behaviour in the evaluated test.

  13. The stability of R-parity in supersymmetric models extended by U(1){sub B-L}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo-Molina, Jose Eliel; O' Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics und Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We perform a study of the stability of R-parity-conserving vacua of a constrained version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with a gauged U(1){sub B-L} which can conserve R-parity. Using the homotopy continuation method we find all the extrema of the tree-level potential, which are then used as starting point for the analysis of the loop-corrected potential. While we find that a majority of the points in the parameter space preserve R-parity, we also find that a significant portion of points which naively have phenomenologically acceptable vacua which conserve R-parity, actually have deeper vacua which break R-parity through sneutrino VEVs. We investigate under what conditions the deeper R-parity-violating vacua appear. We find that while previous exploratory work was broadly correct in some of its qualitative conclusions, we disagree in detail.

  14. Syphacia obvelata: A New Hope to Induction of Intestinal Immunological Tolerance in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Niloofar; Mosaffa, Nariman; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Homayoni, Mohamad Mohsen; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-01

    The ability of nematodes to manipulate the immune system of their host towards a Th2 and T regulatory responses has been proposed to suppress the inflammatory response. Clinical trials have proposed a useful effect of helminth infections on improvement of inflammatory disorders. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata infection to induce intestinal tolerance in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were infected through the cagemates with self-infected BALB/c mice. Four weeks post-infection, expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-10 were assessed in the supernatant of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) culture. Foxp3+Treg were measured in MLN cells by flow cytometry. In the S. obvelata-infected group, the percentage of Tregs (5.2±0.4) was significantly higher than the control (3.6±0.5) (Pimmunological suppressive function in the intestinal tract.

  15. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  16. RFLPs for ATP1BL1 (. beta. subunit Na sup + /K sup + ATPase pseudogene) on chromosome 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiou, C.; Shull, M. (Univ. of Iowa Hospitals, Iowa City (USA)); Lingrel, J.B.; Murray, J.C.; Lane, L.K. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1989-11-11

    {beta}51-1(1.4) contains a 1.4kb EcoRI fragment, free of repetitive elements, from the {beta} subunit Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase pseudogene (ATP1BL1). The vector is pUG18. EcoRI identifies 2 allelic bands of 7.0 and 14.0 kb. KpnI identifies 2 allelic bands of 19.0 and 23.0 kb. The probe was localized to chromosome 4 by linkage to chromosome 4 markers (D4S35, KIT) and somatic cell hybrid analysis. Co-dominant segregation was shown in 32 and 16 CEPH families for EcoRI and KpnI respectively.

  17. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ampicillin has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesized that this effect is present only if treatment is initiated prior to weaning and that it disappears when treatment is terminated. High-fat fed C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into groups that received Ampicillin...... at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...

  18. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Phillips

    Full Text Available Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(° so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1 absence of alternative directional cues (2, rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3 electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE SEASONAL VARIATION ON THE BLASTOCYST YIELD OF C57BL/6NCrl MOUSE STRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALENA BENCSIK

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Routine generation of chimeras relies on the production of large numbers ofblastocysts in a constant and reproducible manner and on the quality of the targetedES (embryonal stem cells used for microinjection. We have focussed this work onthe production of large numbers of blastocysts by superovulation, in standardizedconditions. The efficiency of superovulation in mice is affected by several factors.These factors depend on the animal, on the environment and on the operator. Theeffect of seasonal variation as environmental impact was assessed. For this purpose360 prepubescent C57BL6/NCrl females were superovulated with 5 IU of PMSG(Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin and 5 IU hCG (Human ChorionicGonadotropin and mated with fertile C57BL/6NCrl males. The distribution of theexperiments over the seasons was as following: 8 experiments were performed inspring, 12 in summer, 12 in autumn and 4 in winter. The influence of the seasonalvariation on the efficiency of superovulation in two age categories (23 day old and26 day old females was compared. The results show that the overall vaginal plugpositive rate (VP+% of the 23 day old females (90% is higher in comparison tothat of the 26 day old females (86,4%, whereas the blastocyst rate (B% of 26 dayold females (45,4% is higher compared to the 23 day old females (41%. Theinfluence of the seasonal variation on the yield of embryos and the rate ofblastocysts is relatively constant in each season. These results suggest that housingof the mice in our artificial conditions and the hormonal induction of superovulationlead to a reproducible number of blastocysts over the seasonal variation of the year.

  20. Intermittent Hypoxia Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in C57BL6/J Mice: Partial Improvement with Cessation of the Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jan; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Drager, Luciano F.; Undem, Clark; McHugh, Holly; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although several studies have suggested that intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea may induce abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, it remains to be determined whether these abnormalities improve after discontinuation of the exposure. The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of intermittent hypoxia on glucose homeostasis, beta cell function, and liver glucose metabolism and to investigate whether the impairments improve after the hypoxic exposure is discontinued. Interventions: C57BL6/J mice were exposed to 14 days of intermittent hypoxia, 14 days of intermittent air, or 7 days of intermittent hypoxia followed by 7 days of intermittent air (recovery paradigm). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed to estimate whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculate measures of beta cell function. Oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue and glucose output from isolated hepatocytes were also assessed. Results: Intermittent hypoxia increased fasting glucose levels and worsened glucose tolerance by 67% and 27%, respectively. Furthermore, intermittent hypoxia exposure was associated with impairments in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, an increase in liver glycogen, higher hepatocyte glucose output, and an increase in oxidative stress in the pancreas. While fasting glucose levels and hepatic glucose output normalized after discontinuation of the hypoxic exposure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impairments in beta cell function persisted. Conclusions: Intermittent hypoxia induces insulin resistance, impairs beta cell function, enhances hepatocyte glucose output, and increases oxidative stress in the pancreas. Cessation of the hypoxic exposure does not fully reverse the observed changes in glucose metabolism. Citation: Polak J; Shimoda LA; Drager LF; Undem C; McHugh H; Polotsky VY; Punjabi NM

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in C57BL/6 Mice Detected through Proteomics Screening of the Amniotic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Susmita; Turner, Delano; Singh, Reetu; Ruest, L. Bruno; Pierce, William M.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a severe consequence of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, is associated with craniofacial defects, mental retardation, and stunted growth. Previous studies in C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice provide evidence that alcohol-induced pathogenesis follows early changes in gene expression within specific molecular pathways in the embryonic headfold. Whereas the former (B6J) pregnancies carry a high-risk for dysmorphogenesis following maternal exposure to 2.9 g/kg alcohol (two injections spaced 4.0 h apart on gestation day 8), the latter (B6N) pregnancies carry a low-risk for malformations. The present study used this murine model to screen amniotic fluid for biomarkers that could potentially discriminate between FAS-positive and FAS-negative pregnancies. METHODS B6J and B6N litters were treated with alcohol (exposed) or saline (control) on day 8 of gestation. Amniotic fluid aspirated on day 17 (n = 6 replicate litters per group) was subjected to trypsin digestion for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption–time of flight mass spectrometry with the aid of denoising algorithms, statistical testing, and classification methods. RESULTS We identified several peaks in the proteomics screen that were reduced consistently and specifically in exposed B6J litters. Preliminary characterization by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multidimensional protein identification mapped the reduced peaks to alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The predictive strength of AFP deficiency as a biomarker for FAS-positive litters was confirmed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSIONS These findings in genetically susceptible mice support clinical observations in maternal serum that implicate a decrease in AFP levels following prenatal alcohol damage. PMID:18240165

  2. [Construction and expression of the fusion gene CCK39/UreB in recombinant Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Luo, Wenhua; Hu, Bin; Hu, Wenfeng

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this research were to construct prokaryotic expression vector containing fusion gene of Cholecystokinin 39 (CCK39) of pig and Urease subunit B (UreB) of coliform bacteria, and then to express the fusion protein in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The CCK39 gene was amplified by RT-PCR from the extracted total RNA of pig's duodenum, and the UreB gene was then amplified by PCR from the extracted plasmid DNA of bacillus of coliform bacteria from pig's intestinal content. Then the CCK39 and the UreB were inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET43a(+) to construct a recombinant fusion expression vector pET43a(+)/CCK39/UreB and then, the recombinant vector was identified by PCR, endonuclease digestion and sequence analysis. It was identified that the gene fragment of CCK39 at length of 117 bp and UreB at length of 324 bp were amplified and cloned into the vector pET43a(+) successfully. The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and induced the expression of CCK39/UreB fusion protein with a molecular mass of approximately 80 kD by using isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG) as inducer. The fusion protein was mostly located in the cytoplasm and it was soluble. The soluble protein was collected and purified by Ni2+-NTA column chromatograph and then reached a purity of more than 95%. It was proved by western blotting that the fusion protein could react with rabbit anti-CCK8 antiserum and rabbit anti-UreB antiserum. Therefore, the expressed fusion protein has good antigenicity. This work established a good foundation for further study on the production of anti-CCK/Urease vaccines.

  3. Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Rex, Tonia S

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

  4. Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Bricker-Anthony

    Full Text Available Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury, flying debris (secondary injury, blunt force trauma (tertiary injury, and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury. In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

  5. A behavioural comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Leonora E; Chesworth, Rose; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGregor, Iain S; Arnold, Jonathon C; Karl, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Cannabis contains over 70 unique compounds and its abuse is linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. The behavioural profiles of the psychotropic cannabis constituent Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and the non-psychotomimetic constituent cannabidiol (CBD) were investigated with a battery of behavioural tests relevant to anxiety and positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Male adult C57BL/6JArc mice were given 21 daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, Delta9-THC (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or CBD (1, 5, 10 or 50 mg/kg). Delta9-THC produced the classic cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated tetrad of hypolocomotion, analgesia, catalepsy and hypothermia while CBD had modest hyperthermic effects. While sedative at this dose, Delta9-THC (10 mg/kg) produced locomotor-independent anxiogenic effects in the open-field and light-dark tests. Chronic CBD produced moderate anxiolytic-like effects in the open-field test at 50 mg/kg and in the light-dark test at a low dose (1 mg/kg). Acute and chronic Delta9-THC (10 mg/kg) decreased the startle response while CBD had no effect. Prepulse inhibition was increased by acute treatment with Delta9-THC (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg) or CBD (1, 5 and 50 mg/kg) and by chronic CBD (1 mg/kg). Chronic CBD (50 mg/kg) attenuated dexamphetamine (5 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion, suggesting an antipsychotic-like action for this cannabinoid. Chronic Delta9-THC decreased locomotor activity before and after dexamphetamine administration suggesting functional antagonism of the locomotor stimulant effect. These data provide the first evidence of anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects of chronic but not acute CBD in C57BL/6JArc mice, extending findings from acute studies in other inbred mouse strains and rats.

  6. Extracellular overexpression of recombinant Thermobifida fusca cutinase by alpha-hemolysin secretion system in E. coli BL21(DE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Lingqia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular expression of proteins has an absolute advantage in a large-scale industrial production. In our previous study, Thermobifida fusca cutinase, an enzyme mainly utilized in textile industry, was expressed via type II secretory system in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3, and it was found that parts of the expressed protein was accumulated in the periplasmic space. Due to the fact that alpha-hemolysin secretion system can export target proteins directly from cytoplasm across both cell membrane of E. coli to the culture medium, thus in the present study we investigated the expression of cutinase using this alpha-hemolysin secretion system. Results T. fusca cutinase was fused with the specific signal peptide of alpha-hemolysin scretion system and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3. In addition, HlyB and HlyD, strain-specific translocation components of alpha-hemolysin secretion system, were coexpressed to facilitate the enzyme expression. The cultivation of this engineered cell showed that cutinase activity in the culture medium reached 334 U/ml, which is 2.5 times that from type II secretion pathway under the same culture condition. The recombinant cutinase was further purified. Biochemical characterization of purified enzyme, which had an α-hemolysin secretion pathway signal peptide attached, had substrate specificity, pH and temperature profile, as well as application capability in bioscouring similar to that of wild-type cutinase. Conclusions In the present study, T. fusca cutinase was successfully secreted to the culture media by α-hemolysin secretion system. This is the first report of cutinase being efficiently secreted by this pathway. Due to the limited cases of successful expression of industrial enzyme by E. coli α-hemolysin secretion system, our study further explored the utilization of this pathway in industrial enzymes.

  7. Characterization of cryogenically cooled silicon crystals, for the double-crystal monochromator on BL11XU at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, Kazukiyo; Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Harami, Taikan

    2004-03-01

    Liquid-N 2 -cooled Si crystals have replaced water-cooled diamond crystals for the double-crystal monochromator on the JAERI beamline, BL11XU at SPring-8. To use the whole energy range from 6 to 70 keV, we developed the multi-crystal switching system, which can switch various crystals by a horizontal translation (X) stage perpendicular to the beam axis, and adopted the dual symmetric Si geometry, Si(111)/Si(311). The crystals are put side by side together with an indium sheet of 0.1 or 0.2 mm in thickness as a thermal conductor. The off-line experiment was performed to characterize the degree of the crystal strain, which may be introduced from the way of assembling in the crystal holder or upside-down posturing particularly for the second crystal of double-crystal monochromator. With MoKα 1 radiation from the x-ray generator, rocking curves from the dual symmetric silicon geometry, Si(111)/Si(311), for the second crystal were measured by the double-crystal diffractometer of parallel setting for the precise measurement of the crystal strain. Each of the observed FWHM was almost constant and identical to the calculated FWHM wherever an x-ray impinges on the crystal surface. These crystals were installed in the undulator beamline, BL11XU with cryogenically cooled condition, and tested for the performance by measuring the reflected intensity and the width of rocking curves. Highly improved results, in comparison with those in the water-cooled diamond case, were obtained. (author)

  8. The arcuate nucleus of the C57BL/6J mouse hindbrain is a displaced part of the inferior olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Hong; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus is a prominent cell group in the human hindbrain, characterized by its position on the pial surface of the pyramid. It is considered to be a precerebellar nucleus and has been implicated in the pathology of several disorders of respiration. An arcuate nucleus has not been convincingly demonstrated in other mammals, but we have found a similarly positioned nucleus in the C57BL/6J mouse. The mouse arcuate nucleus consists of a variable group of neurons lying on the pial surface of the pyramid. The nucleus is continuous with the ventrolateral part of the principal nucleus of the inferior olive and both groups are calbindin positive. At first we thought that this mouse nucleus was homologous with the human arcuate nucleus, but we have discovered that the neurons of the human nucleus are calbindin negative, and are therefore not olivary in nature. We have compared the mouse arcuate neurons with those of the inferior olive in terms of molecular markers and cerebellar projection. The neurons of the arcuate nucleus and of the inferior olive share three major characteristics: they both contain neurons utilizing glutamate, serotonin or acetylcholine as neurotransmitters; they both project to the contralateral cerebellum, and they both express a number of genes not present in the major mossy fiber issuing precerebellar nuclei. Most importantly, both cell groups express calbindin in an area of the ventral hindbrain almost completely devoid of calbindin-positive cells. We conclude that the neurons of the hindbrain mouse arcuate nucleus are a displaced part of the inferior olive, possibly separated by the caudal growth of the pyramidal tract during development. The arcuate nucleus reported in the C57BL/6J mouse can therefore be regarded as a subgroup of the rostral inferior olive, closely allied with the ventral tier of the principal nucleus. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Different effect of chronic stress on learning and memory in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice: Involvement of hippocampal NO production and PKC activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, María Laura; Zorrilla Zubilete, María Aurelia; Cremaschi, Graciela Alicia; Genaro, Ana María

    2009-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been involved in many pathophysiological brain processes. Recently, we showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-mediated decrease in NO production is involved in memory impairment induced by chronic mild stress (CMS) in BALB/c mice. Two genetically different inbred murine strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, show distinct behavioral responses, neurodevelopmental and neurochemical parameters. Here, we perform a comparative study on CMS effects upon learning and memory in both strains, analyzing the role of NO production and its regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). Stressed BALB/c, but not C57Bl/6 mice, showed a poor learning performance in both the open field and passive avoidance inhibitory tasks. Also, CMS induced a diminished NO production by nNOS, associated with an increment in gamma and zeta PKC isoenzymes in BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, CMS had no effect on NO production, but increased delta and decreased betaI PKC isoforms. In vivo administration of a NOS inhibitor induced behavioral alterations in both strains. These results suggest a differential effect of stress, with BALB/c being more vulnerable to stress than C57BL/6 mice. This effect could be related to a differential regulation of NOS and PKC isoenzymes, pointing to an important role of NO in learning and memory.

  10. (Re)Counting Meaningful Learning Experiences: Using Student-Created Reflective Videos to Make Invisible Learning Visible during PjBL Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaunna

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic case study investigated how the process of learning during a yearlong after-school, project-based learning (PjBL) experience could be documented by student-created reflective videos. Guided by social constructivism, constant comparative analysis was used to explore the meaningful learning that took place in addition to the…

  11. Contribution of CD4+ or CD8+ T Cell Subsets in the Induction of Asthma in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sugai

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: During antigen sensitization, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were required in C57BL/6 mice for exacerbation of asthma. During antigen challenge, CD4+ T cells were important for the onset of asthma, whereas CD8+ T cells do not affect eosinophil recruitment into the lung.

  12. Před 80 lety zemřel český historik František Hýbl (1875-1929)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíková, Lubomíra

    -, č. 6 (2009), s. 26 ISSN 1210-9525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90920516 Keywords : Hýbl, F. (1875-1929) * history * Balkan studies * Bulgarian studies Subject RIV: AB - History http://abicko.avcr.cz/cs/2009/06/12/index.html

  13. Enhanced production of 2'-fucosyllactose in engineered Escherichia coli BL21star(DE3) by modulation of lactose metabolism and fucosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Young-Wook; Kim, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Won-Heong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-20

    2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of most abundant functional oligosaccharides in human milk, which is involved in many biological functions for human health. To date, most microbial systems for 2-FL production have been limited to use Escherichia coli JM strains since they cannot metabolize lactose. In this study, E. coli BL21star(DE3) was engineered through deletion of the whole endogenous lactose operon and introduction of the modified lactose operon containing lacZ△M15 from E. coli K-12. Expression of genes for guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose biosynthetic enzymes and heterologous α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FucT2) from Helicobacter pylori allowed the engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) to produce 2-FL with 3-times enhanced yield than the non-engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3). In addition, the titer and yield of 2-FL were further improved by adding the three aspartate molecules at the N-terminal of FucT2. Overall, 6.4 g/L 2-FL with the yield of 0.225 g 2-FL/g lactose was obtained in fed-batch fermentation of the engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) expressing GDP-l-fucose biosynthetic enzymes and three aspartate tagged FucT2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [The expression and preliminary evaluation of HPV6bL2deltaN360E7E6 fusion protein in E. coli for genital warts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zheng; Zhao, Li; Ren, Jiao; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Xian; Tan, Wen-Jie; Ruan, Li; Tian, Hou-Wen

    2010-06-01

    To express HPV6bL2deltaN360E7E6 fusion protein in E. coli and preliminarily evaluate its immune effect. Three HPV6b gene fragments, which were L2(1-360 bp), E7 and E6, were fused by overlapping PCR, then were inserted into a prokaryotic expression vector and expressed in E. coli. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with purified fusion protein plus Al (OH)3 and/or CpG adjuvants through intramuscular route, the cellular and humoral immune responses were detected by IFN-gamma ELISPOT and ELISA respectively. Protein plus CpG adjuvant could induce the strongest cellular immune response to E7 and E6, high antibody titer against L2 could be detected in all immunized groups but there were no significant difference among these groups. HPV6bL2deltaN360E7E6 gene was successfully cloned into pQE30 vector and expressed in E. coli, the fusion protein was also purified and proved that could induce strong cellular and humoral immune responses with appropriate adjuvant in C57BL/ 6 mice and could be used for future research.

  15. The effect of desferrioxamine on iron metabolism and lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes of C57BL/10 mice in experimental uroporphyria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Van Gelder (Carin); P.D. Siersema (Peter); A. Voogd (Arthur); C.M.H. de Jeu-Jaspars (Nel); H.G. van Eijk (Henk); J.F. Koster (Johan); F.W.M. de Rooy (F. W M); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFx) on liver iron accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, porphyrin accumulation and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37) activity were investigated over a period of 14 weeks in C57BL/10 mice, made porphyric by the

  16. A mouse model system for genetic analysis of sociability: C57BL/6J versus BALB/cJ inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Kaercher, Kristin A; Boon, Catherine J; Lee, Jin Kyoung; Brodkin, Edward S

    2006-03-01

    Impairments in social behaviors are highly disabling symptoms of autism, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Mouse model systems are useful for identifying the many genes and environmental factors likely to affect complex behaviors, such as sociability (the tendency to seek social interaction). To progress toward developing such a model system, we tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J inbred mice show higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ inbred mice. Mice tested for sociability were 4- and 9-week-old, male and female C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. On 2 consecutive days, the sociability of each test mouse toward an unfamiliar 4-week-old DBA/2J stimulus mouse was assessed with a social choice paradigm conducted in a three-chambered apparatus. Measures of sociability included the time that the test mouse spent near versus far from the stimulus mouse, the time spent directly sniffing the stimulus mouse, and the time spent in contact between test and stimulus mice in a free interaction. C57BL/6J mice showed higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ mice overall in each of these measures. We propose that C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice will be a useful mouse model system for future genetic and neurobiological studies of sociability.

  17. Impact of high and low anxiety on cognitive performance in a modified hole board test in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Roedel, Angelika; Binder, Elke; Holsboer, Florian

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between behavioural dimensions and cognitive performance in the inbred mouse strains C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which have previously been found to differ in cognitive performance and emotionality. Because it has never been evaluated whether cognitive performance and emotional behaviour are interrelated in these strains, we analysed various behavioural dimensions and cognitive functions in parallel using the modified hole board test. We could show that naive BL6 and DBA mice distinctly differed in terms of anxiety-related behaviour. Principal component analysis on the phenotyping data showed that anxiety-related behaviour was described by identical parameters and was not correlated to locomotion in the two strains. During cognitive testing, DBA mice habituated faster and performed better than BL6 mice. Principal component analysis indicated a close correlation between anxiety-related behaviour and cognitive performance in DBA mice, being associated with a highly successful cognitive performance. In BL6 mice, cognition was correlated to general exploration. This correlation turned out to be less successful in performing the modified hole board test. Our findings support the idea that high anxiety may interact with specific cognitive processing, thus offering a promising animal model for future preclinical research on the interaction of anxiety and cognition.

  18. High frequency mechanical ventilation affects respiratory system mechanics differently in C57BL/6J and BALB/c adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Hélène

    2013-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that high frequency ventilation affects respiratory system mechanical functions in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. We measured respiratory mechanics by the forced oscillation technique over 1h in anesthetized, intubated, ventilated BALB/c and C57BL/6J male mice. We did not detect any change in airway resistance, Rn, tissue damping, G, tissue elastance, H and hysteresivity, eta in BALB/c mice during 1h of ventilation at 150 or at 450 breaths/min; nor did we find a difference between BALB/c mice ventilated at 150 breaths/min compared with 450 breaths/min. Among C57BL/6J mice, except for H, all parameters remained unchanged over 1h of ventilation in mice ventilated at 150 breaths/min. However, after 10 and 30 min of ventilation at 450 breaths/min, Rn, and respiratory system compliance were lower, and eta was higher, than their starting value. We conclude that high frequency mechanical ventilation affects respiratory system mechanics differently in C57BL/6J and BALB/c adult mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Localization of Pain-Related and Pain-Unrelated Neural Responses for Acupuncture at BL60 Using BOLD fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Hee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to differentiate between pain-related and pain-unrelated neural responses of acupuncture at BL60 to investigate the specific effects of acupuncture. A total of 19 healthy volunteers were evaluated. fMRI was performed with sham or verum acupuncture stimulation at the left BL60 before and after local anesthesia. To investigate the relative BOLD signal effect for each session, a one-sample t-test was performed for individual contrast maps, and a paired t-test to investigate the differences between the pre- and post-anesthetic signal effects. Regarding verum acupuncture, areas that were more activated before local anesthesia included the superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, culmen, and cerebellar tonsil. The postcentral gyrus was more deactivated before local anesthesia. After local anesthesia, the middle occipital gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and declive were deactivated. Pre-anesthetic verum acupuncture at BL60 activated areas of vision and pain transmission. Post-anesthetic verum acupuncture deactivated brain areas of visual function, which is considered to be a pain-unrelated acupuncture response. It indicates that specific effects of acupoint BL60 are to control vision sense as used in the clinical setting.

  20. Intratracheally instilled titanium dioxide nanoparticles translocate to heart and liver and activate complement cascade in the heart of C57BL/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husain, Mainul; Wu, Dongmei; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    translocation from the lungs. Adult female C57BL/6 mice were exposed via intratracheal instillation to 18 or 162 mu g of industrially relevant titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) alongside vehicle controls. Using the nano-scale hyperspectral microscope, translocation to heart and liver was confirmed...

  1. Variability of cytometric parameters in various clusters of interstitial endocrine cells of testicles in CBA × C57Bl6 mice during experimental chrome-benzene intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, D A; Shevlyuk, N N; Abdil'danova, A M

    2014-05-01

    Chromium-benzene intoxication was associated with not only damage to tissue elements of the testicles, but also realization of the adaptive mechanisms protecting endocrine active structures in male CBA × C57Bl6 mice. Quantitative substantiation of the transformation processes, their direction, relationships, and attained levels were obtained.

  2. Voluntary running of defined distances reduces body adiposity and its associated inflammation in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sedentary lifestyle contributes to obesity. This study determined the effects of quantitative voluntary running on body adiposity and its associated inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to six groups and fed an AIN93G (sedentary) or a high-fat diet (sedentary...

  3. Ghrelin agonists impact on Fos protein expression in brain areas related to food intake regulation in male C57BL/6 mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirnik, Z.; Bundziková, J.; Holubová, Martina; Pýchová, Miroslava; Fehrentz, J. A.; Martinez, J.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kiss, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2011), s. 889-895 ISSN 0197-0186 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ghrelin agonists * Fos immunohistochemistry * male C57BL/6 mice Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.857, year: 2011

  4. Manipulation of the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice changes glucose tolerancewithout affecting weight development and gut mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gunilla Veslemöy; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn

    2012-01-01

    glucose intolerance reminiscent of human T2D. We hypothesized that antibiotic treatment in C57BL/6 mice would have an impact on glucose tolerance without affecting weight and gut immunology. When compared to mice treated with erythromycin or the controls, treatment for five weeks with ampicillin improved...

  5. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  6. Genetic susceptibility of the arterial wall is an important determinant of atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 and FVB/N mouse strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Jeong; Handberg, Aase; Ostergren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    How genetic variations among inbred mouse strains translate into differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility is of significant interest for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study was to examine whether genetically controlled arterial wall properties...... influence atherosclerosis susceptibility in FVB/N (FVB) and C57BL/6 (B6) apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mouse strains....

  7. The field high-amplitude SX Phe variable BL Cam: results from a multisite photometric campaign. II. Evidence of a binary - possibly triple - system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fauvaud, S.; Sareyan, J.P.; Ribas, I.; Rodriguez, E.; Lampens, P.; Klingenberg, G.; Farrell, J.A.; Fumagalli, F.; Simonetti, J.H.; Wolf, M.; Santacana, G.; Zhou, A.; Michel, R.; Fox-Machado, L.; Alvarez, M.; Nava-Vega, A.; Lopez-Gonzalez, M.J.; Casanova, V.M.; Aceituno, F.J.; Scheggia, I.; Rives, J.-J.; Hintz, E.G.; Van Cauteren, P.; Helvaci, M.; Yesilyaprak, C.; Graham, K.A.; Král, L.; Kocián, R.; Kučáková, Hana; Fauvaud, M.; Granslo, B.H.; Michelet, J.; Nicholson, M.P.; Vugnon, J.-M.; Kotková, Lenka; Truparova, K.; Ulusoy, G.; Yasarsoy, B.; Avdibegovic, A.; Blazek, M.; Kliner, J.; Zasche, P.; Bartosikova, S.; Vilasek, M.; Trondal, O.; Van Den Abbeel, F.; Behrend, R.; Wuecher, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 515, June (2010), A39/1-A39/7 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : variables stars * BL Camelopardalis * oscillations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  8. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzmaurice, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10 5 cubic meters (8.12 x 10 6 cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and repair

  9. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and

  10. Substrain and light regime effects on integrated anxiety-related behavioral z-scores in male C57BL/6 mice - Hypomagnesaemia has only a small effect on avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labots, M; Zheng, X; Moattari, G; van t Klooster, J.G.; Baars, J M; Hesseling, P; Lavrijsen, M; Kirchhoff, S; Ohl, F; van Lith, H A

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) has been described to possess an anxiolytic function, but a number of studies present inconsistent results on this matter. In this study the effect of Mg deficiency on anxiety-related behavior, brain and blood plasma Mg in young adult male C57BL/6JOlaHsd and C57BL/6NCrl mice was

  11. A Comparison of the Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Ocular Surfaces between C57BL/6 and BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Models of benzalkonium chloride (BAC-induced ocular disruption have been created and are widely used in various animals. This study aimed to compare the effects of BAC on the ocular surfaces of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were treated separately with BAC eye-drops at different concentrations. Eyes were evaluated by scoring epithelial disruption, corneal opacity and neovascularization in vivo, and by histological assays with hematoxylin/eosin (H/E and periodic acid-Schiff stainings and by determining the expression of inflammatory factors in vitro on Days 7 and 14. The in vivo corneal epithelial disruption, corneal edema/opacity and neovascularization, which were in accordance with the results of the H/E staining and peaked at Day 7, were observed in a dose-dependent manner in the BAC-treated mice, with more severe signs in the C57BL/6 mice than the BALB/c mice. The loss of conjunctival goblet cells in the conjunctivas and the increasing expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, growth-regulated protein alpha (GROa and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1a in the corneas were found in a dose-dependent manner in both strains of mice. Topical application of BAC can dramatically disrupt the ocular surfaces of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, and the disruptions were much more severe in the C57BL/6 mice that received high doses of BAC.

  12. Initial weight and virus dose: two factors affecting the onset of acute coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis in C57BL/6 mouse--a histopathology-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Wang, Xinggang; Xie, Yuquan; Xie, Yeqing; Zhang, Xian; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo; Chen, Ruizhen

    2013-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice have been considered resistant to cardiotropic coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. However, establishment of viral myocarditis model in C57BL/6 mouse is still a necessity. Here, we discuss the effects of mouse initial body weight and different virus inoculation doses on the onset of acute viral myocarditis in C57BL/6 mouse. According to initial body weight, mice were grouped into group A (3-4 weeks, 11-15 g) and group B (5-6 weeks, 18-20 g). Then, each group was divided into three subgroups inoculated with different virus doses: 1000 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50))/ml, 10,000 TCID(50)/ml, and 100,000 TCID(50)/ml. Virus existence and myocardium inflammatory infiltration conditions were observed and evaluated 7 days postinfection. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that virus capsid protein VP1 appeared in the myocardia of virus-infected mice. Three subgroups in the lower-body-weight group (group A) came out with a higher mortality (40%-100%), while the higher-body-weight group (group B) showed a tendency for body weight decline. Histopathologically, myocardia of the survival cases in the lower-initial-body-weight group got inflammatory infiltration, while almost no inflammation appeared in the dead cases. In the higher-body-weight group, myocardium inflammatory infiltration deteriorated with the increase of virus doses and bared a relatively sound survival rate. This study indicated that the initial body weight and virus infection dose are two factors affecting the onset of viral myocarditis in C57BL/6 mice. Accordingly, initial body weight of 18-20 g and an inoculation dose of 100,000 TCID(50)/ml × 0.3 ml CVB3 might be an optimal choice to induce acute viral myocarditis in C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in memory development among C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl mice after delay and trace fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Amelia; Borchelt, David; Golde, Todd; Janus, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Fear-conditioning testing paradigms have been used to study differences in memory formation between inbred mouse strains, including numerous mouse models of human diseases. In this study, we characterized the conditioned fear memory of 3 inbred strains: C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl, obtained from Charles River Laboratories. We used 2 training paradigms: delay conditioning, in which an unconditional stimulus coterminates with the presentation of a conditional stimulus, and trace conditioning, in which the conditional and unconditional stimuli are separated by a trace interval. In each paradigm, we evaluated the recent (3 d) and remote (25 d) memory of the mice by using a longitudinal design. Our results showed that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice developed strong and long-lasting context and tone memories in both paradigms, but FVB/NCrl mice showed a weaker but nevertheless consistent tone memory after delay training. Tone memory in the FVB strain was stronger in male than female mice. The remote tone memory of 129S2/SvPasCrl mice diminished after delay training but was stable and stronger than that of C57BL/6NCrl mice after trace training. In conclusion, both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice showed reliable and long-lasting fear memory after delay or trace training, with 129 mice showing particularly strong tone memory after trace conditioning. The FVB/NCrl strain, especially male mice, showed reliable tone fear memory after delay training. Our findings confirm that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice develop strong context and tone memory in delay and trace fear-conditioning paradigms.

  14. Disruptions and Disturbance as Challenges in a Blended Learning (BL) Environment and the Role of Embodied Habit Orientation 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Ryberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    over the implemented BL approach and they felt more disrupted and disturbed when required to work more online and from home. In the paper we therefore discuss how disruptions and disturbances have an influence on students’ study and learning activities in a BL environment. We argue how disturbances...... and discuss how students’ orientation in different learning environments influence their navigation, and how disruptions and disturbances affect their orientation. The findings illustrate and discuss students’ challenges of adapting to the BL approach and how students’ prior experiences and habits challenge...... their learning activities outside the educational institutions. Based in these findings the concluding discussion presents new perspectives on students’ orientation in BL environment to take into consideration in BL programmes....

  15. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites; Toxoplasma gondii vs radiacao ionizante: estudo da imunidade intestinal em camundongos C57Bl/6j experimentalmente vacinados com taquizoitos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez. E-mail: galisteo@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  16. Age-related changes in behavior in C57BL/6J mice from young adulthood to middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-28

    Aging is considered to be associated with progressive changes in the brain and its associated sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. A large number of studies comparing young and aged animals have reported differences in various behaviors between age-cohorts, indicating behavioral dysfunctions related to aging. However, relatively little is known about behavioral changes from young adulthood to middle age, and the effect of age on behavior during the early stages of life remains to be understood. In order to investigate age-related changes in the behaviors of mice from young adulthood to middle age, we performed a large-scale analysis of the behavioral data obtained from our behavioral test battery involving 1739 C57BL/6J wild-type mice at 2-12 months of age. Significant behavioral differences between age groups (2-3-, 4-5-, 6-7-, and 8-12-month-old groups) were found in all the behavioral tests, including the light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, rotarod, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, Barnes maze, and fear conditioning tests, except for the hot plate test. Compared with the 2-3-month-old group, the 4-5- and 6-7-month-old groups exhibited decreased locomotor activity to novel environments, motor function, acoustic startle response, social behavior, and depression-related behavior, increased prepulse inhibition, and deficits in spatial and cued fear memory. For most behaviors, the 8-12-month-old group showed similar but more pronounced changes in most of these behaviors compared with the younger age groups. Older groups exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test whereas those groups showed seemingly decreased anxiety-like behavior measured by the elevated plus maze test. The large-scale analysis of behavioral data from our battery of behavioral tests indicated age-related changes in a wide range of behaviors from young adulthood to middle age in C57BL/6J mice, though

  17. Kinetics of antibody response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice bitten by Phlebotomus papatasi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vlkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects transmitting Leishmania parasites. In bitten hosts, sand fly saliva elicits specific immune response and the humoral immunity was shown to reflect the intensity of sand fly exposure. Thus, anti-saliva antibodies were suggested as the potential risk marker of Leishmania transmission. In this study, we examined the long-term kinetics and persistence of anti-Phlebotomus papatasi saliva antibody response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We also tested the reactivity of mice sera with P. papatasi salivary antigens and with the recombinant proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice experimentally bitten by Phlebotomus papatasi were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-saliva IgE, IgG and its subclasses. We detected a significant increase of specific IgG and IgG1 in both mice strains and IgG2b in BALB/c mice that positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. papatasi females. Using western blot and mass spectrometry we identified the major P. papatasi antigens as Yellow-related proteins, D7-related proteins, antigen 5-related proteins and SP-15-like proteins. We therefore tested the reactivity of mice sera with four P. papatasi recombinant proteins coding for most of these potential antigens (PpSP44, PpSP42, PpSP30, and PpSP28. Each mouse serum reacted with at least one of the recombinant protein tested, although none of the recombinant proteins were recognized by all sera. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed the concept of using anti-sand fly saliva antibodies as a marker of sand fly exposure in Phlebotomus papatasi-mice model. As screening of specific antibodies is limited by the availability of salivary gland homogenate, utilization of recombinant proteins in such studies would be beneficial. Our present work demonstrates the feasibility of this implementation. A combination of recombinant salivary proteins is recommended for evaluation of intensity of

  18. Manual annotation and analysis of the defensin gene cluster in the C57BL/6J mouse reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougan Gordon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host defense peptides are a critical component of the innate immune system. Human alpha- and beta-defensin genes are subject to copy number variation (CNV and historically the organization of mouse alpha-defensin genes has been poorly defined. Here we present the first full manual genomic annotation of the mouse defensin region on Chromosome 8 of the reference strain C57BL/6J, and the analysis of the orthologous regions of the human and rat genomes. Problems were identified with the reference assemblies of all three genomes. Defensins have been studied for over two decades and their naming has become a critical issue due to incorrect identification of defensin genes derived from different mouse strains and the duplicated nature of this region. Results The defensin gene cluster region on mouse Chromosome 8 A2 contains 98 gene loci: 53 are likely active defensin genes and 22 defensin pseudogenes. Several TATA box motifs were found for human and mouse defensin genes that likely impact gene expression. Three novel defensin genes belonging to the Cryptdin Related Sequences (CRS family were identified. All additional mouse defensin loci on Chromosomes 1, 2 and 14 were annotated and unusual splice variants identified. Comparison of the mouse alpha-defensins in the three main mouse reference gene sets Ensembl, Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, and NCBI RefSeq reveals significant inconsistencies in annotation and nomenclature. We are collaborating with the Mouse Genome Nomenclature Committee (MGNC to establish a standardized naming scheme for alpha-defensins. Conclusions Prior to this analysis, there was no reliable reference gene set available for the mouse strain C57BL/6J defensin genes, demonstrating that manual intervention is still critical for the annotation of complex gene families and heavily duplicated regions. Accurate gene annotation is facilitated by the annotation of pseudogenes and regulatory elements. Manually curated gene

  19. Expression and Isolation of Recombinant Microneme 3 (MIC3 Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Local Isolate on Eschericia coli (BL21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Toxoplasmosis is a disease that infects all warm-blooded animals, including livestocks and humans caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasites. There are major drugs used for the therapy, though they have some effects to the patients, such as allergy, toxic and teratogenic for fetus. In addition, toxoplasmosis treatment is only effective for tachyzoites T. gondii in acute infection, while tissue cysts cannot be eradicated in chronic toxoplasmosis Tissue cysts of T. gondii contained in meat that are consumed by humans and meat-derived products may be important sources of infection for humans. Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion process during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. Recombinant MIC3 protein has been already used for the detection of toxoplasmosis and it could induce humoral and cellular immune response in experimental animals. The aim of this research was to express MIC3 recombinant protein of T. gondii from local isolate that was cloned into expression vector and transformed to E. coli BL21. In the future, recombinant protein MIC3 can be used for vaccine candidate and diagnostic tools for toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Gene of MIC3 T. gondii local isolate (1.2 Kbp was cloned into expression vector pET-32a(+ (5.9 Kbp and transformed to Escherichia coli BL21. Protein from plasmid recombinant (7.1 Kbp was expressed and performed by culturing recombinant bacteria into LB medium containing ampicillin and IPTG. Recombinant protein was isolated by sonication method and identified using SDS-PAGE. Finally, the recombinant protein was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-ESAs polyclonal antibody. In conclusion, expression of the MIC3 gene with ~108 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC3 protein of T. gondii

  20. Expression and Isolation of Recombinant Microneme 3 (MIC3 Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Local Isolate on Eschericia coli (BL21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a disease that infects all warm-blooded animals, including livestocks and humans caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasites. There are major drugs used for the therapy, though they have some effects to the patients, such as allergy, toxic and teratogenic for fetus. In addition, toxoplasmosis treatment is only effective for tachyzoites T. gondii in acute infection, while tissue cysts cannot be eradicated in chronic toxoplasmosis Tissue cysts of T. gondii contained in meat that are consumed by humans and meat-derived products may be important sources of infection for humans. Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion process during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. Recombinant MIC3 protein has been already used for the detection of toxoplasmosis and it could induce humoral and cellular immune response in experimental animals. The aim of this research was to express MIC3 recombinant protein of T. gondii from local isolate that was cloned into expression vector and transformed to E. coli BL21. In the future, recombinant protein MIC3 can be used for vaccine candidate and diagnostic tools for toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Gene of MIC3 T. gondii local isolate (1.2 Kbp was cloned into expression vector pET-32a(+ (5.9 Kbp and transformed to Escherichia coli BL21. Protein from plasmid recombinant (7.1 Kbp was expressed and performed by culturing recombinant bacteria into LB medium containing ampicillin and IPTG. Recombinant protein was isolated by sonication method and identified using SDS-PAGE. Finally, the recombinant protein was analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-ESAs polyclonal antibody. In conclusion, expression of the MIC3 gene with ~108 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC3 protein of T. gondii local isolate

  1. Antiseizure Drugs Differentially Modulate Theta-Burst Induced Long-Term Potentiation in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Peter J.; Saunders, Gerald W.; Remigio, Gregory J.; Wilcox, Karen S.; White, H. Steve

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Cognitive comorbidities are increasingly recognized as an equal (or even more disabling) aspect of epilepsy. Additionally, the actions of some antiseizure drugs (ASDs) can impact learning and memory. Accordingly, the NINDS epilepsy research benchmarks call for the implementation of standardized protocols for screening ASDs for their amelioration or exacerbation of cognitive comorbidities. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a widely used model for investigating synaptic plasticity and its relationship to learning and memory. While the effects of some ASDs on LTP have been examined, none of these studies employed physiologically relevant induction stimuli such as theta-burst stimulation (TBS). To systematically evaluate the effects of multiple ASDs in the same preparation using physiologically relevant stimulation protocols, we examined the effects of a broad panel of existing ASDs on TBS-induced LTP in area CA1 of in-vitro brain slices, prepared in either normal or sucrose-based ACSF, from C57BL/6 mice. Methods Coronal brain slices containing the dorsal hippocampus were made using either standard or sucrose-based ACSF. Recordings were obtained from four slices at a time using the Scientifica Slicemaster high throughput recording system. Slices exposed to ASDs were paired with slices from the opposite hemisphere that served as controls. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded, and all ASDs were applied to slices by bath perfusion for 20 minutes prior to the induction stimulus. LTP was induced by TBS or by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). The following ASDs were examined: 100 µM phenobarbital (PB), 80 µM phenytoin (PHT), 50 µM carbamazepine (CBZ), 600 µM valproate (VPA), 60 µM topiramate (TPM), 60 µM lamotrigine (LTG), 100 µM levetiracetam (LEV), 10 µM ezogabine (EZG), and 30 µM tiagabine (TGB). Results Among voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitors, CBZ significantly attenuated TBS-induced LTP, PHT attenuated both TBS

  2. Taxsonomical States of Lacerta viridis (LACERTIDAE) Populations from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEVİK, İ. Ethem

    2014-01-01

    In this research, , A total of 64 MM and 37 VV adult specimens from Turkish Thrace and 158 MM and 188 VV adult specimens from Anatolia were investigated comparatively as two separate populations groups to determine the subspecific status of the species in Turkey. No significant differences are discernible between the two population groups from the viewpoints of pholidosis, morphometrical measurements and rations and pattern and coloration characteıistics. So the Turkish L. viridis populations...

  3. Citric Acid and Quinine Share Perceived Chemosensory Features Making Oral Discrimination Difficult in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesukosol, Yada; Mathes, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence in the literature shows that in rodents, some taste-responsive neurons respond to both quinine and acid stimuli. Also, under certain circumstances, rodents display some degree of difficulty in discriminating quinine and acid stimuli. Here, C57BL/6J mice were trained and tested in a 2-response operant discrimination task. Mice had severe difficulty discriminating citric acid from quinine and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) with performance slightly, but significantly, above chance. In contrast, mice were able to competently discriminate sucrose from citric acid, NaCl, quinine, and PROP. In another experiment, mice that were conditioned to avoid quinine by pairings with LiCl injections subsequently suppressed licking responses to quinine and citric acid but not to NaCl or sucrose in a brief-access test, relative to NaCl-injected control animals. However, mice that were conditioned to avoid citric acid did not display cross-generalization to quinine. These mice significantly suppressed licking only to citric acid, and to a much lesser extent NaCl, compared with controls. Collectively, the findings from these experiments suggest that in mice, citric acid and quinine share chemosensory features making discrimination difficult but are not perceptually identical. PMID:21421543

  4. The role of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2(-)) on physiological aging in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Noda, Setsuko; Onouchi, Hiromi; Hartman, Philip S; Ishii, Naoaki

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on the mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2(-)), which is also a critical free radial produced by ionizing radiation. The specific role of the mitochondrial O2(-) on physiological aging in mammals is still unclear despite wide-spread evidence that oxidative stress is involved in aging and age-related diseases. The major endogenous source of O2(-) is generated as a byproduct of energy metabolism from mitochondria. In order to better understand how O2(-)relates to metazoan aging, we have comprehensively examined age-related changes in the levels of oxidative damage, mitochondrial O2(-) production, mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis induction in key organs of an inbred mouse strain (C57BL/6J). Oxidative damage accumulated and excess apoptosis occurred in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging, but comparatively little occurred in the heart and muscle. These rates are correlated with O2(-) levels. Mitochondrial O2(-) production levels increased with aging in the brain, oculus and kidney, and did not significantly increased in the heart and muscle. In contrast to O2(-) production, mitochondrial SOD activities increased in heart and muscle, and remained unchanged in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging. These results suggest that O2(-) production has high organ specificity, and oxidative damage by O2(-) from mitochondria mediated apoptosis can lead to organ atrophy and physiological dysfunction. In addition, O2(-) from mitochondria plays a core role in physiological aging.

  5. The role of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-) on physiological aging in C57BL/6J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Onouchi, Hiromi; Ishii, Naoaki; Noda, Setsuko; Hartman, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on the mitochondrial superoxide anion (O 2 - ), which is also a critical free radical produced by ionizing radiation. The specific role of the mitochondrial O 2 - on physiological aging in mammals is still nuclear despite wide-spread evidence that oxidative stress is involved in aging and age-related diseases. The major endogenous source of O 2 - is generated as a byproduct of energy metabolism from mitochondria. In order to better understand how O 2 - relates to metazoan aging, we have comprehensively examined age-related changes in the levels of oxidative damage, mitochondrial O 2 - production, mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis induction in key organs of an inbred mouse strain (C57BL/6J). Oxidative damage accumulated and excess apoptosis occurred in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging, but comparatively little occurred in the heart and muscle. These rates are correlated with O 2 - levels. Mitochondrial O 2 - production levels increased with aging in the brain, oculus and kidney, and did not significantly increased in the heart and muscle. In contrast to O 2 - production, mitochondrial SOD activities increased in heart and muscle, and remained unchanged in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging. These results suggest that O 2 - production has high organ specificity, and oxidative damage by O 2 - from mitochondria mediated apoptosis can lead to organ atrophy and physiological dysfunction. In addition, O 2 - from mitochondria plays a core role in physiological aging. (author)

  6. Oxytocin receptor ligand binding in embryonic tissue and postnatal brain development of the C57BL/6J mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eHammock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OXT has drawn increasing attention as a developmentally relevant neuropeptide given its role in the brain regulation of social behavior. It has been suggested that OXT plays an important role in the infant brain during caregiver attachment in nurturing familial contexts, but there is incomplete experimental evidence. Mouse models of OXT system genes have been particularly informative for the role of the OXT system in social behavior, however, the developing brain areas that could respond to ligand activation of the OXT receptor (OXTR have yet to be identified in this species. Here we report new data revealing dynamic ligand-binding distribution of OXTR in the developing mouse brain. Using male and female C57BL/6J mice at postnatal days (P 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 60 we quantified OXTR ligand binding in several brain areas which changed across development. Further, we describe OXTR ligand binding in select tissues of the near-term whole embryo at E18.5. Together, these data aid in the interpretation of findings in mouse models of the OXT system and generate new testable hypotheses for developmental roles for OXT in mammalian systems. We discuss our findings in the context of developmental disorders (including autism, attachment biology, and infant physiological regulation.

  7. Neuroprotective Effect and Molecular Mechanism of [6]-Gingerol against Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yul Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the neuroprotective and memory enhancing effect of [6]-gingerol (GIN, a pungent ingredient of ginger, using an animal model of amnesia. To determine the neuroprotective effect of GIN on cognitive dysfunction, scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i.p. was injected into C57BL/6 mice, and a series of behavioral tests were conducted. SCO-induced behavior changes and memory impairments, such as decreased alteration (% in Y-maze test, increased mean escape latency in water maze test, diminished step-through latency in passive avoidance test, and shortened freezing time in fear condition test, were significantly prevented and restored by the oral administration of GIN (10 or 25 mg/kg/day. To further verify the neuroprotective mechanism of GIN, we have focused on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The administration of GIN elevated the protein expression of BDNF, which was mediated via the activation of protein kinase B/Akt- and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB signaling pathway. These results suggest that GIN may have preventive and/or therapeutic potentials in the management of memory deficit and cognitive impairment in mice with amnesia.

  8. Amelioration of Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment by α-Pinene in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Yong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD are mediated via disruption of cholinergic neurons and enhanced oxidative stress. Therefore, attention has been focused on searching for antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and/or treatment of AD through their ability to fortify cholinergic function and antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of α-pinene (APN against learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i.p., a muscarinic receptor antagonist in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of APN (10 mg/kg, i.p. significantly improved SCO-induced cognitive dysfunction as assessed by Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. In Morris water-maze test, APN effectively shortened the mean escape latency to find the hidden platform during training days. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of APN, the expression of proteins involved in the acetylcholine metabolism and antioxidant system was examined. Particularly, APN treatment increased mRNA expression of choline acetyltransferase in the cortex and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2. These findings suggest the possible neuroprotective potentials of APN for the management of dementia with learning and memory loss.

  9. Amelioration of Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment byα-Pinene in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Yong; Lee, Chan; Park, Gyu Hwan; Jang, Jung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mediated via disruption of cholinergic neurons and enhanced oxidative stress. Therefore, attention has been focused on searching for antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and/or treatment of AD through their ability to fortify cholinergic function and antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of α -pinene (APN) against learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic receptor antagonist in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of APN (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved SCO-induced cognitive dysfunction as assessed by Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. In Morris water-maze test, APN effectively shortened the mean escape latency to find the hidden platform during training days. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of APN, the expression of proteins involved in the acetylcholine metabolism and antioxidant system was examined. Particularly, APN treatment increased mRNA expression of choline acetyltransferase in the cortex and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2. These findings suggest the possible neuroprotective potentials of APN for the management of dementia with learning and memory loss.

  10. Impact of anesthesia and euthanasia on metabolomics of mammalian tissues: studies in a C57BL/6J mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Katherine A; Thonusin, Chanisa; Qi, Nathan R; Burant, Charles F; Evans, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia.

  11. Impact of Anesthesia and Euthanasia on Metabolomics of Mammalian Tissues: Studies in a C57BL/6J Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Katherine A.; Thonusin, Chanisa; Qi, Nathan R.; Burant, Charles F.; Evans, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia. PMID:25658945

  12. Automated angle-scanning photoemission end-station with molecular beam epitaxy at KEK-PF BL-1C

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, K; Horiba, K; Oh, J H; Nakazono, S; Kihara, T; Nakamura, K; Mano, T; Mizuguchi, M; Oshima, M; Aiura, Y; Kakizaki, A

    2001-01-01

    In order to satisfy demands to study the electronic structure of quantum nanostructures, a VUV beamline and a high-resolution and high-throughput photoemission end-station combined with a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system have been constructed at the BL-1C of the Photon Factory. An angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer, having high energy- and angular-resolutions; VG Microtech ARUPS10, was installed. The total energy resolution of 31 meV at the 60 eV of photon energy is achieved. For the automated angle-scanning photoemission, the electron spectrometer mounted on a two-axis goniometer can be rotated in vacuum by the computer-controlled stepping motors. Another distinctive feature of this end-station is a connection to a MBE chamber in ultahigh vacuum (UHV). In this system, MBE-grown samples can be transferred into the photoemission chamber without breaking UHV. Photoemission spectra of MBE-grown GaAs(0 0 1) surfaces were measured with high-resolution and bulk and surface components are clearly resolved.

  13. Ginsenoside Re Ameliorates Brain Insulin Resistance and Cognitive Dysfunction in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Park, Chang Hyeon; Park, Seon Kyeong; Seung, Tae Wan; Kang, Jin Yong; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2017-04-05

    The ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Re (G Re) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice were investigated to assess its physiological function. In the results of behavioral tests, G Re improved cognitive dysfunction in diabetic mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. G Re also significantly recovered hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose level. In the results of serum analysis, G Re decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and increased the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). G Re regulated acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH by regulating the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. These findings suggest that G Re could be used to improve HFD-induced insulin resistance condition by ameliorating hyperglycemia via protecting the cholinergic and antioxidant systems in the mouse brains.

  14. Cytolytic T lymphocyte precursor cells in congenitally athymic C57BL/6 nu/nu mice: Quantitation, enrichment, and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryanski, J.L. (Ludwig Inst. for Cancer Research, Epalinges, Switzerland); MacDonald, H.R.; Sordat, B.; Cerottini, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    A sensitive limiting dilution microculture system was used to obtain minimal estimates of the frequency of CTL precursor cells (CTL-P) in spleens from 5- to 14-mo-old C57BL/6 nu/nu mice. Frequency determinations of CTL-P directed against H-2delta alloantigens ranged from 1/159,000 to 1/12,400. The relatively low frequency of CTL-P was enriched nearly 10-fold (to 1/2300) by passage of nude spleen cells over a column of nylon wool. After priming nude spleen cells for 7 days in conventional MLC, 1 to 3% of the MLC cells could be operationally identified as CTL-P. Furthermore, the progeny of MLC-primed nude CTL-P were specifically cytolytic for target cells of the strain used for priming. Such a system may be useful for analyzing the specificity repertoires of cells of the T cell lineage that have not undergone thymic influence.

  15. Pitavastatin suppresses diethylnitrosamine-induced liver preneoplasms in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masahito; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yasuda, Yoichi; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kubota, Masaya; Terakura, Daishi; Baba, Atsushi; Ohno, Tomohiko; Kochi, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, including inflammation and lipid accumulation in the liver, play a role in liver carcinogenesis. Adipocytokine imbalances, such as decreased serum adiponectin levels, are also involved in obesity-related liver tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the effects of pitavastatin - a drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia - on the development of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver preneoplastic lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) obese mice. Male db/db mice were administered tap water containing 40 ppm DEN for 2 weeks and were subsequently fed a diet containing 1 ppm or 10 ppm pitavastatin for 14 weeks. At sacrifice, feeding with 10 ppm pitavastatin significantly inhibited the development of hepatic premalignant lesions, foci of cellular alteration, as compared to that in the untreated group by inducing apoptosis, but inhibiting cell proliferation. Pitavastatin improved liver steatosis and activated the AMPK-α protein in the liver. It also decreased free fatty acid and aminotransferases levels, while increasing adiponectin levels in the serum. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of TNF-α and interleukin-6 mRNAs in the liver were decreased by pitavastatin treatment, suggesting attenuation of the chronic inflammation induced by excess fat deposition. Pitavastatin is effective in inhibiting the early phase of obesity-related liver tumorigenesis and, therefore, may be useful in the chemoprevention of liver cancer in obese individuals

  16. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-02-16

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez.

    2004-01-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  18. Effect of Chronic Pioglitazone Treatment on Hepatic Gene Expression Profile in Obese C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Jia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone, a selective ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, is an insulin sensitizer drug that is being used in a number of insulin-resistant conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, there is a discrepancy between preclinical and clinical data in the literature and the benefits of pioglitazone treatment as well as the precise mechanism of action remain unclear. In the present study, we determined the effect of chronic pioglitazone treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in diet-induced obesity (DIO C57BL/6J mice in order to understand the mechanisms of NAFLD induced by PPARγ agonists. DIO mice were treated with pioglitazone (25 mg/kg/day for 38 days, the gene expression profile in liver was evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. Pioglitazone treatment resulted in exacerbated hepatic steatosis and increased hepatic triglyceride and free fatty acids concentrations, though significantly increased the glucose infusion rate in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. The differentially expressed genes in liver of pioglitazone treated vs. untreated mice include 260 upregulated and 86 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology based enrichment analysis suggests that inflammation response is transcriptionally downregulated, while lipid metabolism is transcriptionally upregulated. This may underlie the observed aggravating liver steatosis and ameliorated systemic insulin resistance in DIO mice.

  19. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  20. Impact of dietary fatty acids on metabolic activity and host intestinal microbiota composition in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elaine; O' Doherty, Robert M; Murphy, Eileen F; Wall, Rebecca; O' Sullivan, Orla; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-06-14

    Different dietary fat and energy subtypes have an impact on both the metabolic health and the intestinal microbiota population of the host. The present study assessed the impact of dietary fat quality, with a focus on dietary fatty acid compositions of varying saturation, on the metabolic health status and the intestinal microbiota composition of the host. C57BL/6J mice (n 9-10 mice per group) were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either (1) palm oil, (2) olive oil, (3) safflower oil or (4) flaxseed/fish oil for 16 weeks and compared with mice fed low-fat (LF) diets supplemented with either high maize starch or high sucrose. Tissue fatty acid compositions were assessed by GLC, and the impact of the diet on host intestinal microbiota populations was investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Compositional sequencing analysis revealed that dietary palm oil supplementation resulted in significantly lower populations of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level compared with dietary olive oil supplementation (Poil was associated with an increase in the population of the family Bacteroidaceae compared with dietary supplementation of palm oil, flaxseed/fish oil and high sucrose (Poil diet for 16 weeks led to significantly increased tissue concentrations of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA compared with ingestion of all the other diets (Pimpact on host physiology with further downstream alterations to the intestinal microbiota population, with a HF diet supplemented with flaxseed/fish oil positively shaping the host microbial ecosystem.

  1. No Overt Deficits in Aged Tau-Deficient C57Bl/6.Mapttm1(EGFPKit GFP Knockin Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika van Hummel

    Full Text Available Several mouse lines with knockout of the tau-encoding MAPT gene have been reported in the past; they received recent attention due to reports that tau reduction prevented Aβ-induced deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of long-term depletion of tau in vivo remained controversial. Here, we used the tau-deficient GFP knockin line Mapttm1(EGFPkit on a pure C57Bl/6 background and subjected a large cohort of males and females to a range of motor, memory and behavior tests and imaging analysis, at the advanced age of over 16 months. Neither heterozygous nor homozygous Mapttm1(EGFPkit mice presented with deficits or abnormalities compared to wild-type littermates. Differences to reports using other tau knockout models may be due to different genetic backgrounds, respective gene targeting strategies or other confounding factors, such as nutrition. To this end, we report no functional or morphological deficits upon tau reduction or depletion in aged mice.

  2. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice by photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light.

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    Kamaldeen A Muili

    Full Text Available The approved immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS are only partially effective. It is thought that the combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective strategies is necessary to prevent or reverse disease progression. Irradiation with far red/near infrared light, termed photobiomodulation, is a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Data suggests that near-infrared light functions through neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We sought to investigate the clinical effect of photobiomodulation in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE model of multiple sclerosis.The clinical effect of photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light was investigated in the C57BL/6 mouse model of EAE. Disease was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG according to standard laboratory protocol. Mice received 670 nm light or no light treatment (sham administered as suppression and treatment protocols. 670 nm light reduced disease severity with both protocols compared to sham treated mice. Disease amelioration was associated with down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 in vitro and in vivo.These studies document the therapeutic potential of photobiomodulation with 670 nm light in the EAE model, in part through modulation of the immune response.

  3. Decolorization and biodegradation of Rubine GFL by microbial consortium GG-BL in sequential aerobic/microaerophilic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kurade, Mayur B; Lade, Harshad S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the development of a new batch method by consortium GG-BL using two microbial cultures viz., Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 and Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298, by varying environmental conditions for the decolorization and biodegradation of Rubine GFL. Consortium was found to give better decolorization and degradation of Rubine GFL as compared to the individual microorganism at aerobic/microaerophilic process. The consortial metabolic activity of these strains lead to 100% decolorization of Rubine GFL (50 mg/L) within 30 h with significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (79%) and total organic carbon (68%). Induction in the activities of laccase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase, azo reductase, and riboflavin reductase suggested their role in the decolorization process. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed differential induction pattern of oxidoreductive enzymes during decolorization of the dye at different incubation temperatures. The degradation of Rubine GFL into different metabolites by individual organism and in consortium was confirmed using high performance thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. Phytotoxicity studies revealed nontoxic nature of the metabolites of Rubine GFL.

  4. Cis-urocanic acid increases immunotoxicity and lethality of dermally administered permethrin in C57BL/6N mice.

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    Prater, M R; Gogal, R M; Blaylock, B L; Holladay, S D

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of a single topical permethrin exposure, 5-day exposure to cis-urocanic acid (cUCA), or a combination of the two chemicals were evaluated in 4- to 5-week-old female C57BL/6N mice. Permethrin alone decreased thymic weight and cellularity. Although cUCA alone did not affect thymic end points, coexposure to topical permethrin and cUCA exacerbated the thymolytic effects of permethrin. The single topical dose of permethrin also depressed several immune responses in isolated splenic leukocytes. This included splenic T-cell proliferative response to mitogen, splenic macrophage hydrogen peroxide production, and splenic B lymphocyte-specific antibody production. Unlike the effect of coexposure to these agents on thymic end points, cUCA did not exacerbate permethrin's adverse effect on any of the splenic end points examined. These results appear to suggest divergent mechanisms by which these compounds affect precursor and functionally mature T cells. At the doses used in this study, permethrin caused neurotoxic effects, including lethality, in a portion of the mice. For undetermined reasons, cUCA significantly increased the rate of lethality caused by permethrin. Although the permethrin doses used in this study exceed that typically used in human medicine, these results raise some concerns about the possibility that sunlight, via cUCA, may increase the risk of adverse central nervous system and immune effects caused by permethrin alone.

  5. Renoprotective Effects of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke in C57BL/6 LDLr-Null Mice Undergoing High Fat Diet

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    Valdinei de Oliveira Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke is used in Brazilian folk medicine as hypolipidemic drug no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of this species in an experimental model of atherosclerosis. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible renoprotective activity of methanolic extract obtained from Vitex megapotamica (MEVM using C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice submitted to high fat diet (HFD. MEVM was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, for three weeks, starting from the 2nd week of HFD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diuretic activity were measured weekly. At the end of experiments the serum lipids, atherogenic index serum (AIS, oxidative stress, and markers of renal function were determined. HFD induced a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, increase in AIS, and lipid peroxidation accompanied by an important reduction in renal function. Treatment with MEVM was able to prevent increase in SBP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AIS, urea, and creatinine levels in LDLr-null mice. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and renal injury. The data reported here support the potential of Vitex megapotamica as candidate to be an herbal medicine used in cardiovascular or renal diseases.

  6. Chickpea supplementation prior to colitis onset reduces inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57Bl/6 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; McGillis, Laurel H; Wellings, Hannah R; Hutchinson, Amber L; Liddle, Danyelle M; Graf, Daniela; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2018-03-09

    The potential for a chickpea supplemented diet (rich in fermentable non-digestible carbohydrates and phenolic compounds) to modify the colonic microenvironment and attenuate the severity of acute colonic inflammation was investigated. C57Bl/6 male mice were fed a control basal diet (BD) or BD supplemented with 20% cooked chickpea flour for 3 weeks prior to acute colitis onset induced by 7-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 2% w/v in drinking water) and colon and serum levels of inflammatory mediators were assessed. Despite an equal degree of DSS-induced epithelial barrier histological damage and clinical symptoms between dietary groups, biomarkers of the ensuing inflammatory response were attenuated by CK pre-feeding including reduced colon tissue activation of NFκB and inflammatory cytokine production (TNFα and IL-18). Additionally, colon protein expression of anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and epithelial repair (IL-22 and IL-27) cytokines were increased by CK pre-feeding. Furthermore, during acute colitis CK pre-feeding increased markers of enhanced colonic function including mRNA expression of Relmβ and IgA. Collectively, CK pre-feeding modulated the baseline function of the colonic microenvironment, whereby upon induction of acute colitis, the severity of the inflammatory response was attenuated.

  7. A neuropeptide FF agonist blocks the acquisition of conditioned place preference to morphine in C57Bl/6J mice.

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    Marchand, Stéphane; Betourne, Alexandre; Marty, Virginie; Daumas, Stéphanie; Halley, Hélène; Lassalle, Jean-Michel; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Frances, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    Neuropeptide FF behaves as an opioid-modulating peptide that seems to be involved in morphine tolerance and physical dependence. Nevertheless, the effects of neuropeptide FF agonists on the rewarding properties of morphine remain unknown. C57BL6 mice were conditioned in an unbiased balanced paradigm of conditioned place preference to study the effect of i.c.v. injections of 1DMe (D-Tyr1(NMe)Phe3]NPFF), a stable agonist of the neuropeptide FF system, on the acquisition of place conditioning by morphine or alcohol (ethanol). Morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) induced a significant place preference. Injection of 1DMe (1-20 nmol), given 10 min before the i.p. injection of the reinforcing drug during conditioning, inhibited the rewarding effect of morphine but had no effect on the rewarding effect of ethanol. However, a single injection of 1DMe given just before place preference testing was unable to inhibit the rewarding effects of morphine. By itself, 1DMe was inactive but an aversive effect of this agonist could be evidenced if the experimental procedure was biased. These results suggest that neuropeptide FF, injected during conditioning, should influence the development of rewarding effects of morphine and reinforce the hypothesis of strong inhibitory interactions between neuropeptide FF and opioids.

  8. Glaciological settings and recent mass balance of Blåskimen Island in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

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    V. Goel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ice-shelf-fringed coast of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica contains numerous ice rises that influence the dynamics and mass balance of the region. However, only a few of these ice rises have been investigated in detail. Here, we present field measurements of Blåskimen Island, an isle-type ice rise adjacent to Fimbul Ice Shelf. This ice rise is largely dome shaped, with a pronounced ridge extending to the south-west from its summit (410 m a.s.l.. Its bed is mostly flat and about 100 m below the current sea level. Shallow radar-detected isochrones dated with a firn core reveal that the surface mass balance is higher on the south-eastern (upwind slope than on the north-western (downwind slope by ∼ 37 %, and this pattern has persisted for at least the past decade. Moreover, arches in radar stratigraphy suggest that the summit of the ice rise has been stable for ∼ 600 years. Ensemble estimates of the mass balance using the input–output method show that this ice rise has thickened by 0.12–0.37 m ice equivalent per year over the past decade.

  9. Glaciological settings and recent mass balance of Blåskimen Island in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vikram; Brown, Joel; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-12-01

    The ice-shelf-fringed coast of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica contains numerous ice rises that influence the dynamics and mass balance of the region. However, only a few of these ice rises have been investigated in detail. Here, we present field measurements of Blåskimen Island, an isle-type ice rise adjacent to Fimbul Ice Shelf. This ice rise is largely dome shaped, with a pronounced ridge extending to the south-west from its summit (410 m a.s.l.). Its bed is mostly flat and about 100 m below the current sea level. Shallow radar-detected isochrones dated with a firn core reveal that the surface mass balance is higher on the south-eastern (upwind) slope than on the north-western (downwind) slope by ˜ 37 %, and this pattern has persisted for at least the past decade. Moreover, arches in radar stratigraphy suggest that the summit of the ice rise has been stable for ˜ 600 years. Ensemble estimates of the mass balance using the input-output method show that this ice rise has thickened by 0.12-0.37 m ice equivalent per year over the past decade.

  10. Perinatal overnutrition exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation caused by high-fat feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

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    Brandon D Kayser

    Full Text Available Obesity causes white adipose tissue (WAT inflammation and insulin resistance in some, but not all individuals. Here, we used a mouse model of early postnatal overfeeding to determine the role of neonatal nutrition in lifelong WAT inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. C57BL/6J mice were reared in small litters of 3 (SL or normal litters of 7 pups (NL and fed either regular chow or a 60% high fat diet (HFD from 5 to 17 weeks. At weaning, SL mice did not develop WAT inflammation despite increased fat mass, although there was an up-regulation of WAT Arg1 and Tlr4 expression. On HFD, adult SL mice had greater inguinal fat mass compared to NL mice, however both groups showed similar increases in visceral fat depots and adipocyte hypertrophy. Despite the similar levels of visceral adiposity, SL-HFD mice displayed greater impairments in glucose homeostasis and more pronounced hepatic steatosis compared to NL-HFD mice. In addition, WAT from SL mice fed a HFD displayed greater crown-like structure formation, increased M1 macrophages, and higher cytokine gene expression. Together, these data suggest that early postnatal overnutrition may be a critical determinant of fatty liver and insulin resistance in obese adults by programming the inflammatory capacity of adipose tissue.

  11. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

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    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  12. Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

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    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.

  13. The effect of surgical and psychological stress on learning and memory function in aged C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, S; Li, P; Cao, J; Mi, W

    2016-04-21

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an important complication following major surgery and general anesthesia in older patients. However, the etiology of POCD remains largely to be determined. It is unknown how surgical stress and psychological stress affect the postoperative learning and memory function in geriatric patients. We therefore established a pre-clinical model in aged C57BL/6 mice and aimed to investigate the effects of surgical stress and psychological stress on learning and memory function and the possible roles of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway. The surgical stress was induced by abdominal surgery under local anesthesia, and the psychological stress was induced by a communication box. Cognitive functions and markers of the AKT/mTOR pathway were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days following the stress. The impairments of learning and memory function existed for up to 7 days following surgical stress and surgical stress plus psychological stress, whereas the psychological stress did not affect the cognitive function alone or combined with surgical stress. Analysis of brain tissue revealed a significant involvement of the AKT/mTOR pathway in the impairment of cognition. These data suggested that surgical stress could induce cognitive impairment in aged mice and perioperative psychological stress is not a constitutive factor of POCD. The AKT/mTOR pathway is likely involved as one of the underlying mechanisms of the development of POCD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Early Postnatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Retinogeniculate Projections in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, İlknur; Jakubowska-Doğru, Ewa; Birsen, Elibol-Can; van der List, Deborah; Chapman, Barbara; Qi, Lihong; Berman, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on the adverse effects of perinatal exposure to ethanol on the developing visual system mainly focused on retinal and optic nerve morphology. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether earlier reported retinal and optic nerve changes are accompanied by anomalies in eye-specific fiber segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). C57BL/6 mice pups were exposed to ethanol by intragastric intubation at either 3 or 4 g/kg from postnatal days (PD) 3-10, the third trimester equivalent to human gestation. Control (C) and intubation control (IC) groups not exposed to ethanol were included. On PD9 retinogeniculate projections, were labeled by intraocular microinjections of cholera toxin-β (CTB) either conjugated to Alexa 488 (green) or 594 (red) administrated to the left and right eye, respectively. Pups were sacrificed 24 h after the last CTB injection. The results showed that ethanol exposure decreased the total number of dLGN neurons and significantly reduced the total dLGN projection as well as the contralateral and ipsilateral projection areas. PMID:23402901

  15. Over-expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein slows presbycusis in C57BL/6J mice.

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    Wang, Jian; Menchenton, Trevor; Yin, Shankai; Yu, Zhiping; Bance, Manohar; Morris, David P; Moore, Craig S; Korneluk, Robert G; Robertson, George S

    2010-07-01

    Apoptosis of cochlear cells plays a significant role in age-related hearing loss or presbycusis. In this study, we evaluated whether over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein known as X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) slows the development of presbycusis. We compared the age-related hearing loss between transgenic (TG) mice that over-express human XIAP tagged with 6-Myc (Myc-XIAP) on a pure C57BL/6J genetic background with wild-type (WT) littermates by measuring auditory brainstem responses. The result showed that TG mice developed hearing loss considerably more slowly than WT littermates, primarily within the high-frequency range. The average total hair cell loss was significantly less in TG mice than WT littermates. Although levels of Myc-XIAP in the ear remained constant at 2 and 14 months, there was a marked increase in the amount of endogenous XIAP from 2 to 14 months in the cochlea, but not in the brain, in both genotypes. These results suggest that XIAP over-expression reduces age-related hearing loss and hair cell death in the cochlea. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-obesity activity of diglyceride containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Jin-Joo; Lee, Ki-Nam; Jeong, Jae-Hwang; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Lee, Young Ho; Jeong, Seong-woon; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won; Lee, Beom Jun

    2009-09-01

    This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p acids in the serum compared with control (p < 0.05). The levels of total cholesterol were also significantly reduced in DG and DG-CLA groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CLA significantly decreased weights of renal and epididymal fats compared with the control (p < 0.05). DG and DGCLA also significantly decreased the epididymal fat weights compared with the control (p < 0.05). A remarkable decrease in the number of lipid droplets and fat globules was observed in the livers of mice treated with DG, CLA, and DG-CLA compared to control. Treatments of DG and CLA actually increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These results suggest that DG-CLA containing 22% CLA have a respectable anti-obesity effect by controlling serum lipids and fat metabolism.

  17. Evaluation of social and physical enrichment in modulation of behavioural phenotype in C57BL/6J female mice.

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    Natalia Kulesskaya

    Full Text Available Housing conditions represent an important environmental variable playing a critical role in the assessment of mouse behaviour. In the present study the effects of isolation and nesting material on the behaviour of female C57BL/6J mice were evaluated. The mice were subjected to different rearing conditions from weaning (at the age of 3 weeks. The study groups were group- and single-housed mice, divided further into groups with or without nesting material (species-specific enrichment. After 8 weeks spent in respective conditions the behavioural testing began. Both factors (social conditions and nesting material appeared to have a significant impact on the behavioural phenotype. However, it is important to stress that the interaction between the factors was virtually absent. We established that isolation increased locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behaviour in several tests of exploration. In contrast, absence of nesting material increased anxiety-like behaviour. Neither factor affected rota-rod performance, nociception and prepulse inhibition. Contextual fear memory was significantly reduced in single-housed mice, and interestingly, in mice with nesting material. Cued fear memory was reduced by single-housing, but not affected by enrichment. Mice from enriched cages displayed faster and better learning and spatial search strategy in the water maze. In contrast, isolation caused significant impairment in the water maze. In conclusion, both isolation and species-specific enrichment have profound effects on mouse behaviour and should be considered in design of the experiments and in assessment of animal welfare issues.

  18. Identification of Possible Candidate Biomarkers for Local or Whole Body Radiation Exposure in C57BL/6 Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Minyoung; Kang, Chang-Mo; Jeoung, Dooil; Bae, Sangwoo; Cho, Chul-Koo; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Specific genes expressed as a result of whole body exposure to γ-radiation have been previously identified. In this study, we examined the genes further as possible biomarkers for the blood lymphocytes of C57BL/6 mice after whole body or local irradiation of the thorax, abdomen, and left subphrenic area. Methods and Materials: We performed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes encoding platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD in blood lymphocytes, lung tissue, spleen, and intestines. The protein expression in blood lymphocytes was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: The expression of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD was significantly greater after 3 days as a result of 1 Gy of whole body irradiation. Moreover, local irradiation to the thorax, abdomen, or left subphrenic area, which are frequently exposed to therapeutic radiation doses, showed a tendency toward radiation-induced increased expression of these genes in both the blood and the locally irradiated organs. Western blot analysis also corroborated these results. Conclusion: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD might be candidates for biomarkers of radiation exposure. However, additional experiments are required to reveal the relationship between the expression levels and the prognostic effects after irradiation

  19. Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

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    Micheli Stéfani Zarzecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone is a flavonoid, natural component of traditional medicinal herbs, present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice. Triton WR-1339 was administered intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg to overnight-fasted mice to develop acute hyperlipidemia. Chrysin was administered orally (10 mg/kg 30 min before Triton WR-1339. At 24 h after Triton WR-1339 injection, blood samples were collected to measure plasma lipid levels. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, carbonyl content, non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH and ascorbic acid (AA levels, as well as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were recorded. Chrysin administration significantly decreased total cholesterol levels. In addition, it partially decreased non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides levels in plasma of hyperlipidaemic mice. In addition chrysin administration prevented the increase on TBARS levels and prevented the decrease in SOD activity induced by Triton WR-1339. These findings indicated that chrysin was able to decrease plasma lipids concentration and that its antioxidant properties was, at least in part, involved in the hypolipidaemic action of chrysin.

  20. Cognitive performance of male and female C57BL/6J mice after repetitive concussive brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosky, Alexander G; Tucker, Laura B; Fu, Amanda H; Liu, Jiong; McCabe, Joseph T

    2017-05-01

    In contact sports, repetitive concussive brain injury (rCBI) is the prevalent form of head injury seen in athletes. The need for effective treatment is urgent as rCBI has been associated with a host of cognitive, behavioral and neurological complaints. There has been a growing trend in the use of female animals in pre-clinical research, but few studies have investigated possible sex differences following rCBI. The goal of the current study was to determine any differences between male and female C57BL/6J mice on assessments of learning and memory after repetitive concussive injury. Following rCBI by impact to the scalp, male mice exhibited longer righting reflexes during acute recovery. In both sexes, there were no evident histopathological changes observed in the underlying cerebral cortex or hippocampus. Reactive astrogliosis was elevated in the corpus callosum and optic tract, and astrogliosis was slightly less in the optic tract of female mice. rCBI mice exhibited impairment during the learning phase of the Morris water maze (MWM), but female mice, in comparison to male mice, were observed to have superior spatial memory during standard MWM probe trials. Female mice were overall more active, evidenced by greater distances traveled in the y-maze and greater swim speeds in the MWM. The results of this study demonstrate sex differences in cognitive performance following rCBI and support previous research suggesting the neuroprotective role of sex in brain injury. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Vacuum-cleaner noise and acute stress responses in female C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D

    2010-05-01

    Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of laboratory mouse under common housing conditions. In each of 2 experiments, 10 young adult, female C57BL/6Cr mice were exposed for 1 h to noise produced by a vacuum cleaner, and 10 control mice were not. In the first experiment, fecal samples were collected to measure concentrations of fecal corticosterone metabolites just before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24, and 32 h after noise exposure. In the second experiment, stress-sensitive behavioral tests were performed 2 d before, immediately after, and 24 h after noise exposure. Physiologic and behavioral measurements indicated that vacuum cleaner noise did not cause an acute stress response in the noise-exposed mice but may have affected the diurnal variation of their corticosterone levels. These findings could contribute to the development of best practices in noise-control protocols for animal facilities.

  2. Benzene-Induced Aberrant miRNA Expression Profile in Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haiyan; Zhang, Juan; Tan, Kehong; Sun, Rongli; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2015-11-12

    Benzene is a common environmental pollutant that causes hematological alterations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice showed significant hematotoxicity after exposure to 150 mg/kg benzene for 4 weeks. Benzene exposure decreased not only the number of cells in peripheral blood but also hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Meanwhile, RNA from Lin(-) cells sorted from the bone marrow was applied to aberrant miRNA expression profile using Illumina sequencing. We found that 5 miRNAs were overexpressed and 45 miRNAs were downregulated in the benzene exposure group. Sequencing results were confirmed through qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we also identified five miRNAs which significantly altered in Lin(-)c-Kit⁺ cells obtained from benzene-exposed mice, including mmu-miR-34a-5p; mmu-miR-342-3p; mmu-miR-100-5p; mmu-miR-181a-5p; and mmu-miR-196b-5p. In summary, we successfully established a classical animal model to induce significant hematotoxicity by benzene injection. Benzene exposure may cause severe hematotoxicity not only to blood cells in peripheral circulation but also to hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. Benzene exposure also alters miRNA expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells. This study suggests that benzene induces alteration in hematopoiesis and hematopoiesis-associated miRNAs.

  3. Response, use and habituation to a mouse house in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Annarita; Mandillo, Silvia; D'Amato, Francesca R; Giuliani, Alessandro; Riviello, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare depends on the possibility to express species-specific behaviours and can be strongly compromised in socially and environmentally deprived conditions. Nesting materials and refuges are very important resources to express these behaviours and should be considered as housing supplementation items. We evaluated the effects of one item of housing supplementation in standard settings in laboratory mice. C57BL/6JOlaHsd (B6) and BALB/cOlaHsd (BALB) young male and female mice, upon arrival, were housed in groups of four in standard laboratory cages and after 10 days of acclimatization, a red transparent plastic triangular-shaped Mouse House™ was introduced into half of the home cages. Animals with or without a mouse house were observed in various contexts for more than one month. Body weight gain and food intake, home cage behaviours, emotionality and response to standard cage changing procedures were evaluated. The presence of a mouse house in the home cage did not interfere with main developmental and behavioural parameters or emotionality of BALB and B6 male and female mice compared with controls. Both strains habituated to the mouse house in about a week, but made use of it differently, with BALB mice using the house more than the B6 strain. Our results suggest that mice habituated to the mouse house rather quickly without disrupting their home cage activities. Scientists can thus be encouraged to use mouse houses, also in view of the implementation of the EU Directive (2010/63/EU).

  4. Development of Mössbauer diffractometer by using nuclear resonant scattering at SPring-8 BL11XU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shin, E-mail: shin@koala.mse.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Teikyo University, Department of Science and Engineering (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (Japan); Fujiwara, Kosuke; Ikeda, Naoshi [Okayama University (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiro [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Shimomura, Susumu [Kyoto Sangyo University (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    A Mössbauer diffractometer has been developed by using {sup 57}Fe nuclear resonant scattering apparatus at SPring-8 BL11XU in order to obtain a crystal-site-selective Mössbauer spectrum. A #Mathematical Italic Small Theta#-2#Mathematical Italic Small Theta# goniometer was newly installed between the nuclear monochromator and a detector. From a single crystal Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} mounted on the goniometer, the 111, 222, and 220 reflected γ-rays were used to collect the diffraction spectra at room temperature. The intensity ratio of the two subspectra, corresponding to A- and B-site Fe ions, changes notably according to the reflection index. The diffraction spectrum is composed of a major absorption spectrum and a minor emission spectrum. The former is given by the γ-ray due to the electron scattering and nuclear absorption, whereas the latter is given by the γ-ray due to the nuclear resonant scattering. Interference effects between these two γ-rays are also seen as line broadenings, asymmetric line shapes, and slope of the base lines. These features can be successfully expressed by a Fano function. We consider that the emission spectrum due to the nuclear resonant scattering represents crystal-site-selective Mössbauer spectrum.

  5. A Search for QPOs in the Blazar OJ287: Preliminary Results from the 2015/2016 Observing Campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zola, S.; Valtonen, M.J.; Bhatta, G.; Goyal, A.; Debski, B.; Baran, A.; Krzesinski, J.; Siwak, M.; Ciprini, S.; Gopakumar, A.; Hudec, René; Jelínek, Martin; Štrobl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2016), 41/1-41/7 E-ISSN 2075-4434 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : active galaxies * BL Lacertae objects * supermassive black hole s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. Multi-Wavelength Variability Properties of Fermi Blazar S5 0716+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical. Observatory, Chinese ... Blazars, including flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lacertae objects are radio- loud active galactic ... interpreted by the relativistic jet oriented close to the line-of-sight (Blandford & Rees. 1978). But the ...

  7. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  8. Correlation between the Flux Density and Polarization for Flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    blazars, which show high and variable polarization, rapid variable flux density over different time scales (Fan 2005). Blazars consist of flat spectrum radio quasars. (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BLs). FSRQs are quite similar to BLs except for their emission line feature with FSRQs showing strong emission lines while.

  9. On the Superluminal Motion of Radio-Loud AGNs Zhi-Bin Zhang1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Apparent superluminal motion of different radio-loud AGNs are similarly related with beaming effect. The cosmological expanding effect would play no part in the superluminal motion of radio galaxies, BL. Lacertae objects as well as quasars. Meanwhile, we confirm that estimates for apparent velocity βapp and ...

  10. Correlation between γ-Ray and Radio Bands for γ-Ray Loud Blazars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The most identified sources observed by Fermi are blazars. (Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BLs). In this paper, we obtained 124 γ-ray loud blazars with available γ-ray and radio (core and total) data. It is interesting that the γ-ray luminosity have a good correlation with the radio ...

  11. Correlation between γ-Ray and Radio Bands for γ-Ray Loud Blazars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan & S. H. Li. Centre for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: dxwuhl@gmail.com. Abstract. The most identified sources observed by Fermi are blazars. (Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BLs). In this paper, we obtained 124 γ-ray loud blazars with ...

  12. Contribution of sortase SrtA2 to Lactobacillus casei BL23 inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata F S Souza

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been considered as a promising strategy to prevent various diseases in both humans and animals. This approach has gained interest in recent years as a potential means to control bovine mastitis. In a previous study, we found that several L. casei strains, including BL23, were able to inhibit the internalization of S. aureus, a major etiologic agent of mastitis, into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC. This antagonism required a direct contact between L. casei and bMEC or S. aureus, suggesting the inhibition relied on interactions between L. casei cell surface components and bMEC. In this study, we have investigated the impact of some candidates which likely influence bacteria host cell interactions. We have shown that L. casei BL23 fbpA retained its inhibitory potential, indicating that L. casei BL23 antagonism did not rely (solely on competition between S. aureus and L. casei fibronectin-binding proteins for adhesion to bMEC. We have then investigated the impact of four sortase mutants, srtA1, srtA2, srtC1 and srtC2, and a double mutant (srtA1-srtA2 on L. casei BL23 inhibitory potential. Sortases are responsible for the anchoring on the bacterial cell wall of LPXTG-proteins, which reportedly play an important role in bacteria-host cell interaction. All the srt mutants tested presented a reduced inhibition capacity, the most pronounced effect being observed with the srtA2 mutant. A lower internalization capacity of L. casei srtA2 into bMEC was also observed. This was associated with several changes at the surface of L. casei BL23 srtA2 compared to the wild type (wt strain, including altered abundance of some LPXTG- and moonlighting proteins, and modifications of cell wall structure. These results strongly support the role of sortase A2 in L. casei BL23 inhibition against S. aureus internalization. Deciphering the contribution of the cell surface components altered in srtA2 strain in the inhibition will require further

  13. Differential effects of age on circulating and splenic leukocyte populations in C57BL/6 and BALB/c male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipov Nikolay M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite several reports on age-related phenotypic changes of the immune system's cells, studies that use a multipoint age comparison between the specific and innate immune cell populations of prototypical Th1- and Th2-type polarized mouse strains are still lacking. Results Using a multipoint age comparison approach, cells from the two major immune system compartments, peripheral blood and spleen, and flow cytometry analysis, we found several principal differences in T cell and professional antigen presenting cell (APC populations originating from a prototypical T helper (Th 1 mouse strain, C57BL/6, and a prototypical Th2 strain, BALB/c. For example, regardless of age, there were strain differences in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and spleens in the proportion of CD4+ (higher in the BALB/c strain, CD8+ T cells and CD11b+/CD11c+ APC (greater in C57BL/6 mice. Other differences were present only in PBMC (MHC class II + and CD19+ were greater in C57BL/6 mice or differences were evident in the spleens but not in circulation (CD3+ T cells were greater in C57BL/6 mice. There were populations of cells that increased with age in PBMC and spleens of both strains (MHC class II+, decreased in the periphery and spleens of both strains (CD11b+ or did not change in the PBMC and spleens of both strains (CD8+. We also found strain and age differences in the distribution of naïve and memory/activated splenic T cells, e.g., BALB/c mice had more memory/activated and less naive CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and the C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion Our data provide important information on the principal differences, within the context of age, in T cell and professional APC populations between the prototypical Th1 mouse strain C57BL/6 and the prototypical Th2 strain BALB/c. Although the age-related changes that occur may be rather subtle, they may be very relevant in conditions of disease and stress. Importantly, our data indicate that age and

  14. How Does Circadian Rhythm Impact Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure in Mice? A Study in Two Close C57Bl/6 Substrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Roy; Mudgett, John; El Fertak, Lahcen; Champy, Marie-France; Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Sorg, Tania; Herault, Yann; Madwed, Jeffrey B; Monassier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Mouse transgenesis has provided the unique opportunity to investigate mechanisms underlying sodium kidney reabsorption as well as end organ damage. However, understanding mouse background and the experimental conditions effects on phenotypic readouts of engineered mouse lines such as blood pressure presents a challenge. Despite the ability to generate high sodium and chloride plasma levels during high-salt diet, observed changes in blood pressure are not consistent between wild-type background strains and studies. The present work was designed in an attempt to determine guidelines in the field of salt-induced hypertension by recording continuously blood pressure by telemetry in mice submitted to different sodium and potassium loaded diets and changing experimental conditions in both C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice strain (Normal salt vs. Low salt vs. High-salt/normal potassium vs. High salt/low potassium, standard vs. modified light cycle, Non-invasive tail cuff blood pressure vs. telemetry). In this study, we have shown that, despite a strong blood pressure (BP) basal difference between C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice, High salt/normal potassium diet increases BP and heart rate during the active phase only (dark period) in the same extent in both strains. On the other hand, while potassium level has no effect on salt-induced hypertension in C57BL/6N mice, high-salt/low potassium diet amplifies the effect of the high-salt challenge only in C57BL/6J mice. Indeed, in this condition, salt-induced hypertension can also be detected during light period even though this BP increase is lower compared to the one occurring during the dark period. Finally, from a methodological perspective, light cycle inversion has no effect on this circadian BP phenotype and tail-cuff method is less sensitive than telemetry to detect BP phenotypes due to salt challenges. Therefore, to carry investigations on salt-induced hypertension in mice, chronic telemetry and studies in the active phase are

  15. Long term metabolic syndrome induced by a high fat high fructose diet leads to minimal renal injury in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Dissard

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome can induce chronic kidney disease in humans. Genetically engineered mice on a C57BL/6 background are highly used for mechanistic studies. Although it has been shown that metabolic syndrome induces cardiovascular lesions in C57BL/6 mice, in depth renal phenotyping has never been performed. Therefore in this study we characterized renal function and injury in C57BL/6 mice with long-term metabolic syndrome induced by a high fat and fructose diet (HFFD. C57BL/6 mice received an 8 months HFFD diet enriched with fat (45% energy from fat and drinking water enriched with fructose (30%. Body weight, food/water consumption, energy intake, fat/lean mass ratio, plasma glucose, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and cholesterol levels were monitored. At 3, 6 and 8 months, renal function was determined by inulin clearance and measure of albuminuria. At sacrifice, kidneys and liver were collected. Metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6 mice fed a HFFD was observed as early 4 weeks with development of type 2 diabetes at 8 weeks after initiation of diet. However, detailed analysis of kidney structure and function showed only minimal renal injury after 8 months of HFFD. HFFD induced moderate glomerular hyperfiltration (436,4 µL/min vs 289,8 µL/min; p-value=0.0418 together with a 2-fold increase in albuminuria only after 8 months of HFFD. This was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in renal inflammation (p-value=0.0217 but without renal fibrosis or mesangial matrix expansion. In addition, electron microscopy did not show alterations in glomeruli such as basal membrane thickening and foot process effacement. Finally, comparison of the urinary peptidome of these mice with the urinary peptidome from humans with diabetic nephropathy also suggested absence of diabetic nephropathy in this model. This study provides evidence that the HFFD C57BL/6 model is not the optimal model to study the effects of metabolic syndrome on the development of diabetic kidney disease.

  16. Restraint increases prolactin and REM sleep in C57BL/6J mice but not in BALB/cJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo, P; Easton, A; Bergmann, B M; Turek, F W

    2001-09-01

    Sleep is generally considered to be a recovery from prior wakefulness. The architecture of sleep not only depends on the duration of wakefulness but also on its quality in terms of specific experiences. In the present experiment, we studied the effects of restraint stress on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalography (EEG) in different strains of mice (C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ). One objective was to determine if the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-promoting effects of restraint stress previously reported for rats would also occur in mice. In addition, we examined whether the effects of restraint stress on sleep are different from effects of social defeat stress, which was found to have a non-REM (NREM) sleep-promoting effect. We further measured corticosterone and prolactin levels as possible mediators of restraint stress-induced changes in sleep. Adult male C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice were subjected to 1 h of restraint stress in the middle of the light phase. To control for possible effects of sleep loss per se, the animals were also kept awake for 1 h by gentle handling. Restraint stress resulted in a mild increase in NREM sleep compared with baseline, but, overall, this effect was not significantly different from sleep deprivation by gentle handling. In contrast, restraint stress caused a significant increase in REM sleep compared with handling in the C57BL/6J mice but not in BALB/cJ mice. Corticosterone levels were significantly and similarly elevated after restraint in both strains, but prolactin was increased only in the C57BL/6J mice. In conclusion, this study shows that the restraint stress-induced increase in REM sleep in mice is strongly strain dependent. The concomitant increases in prolactin and REM sleep in the C57BL/6J mice, but not in BALB/cJ mice, suggest prolactin may be involved in the mechanism underlying restraint stress-induced REM sleep. Furthermore, this study confirms that different stressors differentially affect NREM and REM sleep

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorynia, Sabine; Matias, Pedro M.; Gonçalves, Susana; Coelho, Ricardo; Lopes, Gonçalo; Thomaz, Mónica; Huber, Martina; Haendler, Bernard; Donner, Peter; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    2005-01-01

    Human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1 plays important roles in essential signaling pathways like c-Myc and Wnt, in transcription, and in DNA repair and apoptosis. Crystals of both native and a Se-Met derivative were obtained and characterized. SAD data leading to the structure solution at 2.2 Å were measured from the Se-Met crystals. RuvBL1, an evolutionary highly conserved protein related to the AAA + family of ATPases, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystals are hexagonal and belong to space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 207.1, c = 60.7 Å and three molecules in the asymmetric unit

  18. Efficient generation of germ line transmitting chimeras from C57BL/6N ES cells by aggregation with outbred host embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gertsenstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified mouse strains derived from embryonic stem (ES cells have become essential tools for functional genomics and biomedical research. Large scale mutagenesis projects are producing libraries of mutant C57BL/6 (B6 ES cells to enable the functional annotation of every gene of the mouse genome. To realize the utility of these resources, efficient and accessible methods of generating mutant mice from these ES cells are necessary. Here, we describe a combination of ICR morula aggregation and a chemically-defined culture medium with widely available and accessible components for the high efficiency generation of germline transmitting chimeras from C57BL/6N ES cells. Together these methods will ease the access of the broader biomedical research community to the publicly available B6 ES cell resources.

  19. The effect of wheat-rye translocation 1BL.1RS in a different quality genetic background on biological traits in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 139 varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., predominantly Serbian winter wheat varieties originated in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, has been examined for presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation. Two genotype groups consisted of varieties possessing and lacking the translocation have been compared. Stem rust, leaf rust, powdery mildew as well as, winter hardiness were studied. The influence of 1BL/1RS translocation was also studied in a light of wheat seed storage protein (glutenin and gliadin genetic background composition. Genotypes having the translocation appeared to be more tolerant to stem rust, and leaf rust, but more susceptible to powdery mildew. These effects were slightly modified depending on the examined genetic background, but the effect of the rye 1RS translocated chromosome arm was the main cause for the observed differences.

  20. Experimental Methods for Testing the Effects of Neurotrophic Peptide, ADNF-9, Against Alcohol-induced Apoptosis during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    Experimental designs for investigating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure during early embryonic stages in fetal brain growth are challenging. This is mostly due to the difficulty of microdissection of fetal brains and their sectioning for determination of apoptotic cells caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The experiments described here provide visualized techniques from mice breeding to the identification of cell death in fetal brain tissue. This study used C57BL/6 mice as the ani...