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Sample records for interlaced imrt technique

  1. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel A.; Moran, Jean M.; Dempsey, James F.; Dong Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  2. An introduction to random interlacements

    CERN Document Server

    Drewitz, Alexander; Sapozhnikov, Artëm

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a self-contained introduction to the theory of random interlacements. The intended reader of the book is a graduate student with a background in probability theory who wants to learn about the fundamental results and methods of this rapidly emerging field of research. The model was introduced by Sznitman in 2007 in order to describe the local picture left by the trace of a random walk on a large discrete torus when it runs up to times proportional to the volume of the torus. Random interlacements is a new percolation model on the d-dimensional lattice. The main results covered by the book include the full proof of the local convergence of random walk trace on the torus to random interlacements and the full proof of the percolation phase transition of the vacant set of random interlacements in all dimensions. The reader will become familiar with the techniques relevant to working with the underlying Poisson Process and the method of multi-scale renormalization, which helps in overcoming the ch...

  3. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  4. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  5. Rotational IMRT techniques compared to fixed gantry IMRT and Tomotherapy: multi-institutional planning study for head-and-neck cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiezorek, Tilo; Schubert, Kai; Wagner, Daniela; Wendt, Thomas G; Brachwitz, Tim; Georg, Dietmar; Blank, Eyck; Fotina, Irina; Habl, Gregor; Kretschmer, Matthias; Lutters, Gerd; Salz, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments enable to deliver rotational IMRT with standard C-arm gantry based linear accelerators. This upcoming treatment technique was benchmarked in a multi-center treatment planning study against static gantry IMRT and rotational IMRT based on a ring gantry for a complex parotid gland sparing head-and-neck technique. Treatment plans were created for 10 patients with head-and-neck tumours (oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx) using the following treatment planning systems (TPS) for rotational IMRT: Monaco (ELEKTA VMAT solution), Eclipse (Varian RapidArc solution) and HiArt for the helical tomotherapy (Tomotherapy). Planning of static gantry IMRT was performed with KonRad, Pinnacle and Panther DAO based on step&shoot IMRT delivery and Eclipse for sliding window IMRT. The prescribed doses for the high dose PTVs were 65.1Gy or 60.9Gy and for the low dose PTVs 55.8Gy or 52.5Gy dependend on resection status. Plan evaluation was based on target coverage, conformity and homogeneity, DVHs of OARs and the volume of normal tissue receiving more than 5Gy (V 5Gy ). Additionally, the cumulative monitor units (MUs) and treatment times of the different technologies were compared. All evaluation parameters were averaged over all 10 patients for each technique and planning modality. Depending on IMRT technique and TPS, the mean CI values of all patients ranged from 1.17 to 2.82; and mean HI values varied from 0.05 to 0.10. The mean values of the median doses of the spared parotid were 26.5Gy for RapidArc and 23Gy for VMAT, 14.1Gy for Tomo. For fixed gantry techniques 21Gy was achieved for step&shoot+KonRad, 17.0Gy for step&shoot+Panther DAO, 23.3Gy for step&shoot+Pinnacle and 18.6Gy for sliding window. V 5Gy values were lowest for the sliding window IMRT technique (3499 ccm) and largest for RapidArc (5480 ccm). The lowest mean MU value of 408 was achieved by Panther DAO, compared to 1140 for sliding window IMRT. All IMRT delivery technologies with their associated TPS

  6. Rotational IMRT techniques compared to fixed gantry IMRT and Tomotherapy: multi-institutional planning study for head-and-neck cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutters Gerd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments enable to deliver rotational IMRT with standard C-arm gantry based linear accelerators. This upcoming treatment technique was benchmarked in a multi-center treatment planning study against static gantry IMRT and rotational IMRT based on a ring gantry for a complex parotid gland sparing head-and-neck technique. Methods Treatment plans were created for 10 patients with head-and-neck tumours (oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx using the following treatment planning systems (TPS for rotational IMRT: Monaco (ELEKTA VMAT solution, Eclipse (Varian RapidArc solution and HiArt for the helical tomotherapy (Tomotherapy. Planning of static gantry IMRT was performed with KonRad, Pinnacle and Panther DAO based on step&shoot IMRT delivery and Eclipse for sliding window IMRT. The prescribed doses for the high dose PTVs were 65.1Gy or 60.9Gy and for the low dose PTVs 55.8Gy or 52.5Gy dependend on resection status. Plan evaluation was based on target coverage, conformity and homogeneity, DVHs of OARs and the volume of normal tissue receiving more than 5Gy (V5Gy. Additionally, the cumulative monitor units (MUs and treatment times of the different technologies were compared. All evaluation parameters were averaged over all 10 patients for each technique and planning modality. Results Depending on IMRT technique and TPS, the mean CI values of all patients ranged from 1.17 to 2.82; and mean HI values varied from 0.05 to 0.10. The mean values of the median doses of the spared parotid were 26.5Gy for RapidArc and 23Gy for VMAT, 14.1Gy for Tomo. For fixed gantry techniques 21Gy was achieved for step&shoot+KonRad, 17.0Gy for step&shoot+Panther DAO, 23.3Gy for step&shoot+Pinnacle and 18.6Gy for sliding window. V5Gy values were lowest for the sliding window IMRT technique (3499 ccm and largest for RapidArc (5480 ccm. The lowest mean MU value of 408 was achieved by Panther DAO, compared to 1140 for sliding window IMRT. Conclusions All

  7. A two isocenter IMRT technique with a controlled junction dose for long volume targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G G; Heaton, R K; Catton, C N; Chung, P W; O'Sullivan, B; Lau, M; Parent, A; Jaffray, D A

    2007-01-01

    Most IMRT techniques have been designed to treat targets smaller than the field size of conventional linac accelerators. In order to overcome the field size restrictions in applying IMRT, we developed a two isocenter IMRT technique to treat long volume targets. The technique exploits an extended dose gradient throughout a junction region of 4-6 cm to minimize the impact of field match errors on a junction dose and manipulates the inverse planning and IMRT segments to fill in the dose gradient and achieve dose uniformity. Techniques for abutting both conventional fields with IMRT ('Static + IMRT') and IMRT fields ('IMRT + IMRT') using two separate isocenters have been developed. Five long volume sarcoma cases have been planned in Pinnacle (Philips, Madison, USA) using Elekta Synergy and Varian 2100EX linacs; two of the cases were clinically treated with this technique. Advantages were demonstrated with well-controlled junction target uniformity and tolerance to setup uncertainties. The junction target dose heterogeneity was controlled at a level of ±5%; for 3 mm setup errors at the field edges, the junction target dose changed less than 5% and the dose sparing to organs at risk (OARs) was maintained. Film measurements confirmed the treatment planning results

  8. SU-E-T-16: A Hybrid VMAT/IMRT Technique for the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, N; Yang, R; Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 2 full arcs VMAT, 9-field IMRT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with NPC. The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 1 full VMAT arc and 7 IMRT fields. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) for Hybrid VMAT/IMRT was compared with IMRT and VMAT. The monitor units (MUs) were also evaluated. Results: The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose homogeneity compared with IMRT and VMAT for PTV70 and PTV54. For PTV70 and PTV60, the Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose conformity compared with IMRT (0.62 vs 0.47; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.58; p<0.05, respectively) and VMAT (0.62 vs 0.43; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.6; p<0.05, respectively). The near maximum dose (D2%) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), temporal lobe and mandible for Hybrid plans were 5.5%, 7.9% and 5.2% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of TMJ, temporal lobe, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 12.8%, 11.4%, 4.2% and 4.1% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of right parotid, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 3.3%, 2.4% and 3.1% lower than VMAT plans (p<0.05). The mean MUs needed for IMRT, VMAT and Hybrid plans were 2256, 507 and 1394, respectively. Conclusion: Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with IMRT and VMAT and reduced the dose of OARs and unspecified tissue compared with IMRT with fewer MUs. Compared with VMAT, Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique can better protect parotid gland, mandible and unspecified tissue. Ruijie Yang was funded by the grant project: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237). Other authors have no competing interest for this work

  9. SU-E-T-16: A Hybrid VMAT/IMRT Technique for the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, N; Yang, R; Wang, J [Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 2 full arcs VMAT, 9-field IMRT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with NPC. The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 1 full VMAT arc and 7 IMRT fields. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) for Hybrid VMAT/IMRT was compared with IMRT and VMAT. The monitor units (MUs) were also evaluated. Results: The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose homogeneity compared with IMRT and VMAT for PTV70 and PTV54. For PTV70 and PTV60, the Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose conformity compared with IMRT (0.62 vs 0.47; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.58; p<0.05, respectively) and VMAT (0.62 vs 0.43; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.6; p<0.05, respectively). The near maximum dose (D2%) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), temporal lobe and mandible for Hybrid plans were 5.5%, 7.9% and 5.2% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of TMJ, temporal lobe, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 12.8%, 11.4%, 4.2% and 4.1% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of right parotid, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 3.3%, 2.4% and 3.1% lower than VMAT plans (p<0.05). The mean MUs needed for IMRT, VMAT and Hybrid plans were 2256, 507 and 1394, respectively. Conclusion: Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with IMRT and VMAT and reduced the dose of OARs and unspecified tissue compared with IMRT with fewer MUs. Compared with VMAT, Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique can better protect parotid gland, mandible and unspecified tissue. Ruijie Yang was funded by the grant project: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237). Other authors have no competing interest for this work.

  10. A planning and delivery study of a rotational IMRT technique with burst delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Kristofer; Chen, Guang-Pei; Chang, Yu-Wen; Prah, Douglas; Sharon Qi, X.; Shukla, Himanshu P.; Stahl, Johannes; Allen Li, X.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A novel rotational IMRT (rIMRT) technique using burst delivery (continuous gantry rotation with beam off during MLC repositioning) is investigated. The authors evaluate the plan quality and delivery efficiency and accuracy of this dynamic technique with a conventional flat 6 MV photon beam. Methods: Burst-delivery rIMRT was implemented in a planning system and delivered with a 160-MLC linac. Ten rIMRT plans were generated for five anonymized patient cases encompassing head and neck, brain, prostate, and prone breast. All plans were analyzed retrospectively and not used for treatment. Among the varied plan parameters were the number of optimization points, number of arcs, gantry speed, and gantry angle range (alpha) over which the beam is turned on at each optimization point. Combined rotational/step-and-shoot rIMRT plans were also created by superimposing multiple-segment static fields at several optimization points. The rIMRT trial plans were compared with each other and with plans generated using helical tomotherapy and VMAT. Burst-mode rotational IMRT plans were delivered and verified using a diode array, ionization chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and film. Results: Burst-mode rIMRT can achieve plan quality comparable to helical tomotherapy, while the former may lead to slightly better OAR sparing for certain cases and the latter generally achieves slightly lower hot spots. Few instances were found in which increasing the number of optimization points above 36, or superimposing step-and-shoot IMRT segments, led to statistically significant improvements in OAR sparing. Using an additional rIMRT partial arc yielded substantial OAR dose improvements for the brain case. Measured doses from the rIMRT plan delivery were within 4% of the plan calculation in low dose gradient regions. Delivery time range was 228-375 s for single-arc rIMRT 200-cGy prescription with a 300 MU/min dose rate, comparable to tomotherapy and VMAT. Conclusions: Rotational IMRT

  11. Irradiation of head-and-neck tumors with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Comparison between two IMRT techniques with 3D conformal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeger, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    For 12 patients with inoperable head-neck carcinoma that were treated with 3D conformal irradiation techniques additional irradiation plans using IMRT were developed. It was shown that the IMRT techniques are superior to the 3D conformal technique. The new rapid arc technique is unclear with respect to the critical organs (parotid glands, spinal canal and mandibles) but is significantly advantageous for the other normal tissue with respect to conformity (steeper dose gradients) and thus radiation dose reduction. The resulting lower irradiation time and the reduced radiation exposure being important for the treatment economy and patients' comfort should favor the more planning intensive rapid arc technique.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of treatment techniques IMRT and VMAT for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina, G. L.; Garcia, B. G.

    2015-10-01

    In this study the dosimetric distribution was compared in the different treatment techniques such as Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in female patients with breast cancer with stage II-B and III-A, 6 cases (both calculated on VMAT and IMRT) were studied, comparison parameter that are taken into account are: compliance rate, homogeneity index, monitor units, volume dose 50 Gy (D-50%) and 5 Gy (D-5%) volume dose. Comparisons are made in primary tumor volume to optimize treatment in patients with breast cancer, with IMRT using Step, Shoot and VMAT Monte Carlo algorithm, in addition to the organs at risk; the concern to make this work is due to technological advances in radiotherapy and the application of new treatment techniques, that increase the accuracy allowing treatment dose climbing delivering a higher dose to the patient. (Author)

  13. Conversion of interlaced image signals into progressive scanned image signals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    In a method of de-interlacing video data (F), at least three different de-interlacing algorithms (VTF, MED1, CM3) are applied on the video data (F) to obtain at least three de-interlaced signals (DIO-1, DIO-2, DIO-3), no majority of de-interlacing algorithms copying a single spatio-temporally

  14. Dosimetric comparison of helical tomotherapy, RapidArc, and a novel IMRT and Arc technique for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Spencer; Chen, Jeff Z.; Rashid Dar, A.; Yartsev, Slav

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare radiotherapy treatment plans for mid- and distal-esophageal cancer with primary involvement of the gastroesophageal (GE) junction using a novel IMRT and Arc technique (IMRT and Arc), helical tomotherapy (HT), and RapidArc (RA1 and RA2). Methods and materials: Eight patients treated on HT for locally advanced esophageal cancer with radical intent were re-planned for RA and IMRT and Arc. RA plans employed single and double arcs (RA1 and RA2, respectively), while IMRT and Arc plans had four fixed-gantry IMRT fields and a conformal arc. Dose-volume histogram statistics, dose uniformity, and dose homogeneity were analyzed to compare treatment plans. Results: RA2 plans showed significant improvement over RA1 plans in terms of OAR dose and PTV dose uniformity and homogeneity. HT plan provided best dose uniformity (p = 0.001) and dose homogeneity (p = 0.002) to planning target volume (PTV), while IMRT and Arc and RA2 plans gave lowest dose to lungs among four radiotherapy techniques with acceptable PTV dose coverage. Mean V 10 of the lungs was significantly reduced by the RA2 plans compared to IMRT and Arc (40.3%, p = 0.001) and HT (66.2%, p 15 of the lungs for the RA2 plans also showed significant improvement over the IMRT and Arc (25.2%, p = 0.042) and HT (34.8%, p = 0.027) techniques. These improvements came at the cost of higher doses to the heart volume compared to HT and IMRT and Arc techniques. Mean lung dose (MLD) for the IMRT and Arc technique (21.2 ± 5.0% of prescription dose) was significantly reduced compared to HT (26.3%, p = 0.004), RA1 (23.3%, p = 0.028), and RA2 (23.2%, p = 0.017) techniques. Conclusion: The IMRT and Arc technique is a good option for treating esophageal cancer with thoracic involvement. It achieved optimal low dose to the lungs and heart with acceptable PTV coverage. HT is a good option for treating esophageal cancer with little thoracic involvement as it achieves superior dose conformality and uniformity. The RA2

  15. Single-Arc IMRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Webb, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)

  16. Algorithm/Architecture Co-design of the Generalized Sampling Theorem Based De-Interlacer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beric, A.; Haan, de G.; Sethuraman, R.; Meerbergen, van J.

    2005-01-01

    De-interlacing is a major determinant of image quality in a modern display processing chain. The de-interlacing method based on the generalized sampling theorem (GST)applied to motion estimation and motion compensation provides the best de-interlacing results. With HDTV interlaced input material

  17. Motion compensated De-interlacing with Film Mode Adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for de-interlacing a hybrid video sequence using at least one estimated motion vector for interpolating pixels. Field for petition patents, typically occurring in film originated video material, disturb the function of de-interlacing algorithm designed to convert

  18. Hybrid IMRT plans-concurrently treating conventional and IMRT beams for improved breast irradiation and reduced planning time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Charles S.; Urie, Marcia M.; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique as a class solution for treatment of the intact breast. Methods and materials: The following five plan techniques were compared for 10 breast patients using dose-volume histogram analysis: conventional wedged-field tangents (Tangents), forward-planned field-within-a-field tangents (FIF), IMRT-only tangents (IMRT tangents), conventional open plus IMRT tangents (4-field hybrid), and conventional open plus IMRT tangents with 2 anterior oblique IMRT beams (6-field hybrid). Results: The 4-field hybrid and FIF achieved dose distributions better than Tangents and IMRT tangents. The volume of tissue outside the planning target volume receiving ≥110% of prescribed dose was largest for IMRT tangents (average 158 cc) and least for 6-field hybrid (average 1 cc); the FIF and 4-field hybrid were comparable (average 15 cc). Heart volume ≥30 Gy averaged 13 cc for all techniques, except Tangents, for which it was 32 cc. Average total lung volume ≥20 Gy was 7% for all. Contralateral breast doses were < 3% for all. Planning time for hybrid techniques was significantly less than for conventional FIF technique. Conclusions: The 4-field hybrid technique is a viable class solution. The 6-field hybrid technique creates the most conformal dose distribution at the expense of more normal tissue receiving low dose

  19. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cancers of the head and neck: Comparison of split-field and whole-field techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabaja, Bouthaina; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Rosen, Isaac; Tung, Sam; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Oropharynx cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT) are often treated with a monoisocentric or half-beam technique (HB). IMRT is delivered to the primary tumor and upper neck alone, while the lower neck is treated with a matching anterior beam. Because IMRT can treat the entire volume or whole field (WF), the primary aim of the study was to test the ability to plan cases using WF-IMRT while obtaining an optimal plan and acceptable dose distribution and also respecting normal critical structures. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage oropharynx cancers had treatment plans created with HB-IMRT and WF-IMRT techniques. Plans were deemed acceptable if they met the planning guidelines (as defined or with minor violations) of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol H0022. Comparisons included coverage to the planning target volume (PTV) of the primary (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54). We also compared the ability of both techniques to respect the tolerance of critical structures. Results: The volume of PTV66 treated to >110% was less in 9 of the 13 patients in the WF-IMRT plan as compared to the HB-IMRT plan. The calculated mean volume receiving >110% for all patients planned with WF-IMRT was 9.3% (0.8%-25%) compared to 13.7% (2.7%-23.7%) with HB-IMRT (p = 0.09). The PTV54 volume receiving >110% of dose was less in 10 of the 13 patients planned with WF-IMRT compared to HB-IMRT. The mean doses to all critical structures except the larynx were comparable with each plan. The mean dose to the larynx was significantly less (p = 0.001), 18.7 Gy, with HB-IMRT compared to 47 Gy with WF-IMRT. Conclusions: Regarding target volumes, acceptable plans can be generated with either WF-IMRT or HB-IMRT. WF-IMRT has an advantage if uncertainty at the match line is a concern, whereas HB-IMRT, particularly in cases not involving the base of tongue, can achieve much lower doses to the larynx

  20. Reconstructing Interlaced High-Dynamic-Range Video Using Joint Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchang Choi; Seung-Hwan Baek; Kim, Min H

    2017-11-01

    For extending the dynamic range of video, it is a common practice to capture multiple frames sequentially with different exposures and combine them to extend the dynamic range of each video frame. However, this approach results in typical ghosting artifacts due to fast and complex motion in nature. As an alternative, video imaging with interlaced exposures has been introduced to extend the dynamic range. However, the interlaced approach has been hindered by jaggy artifacts and sensor noise, leading to concerns over image quality. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach for jointly solving two specific problems of deinterlacing and denoising that arise in interlaced video imaging with different exposures. First, we solve the deinterlacing problem using joint dictionary learning via sparse coding. Since partial information of detail in differently exposed rows is often available via interlacing, we make use of the information to reconstruct details of the extended dynamic range from the interlaced video input. Second, we jointly solve the denoising problem by tailoring sparse coding to better handle additive noise in low-/high-exposure rows, and also adopt multiscale homography flow to temporal sequences for denoising. We anticipate that the proposed method will allow for concurrent capture of higher dynamic range video frames without suffering from ghosting artifacts. We demonstrate the advantages of our interlaced video imaging compared with the state-of-the-art high-dynamic-range video methods.

  1. A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-06-01

    To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E+IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E+IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E+IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E+IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning

  2. The use of IMRT in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [de

  3. AAA and AXB algorithms for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using IMRT and RapidArc techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleldin, Maha; Elsherbini, Nader A; Elshemey, Wael M

    2017-09-27

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and 2 reporting systems (AXB-D m and AXB-D w ) of Acuros XB algorithm (AXB) on clinical plans of nasopharyngeal patients using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and RapidArc (RA) techniques. Six plans of different algorithm-technique combinations are performed for 10 patients to calculate dose-volume histogram (DVH) physical parameters for planning target volumes (PTVs) and organs at risk (OARs). The number of monitor units (MUs) and calculation time are also determined. Good coverage is reported for all algorithm-technique combination plans without exceeding the tolerance for OARs. Regardless of the algorithm, RA plans persistently reported higher D 2% values for PTV-70. All IMRT plans reported higher number of MUs (especially with AXB) than did RA plans. AAA-IMRT produced the minimum calculation time of all plans. Major differences between the investigated algorithm-technique combinations are reported only for the number of MUs and calculation time parameters. In terms of these 2 parameters, it is recommended to employ AXB in calculating RA plans and AAA in calculating IMRT plans to achieve minimum calculation times at reduced number of MUs. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of treatment techniques IMRT and VMAT for breast cancer; Comparacion dosimetrica de las tecnicas de tratamiento IMRT y VMAT para cancer en mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina, G. L. [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Maestria en Fisica Medica, Av. Tupac Amaru s/n, Rimac, Lima 25 (Peru); Garcia, B. G., E-mail: gerlup@hotmail.com [Red AUNA, Clinica Delgado, Av. Angamos Cdra. 4 esquina Gral. Borgono, Miraflores, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    In this study the dosimetric distribution was compared in the different treatment techniques such as Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in female patients with breast cancer with stage II-B and III-A, 6 cases (both calculated on VMAT and IMRT) were studied, comparison parameter that are taken into account are: compliance rate, homogeneity index, monitor units, volume dose 50 Gy (D-50%) and 5 Gy (D-5%) volume dose. Comparisons are made in primary tumor volume to optimize treatment in patients with breast cancer, with IMRT using Step, Shoot and VMAT Monte Carlo algorithm, in addition to the organs at risk; the concern to make this work is due to technological advances in radiotherapy and the application of new treatment techniques, that increase the accuracy allowing treatment dose climbing delivering a higher dose to the patient. (Author)

  5. SU-E-J-125: A Novel IMRT Planning Technique to Spare Sacral Bone Marrow in Pelvic Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S; Bhatia, S; Sun, W; Menda, Y; Ponto, L; Gross, B; Buatti, J [University Of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop an IMRT planning technique that can preferentially spare sacral bone marrow for pelvic cancer patients. Methods: Six pelvic cancer patients (two each with anal, cervical, and rectal cancer) were enrolled in an IRB approved protocol to obtain FLT PET images at simulation, during, and post chemoradiation therapy. Initially, conventional IMRT plans were created to maintain target coverage and reduce dose to OARs such as bladder, bowel, rectum, and femoral heads. Simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans to spare bone marrow identified as regions with SUV of 2 or greater (IMRT-BMS) within the pelvic bones from top of L3 to 5mm below the greater trochanter without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing when compared to the initial IMRT plan. IMRT-BMS plans used 8–10 beam angles that surrounded the subject. These plans were used for treatment. Retrospectively, the same simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans that spared bone marrow located in the sacral pelvic bone region (IMRT-FAN) also without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing. IMRT-FAN plans used 16 beam angles every 12° anteriorly from 90° – 270°. Optimization objectives for the sacral bone marrow avoidance region were weighted to reduce ≥V10. Results: IMRT-FAN reduced dose to the sacral bone marrow for all six subjects. The average V5, V10, V20, and V30 differences from the IMRT-BMS plan were −2.2 ± 1.7%, −11.4 ± 3.6%, −17.6 ± 5.1%, and −19.1 ± 8.1% respectively. Average PTV coverage change was 0.5% ± 0.8% from the conventional IMRT plan. Conclusion: An IMRT planning technique that uses beams from the anterior and lateral directions reduced the volume of sacral bone marrow that receives ≤10Gy while maintaining PTV coverage and OAR sparing. Additionally, the volume of sacral bone marrow that received 20 or 30 Gy was also reduced.

  6. Domestic comparison of radiation treatment techniques for breast cancer: 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Yoon, Myong Geun [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yusung Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare method in the treatment of breast cancer using dose index. And, it is to find the optimized treatment technique to the patient. The phantom filled with tissue-equivalent material were used simulation and treatment as techniques of 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT was planned using Eclipse v10. By using HI(homogeneity index), CI(Conformity index), OE (Organ equivalent dose), EAR(Excess Absolute Risk), were assessed for each treatment plans. HI and CI of 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT were calculated 16.89, 11.21, 9.55 and 0.59, 0.61, 0.83. The organ average doses of Lt lung, Rt lung, liver, heart, esophagus, cord, Lt breast, trachea and stomach were 0.01 ∼ 2.02 Gy, 0.36 ∼ 5.01 Gy, 0.25 ∼ 2.49 Gy, 0.14 ∼ 6.92 Gy, 0.03 ∼ 2.02 Gy, 0.01 ∼ 1.06 Gy, 0.25 ∼ 6.08 Gy, 0.08 ∼ 0.59 Gy, 0.01 ∼ 1.34 Gy, respectively. The OED, EAR of the IMRT and VMAT show higher than 3D-CRT. As the result of this study, we could confirm being higher dose index(HI, CI) in IMRT and VMAT than 3D-CRT, but doses of around normal organs was higher IMRT, VMAT than 3D-CRT.

  7. Comparison of 3DCRT,VMAT and IMRT techniques in metastatic vertebra radiotherapy: A phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedik Sonay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebra metastases can be seen during the prognosis of cancer patients. Treatment ways of the metastasis are radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. Three-dimensional conformal therapy (3D-CRT is widely used in the treatment of vertebra metastases. Also, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT and Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT are used too. The aim of this study is to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the different radiotherapy techniques. In the aspect of this goal, it is studied with a randophantom in Uludag University Medicine Faculty, Radiation Oncology Department. By using a computerized tomography image of the phantom, one 3DCRT plan, two VMAT and three IMRT plans for servical vertebra and three different 3DCRT plans, two VMAT and two IMRT plans for lomber vertebra are calculated. To calculate 3DCRT plans, CMS XiO Treatment System is used and to calculate VMAT and IMRT plans Monaco Treatment Planning System is used in the department. The study concludes with the dosimetric comparison of the treatment plans in the spect of critical organ doses, homogeneity and conformity index. As a result of this study, all critical organ doses are suitable for QUANTEC Dose Limit Report and critical organ doses depend on the techniques which used in radiotherapy. According to homogeneity and conformity indices, VMAT and IMRT plans are better than one in 3DCRT plans in servical and lomber vertebra radiotherapy plans.

  8. Restricted Field IMRT Dramatically Enhances IMRT Planning for Mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Aaron M.; Schofield, Deborah; Hacker, Fred; Court, Laurence E.; Czerminska, Maria M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the target coverage and normal tissue sparing of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy. Methods and Materials: Thirteen plans from patients previously treated with IMRT for mesothelioma were replanned using a restricted field technique. This technique was novel in two ways. It limited the entrance beams to 200 o around the target and three to four beams per case had their field apertures restricted down to the level of the heart or liver to further limit the contralateral lung dose. New constraints were added that included a mean lung dose of <9.5 Gy and volume receiving ≥5 Gy of <55%. Results: In all cases, the planning target volume coverage was excellent, with an average of 97% coverage of the planning target volume by the target dose. No change was seen in the target coverage with the new technique. The heart, kidneys, and esophagus were all kept under tolerance in all cases. The average mean lung dose, volume receiving ≥20 Gy, and volume receiving ≥5 Gy with the new technique was 6.6 Gy, 3.0%, and 50.8%, respectively, compared with 13.8 Gy, 15%, and 90% with the previous technique (p < 0.0001 for all three comparisons). The maximal value for any case in the cohort was 8.0 Gy, 7.3%, and 57.5% for the mean lung dose, volume receiving ≥20 Gy, and volume receiving ≥5 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Restricted field IMRT provides an improved method to deliver IMRT to a complex target after extrapleural pneumonectomy. An upcoming Phase I trial will provide validation of these results

  9. Limited value of interlaced ECG-gated radiography in the presence of a normal chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.T.T.; Ravin, C.E.; Handel, D.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with normal posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs, who were undergoing cardiac catheterization because of symptoms strongly suggesting coronary artery disease, also had posteroanterior and lateral interlaced electrocardiogram-gated radiographs made. In 14 patients, the interlaced radiography system underestimated (suggested hypokinesia) the wall motion, which was normal on cardiac catheterization. In two cases the system overestimated the wall motion, in two others it both under- and overestimated the motion, and in only nine cases was the correlation correct. These data suggest that the technique is of limited application, particularly in cases in which the routine chest radiographs are normal

  10. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi; Su, Tsung-Wen; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. © 2012 Hsu et al.

  11. A dynamic supraclavicular field-matching technique for head-and-neck cancer patients treated with IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Jun; Shen Sui; Spencer, Sharon A.; Ahmed, Raef S.; Popple, Richard A.; Ye, Sung-Joon; Brezovich, Ivan A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The conventional single-isocenter and half-beam (SIHB) technique for matching supraclavicular fields with head-and-neck (HN) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields is subject to substantial dose inhomogeneities from imperfect accelerator jaw/MLC calibration. It also limits the isocenter location and restricts the useful field size for IMRT. We propose a dynamic field-matching technique to overcome these limitations. Methods and materials: The proposed dynamic field-matching technique makes use of wedge junctions for the abutment of supraclavicular and HN IMRT fields. The supraclavicular field was shaped with a multileaf collimator (MLC), which was orientated such that the leaves traveled along the superoinferior direction. The leaves that defined the superior field border moved continuously during treatment from 1.5 cm below to 1.5 cm above the conventional match line to generate a 3-cm-wide wedge-shaped junction. The HN IMRT fields were optimized by taking into account the dose contribution from the supraclavicular field to the junction area, which generates a complementary wedge to produce a smooth junction in the abutment region. This technique was evaluated on a polystyrene phantom and 10 HN cancer patients. Treatment plans were generated for the phantom and the 10 patients. Dose profiles across the abutment region were measured in the phantom on films. For patient plans, dose profiles that passed through the center of the neck lymph nodes were calculated using the proposed technique and the SIHB technique, and dose uniformity in the abutment region was compared. Field mismatches of ± 1 mm and ± 2 mm because of imperfect jaw/MLC calibration were simulated, and the resulting dose inhomogeneities were studied for the two techniques with film measurements and patient plans. Three-dimensional volumetric doses were analyzed, and equivalent uniform doses (EUD) were computed. The effect of field mismatches on EUD was compared for the two match

  12. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...... surface and thus demands the overview of an autonomous consciouness. Instead we introduce the term interlace, a mingling of representational and physical levels, thus describing the computer's ambiguous blending of imaginary and real. The proposition is demonstrated through analysis of different recent...

  13. Potensi Limbah Padat sebagai Benang Gintir Berbasis Sistem Interlacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Fardani

    2015-09-01

    into the atmosphere by the burning process. This particular problem demands an advanced and effective continuous waste management system. Recently, optimized waste-fiber utilization has come forward as a promising alternative to reduce the waste pile in landfills. However, not all of it can be recycled. Fibered solid waste from the tissue-paper industry tends to decrease its grammage, which unfortunately will eventually reduce its utilization after recycling. On the other hand, its chemical structure, which has already been damaged during the production process, appears to be giving inspiration for a future textile industry based on the development of fibered solid-waste recycling technology, resulting in a new generation of textile yarns. In this research, the focus is on the invention of a handbag made from fiber-waste material using experimental methods. Solid-based fiber waste characteristics identification was developed through a multi-ply yarn exploration technique based on an interlacing system. The relationship between product creation and the trend forecasting for 2013 will be our next goal as one way of solving Indonesia’s waste problem.Keywords: interlacing system; multi-ply yarns; waste.

  14. Local confidence limits for IMRT and VMAT techniques: a study based on TG119 test suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.; Chandroth, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a local confidence limit (CL) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques used at Waikato Regional Cancer Centre. This work was carried out based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group (TG) 119 report. The AAPM TG 119 report recommends CLs as a bench mark for IMRT commissioning and delivery based on its multiple institutions planning and dosimetry comparisons. In this study the locally obtained CLs were compared to TG119 benchmarks. Furthermore, the same bench mark was used to test the capabilities and quality of the VMAT technique in our clinic. The TG 119 test suite consists of two primary and four clinical tests for evaluating the accuracy of IMRT planning and dose delivery systems. Pre defined structure sets contoured on computed tomography images were downloaded from AAPM website and were transferred to a locally designed phantom. For each test case two plans were generated using IMRT and VMAT optimisation. Dose prescriptions and planning objectives recommended by TG119 report were followed to generate the test plans in Eclipse Treatment Planning System. For each plan the point dose measurements were done using an ion chamber at high dose and low dose regions. The planar dose distribution was analysed for percentage of points passing the gamma criteria of 3 %/3 mm, for both the composite plan and individual fields of each plan. The CLs were generated based on the results from the gamma analysis and point dose measurements. For IMRT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.49 % at high dose region and 2.95 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 2.12 % for individual fields and 5.9 % for the composite plan. For VMAT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.56 % at high dose region and 2.6 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 1.46 % for individual fields and 0

  15. SU-F-T-395: Evaluation of Best Dosimetry Achievable with VMAT and IMRT Treatment Techniques Targeting Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpool, K; Schnell, E; Herman, T; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine from retrospective study the most appropriate technique for targeting small borderline operable pancreatic cancer surrounding blood vessels by evaluating the dosimetry and normal tissue sparing achievable using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods: Treatment plans from ten patients who have undergone treatment with a prescribed dose of 4950 cGy, at 275 cGy per fraction, were analyzed. All plans were replanned using Eclipse TPS (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with complementary VMAT or IMRT techniques to obtain paired data sets for comparison. The coverage to at least 95% of the planned target volume (PTV) was normalized to receive 100% of the prescription dose. The normal tissue constraints followed the quantitative analysis of normal tissue effects in the clinic (QUANTEC) guidelines and the organs at risks (OARs) were liver, kidneys, spinal cord and bowel. The plan evaluation was based on conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), uniformity index (UI), DVH parameters, and student’s-t statistics (2 tails). Results: The VMAT technique delivered less maximum dose to the right kidney, left kidney, total kidney, liver, spinal cord, and bowel by 9.3%, 5.9%, 6.7%, 3.9%, 15.1%, 3.9%, and 4.3%, respectively. The averaged V15 for the total kidney was 10.21% for IMRT and 7.29% for VMAT. The averaged V20 for the bowel was 19.89% for IMRT and 14.06% for VMAT. On average, the CI for IMRT was 1.20 and 1.16 for VMAT (p = 0.20). The HI was 0.08 for both techniques (p = 0.91) and UI was 1.05 and 1.06 for IMRT and VMAT respectively (p = 0.59). Conclusion: Both techniques achieve adequate PTV coverage. Although VMAT techniques show better normal tissue sparing from excessive dose, no significant differences were observed. Slight discrepancies may rise from different versions of calculation algorithms.

  16. Comparison between intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3D tangential beams technique used in patients with early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas-Korczynska, B.; Kokoszka, A.; Korzeniowski, S.; Sladowska, A.; Rozwadowska-Bogusz, B.; Lesiak, J.; Dyczek, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most often found complications in patients with breast cancer who received radiotherapy are cardiac and pulmonary function disorders and development of second malignancies. Aim: To compare the intensity modulated radiotherapy with the 3D tangential beams technique in respect of dose distribution in target volume and critical organs they generate in patients with early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy. Materials and methods: A dosimetric analysis was performed to assess the three radiotherapy techniques used in each of 10 consecutive patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Radiotherapy was planned with the use of all the three techniques: 3D tangential beams with electron boost, IMRT with electron boost, and intensity modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost. Results: The use of the IMRT techniques enables more homogenous dose distribution in target volume. The range of mean and median dose to the heart and lung was lower with the IMRT techniques in comparison to the 3D tangential beams technique. The range of mean dose to the heart amounted to 0.3 - 3.5 Gy for the IMRT techniques and 0.4 - 4.3 for the tangential beams technique. The median dose to the lung on the irradiated side amounted to 4.9 - 5 Gy for the IMRT techniques and 5.6 Gy for the 3D tangential beams technique. Conclusion: The application of the IMRT techniques in radiotherapy patients with early-stage breast cancer allows to obtain more homogenous dose distribution in target volume, while permitting to reduce the dose to critical organs. (authors)

  17. TH-EF-204-04: Experience of IMRT and Other Conformal Techniques in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylova, T.

    2016-01-01

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  18. TH-EF-204-04: Experience of IMRT and Other Conformal Techniques in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, T. [Russian Research Cancer Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Joanna E. Cygler, Jan Seuntjens, J. Daniel Bourland, M. Saiful Huq, Josep Puxeu Vaque, Daniel Zucca Aparicio, Tatiana Krylova, Yuri Kirpichev, Eric Ford, Caridad Borras Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) utilizes small static and dynamic (IMRT) fields, to successfully treat malignant and benign diseases using techniques such as Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). SRT is characterized by sharp dose gradients for individual fields and their resultant dose distributions. For appropriate targets, small field radiotherapy offers improved treatment quality by allowing better sparing of organs at risk while delivering the prescribed target dose. Specialized small field treatment delivery systems, such as robotic-controlled linear accelerators, gamma radiosurgery units, and dynamic arc linear accelerators may utilize rigid fixation, image guidance, and tumor tracking, to insure precise dose delivery to static or moving targets. However, in addition to great advantages, small field delivery techniques present special technical challenges for dose calibration due to unique geometries and small field sizes not covered by existing reference dosimetry protocols such as AAPM TG-51 or IAEA TRS 398. In recent years extensive research has been performed to understand small field dosimetry and measurement instrumentation. AAPM, IAEA and ICRU task groups are expected to provide soon recommendations on the dosimetry of small radiation fields. In this symposium we will: 1] discuss the physics, instrumentation, methodologies and challenges for small field radiation dose measurements; 2] review IAEA and ICRU recommendations on prescribing, recording and reporting of small field radiation therapy; 3] discuss selected clinical applications and technical aspects for specialized image-guided, small field, linear accelerator based treatment techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Learning Objectives: To learn the physics of small fields in contrast to

  19. Whole brain radiotherapy with adjuvant or concomitant boost in brain metastasis: dosimetric comparison between helical and volumetric IMRT technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Paolo; Pedretti, Sara; Spiazzi, Luigi; Avitabile, Rossella; Urpis, Mauro; Foscarini, Federica; Tesini, Giulia; Trevisan, Francesca; Ghirardelli, Paolo; Pandini, Sara Angela; Triggiani, Luca; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Buglione, Michela

    2016-04-19

    To compare and evaluate the possible advantages related to the use of VMAT and helical IMRT and two different modalities of boost delivering, adjuvant stereotactic boost (SRS) or simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), in the treatment of brain metastasis (BM) in RPA classes I-II patients. Ten patients were treated with helical IMRT, 5 of them with SRS after whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and 5 with SIB. MRI co-registration with planning CT was mandatory and prescribed doses were 30 Gy in 10 fractions (fr) for WBRT and 15Gy/1fr or 45Gy/10fr in SRS or SIB, respectively. For each patient, 4 "treatment plans" (VMAT SRS and SIB, helical IMRT SRS and SIB) were calculated and accepted if PTV boost was included in 95 % isodose and dose constraints of the main organs at risk were respected without major deviations. Homogeneity Index (HI), Conformal Index (CI) and Conformal Number (CN) were considered to compare the different plans. Moreover, time of treatment delivery was calculated and considered in the analysis. Volume of brain metastasis ranged between 1.43 and 51.01 cc (mean 12.89 ± 6.37 ml) and 3 patients had double lesions. V95% resulted over 95 % in the average for each kind of technique, but the "target coverage" was inadequate for VMAT planning with two sites. The HI resulted close to the ideal value of zero in all cases; VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS showed mean CI of 2.15, 2.10, 2.44 and 1.66, respectively (optimal range: 1.5-2.0). Helical IMRT-SRS was related to the best and reliable finding of CN (0.66). The mean of treatment time was 210 s, 467 s, 440 s, 1598 s, respectively, for VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS. This dosimetric comparison show that helical IMRT obtain better target coverage and respect of CI and CN; VMAT could be acceptable in solitary metastasis. SIB modality can be considered as a good choice for clinical and logistic compliance; literature's preliminary data are confirming also a

  20. IMRT limits nephrotoxicity after chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trip, Anouk Kirsten; Nijkamp, Jasper; Tinteren, Harm van; Cats, Annemieke; Boot, Henk; Jansen, Edwin Petrus Marianus; Verheij, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This observational study compares the effect of different radiotherapy techniques on late nephrotoxicity after postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer. Patients and methods: Dosimetric parameters were compared between AP–PA, 3D-conformal and IMRT techniques. Renal function was measured by 99m Tc-MAG-3 renography, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the development of hypertension. Mixed effects models were used to compare renal function over time. Results: Eighty-seven patients treated between 2002 and 2010 were included, AP–PA (n = 31), 3D-conformal (n = 25) and IMRT (n = 31), all 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Concurrent chemotherapy: 5FU/leucovorin (n = 4), capecitabine (n = 37), and capecitabine/cisplatin (n = 46). Median follow-up time was 4.7 years (range 0.2–8). With IMRT, the mean dose to the left kidney was significantly lower. Left kidney function decreased progressively in the total study population, however with IMRT this occurred at a lower rate. A dose–effect relationship was present between mean dose to the left kidney and the left kidney function. GFR decreased only moderately in time, which was not different between techniques. Six patients developed hypertension, of whom none in the IMRT group. Conclusions: This study confirms progressive late nephrotoxicity in patients treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy by different techniques for gastric cancer. Nephrotoxicity was less severe with IMRT and should be considered the preferred technique

  1. IMRT limits nephrotoxicity after chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Anouk Kirsten; Nijkamp, Jasper; van Tinteren, Harm; Cats, Annemieke; Boot, Henk; Jansen, Edwin Petrus Marianus; Verheij, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    This observational study compares the effect of different radiotherapy techniques on late nephrotoxicity after postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer. Dosimetric parameters were compared between AP-PA, 3D-conformal and IMRT techniques. Renal function was measured by (99m)Tc-MAG-3 renography, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the development of hypertension. Mixed effects models were used to compare renal function over time. Eighty-seven patients treated between 2002 and 2010 were included, AP-PA (n=31), 3D-conformal (n=25) and IMRT (n=31), all 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Concurrent chemotherapy: 5FU/leucovorin (n=4), capecitabine (n=37), and capecitabine/cisplatin (n=46). Median follow-up time was 4.7 years (range 0.2-8). With IMRT, the mean dose to the left kidney was significantly lower. Left kidney function decreased progressively in the total study population, however with IMRT this occurred at a lower rate. A dose-effect relationship was present between mean dose to the left kidney and the left kidney function. GFR decreased only moderately in time, which was not different between techniques. Six patients developed hypertension, of whom none in the IMRT group. This study confirms progressive late nephrotoxicity in patients treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy by different techniques for gastric cancer. Nephrotoxicity was less severe with IMRT and should be considered the preferred technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyfer Viacheslav

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA + IMRT of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors.

  3. The financial impact of the incorporation of IMRT and RapidArc™ techniques on shielding calculation of a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maira R.; Silveira, Thiago B.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Trindade, Cassia; Martins, Lais P.; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the new methodology introduced in the shielding calculation due to recent modulated techniques in radiotherapy treatment, it became necessary to evaluate the impact of changes in the accelerator routine using such techniques. Based on a group of 30 patients from the National Cancer Institute (INCA) the workload multiplier factors for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT factor) and for RapidArc™ (RA factor) were established. Four different routines in a 6 MV generic accelerator were proposed to estimate the impact of these modified workloads in the building cost of the secondary barriers. The results indicate that if 50% of patients are treating with IMRT, the secondary barrier becomes 14,1% more expensive than the barrier calculated for conformal treatments exclusive. While RA, in the same proportion, leads to a barrier only 3,7% more expensive. Showing that RA can, while reducing treatment time, increase the proportion of patients treated with modulation technique, without increasing the cost of the barrier, when compared with IMRT. (author)

  4. Interlaced Energy Linac with Smooth Energy Regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wronka, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    2 A bstract Radiation is commonly used in many branches of every d ay life. Applications of ionization radiation sources in wide range of energy as well as precise detectors cover a number of areas, from basic research, medical treatment, industrial processing, environmental protection, non - destructive testing to safety a nd security. Accelerator and X - ray tube based techniques are increasingly used in luggage and cargo inspection, smuggling detection of explosives and of nuclear materials. The development of new technologies and new features of “classical” machines can be observed recently with the same, well known physics inside. This report is intended to provide the readers with newly developed at NCBJ experimental stand for cargo screening tests, equipped with linear interlaced - energy accelerator.

  5. Novel method based on Fricke gel dosimeters for dose verification in IMRT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aon, E.; Brunetto, M.; Sansogne, R.; Castellano, G.; Valente, M.

    2008-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy is becoming increasingly complex. Conformal and intensity modulated (IMRT) techniques are nowadays available for achieving better tumour control. However, accurate methods for 3D dose verification for these modern irradiation techniques have not been adequately established yet. Fricke gel dosimeters consist, essentially, in a ferrous sulphate (Fricke) solution fixed to a gel matrix, which enables spatial resolution. A suitable radiochromic marker (xylenol orange) is added to the solution in order to produce radiochromic changes within the visible spectrum range, due to the chemical internal conversion (oxidation) of ferrous ions to ferric ions. In addition, xylenol orange has proved to slow down the internal diffusion effect of ferric ions. These dosimeters suitably shaped in form of thin layers and optically analyzed by means of visible light transmission imaging have recently been proposed as a method for 3D absorbed dose distribution determinations in radiotherapy, and tested in several IMRT applications employing a homogeneous plane (visible light) illuminator and a CCD camera with a monochromatic filter for sample analysis by means of transmittance images. In this work, the performance of an alternative read-out method is characterized, consisting on visible light images, acquired before and after irradiation by means of a commercially available flatbed-like scanner. Registered images are suitably converted to matrices and analyzed by means of dedicated 'in-house' software. The integral developed method allows performing 1D (profiles), 2D (surfaces) and 3D (volumes) dose mapping. In addition, quantitative comparisons have been performed by means of the Gamma composite criteria. Dose distribution comparisons between Fricke gel dosimeters and traditional standard dosimetric techniques for IMRT irradiations show an overall good agreement, supporting the suitability of the method. The agreement, quantified by the gamma index (that seldom

  6. IMRT delivery verification using a spiral phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Susan L.; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Orton, Nigel P.; McNutt, Todd R.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report on the testing and verification of a system for IMRT delivery quality assurance that uses a cylindrical solid water phantom with a spiral trajectory for radiographic film placement. This spiral film technique provides more complete dosimetric verification of the entire IMRT treatment than perpendicular film methods, since it samples a three-dimensional dose subspace rather than using measurements at only one or two depths. As an example, the complete analysis of the predicted and measured spiral films is described for an intracranial IMRT treatment case. The results of this analysis are compared to those of a single field perpendicular film technique that is typically used for IMRT QA. The comparison demonstrates that both methods result in a dosimetric error within a clinical tolerance of 5%, however the spiral phantom QA technique provides a more complete dosimetric verification while being less time consuming. To independently verify the dosimetry obtained with the spiral film, the same IMRT treatment was delivered to a similar phantom in which LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were arranged along the spiral trajectory. The maximum difference between the predicted and measured TLD data for the 1.8 Gy fraction was 0.06 Gy for a TLD located in a high dose gradient region. This further validates the ability of the spiral phantom QA process to accurately verify delivery of an IMRT plan

  7. Whole brain radiotherapy with adjuvant or concomitant boost in brain metastasis: dosimetric comparison between helical and volumetric IMRT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghetti, Paolo; Pedretti, Sara; Spiazzi, Luigi; Avitabile, Rossella; Urpis, Mauro; Foscarini, Federica; Tesini, Giulia; Trevisan, Francesca; Ghirardelli, Paolo; Pandini, Sara Angela; Triggiani, Luca; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Buglione, Michela

    2016-01-01

    To compare and evaluate the possible advantages related to the use of VMAT and helical IMRT and two different modalities of boost delivering, adjuvant stereotactic boost (SRS) or simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), in the treatment of brain metastasis (BM) in RPA classes I-II patients. Ten patients were treated with helical IMRT, 5 of them with SRS after whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and 5 with SIB. MRI co-registration with planning CT was mandatory and prescribed doses were 30 Gy in 10 fractions (fr) for WBRT and 15Gy/1fr or 45Gy/10fr in SRS or SIB, respectively. For each patient, 4 “treatment plans” (VMAT SRS and SIB, helical IMRT SRS and SIB) were calculated and accepted if PTV boost was included in 95 % isodose and dose constraints of the main organs at risk were respected without major deviations. Homogeneity Index (HI), Conformal Index (CI) and Conformal Number (CN) were considered to compare the different plans. Moreover, time of treatment delivery was calculated and considered in the analysis. Volume of brain metastasis ranged between 1.43 and 51.01 cc (mean 12.89 ± 6.37 ml) and 3 patients had double lesions. V95% resulted over 95 % in the average for each kind of technique, but the “target coverage” was inadequate for VMAT planning with two sites. The HI resulted close to the ideal value of zero in all cases; VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS showed mean CI of 2.15, 2.10, 2.44 and 1.66, respectively (optimal range: 1.5–2.0). Helical IMRT-SRS was related to the best and reliable finding of CN (0.66). The mean of treatment time was 210 s, 467 s, 440 s, 1598 s, respectively, for VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS. This dosimetric comparison show that helical IMRT obtain better target coverage and respect of CI and CN; VMAT could be acceptable in solitary metastasis. SIB modality can be considered as a good choice for clinical and logistic compliance; literature’s preliminary data are confirming

  8. Virtual film technique used in 3d and step-shot IMRT planning check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Zealey, W.; Deng, X.; Huang, S.; Qi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A virtual film technique developed and used in segmented field dose reconstruction for IMRT planning dose distribution check. Film dosimetry analysis is commonly used for the isodose curve comparison but the result can be affected by film dosimetry technical problems, and the film processing also takes a significant amount of workload. This study is focused on using digital image technique to reconstruct dose distribution for a 3D plan by mapping water-scanning data on screen in black and white intensity value, and by simulating the film analysis process to plot equivalent Isodose curve for the planning Isodose comparison check. In-house developed software is used to select the TPR (Tissue-Phantom Ratio) and OCR (Off Central-Axis Ratio) data for different beam field types and sizes; each point dose of the field is interpolated and converted into the greyscale pixel value. The location of the pixel is calculated by the triangular function according to the beam entry position and gantry/collimator angles. After each segment field is processed, the program gathers all the segments and overlays the greyscale value pixel by pixel for all the segments into a combined map. The background value is calibrated to match the water scan curve background level. The penumbra slope is adjusted by an interpolated divergent angle according to the OAD (Off Central-Axis Distance) of the field. A normal film dosimetry analysis can then be performed to plot the Isodose curves. By comparing some typical fields with both single beam and segmented IMRT fields, with the point dose checked by ionization measurement, the central point dose discrepancy is within ±2% and the maximum 3-5% for a random point using TLD technique. Compare the Isodose overlaying result to planning curves for both perpendicular and lateral beam. Although the curve shape for the virtual film viewed is more artificial compared with real film, the results are easier to compare for the quantity analysis with

  9. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Sarah O.S., E-mail: s.osman@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose {+-} standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 {+-} 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 {+-} 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 {+-} 8 Gy and 36 {+-} 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  10. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose ± standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 ± 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 ± 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 ± 8 Gy and 36 ± 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  11. Planner concepts in IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Suvendu Kr.; Rath, A.K.; Patnaik, S.; Mishra, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    IMRT is the most sophisticated, innovative, three- dimensional conformal radiation treatment that delivers highly focused radiation with minimal impact to surrounding normal tissue. As it is a computer control technique, the planar should have adequate knowledge to execute the plan in proper way other wise it is very difficult to get the optimal plan. In this article we want to high light, planner should have the basic concepts before starting the IMRT planning

  12. Does the IMRT technique allow improvement of treatment plans (e.g. lung sparing) for lung cancer patients with small lung volume: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosinska, K.; Kepka, L.; Gizynska, M.; Zawadzka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer any advantages in comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for patients with small lung volume (SLV). Methods: Treatment planning was performed for 10 NSCLC patients with the smallest lung volume (mean: 2241 cc) among 200 patients from our database. For each patient 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were prepared. The goal was to deliver 66 Gy/33 fractions, with dose constraints: mean lung dose (MLD) < 20 Gy, V20 < 35%; spinal cord - Dmax < 45 Gy. When the plan could not meet these criteria, total dose was reduced. The 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were compared. We investigated: prescribed dose, coverage and conformity indices, MLD, V5-V65 in the lung. Results: In 4 out of 10 plans, 3D-CRT did not allow 66 Gy to be delivered, because of predicted pulmonary toxicity. These 4 cases included 3 for which we did not reach 66 Gy with IMRT; still, for these 3 plans the total dose was increased by an average of 9 Gy with IMRT in comparison with 3D-CRT. Coverage indices were similar for both techniques. Conformity indices were better for IMRT plans. MLD was lower in five IMRT and two 3D-CRT plans if equal doses were delivered. The decrease in MLD was seen for cases with large PTV and high PTV/lung volume ratio. Lung V5 was lower for all 3D-CRT plans, 47% vs. 57% for IMRT; V15 and above were larger for 3D-CRT Conclusion: In the planning study, IMRT seems to be a promising technique for cases with SLV, especially when associated with large PT V. (authors)

  13. A cone beam CT-guided online plan modification technique to correct interfractional anatomic changes for prostate cancer IMRT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Weihua; Yang Yong; Yue, Ning J; Heron, Dwight E; Huq, M Saiful

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an online plan modification technique to compensate for the interfractional anatomic changes for prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment based on daily cone beam CT (CBCT) images. In this proposed technique, pre-treatment CBCT images are acquired after the patient is set up on the treatment couch using an in-room laser with the guidance of the setup skin marks. Instead of moving the couch to rigidly align the target or re-planning using the CBCT images, we modify the original IMRT plan to account for the interfractional target motion and deformation based on the daily CBCT image feedback. The multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions for each subfield are automatically adjusted in the proposed algorithm based on the position and shape changes of target projection in the beam's eye view (BEV). Three typical prostate cases were adopted to evaluate the proposed technique, and the results were compared with those obtained with bony-structure-based rigid translation correction, prostate-based correction and CBCT-based re-planning strategies. The study revealed that the proposed modification technique is superior to the bony-structure-based and prostate-based correction techniques, especially when interfractional target deformation exists. Its dosimetric performance is closer to that of the re-planned strategy, but with much higher efficiency, indicating that the introduced online CBCT-guided plan modification technique may be an efficient and practical method to compensate for the interfractional target position and shape changes for prostate IMRT.

  14. Concept of an interlaced phased array for beam switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. A.; Janardhanan, K. V.; Mukundan, K. K.; Shenoy, K. S. V.

    1990-04-01

    A novel concept is described for feeding and phasing a large linear array of N antenna elements using only three or five feed points and phase shifters and still achieving beam switching. The idea consists of drastically reducing the number of input points by interlacing a small number of serially fed subarrays which are suitably phased. This so-called interlaced phased array (IPA) concept was tested using an array of 15 four-element Yagi antennas with a spacing equal to 0.8 wavelengths and found feasible. Some of the distinct advantages of the IPA in comparison with a conventional system of beam switching are reduced power loss, reduced phasing errors, reduced cost, increased reliability resulting from greatly reduced number of phase shifters, and better symmetry of off-zenith beams.

  15. The financial impact of the incorporation of IMRT and RapidArc™ techniques on shielding calculation of a linear accelerator; O impacto financeiro da incorporacao das tecnicas de IMRT e RapidArc™ no calculo de blindagem de um acelerador linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maira R.; Silveira, Thiago B.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Trindade, Cassia; Martins, Lais P.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: mairafisica@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Given the new methodology introduced in the shielding calculation due to recent modulated techniques in radiotherapy treatment, it became necessary to evaluate the impact of changes in the accelerator routine using such techniques. Based on a group of 30 patients from the National Cancer Institute (INCA) the workload multiplier factors for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT factor) and for RapidArc™ (RA factor) were established. Four different routines in a 6 MV generic accelerator were proposed to estimate the impact of these modified workloads in the building cost of the secondary barriers. The results indicate that if 50% of patients are treating with IMRT, the secondary barrier becomes 14,1% more expensive than the barrier calculated for conformal treatments exclusive. While RA, in the same proportion, leads to a barrier only 3,7% more expensive. Showing that RA can, while reducing treatment time, increase the proportion of patients treated with modulation technique, without increasing the cost of the barrier, when compared with IMRT. (author)

  16. Efficient Implementation of Volterra Filters for De-interlacing TV Images - Snell and Wilcox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Chris; Gravesen, Jens; Willson, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    A standard TV image is transmitted as a series of horizontal lines. To reduce band-width effects in transmission, half of a picture is transmitted in each frame, i.e., information is only given about pictures on alternate lines, a process called interlacing. A difficulty with this process is that...... is that other images (for example computer images) do not have alternate lines omitted. Thus it is desirable to be able to interpolate an existing TV images to obtain information on the images between alternate lines; this is the de-interlacing process.......A standard TV image is transmitted as a series of horizontal lines. To reduce band-width effects in transmission, half of a picture is transmitted in each frame, i.e., information is only given about pictures on alternate lines, a process called interlacing. A difficulty with this process...

  17. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: tcff@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  18. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2009-01-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  19. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients of the Brazilian unified health system (SUS): an analysis of 508 treatments two years after the technique implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Harley Francisco de; Trevisan, Felipe Amstalden; Bighetti, Viviane Marques; Guimaraes, Flavio da Silva; Amaral, Leonardo Lira; Barbi, Gustavo Lazaro; Borges, Leandro Federiche; Peria, Fernanda Maris, E-mail: harley@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2014-11-15

    Objective: the offering of high-technology radiotherapy to the population assisted by the Brazilian unified health system (SUS) is limited since it is not included in the system’s list of procedures and, many times, because of the insufficient installed capacity and lack of specialized human resources. Thus the access to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is restricted to few centers in Brazil. The present study is aimed at presenting the characteristics of the first 508 cases treated with IMRT during the first years after the technique implementation in a university hospital. Materials and methods: the first consecutive 508 cases of IMRT treatment completed in the period from May/2011 to September/2013 were reviewed. Static multi leaf was the technique employed. Results: amongst 4,233 treated patients, 12.5% were submitted to IMRT. Main indications for the treatment included cancers located in the skull, head and neck and prostate. Intensity modulated radiotherapy was utilized in about 30% of cranial and 50% of prostate treatments. Treatment toxicity was observed in 4% of the patients. Conclusion: because of restricted access to radiotherapy in addition to lack of coverage for the procedure, IMRT indications for SUS patients should be based on institutional clinical protocols, with special attention to the reduction of toxicity. (author)

  20. Comparison of online IGRT techniques for prostate IMRT treatment: Adaptive vs repositioning correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphiew, Danthai; Wu, Q. Jackie; Lee, W. Robert; Chankong, Vira; Yoo, Sua; McMahon, Ryan; Yin Fangfang

    2009-01-01

    This study compares three online image guidance techniques (IGRT) for prostate IMRT treatment: bony-anatomy matching, soft-tissue matching, and online replanning. Six prostate IMRT patients were studied. Five daily CBCT scans from the first week were acquired for each patient to provide representative ''snapshots'' of anatomical variations during the course of treatment. Initial IMRT plans were designed for each patient with seven coplanar 15 MV beams on a Eclipse treatment planning system. Two plans were created, one with a PTV margin of 10 mm and another with a 5 mm PTV margin. Based on these plans, the delivered dose distributions to each CBCT anatomy was evaluated to compare bony-anatomy matching, soft-tissue matching, and online replanning. Matching based on bony anatomy was evaluated using the 10 mm PTV margin (''bone10''). Soft-tissue matching was evaluated using both the 10 mm (''soft10'') and 5 mm (''soft5'') PTV margins. Online reoptimization was evaluated using the 5 mm PTV margin (''adapt''). The replanning process utilized the original dose distribution as the basis and linear goal programming techniques for reoptimization. The reoptimized plans were finished in less than 2 min for all cases. Using each IGRT technique, the delivered dose distribution was evaluated on all 30 CBCT scans (6 patientsx5CBCT/patient). The mean minimum dose (in percentage of prescription dose) to the CTV over five treatment fractions were in the ranges of 99%-100%(SD=0.1%-0.8%), 65%-98%(SD=0.4%-19.5%), 87%-99%(SD=0.7%-23.3%), and 95%-99%(SD=0.4%-10.4%) for the adapt, bone10, soft5, and soft10 techniques, respectively. Compared to patient position correction techniques, the online reoptimization technique also showed improvement in OAR sparing when organ motion/deformations were large. For bladder, the adapt technique had the best (minimum) D90, D50, and D30 values for 24, 17, and 15 fractions out of 30 total fractions, while it also had the best D90, D50, and D30 values for

  1. Contralateral breast doses measured by film dosimetry: tangential techniques and an optimized IMRT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, S; Frengen, J; Fjellsboe, L M B; Lindmo, T

    2009-01-01

    The contralateral breast (CLB) doses for three tangential techniques were characterized by using a female thorax phantom and GafChromic EBT film. Dose calculations by the pencil beam and collapsed cone algorithms were included for comparison. The film dosimetry reveals a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution within the CLB, and skin doses due to the medial fields that are several times higher than the interior dose. These phenomena are not correctly reproduced by the calculation algorithms. All tangential techniques were found to give a mean CLB dose of approximately 0.5 Gy. All wedged fields resulted in higher CLB doses than the corresponding open fields, and the lateral open fields resulted in higher CLB doses than the medial open fields. More than a twofold increase in the mean CLB dose from the medial open field was observed for a 90 deg. change of the collimator orientation. Replacing the physical wedge with a virtual wedge reduced the mean dose to the CLB by 35% and 16% for the medial and lateral fields, respectively. Lead shielding reduced the skin dose for a tangential technique by approximately 50%, but the mean CLB dose was only reduced by approximately 11%. Finally, a technique based on open medial fields in combination with several IMRT fields is proposed as a technique for minimizing the CLB dose. With and without lead shielding, the mean CLB dose using this technique was found to be 0.20 and 0.27 Gy, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of an interlaced triple procedure: penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and nonopen-sky intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yangyang; Zhai, Hualei; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Shuang; Xie, Lixin

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate an interlaced triple procedure that involved penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) using diathermy capsulotomy, and nonopen-sky intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.This retrospective study involved data from 34 patients who were diagnosed with severe corneal opacities and cataracts. These patients were divided into an interlaced procedure group (21 patients) and a traditional procedure group (13 patients). In the interlaced group, the method of continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) was completed via diathermy capsulotomy. The donor corneal button was sutured at 8 positions (at equal intervals) using 10-0 nylon sutures, and the IOL was inserted into the capsular bag using a closed anterior chamber approach at the 10:30 to 12 o'clock positions between the sutures. In the traditional group, CCC was completed using side-port capsular forceps, and the IOL was implanted using an open anterior chamber approach.In the interlaced group, the CCC, open-sky, and total operation times were significantly shorter than in the traditional group (P < .05). Neither the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) nor corneal endothelial cell density was significantly different between the groups at 1 and 6 months after the operation.This interlaced triple procedure for the treatment of corneal diseases with cataracts appears to be feasible and practical.

  3. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ±1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  4. Does IMRT increase the peripheral radiation dose? A comparison of treatment plans 2000 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salz, Henning; Eichner, Regina; Wiezorek, Tilo

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported in several papers and textbooks that IMRT treatments increase the peripheral dose in comparison with non-IMRT fields. But in clinical practice not only open fields have been used in the pre-IMRT era, but also fields with physical wedges or composed fields. The aim of this work is to test the hypothesis of increased peripheral dose when IMRT is used compared to standard conformal radiotherapy. Furthermore, the importance of the measured dose differences in clinical practice is discussed and compared with other new technologies for the cases where an increase of the peripheral dose was observed. For cancers of the head and neck, the cervix, the rectum and for the brain irradiation due to acute leukaemia, one to four plans have been calculated with IMRT or conformal standard technique (non-IMRT). In an anthropomorphic phantom the dose at a distance of 30 cm in cranio-caudal direction from the target edge was measured with TLDs using a linear accelerator Oncor registered (Siemens) for both techniques. IMRT was performed using step-and-shoot technique (7 to 11 beams), non-IMRT plans with different techniques. The results depended on the site of irradiation. For head and neck cancers IMRT resulted in an increase of 0.05 - 0.09% of the prescribed total dose (Dptv) or 40 - 70 mGy (Dptv = 65 Gy), compared to non-IMRT technique without wedges or a decrease of 0.16% (approx. 100 mGy) of the prescribed total dose compared to non-IMRT techniques with wedges. For the cervical cancer IMRT resulted in an increased dose in the periphery (+ 0.07% - 0.15% of Dptv or 30 - 70 mGy at Dptv = 45 Gy), for the rectal cancer in a dose reduction (0.21 - 0.26% of Dptv or 100 - 130 mGy at Dptv = 50 Gy) and for the brain irradiation in an increase dose (+ 0.05% of Dptv = 18 Gy or 9 mSv). In summary IMRT does not uniformly cause increased radiation dose in the periphery in the model used. It can be stated that these dose values are smaller than reported in earlier papers

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalar, Banu; Ozyar, Enis; Gunduz, Kaan; Gungor, Gorkem

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for retinoblastoma has traditionally been done with conventional radiotherapy techniques which resulted high doses to the surrounding normal tissues. A 20 month-old girl with group D bilateral retinoblastoma underwent intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to both eyes after failing chemoreduction and focal therapies including cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In this report, we discuss the use of IMRT as a method for reducing doses to adjacent normal tissues while delivering therapeutic doses to the tumour tissues compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). At one year follow-up, the patient remained free of any obvious radiation complications. Image guided IMRT provides better dose distribution than 3DCRT in retinoblastoma eyes, delivering the therapeutic dose to the tumours and minimizing adjacent tissue damage

  6. Interlacing of zeros of quasi-orthogonal meixner polynomials | Driver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... interlacing of zeros of quasi-orthogonal Meixner polynomials Mn(x;β; c) with the zeros of their nearest orthogonal counterparts Mt(x;β + k; c), l; n ∈ ℕ, k ∈ {1; 2}; is also discussed. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 33C45, 42C05. Key words: Discrete orthogonal polynomials, quasi-orthogonal polynomials, Meixner

  7. SU-F-J-13: Choosing An IMRT Technique in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer with Daily Localization Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T; Wang, L; Galloway, T; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Head and Neck cancer treatment with IMRT/VMAT has two choices: split-filed IMRT(SFI), in which the LAN is treated with a separate anterior field and the extended whole-field IMRT(WFI) in which LAN is included with the IMRT/VMAT field. This study shows that under the same dose limit criteria, choosing the technique becomes a critical issue if daily localization and immobilization altered the dose distribution. Methods: Nine common head-and-neck cancer cases were chosen to illustrate how the daily localization and immobilization uncertainties affect to choose between SFI and WFI. Both SFI and WFI at upper target coverage were generated with VMAT. For each case, the same planning criteria were applied to the target and critical structures; therefore, similar target coverage and dose falloff can be observed in both techniques. Thirty days of kV cone beam CT(CBCT) images on each case were also delineated with contralateral and ipsilateral target as well as larynx as critical structure. About 300 CBCT images with daily delivered doses were analyzed and compared in a form of dose-volume histograms. Results: While both plans for SFI and WFI with VMAT planning utilized and meet the criteria of D95>prescription dose and for not-involved larynx with mean dose <35Gy and V55<10%, the daily localization and immobilization has a great contribution to the resulted dose delivery. With WFI, the better daily contralateral and ipsilateral neck target coverage can reflect a simpler or shorter localization; however, a much superior avoidance (WFI: mean dose a 42.5Gy; SFI: mean dose a 18.9Gy) of the non-involved larynx from the SFI is preferred. Conclusion: Dosimetrically, SFI and WFI are equally well for head and Neck cancer treatment with VMAT technique; however, if considering the contribution of daily localization(CBCT) method uncertainties, SFI is better with sparing non-involved larynx and WFI has better target coverage.

  8. Comparison of fin-and-tube interlaced and face split evaporators with flow maldistribution and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    2013-01-01

    Flow maldistribution in fin-and tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated by numerical simulation. In particular, the interlaced and the face split evaporator are compared in flow maldistribution conditions. The considered sources of maldistribution are the liquid/vapor di......Flow maldistribution in fin-and tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated by numerical simulation. In particular, the interlaced and the face split evaporator are compared in flow maldistribution conditions. The considered sources of maldistribution are the liquid...

  9. A comparison of HDR brachytherapy and IMRT techniques for dose escalation in prostate cancer: A radiobiological modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatyga, M.; Williamson, J. F.; Dogan, N.; Todor, D.; Siebers, J. V.; George, R.; Barani, I.; Hagan, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, 401 College Street, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A course of one to three large fractions of high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is an attractive alternative to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for delivering boost doses to the prostate in combination with additional external beam irradiation for intermediate risk disease. The purpose of this work is to quantitatively compare single-fraction HDR boosts to biologically equivalent fractionated IMRT boosts, assuming idealized image guided delivery (igIMRT) and conventional delivery (cIMRT). For nine prostate patients, both seven-field IMRT and HDR boosts were planned. The linear-quadratic model was used to compute biologically equivalent dose prescriptions. The cIMRT plan was evaluated as a static plan and with simulated random and setup errors. The authors conclude that HDR delivery produces a therapeutic ratio which is significantly better than the conventional IMRT and comparable to or better than the igIMRT delivery. For the HDR, the rectal gBEUD analysis is strongly influenced by high dose DVH tails. A saturation BED, beyond which no further injury can occur, must be assumed. Modeling of organ motion uncertainties yields mean outcomes similar to static plan outcomes.

  10. The inter- and intrafraction reproducibilities of three common IMRT delivery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckey, Courtney R.; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivery requires higher precision than conventional 3D treatment delivery because of the sensitivity of the resulting dose to small geometric misalignment of the modulated beamlets. The chosen treatment delivery technique will affect the treatment precision in different ways, based on the characteristics of the delivery method. Delivery using a multileaf collimator (MLC) can reduce treatment time and therapist workload, but typically requires a greater number of monitor units and the fields are prone to both systematic and random leaf positioning errors. An alternative to MLC-based fields, patient specific brass compensators, do not suffer from these leaf positioning errors. In our study, we set out to investigate which delivery method will provide the highest levels of dosimetric reproducibility and the minimum amount of interfraction variability. Methods: In our study, a seven field IMRT plan for a head and neck treatment was created using the Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system and the intensity maps for each field were obtained. The intensity maps of the fields were delivered with a Varian 2100C/D linear accelerator, using solid compensators and sliding window (SW) and step-and-shoot (SS) MLC segments. Three fields were selected from the seven-beam IMRT plan for comparison. Analysis was carried out using the MatriXX ion chamber array, radiochromic film, and Varian dynalog files. Results: Our results show that the error in MLC leaf positioning has no gantry angle dependence. The compensator and SW deliveries showed excellent agreement, even when stricter than usual gamma criteria were applied. However, we noted that under these strict conditions, the SS fields had at least ten times more pixels out of range than did the compensators. When using step-and-shoot MLC fields, it was observed that the increase in dose rate or the increase of MU/segment degrades the quality of the plan. Analysis of the

  11. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  12. Peripheral doses of cranial pediatric IMRT performed with attenuator blocks; Doses perifericas de IMRT cranial pediatrica realizada com blocos atenuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Schitz, Ivette; Schelin, Hugo Reuters, E-mail: soboll@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: iveteschitz@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Silva, Ricardo Goulart da, E-mail: ricardo.goulart@ymail.co [Hospital Angelina Caron, Campina Grande do Sul, PR (Brazil); Viamonte, Alfredo, E-mail: aviamonte@inca.gov.b [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper presents values of peripheral doses measured at six vital points of simulator objects which represent the ages of 2, 5 and 10 years old, submitted to a cranial IMRT procedure that applied compensator blocks interposed to 6 MV beams. The found values indicate that there is independence of dose with position of measurements and age of the patient, as the peripheral dose at the points nearest and the 2 year old simulator object where larger. The doses in thyroid reached the range of 1.4 to 2.9% of the dose prescribed in the isocenter, indicating that the peripheral doses for IMRT that employ compensator blocks can be greater than for the IMRT produced with sliding window technique

  13. Variable beam dose rate and DMLC IMRT to moving body anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiez, Lech; Abolfath, Ramin M.

    2008-01-01

    Derivation of formulas relating leaf speeds and beam dose rates for delivering planned intensity profiles to static and moving targets in dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is presented. The analysis of equations determining algorithms for DMLC IMRT delivery under a variable beam dose rate reveals a multitude of possible delivery strategies for a given intensity map and for any given target motion patterns. From among all equivalent delivery strategies for DMLC IMRT treatments specific subclasses of strategies can be selected to provide deliveries that are particularly suitable for clinical applications providing existing delivery devices are used. Special attention is devoted to the subclass of beam dose rate variable DMLC delivery strategies to moving body anatomy that generalize existing techniques of such deliveries in Varian DMLC irradiation methodology to static body anatomy. Few examples of deliveries from this subclass of DMLC IMRT irradiations are investigated to illustrate the principle and show practical benefits of proposed techniques.

  14. Variable beam dose rate and DMLC IMRT to moving body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papiez, Lech; Abolfath, Ramin M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UTSouthwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Derivation of formulas relating leaf speeds and beam dose rates for delivering planned intensity profiles to static and moving targets in dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is presented. The analysis of equations determining algorithms for DMLC IMRT delivery under a variable beam dose rate reveals a multitude of possible delivery strategies for a given intensity map and for any given target motion patterns. From among all equivalent delivery strategies for DMLC IMRT treatments specific subclasses of strategies can be selected to provide deliveries that are particularly suitable for clinical applications providing existing delivery devices are used. Special attention is devoted to the subclass of beam dose rate variable DMLC delivery strategies to moving body anatomy that generalize existing techniques of such deliveries in Varian DMLC irradiation methodology to static body anatomy. Few examples of deliveries from this subclass of DMLC IMRT irradiations are investigated to illustrate the principle and show practical benefits of proposed techniques.

  15. Genital marginal failures after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in squamous cell anal cancer: no higher risk with IMRT when compared to 3DCRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, V; Kobiela, J; Kraja, F; Leonardi, M C; Surgo, A; Zerella, M A; Arculeo, S; Fodor, C; Ricotti, R; Zampino, M G; Ravenda, S; Spinoglio, G; Biffi, R; Bazani, A; Luraschi, R; Vigorito, S; Spychalski, P; Orecchia, R; Glynne-Jones, R; Jereczek-Fossa, B A

    2018-03-28

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is considered the preferred option in squamous cell canal cancer (SCAC), delivering high doses to tumor volumes while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. IMRT has steep dose gradients, but the technique is more demanding as deep understanding of target structures is required. To evaluate genital marginal failure in a cohort of patients with non-metastatic SCAC treated either with IMRT or 3DCRT and concurrent chemotherapy, 117 patients with SCAC were evaluated: 64 and 53 patients were treated with IMRT and 3DCRT techniques, respectively. All patients underwent clinical and radiological examination during their follow-up. Tumor response was evaluated with response evaluation criteria in solid tumors v1.1 guideline on regular basis. All patients' data were analyzed, and patients with marginal failure were identified. Concomitant chemotherapy was administered in 97 and 77.4% of patients in the IMRT and 3DCRT groups, respectively. In the IMRT group, the median follow-up was 25 months (range 6-78). Progressive disease was registered in 15.6% of patients; infield recurrence, distant recurrence and both infield recurrence and distant recurrence were identified in 5, 4 and 1 patient, respectively. Two out of 64 patients (3.1%) had marginal failures, localized at vagina/recto-vaginal septum and left perineal region. In the 3DCRT group, the median follow-up was 71.3 months (range 6-194 months). Two out of 53 patients (3.8%) had marginal failures, localized at recto-vaginal septum and perigenital structures. The rate of marginal failures was comparable in IMRT and 3DCRT groups (χ 2 test p = 0.85). In this series, the use of IMRT for the treatment of SCAC did not increase the rate of marginal failures offering improved dose conformity to the target. Dose constraints should be applied with caution-particularly in females with involvement of the vagina or the vaginal septum.

  16. Comparative study between IMRT planning and RapidArc® sliding window for head and neck tumors; Estudo comparativo de planejamento entre IMRT sliding window e RapidArc® para tumores de cabeca e pescoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirani, Luiz F.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Lima, Marilia B.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: nando_lfp@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate the RapidArc (RA) technique in the treatment of head and neck tumors and compare the results of treatments with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the National Cancer Institute (INCA). Head and neck carcinomas have a natural history with relative expansion to others regions, especially in advanced levels. Faster treatments, with better coverage of the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and sparing more risks organs (ROs) are necessary and bring a better clinical impact. Ten patients with head and neck cancer, planned with IMRT technique were replanned using the RA technique. Some dosimetric indexes were calculated for both techniques, with the intention of verifying which of them, at the same time, would promote greater coverage of the PTV and preserve more healthy tissue. In terms of coverage, both indexes were similar. The RA technique was more efficient for delivered doses to ROs. The number of monitor units (MU), number of fields and treatments time estimated were lower than IMRT technique. Finally, the results have showed that the RA technique clearly reduces the treatment time, reducing the average and maximum dose to ROs and conforming the target as IMRT technique. (author)

  17. COMPARISON OF THE PERIPHERAL DOSES FROM DIFFERENT IMRT TECHNIQUES FOR PEDIATRIC HEAD AND NECK RADIATION THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masahiko; Saigo, Yasumasa; Higuchi, Kenta; Fujimura, Takuya; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-11-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can deliver high and homogeneous doses to the target area while limiting doses to organs at risk. We used a pediatric phantom to simulate the treatment of a head and neck tumor in a child. The peripheral doses were examined for three different IMRT techniques [dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC), segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)]. Peripheral doses were evaluated taking thyroid, breast, ovary and testis as the points of interest. Doses were determined using a radio-photoluminescence glass dosemeter, and the COMPASS system was used for three-dimensional dose evaluation. VMAT achieved the lowest peripheral doses because it had the highest monitor unit efficiency. However, doses in the vicinity of the irradiated field, i.e. the thyroid, could be relatively high, depending on the VMAT collimator angle. DMLC and SMLC had a large area of relatively high peripheral doses in the breast region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Radiotherapy through intensity modulation (IMRT). A new modality in the treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besa de C, Pelayo; Venencia M, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the treatment and evaluate the advantages of IMRT in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Material and methods: Four years ago, at the Cancer Center of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica, the IMRT technique for the treatment of head and neck tumors was implemented. The IMRT technique is based on modifying the intensity of the radiation beam through a multisheet collimator in order to produce a more exact distribution in the radiation doses. The results are evaluated with dose/ volume histograms. The distributions of doses and toxicity for tridimensional con formed therapy (CRT-3D) and IMRT are compared. Results: The distribution of the dose in the dose/volume histograms showed a better coverage of the white volume (PTV), with IMRT. The doses received by the organs under risk: salivary glands, eyes, ears and brain diminish with IMRT. The spinal marrow is protected with IMRT without dividing the treatment area, preventing points with lower dosage that could reduce control of the tumor. Conclusions: IMRT achieves a better conformation of the dose obtaining a better coverage of the tumor and higher protection of the organs under risk

  19. Automated IMRT planning with regional optimization using planning scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaferllari, Ilma; Wong, Eugene; Bzdusek, Karl; Lock, Michael; Chen, Jeff

    2013-01-07

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a standard technique in radiation therapy for treating different types of cancers. Various class solutions have been developed for simple cases (e.g., localized prostate, whole breast) to generate IMRT plans efficiently. However, for more complex cases (e.g., head and neck, pelvic nodes), it can be time-consuming for a planner to generate optimized IMRT plans. To generate optimal plans in these more complex cases which generally have multiple target volumes and organs at risk, it is often required to have additional IMRT optimization structures such as dose limiting ring structures, adjust beam geometry, select inverse planning objectives and associated weights, and additional IMRT objectives to reduce cold and hot spots in the dose distribution. These parameters are generally manually adjusted with a repeated trial and error approach during the optimization process. To improve IMRT planning efficiency in these more complex cases, an iterative method that incorporates some of these adjustment processes automatically in a planning script is designed, implemented, and validated. In particular, regional optimization has been implemented in an iterative way to reduce various hot or cold spots during the optimization process that begins with defining and automatic segmentation of hot and cold spots, introducing new objectives and their relative weights into inverse planning, and turn this into an iterative process with termination criteria. The method has been applied to three clinical sites: prostate with pelvic nodes, head and neck, and anal canal cancers, and has shown to reduce IMRT planning time significantly for clinical applications with improved plan quality. The IMRT planning scripts have been used for more than 500 clinical cases.

  20. Comparative study between IMRT planning and RapidArc® sliding window for head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirani, Luiz F.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Lima, Marilia B.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the RapidArc (RA) technique in the treatment of head and neck tumors and compare the results of treatments with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the National Cancer Institute (INCA). Head and neck carcinomas have a natural history with relative expansion to others regions, especially in advanced levels. Faster treatments, with better coverage of the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and sparing more risks organs (ROs) are necessary and bring a better clinical impact. Ten patients with head and neck cancer, planned with IMRT technique were replanned using the RA technique. Some dosimetric indexes were calculated for both techniques, with the intention of verifying which of them, at the same time, would promote greater coverage of the PTV and preserve more healthy tissue. In terms of coverage, both indexes were similar. The RA technique was more efficient for delivered doses to ROs. The number of monitor units (MU), number of fields and treatments time estimated were lower than IMRT technique. Finally, the results have showed that the RA technique clearly reduces the treatment time, reducing the average and maximum dose to ROs and conforming the target as IMRT technique. (author)

  1. SIFT: A method to verify the IMRT fluence delivered during patient treatment using an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Sandra C.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy patients are increasingly treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and high tumor doses. As part of our quality control program to ensure accurate dose delivery, a new method was investigated that enables the verification of the IMRT fluence delivered during patient treatment using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), irrespective of changes in patient geometry. Methods and materials: Each IMRT treatment field is split into a static field and a modulated field, which are delivered in sequence. Images are acquired for both fields using an EPID. The portal dose image obtained for the static field is used to determine changes in patient geometry between the planning CT scan and the time of treatment delivery. With knowledge of these changes, the delivered IMRT fluence can be verified using the portal dose image of the modulated field. This method, called split IMRT field technique (SIFT), was validated first for several phantom geometries, followed by clinical implementation for a number of patients treated with IMRT. Results: The split IMRT field technique allows for an accurate verification of the delivered IMRT fluence (generally within 1% [standard deviation]), even if large interfraction changes in patient geometry occur. For interfraction radiological path length changes of 10 cm, deliberately introduced errors in the delivered fluence could still be detected to within 1% accuracy. Application of SIFT requires only a minor increase in treatment time relative to the standard IMRT delivery. Conclusions: A new technique to verify the delivered IMRT fluence from EPID images, which is independent of changes in the patient geometry, has been developed. SIFT has been clinically implemented for daily verification of IMRT treatment delivery

  2. Toward optimizing patient-specific IMRT QA techniques in the accurate detection of dosimetrically acceptable and unacceptable patient plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Elizabeth M; Balter, Peter A; Stingo, Francesco C; Jones, Jimmy; Followill, David S; Kry, Stephen F

    2014-12-01

    in the performance of any device between gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 5%/3 mm. Finally, optimal cutoffs (e.g., percent of pixels passing gamma) were determined for each device and while clinical practice commonly uses a threshold of 90% of pixels passing for most cases, these results showed variability in the optimal cutoff among devices. IMRT QA devices have differences in their ability to accurately detect dosimetrically acceptable and unacceptable plans. Field-by-field analysis with a MapCheck device and use of the MapCheck with a MapPhan phantom while delivering at planned rotational gantry angles resulted in a significantly poorer ability to accurately sort acceptable and unacceptable plans compared with the other techniques examined. Patient-specific IMRT QA techniques in general should be thoroughly evaluated for their ability to correctly differentiate acceptable and unacceptable plans. Additionally, optimal agreement thresholds should be identified and used as common clinical thresholds typically worked very poorly to identify unacceptable plans.

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of the response of the TLD-100 dosemeters in the IMRT technique by 'Step and Shoot'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, J.; Benavides, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    We show the results of the dosimetry response of LiF thermoluminescent crystals: TLD-100, where they were radiated in a linear accelerator Siemens Primus Hl using the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) by step and shoot technique. Previous to the crystals calibration and response evaluation, the acceptation procedures recommended by the TG-53 protocol for validation of the technique were carried out. The planning system utilized was the Theraplan Plus 3.8, using the algorithm of Pencil Kernel. The register and verification system was Lantis 5.2. The response curve of dose versus charge was obtained from the readings of the TLD in a Harshaw 3500. The crystals were radiated in a Bench- Marck phantom with doses previously determined by using ionization chambers for square radiation fields, in a beam with a 0.68 TPR20,10 corresponding to 6 MV of energy. We compare the response of these through of radiation of segmented fields in a Anthropomorphic phantom and the calculated doses by the planning system. The results obtained in the crystals response show deviations less than 5 % between the measured dose and the calculated dose in the zones of low gradient. It allows its implementation like routine control of quality by IMRT. (Author)

  4. IMRT fluence map editing to control hot and cold spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Cook, J.; Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Watson, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Manually editing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fluence maps effectively controls hot and cold spots that the IMRT optimization cannot control. Many times, re-optimizing does not reduce the hot spots or increase the cold spots. In fact, re-optimizing only places the hot and cold spots in different locations. Fluence-map editing provides manual control of dose delivery and provides the best treatment plan possible. Several IMRT treatments were planned using the Varian Eclipse planning system. We compare the effects on dose distributions between fluence-map editing and re-optimization, discuss techniques for fluence-map editing, and analyze differences between fluence editing on one beam vs. multiple beams. When editing a beam's fluence map, it is essential to choose a beam that least affects dose to the tumor and critical structures. Editing fluence maps gives an advantage in treatment planning and provides controlled delivery of IMRT dose

  5. Conformal intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered by robotic linac-conformality versus efficiency of dose delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may be delivered with a high-energy-photon linac mounted on a robotic gantry and executing a complex trajectory. In a previous paper an inverse-planning technique was developed for such an application. Here the work is extended to demonstrate the dependence of conformality on the size of the elemental pencil beam, on the complexity of the trajectory and on the sampling of azimuth and elevation of the collimated source. The improved conformality of complex trajectories is demonstrated and benchmarked relative to simpler trajectories, more representative of existing non-robotic IMRT techniques. Specifically, by choosing a very fine pencil beam, exquisitely conformal dose distributions have been obtained. Important sampling considerations have been determined. Expressions have been derived for the dosimetry and monitor-unit efficiency of robotic IMRT. Equivalent trajectories were computed for executing the complex robotic trajectories instead by using a conventional linac. The work benchmarks an ideal in IMRT against which more practical and more common techniques may be measured. (author)

  6. The integration problem: Interlacing language, action and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Human thinking uses other peoples' experience. While often pictured as computation or based on the workings of a language-system in the mind or brain, the evidence suggests alternatives to representationalism. In terms proposed here, embodiment is interlaced with wordings as people tackle...... the integration problem. Using a case study, the paper shows how a young man uses external resources in an experimental task. He grasps a well-defined problem by using material resources, talking about his doings and switching roles and procedures. Attentional skills enable him to act as an air cadet who, among...

  7. Validation of the implementation of IMRT with three dosimetric methods of independent verification; Validacion de la puesta en marcha de la IMRT con tres metodos dosimetricos de verificacion independientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortosa Oliver, R. A.; Chinillach ferrando, N.; Alonso Arrizabalaga, S.; Campayo Esteban, J. M.; Morales Marco, J. C.; Soler Catalan, P.; Andreu Martinez, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The TG119 is a simple and clear framework to verify the implementation of IMRT technique in a radiotherapy service. Verifications of this document recommended tests conducted with the three dosimetric methods listed above, allow to affirm that our Center is within the margins of tolerance considered suitable in the TG119 for the clinical implementation of IMRT. (Author)

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas: Does IMRT increase the integral dose to normal brain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanto, Ulrich; Frija, Erik K.; Lii, MingFwu J.; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment increases the total integral dose of nontarget tissue relative to the conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique for high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with 3D-CRT for glioblastoma multiforme were selected for a comparative dosimetric evaluation with IMRT. Original target volumes, organs at risk (OAR), and dose-volume constraints were used for replanning with IMRT. Predicted isodose distributions, cumulative dose-volume histograms of target volumes and OAR, normal tissue integral dose, target coverage, dose conformity, and normal tissue sparing with 3D-CRT and IMRT planning were compared. Statistical analyses were performed to determine differences. Results: In all 20 patients, IMRT maintained equivalent target coverage, improved target conformity (conformity index [CI] 95% 1.52 vs. 1.38, p mean by 19.8% and D max by 10.7%), optic chiasm (D mean by 25.3% and D max by 22.6%), right optic nerve (D mean by 37.3% and D max by 28.5%), and left optic nerve (D mean by 40.6% and D max by 36.7%), p ≤ 0.01. This was achieved without increasing the total nontarget integral dose by greater than 0.5%. Overall, total integral dose was reduced by 7-10% with IMRT, p < 0.001, without significantly increasing the 0.5-5 Gy low-dose volume. Conclusions: These results indicate that IMRT treatment for high-grade gliomas allows for improved target conformity, better critical tissue sparing, and importantly does so without increasing integral dose and the volume of normal tissue exposed to low doses of radiation

  9. IMRT plan verification in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlk, P.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the procedure for verification of IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy) plan, which is used in the Oncological Institute of St. Elisabeth in Bratislava. It contains basic description of IMRT technology and developing a deployment plan for IMRT planning system CORVUS 6.0, the device Mimic (Multilammelar intensity modulated collimator) and the overall process of verifying the schedule created. The aim of verification is particularly good control of the functions of MIMIC and evaluate the overall reliability of IMRT planning. (author)

  10. The number of beams in IMRT-theoretical investigations and implications for single-arc IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to shed some new light on the old question of selecting the number of beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The second purpose is to illuminate the related issue of discrete static beam angles versus rotational techniques, which has recently re-surfaced due to the advancement of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). A specific objective is to find analytical expressions that allow one to address the points raised above. To make the problem mathematically tractable, it is assumed that the depth dose is flat and that the lateral dose profile can be approximated by polynomials, specifically Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind, of finite degree. The application of methods known from image reconstruction then allows one to answer the first question above as follows: the required number of beams is determined by the maximum degree of the polynomials used in the approximation of the beam profiles, which is a measure of the dose variability. There is nothing to be gained by using more beams. In realistic cases, in which the variability of the lateral dose profile is restricted in several ways, the required number of beams is of the order of 10-20. The consequence of delivering the beams with a 'leaf sweep' technique during continuous rotation of the gantry, as in VMAT, is also derived in an analytical form. The main effect is that the beams fan out, but the effect near the axis of rotation is small. This result can serve as a theoretical justification of VMAT. Overall the analytical derivations in this paper, albeit based on strong simplifications, provide new insights into, and a deeper understanding of, the beam angle problem in IMRT. The decomposition of the beam profiles into well-behaved and easily deliverable smooth functions, such as Chebyshev polynomials, could be of general interest in IMRT treatment planning.

  11. Analysis of results of checks IMRT in almost a thousand patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richart, J.; Doval, S.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Depieaggio, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Santos, M.

    2013-01-01

    Since November 2006 IMRT treatments being made in the mode of sliding-window in our Hospital. The major sites of application of this technique are: head and neck, prostate, and gynecological. Specific checks are performed of each plan both yield and analysis ionometric extent in which a dummy was exported IMRT plan. Over one thousand patients, the objective of this work is the presentation and analysis of results. (Author)

  12. IMRT treatment of anal cancer with a scrotal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, Rodney C.; Wu, Q. Jackie; McMahon, Ryan; Czito, Brian; Willett, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sterility in males undergoing radiotherapy in the pelvic region indicates the use of a shielding device, which offers protection to the testes for patients wishing to maintain fertility. The use of such devices in the realm of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the pelvic region can pose many obstacles during simulation, treatment planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. This work focuses on the development and execution of an IMRT plan for the treatment of anal cancer using a scrotal shielding device on a clinical patient. An IMRT plan was developed using Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), using a wide array of gantry angles as well as fixed jaw and fluence editing techniques. When possible, the entire target volume was encompassed by the treatment field. When the beam was incident on the scrotal shield, the jaw was fixed to avoid the device and the collimator rotation optimized to irradiate as much of the target as possible. This technique maximizes genital sparing and allows minimal irradiation of the gonads. When this fixed-jaw technique was found to compromise adequate coverage of the target, manual fluence editing techniques were used to avoid the shielding device. Special procedures for simulation, imaging, and treatment verification were also developed. In vivo dosimetry was used to verify and ensure acceptable dose to the gonads. The combination of these techniques resulted in a highly conformal plan that spares organs and risk and avoids the genitals as well as entrance of primary radiation onto the shielding device.

  13. Peripheral doses of cranial pediatric IMRT performed with attenuator blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Schitz, Ivette; Schelin, Hugo Reuters; Silva, Ricardo Goulart da; Viamonte, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents values of peripheral doses measured at six vital points of simulator objects which represent the ages of 2, 5 and 10 years old, submitted to a cranial IMRT procedure that applied compensator blocks interposed to 6 MV beams. The found values indicate that there is independence of dose with position of measurements and age of the patient, as the peripheral dose at the points nearest and the 2 year old simulator object where larger. The doses in thyroid reached the range of 1.4 to 2.9% of the dose prescribed in the isocenter, indicating that the peripheral doses for IMRT that employ compensator blocks can be greater than for the IMRT produced with sliding window technique

  14. Development of a quality control system in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Roberto Salomon de; Braz, Delson

    2013-01-01

    The more complex the technique of radiotherapy is, the more refined the quality control must be. The technique of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the technological innovations that gained space in the whole worlds in the last decade whose parameters of quality control are not fully established yet. The present work developed a phantom for quality control in IMRT to be implemented in the routine of the Radiotherapy Quality Control Program (PQRT) of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCa). The device consists of a block formed by several polystyrene slice with TDLs and radiochromic film inserted. It should be sent (or taken) to the Program participating institutions to be irradiated under certain conditions and then be returned to the PQRT., where the discrepancy degree between the planned treatment and those effectively delivered will be evaluated. The system was validated through the test cases and the pilot program preformed in nine radiotherapy centers that perform IMRT in the southeast region of Brazil. (author)

  15. Emphasizing Conformal Avoidance Versus Target Definition for IMRT Planning in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, Paul M.; Song Shiyu; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a method for streamlining the process of elective nodal volume definition for head-and-neck (H and N) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients who had undergone curative-intent RT for H and N cancer underwent comprehensive treatment planning using three distinct, plan design techniques: conventional three-field design, target-defined IMRT (TD-IMRT), and conformal avoidance IMRT (CA-IMRT). For each patient, the conventional three-field design was created first, thereby providing the 'outermost boundaries' for subsequent IMRT design. In brief, TD-IMRT involved physician contouring of the gross tumor volume, high- and low-risk clinical target volume, and normal tissue avoidance structures on consecutive 1.25-mm computed tomography images. CA-IMRT involved physician contouring of the gross tumor volume and normal tissue avoidance structures only. The overall physician time for each approach was monitored, and the resultant plans were rigorously compared. Results: The average physician working time for the design of the respective H and N treatment contours was 0.3 hour for the conventional three-field design plan, 2.7 hours for TD-IMRT, and 0.9 hour for CA-IMRT. Dosimetric analysis confirmed that the largest volume of tissue treated to an intermediate (50 Gy) and high (70 Gy) dose occurred with the conventional three-field design followed by CA-IMRT and then TD-IMRT. However, for the two IMRT approaches, comparable results were found in terms of salivary gland and spinal cord protection. Conclusion: CA-IMRT for H and N treatment offers an alternative to TD-IMRT. The overall time for physician contouring was substantially reduced (approximately threefold), yielding a more standardized elective nodal volume. Because of the complexity of H and N IMRT target design, CA-IMRT might ultimately prove a safer and more reliable method to export to general radiation oncology practitioners, particularly

  16. IMRT in hypopharyngeal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, G.; Luetolf, U.M.; Davis, J.B.; Glanzmann, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) data on hypopharyngeal cancer (HC) are scant. In this study, the authors report on early results in an own HC patient cohort treated with IMRT. A more favorable outcome as compared to historical data on conventional radiation techniques was expected. Patients and methods: 29 consecutive HC patients were treated with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) IMRT between 01/2002 and 07/2005 (mean follow-up 16 months, range 4-44 months). Doses of 60-71 Gy with 2.0-2.2 Gy/fraction were applied. 26/29 patients were definitively irradiated, 86% received simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. 60% presented with locally advanced disease (T3/4 Nx, Tx N2c/3). Mean primary tumor volume measured 36.2 cm{sup 3} (4-170 cm{sup 3}), mean nodal volume 16.6 cm{sup 3} (0-97 cm{sup 3}). Results: 2-year actuarial local, nodal, distant control, and overall disease-free survival were 90%, 93%, 93%, and 90%, respectively. In 2/4 patients with persistent disease (nodal in one, primary in three), salvage surgery was performed. The mean dose to the spinal cord (extension of > 5-15 mm) was 26 Gy (12-38 Gy); the mean maximum (point) dose was 44.4 Gy (26-58.9 Gy). One grade (G) 3 dysphagia and two G4 reactions (laryngeal fibrosis, dysphagia), both following the schedule with 2.2 Gy per fraction, have been observed so far. Larynx preservation was achieved in 25/26 of the definitively irradiated patients (one underwent a salvage laryngectomy); 23 had no or minimal dysphagia (G0-1). Conclusion: excellent early disease control and high patient satisfaction with swallowing function in HC following SIB IMRT were observed; these results need to be confirmed based on a longer follow-up period. In order to avoid G4 reactions, SIB doses of < 2.2 Gy/fraction are recommended for large tumors involving laryngeal structures. (orig.)

  17. Current status of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Araki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    External-beam radiation therapy has been one of the treatment options for prostate cancer. The dose response has been observed for a dose range of 64.8-81 Gy. The problem of external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer is that as the dose increases, adverse effects also increase. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) has enabled us to treat patients with up to 72-76 Gy to the prostate, with a relatively acceptable risk of late rectal bleeding. Recently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to deliver a higher dose to the target with acceptable low rates of rectal and bladder complications. The most important things to keep in mind when using an IMRT technique are that there is a significant trade-off between coverage of the target, avoidance of adjacent critical structures, and the inhomogeneity of the dose within the target. Lastly, even with IMRT, it should be kept in mind that a ''perfect'' plan that creates completely homogeneous coverage of the target volume and zero or small dose to the adjacent organs at risk is not always obtained. Participating in many treatment planning sessions and arranging the beams and beam weights create the best approach to the best IMRT plan. (author)

  18. Validation of the implementation of IMRT with three dosimetric methods of independent verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortosa Oliver, R. A.; Chinillach ferrando, N.; Alonso Arrizabalaga, S.; Campayo Esteban, J. M.; Morales Marco, J. C.; Soler Catalan, P.; Andreu Martinez, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The TG119 is a simple and clear framework to verify the implementation of IMRT technique in a radiotherapy service. Verifications of this document recommended tests conducted with the three dosimetric methods listed above, allow to affirm that our Center is within the margins of tolerance considered suitable in the TG119 for the clinical implementation of IMRT. (Author)

  19. Dosimetric comparison of standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost schedule (sequential IMRT plan) with simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT (SIB IMRT) treatment plan in patients with localized carcinoma prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, A; Kapoor, R; Singh, S K; Kumar, N; Oinam, A S; Sharma, S C

    2012-07-01

    DOSIMETERIC AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF TWO RADIATION SCHEDULES IN LOCALIZED CARCINOMA PROSTATE: Standard Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3DCRT) followed by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) boost (sequential-IMRT) with Simultaneous Integrated Boost IMRT (SIB-IMRT). Thirty patients were enrolled. In all, the target consisted of PTV P + SV (Prostate and seminal vesicles) and PTV LN (lymph nodes) where PTV refers to planning target volume and the critical structures included: bladder, rectum and small bowel. All patients were treated with sequential-IMRT plan, but for dosimetric comparison, SIB-IMRT plan was also created. The prescription dose to PTV P + SV was 74 Gy in both strategies but with different dose per fraction, however, the dose to PTV LN was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions over 5 weeks for sequential-IMRT and 54 Gy delivered in 27 fractions over 5.5 weeks for SIB-IMRT. The treatment plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms. Also, Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) obtained with the two plans were compared. The volume of rectum receiving 70 Gy or more (V > 70 Gy) was reduced to 18.23% with SIB-IMRT from 22.81% with sequential-IMRT. SIB-IMRT reduced the mean doses to both bladder and rectum by 13% and 17%, respectively, as compared to sequential-IMRT. NTCP of 0.86 ± 0.75% and 0.01 ± 0.02% for the bladder, 5.87 ± 2.58% and 4.31 ± 2.61% for the rectum and 8.83 ± 7.08% and 8.25 ± 7.98% for the bowel was seen with sequential-IMRT and SIB-IMRT plans respectively. For equal PTV coverage, SIB-IMRT markedly reduced doses to critical structures, therefore should be considered as the strategy for dose escalation. SIB-IMRT achieves lesser NTCP than sequential-IMRT.

  20. IMRT for adjuvant radiation in gastric cancer: A preferred plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringash, Jolie; Perkins, Greg; Brierley, James; Lockwood, Gina; Islam, Mohammad; Catton, Pamela; Cummings, Bernard; Kim, John; Wong, Rebecca; Dawson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the potential advantage of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) over conformal planning for postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with gastric carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who had undergone treatment planning with conformal beam arrangements for 4500 cGy adjuvant radiotherapy between 2000 and 2001 underwent repeat planning using IMRT techniques. Conformal five-field plans were compared with seven- to nine-field coplanar sliding-window IMRT plans. For each patient, the cumulative dose-volume histograms and organ-dose summaries (without distributions or digitally reconstructed radiographs) were provided to two independent, 'blinded' GI radiation oncologists. The oncologists indicated which plan provided better planning target volume coverage and critical organ sparing, any safety concerns with either plan, and which plan they would choose to treat the patient. Results: In 18 (90%) of 20 cases, both oncologists chose the same plan. Cases with disagreement were given to a third 'blinded' reviewer. A 'preferred plan' could be determined in 19 (95%) of 20 cases. IMRT was preferred in 17 (89%) of 19 cases. In 4 (20%) of 20 IMRT plans at least one radiation oncologist had safety concerns because of the spinal cord dose (3 cases) or small bowel dose (2 cases). Of 42 ratings, IMRT was thought to provide better planning target volume coverage in 36 (86%) and better sparing of the spinal cord in 31 (74%) of 42, kidneys in 29 (69%), liver in 30 (71%), and heart in 29 (69%) of 42 ratings. The median underdose volume (1.7 vs. 4.1 cm 3 ), maximal dose to the spinal cord (36.85 vs. 45.65 Gy), and dose to 50% of the liver (17.29 vs. 27.97), heart (12.89 vs. 15.50 Gy), and left kidney (15.50 vs. 16.06 Gy) were lower with IMRT than with the conformal plans. Conclusion: Compared with the conformal plans, oncologists frequently preferred IMRT plans when using dose-volume histogram data. The advantages of IMRT plans include both

  1. Stereotactic IMRT using a MMLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, P.; Short, R.; Biggs, D.; Rose, A.; Smee, R.; Schneider, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The leaf width of the multileaf collimator (MLC) used for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT ) largely determines the resolution of the intensity maps that define the entire profile of each beam. In turn it is this resolution, and consequently the achievable degree of beam modulation, that determines the ability to conform the 3D dose distribution to complex target volumes. As such, the leaf width is of more importance than in fixed-field MLC treatments where only the beam edges are affected.A Radionics micro-multileaf collimator (MMLC) with 4 mm leaf width, attached to a Siemens Primus linear accelerator, is in use for stereotactic IMRT at PbWH. Treatment planning is performed with the XPlan system including an integrated IMRT module. Cases treated have so far been with conventional fractionation, including both malignant and benign cranial lesions. Meningiomas in particular often require a complex dose distribution because of their en-plaque nature and/or proximity to the brainstem. Stereotactic localisation and fixation is with the Gill-Thomas-Cosman head-ring or Head and Neck localiser. Cases are typically planned both for fixed-field treatment and IMRT, with IMRT being used if significant benefit is seen. IMRT treatment with the Siemens MLC is also an option. A quality assurance system has been set up, including a flowchart/checklist and phantom dosimetry using TLDs. As expected, treatment plans show IMRT with the MMLC to consistently be the best option dosimetrically. In particular, for a given target coverage there is always better sparing of nearby organs at risk (OARs) with MMLC rather than MLC-based IMRT. Adjustments such as the inclusion of a margin around the target volume or an increase in the penalty for target underdosage improve coverage for MLC plans but generally at the expense of increased OAR involvement. MMLC IMRT treatments commonly require 30-50 fields and can be delivered in approximately 10-15 minutes using an autosequence

  2. Comparison of VMAT and IMRT strategies for cervical cancer patients using automated planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfo, Abdul Wahab M; Voet, Peter W J; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Mens, Jan Willem M; Hoogeman, Mischa S; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2015-03-01

    In a published study on cervical cancer, 5-beam IMRT was inferior to single arc VMAT. Here we compare 9, 12, and 20 beam IMRT with single and dual arc VMAT. For each of 10 patients, automated plan generation with the in-house Erasmus-iCycle optimizer was used to assist an expert planner in generating the five plans with the clinical TPS. For each patient, all plans were clinically acceptable with a high and similar PTV coverage. OAR sparing increased when going from 9 to 12 to 20 IMRT beams, and from single to dual arc VMAT. For all patients, 12 and 20 beam IMRT were superior to single and dual arc VMAT, with substantial variations in gain among the study patients. As expected, delivery of VMAT plans was significantly faster than delivery of IMRT plans. Often reported increased plan quality for VMAT compared to IMRT has not been observed for cervical cancer. Twenty and 12 beam IMRT plans had a higher quality than single and dual arc VMAT. For individual patients, the optimal delivery technique depends on a complex trade-off between plan quality and treatment time that may change with introduction of faster delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of VMAT and IMRT strategies for cervical cancer patients using automated planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharfo, Abdul Wahab M.; Voet, Peter W.J.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: In a published study on cervical cancer, 5-beam IMRT was inferior to single arc VMAT. Here we compare 9, 12, and 20 beam IMRT with single and dual arc VMAT. Material and methods: For each of 10 patients, automated plan generation with the in-house Erasmus-iCycle optimizer was used to assist an expert planner in generating the five plans with the clinical TPS. Results: For each patient, all plans were clinically acceptable with a high and similar PTV coverage. OAR sparing increased when going from 9 to 12 to 20 IMRT beams, and from single to dual arc VMAT. For all patients, 12 and 20 beam IMRT were superior to single and dual arc VMAT, with substantial variations in gain among the study patients. As expected, delivery of VMAT plans was significantly faster than delivery of IMRT plans. Conclusions: Often reported increased plan quality for VMAT compared to IMRT has not been observed for cervical cancer. Twenty and 12 beam IMRT plans had a higher quality than single and dual arc VMAT. For individual patients, the optimal delivery technique depends on a complex trade-off between plan quality and treatment time that may change with introduction of faster delivery systems

  4. An interlacing theorem for reversible Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grone, Robert; Salamon, Peter; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Reversible Markov chains are an indispensable tool in the modeling of a vast class of physical, chemical, biological and statistical problems. Examples include the master equation descriptions of relaxing physical systems, stochastic optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing, chemical dynamics of protein folding and Markov chain Monte Carlo statistical estimation. Very often the large size of the state spaces requires the coarse graining or lumping of microstates into fewer mesoscopic states, and a question of utmost importance for the validity of the physical model is how the eigenvalues of the corresponding stochastic matrix change under this operation. In this paper we prove an interlacing theorem which gives explicit bounds on the eigenvalues of the lumped stochastic matrix. (fast track communication)

  5. An interlacing theorem for reversible Markov chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grone, Robert; Salamon, Peter [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States); Hoffmann, Karl Heinz [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2008-05-30

    Reversible Markov chains are an indispensable tool in the modeling of a vast class of physical, chemical, biological and statistical problems. Examples include the master equation descriptions of relaxing physical systems, stochastic optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing, chemical dynamics of protein folding and Markov chain Monte Carlo statistical estimation. Very often the large size of the state spaces requires the coarse graining or lumping of microstates into fewer mesoscopic states, and a question of utmost importance for the validity of the physical model is how the eigenvalues of the corresponding stochastic matrix change under this operation. In this paper we prove an interlacing theorem which gives explicit bounds on the eigenvalues of the lumped stochastic matrix. (fast track communication)

  6. IMRT treatment of anal cancer with a scrotal shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rodney C; Wu, Q Jackie; McMahon, Ryan; Czito, Brian; Willett, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sterility in males undergoing radiotherapy in the pelvic region indicates the use of a shielding device, which offers protection to the testes for patients wishing to maintain fertility. The use of such devices in the realm of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the pelvic region can pose many obstacles during simulation, treatment planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. This work focuses on the development and execution of an IMRT plan for the treatment of anal cancer using a scrotal shielding device on a clinical patient. An IMRT plan was developed using Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), using a wide array of gantry angles as well as fixed jaw and fluence editing techniques. When possible, the entire target volume was encompassed by the treatment field. When the beam was incident on the scrotal shield, the jaw was fixed to avoid the device and the collimator rotation optimized to irradiate as much of the target as possible. This technique maximizes genital sparing and allows minimal irradiation of the gonads. When this fixed-jaw technique was found to compromise adequate coverage of the target, manual fluence editing techniques were used to avoid the shielding device. Special procedures for simulation, imaging, and treatment verification were also developed. In vivo dosimetry was used to verify and ensure acceptable dose to the gonads. The combination of these techniques resulted in a highly conformal plan that spares organs and risk and avoids the genitals as well as entrance of primary radiation onto the shielding device. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility of a unified approach to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volume-modulated arc therapy optimization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, Douglas A.; Chen, Jeff Z.; MacFarlane, Michael; Wong, Eugene; Battista, Jerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of unified intensity-modulated arc therapy (UIMAT) which combines intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) optimization and delivery to produce superior radiation treatment plans, both in terms of dose distribution and efficiency of beam delivery when compared with either VMAT or IMRT alone. Methods: An inverse planning algorithm for UIMAT was prototyped within the PINNACLE treatment planning system (Philips Healthcare). The IMRT and VMAT deliveries are unified within the same arc, with IMRT being delivered at specific gantry angles within the arc. Optimized gantry angles for the IMRT and VMAT phases are assigned automatically by the inverse optimization algorithm. Optimization of the IMRT and VMAT phases is done simultaneously using a direct aperture optimization algorithm. Five treatment plans each for prostate, head and neck, and lung were generated using a unified optimization technique and compared with clinical IMRT or VMAT plans. Delivery verification was performed with an ArcCheck phantom (Sun Nuclear) on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: In this prototype implementation, the UIMAT plans offered the same target dose coverage while reducing mean doses to organs at risk by 8.4% for head-and-neck cases, 5.7% for lung cases, and 3.5% for prostate cases, compared with the VMAT or IMRT plans. In addition, UIMAT can be delivered with similar efficiency as VMAT. Conclusions: In this proof-of-concept work, a novel radiation therapy optimization and delivery technique that interlaces VMAT or IMRT delivery within the same arc has been demonstrated. Initial results show that unified VMAT/IMRT has the potential to be superior to either standard IMRT or VMAT

  8. Larynx-sparing techniques using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar Ad, Voichita, E-mail: voichita.bar-ad@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lin, Haibo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dutta, Pinaki R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore whether the laryngeal dose can be reduced by using 2 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques: whole-neck field IMRT technique (WF-IMRT) vs. junctioned IMRT (J-IMRT). The effect on planning target volumes (PTVs) coverage and laryngeal sparing was evaluated. WF-IMRT technique consisted of a single IMRT plan, including the primary tumor and the superior and inferior neck to the level of the clavicular heads. The larynx was defined as an organ at risk extending superiorly to cover the arytenoid cartilages and inferiorly to include the cricoid cartilage. The J-IMRT technique consisted of an IMRT plan for the primary tumor and the superior neck, matched to conventional antero-posterior opposing lower neck fields at the level of the thyroid notch. A central block was used for the anterior lower neck field at the level of the larynx to restrict the dose to the larynx. Ten oropharyngeal cancer cases were analyzed. Both the primary site and bilateral regional lymphatics were included in the radiotherapy targets. The averaged V95 for the PTV57.6 was 99.2% for the WF-IMRT technique compared with 97.4% (p = 0.02) for J-IMRT. The averaged V95 for the PTV64 was 99.9% for the WF-IMRT technique compared with 98.9% (p = 0.02) for J-IMRT and the averaged V95 for the PT70 was 100.0% for WF-IMRT technique compared with 99.5% (p = 0.04) for J-IMRT. The averaged mean laryngeal dose was 18 Gy with both techniques. The averaged mean doses within the matchline volumes were 69.3 Gy for WF-MRT and 66.2 Gy for J-IMRT (p = 0.03). The WF-IMRT technique appears to offer an optimal coverage of the target volumes and a mean dose to the larynx similar with J-IMRT and should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  9. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  10. Dual comb generation from a mode-locked fiber laser with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosman, Ahmet E; Sander, Michelle Y

    2017-08-07

    Ultra-high precision dual-comb spectroscopy traditionally requires two mode-locked, fully stabilized lasers with complex feedback electronics. We present a novel mode-locked operation regime in a thulium-holmium co-doped fiber laser, a frequency-halved state with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses, for dual comb generation from a single source. In a linear fiber laser cavity, an ultrafast pulse train composed of co-generated, equal intensity and orthogonally polarized consecutive pulses at half of the fundamental repetition rate is demonstrated based on vector solitons. Upon optical interference of the orthogonally polarized pulse trains, two stable microwave RF beat combs are formed, effectively down-converting the optical properties into the microwave regime. These co-generated, dual polarization interlaced pulse trains, from one all-fiber laser configuration with common mode suppression, thus provide an attractive compact source for dual-comb spectroscopy, optical metrology and polarization entanglement measurements.

  11. Comparison of a new noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique for craniospinal irradiation with 3 coplanar techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders T; Lukacova, Slavka; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin A.

    2015-01-01

    When standard conformal x-ray technique for craniospinal irradiation is used, it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory dose coverage of the target including the area of the cribriform plate, while sparing organs at risk. We present a new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), noncoplanar...... patient using the noncoplanar IMRT-based technique, a coplanar IMRT-based technique, and a coplanar volumetric-modulated arch therapy (VMAT) technique. Dosimetry data for all patients were compared with the corresponding data from the conventional treatment plans. The new noncoplanar IMRT technique...... substantially reduced the mean dose to organs at risk compared with the standard radiation technique. The 2 other coplanar techniques also reduced the mean dose to some of the critical organs. However, this reduction was not as substantial as the reduction obtained by the noncoplanar technique. Furthermore...

  12. Dosimetric comparison of IMRT and modulated arc-therapy techniques in the treatment of cervical cancers; Comparaison dosimetrique des techniques de RCMI et d'arctherapie modulee dans le traitement des cancers du col uterin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard-Oldrini, S.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V.; Bouziz, D.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the dosimetric comparison of two techniques used for the treatment of cervical cancers: the intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) with static beams and modulated arc-therapy with RapidArc. The treatment plans of 15 patients have been compared. The clinical target volume (CTV) comprises the gross target volume, the cervix, the upper third of the vagina, and ganglionary areas. The previsional target volume comprises the clinical target volume and a one centimetre margin. Organs at risk are rectum, bladder, intestine and bone marrow. Arc-therapy seems to provide a better sparing of intestine that IMRT, while maintaining a good coverage of the previsional target volume and decreasing treatment duration. Short communication

  13. Monte Carlo investigation of collapsed versus rotated IMRT plan verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, Elaine; Alexander, Andrew; Ruo, Russell; Chung, Eunah; Seuntjens, Jan; Foley, Mark J

    2014-05-08

    IMRT QA requires, among other tests, a time-consuming process of measuring the absorbed dose, at least to a point, in a high-dose, low-dose-gradient region. Some clinics use a technique of measuring this dose with all beams delivered at a single gantry angle (collapsed delivery), as opposed to the beams delivered at the planned gantry angle (rotated delivery). We examined, established, and optimized Monte Carlo simulations of the dosimetry for IMRT verification of treatment plans for these two different delivery modes (collapsed versus rotated). The results of the simulations were compared to the treatment planning system dose calculations for the two delivery modes, as well as to measurements taken. This was done in order to investigate the validity of the use of a collapsed delivery technique for IMRT QA. The BEAMnrc, DOSXYZnrc, and egs_chamber codes were utilized for the Monte Carlo simulations along with the MMCTP system. A number of different plan complexity metrics were also used in the analysis of the dose distributions in a bid to qualify why verification in a collapsed delivery may or may not be optimal for IMRT QA. Following the Alfonso et al. formalism, the kfclin,frefQclin,Q correction factor was calculated to correct the deviation of small fields from the reference conditions used for beam calibration. We report on the results obtained for a cohort of 20 patients. The plan complexity was investigated for each plan using the complexity metrics of homogeneity index, conformity index, modulation complexity score, and the fraction of beams from a particular plan that intersect the chamber when performing the QA. Rotated QA gives more consistent results than the collapsed QA technique. The kfclin,frefQclin,Qfactor deviates less from 1 for rotated QA than for collapsed QA. If the homogeneity index is less than 0.05 then the kfclin,frefQclin,Q factor does not deviate from unity by more than 1%. A value this low for the homogeneity index can only be obtained

  14. Theoretical and practical model for implementing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) based on openness in head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoles Morales, Misleidy; Yanes Lopez, Yaima; Ascension, Yudith; Alfonso La Guardia, Rodolfo; Calderon, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Certain requirements have been internationally recommended for the transition from radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). They have been filling in clinical practice in the physical, dosimetry and quality of treatment. Prior to the implementation of IMRT have been developed preclinical will proceed according to the treatment planning techniques in the real images of patients, validating the rationale for the transition from the point of view and radiobiological dosimetry. The comparison was based on a group of patients eligible for IMRT, which were actually treated with 3D-CRT. IMRT plans were designed and applied to virtually the same patients, simulating the IMRT treatment. The prescribed dose and fractionation were similar in both techniques, to be able to compare radiobiology. The results show the rationality of IMRT in terms of reducing complications and the possibility of scaling doses in the PTV. Were used Dose Volume Histograms (HDV) obtained from the dosimetric calculations for radiobiological evaluation of treatment plans, letting through a software: 'Albireo Target' version 4.0.1.2008 calculate the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for tumor and organs of risks (OAR) and tumor control probability (TCP) and the likelihood of damage to healthy tissue (NTCP). The results obtained with IMRT plans were more significant than with 3D-CRT especially in terms of EUD for organs at risk and NTCP. These results allow us to create the definitive basis for the implementation of IMRT in our environment. (Author)

  15. Letter to the Editor on 'Single-Arc IMRT?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Karl

    2009-04-21

    In the note 'Single Arc IMRT?' (Bortfeld and Webb 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 N9-20), Bortfeld and Webb present a theoretical investigation of static gantry IMRT (S-IMRT), single-arc IMRT and tomotherapy. Based on their assumptions they conclude that single-arc IMRT is inherently limited in treating complex cases without compromising delivery efficiency. Here we present an expansion of their work based on the capabilities of the Varian RapidArc single-arc IMRT system. Using the same theoretical framework we derive clinically deliverable single-arc IMRT plans based on these specific capabilities. In particular, we consider the range of leaf motion, the ability to rapidly and continuously vary the dose rate and the choice of collimator angle used for delivery. In contrast to the results of Bortfeld and Webb, our results show that single-arc IMRT plans can be generated that closely match the theoretical optimum. The disparity in the results of each investigation emphasizes that the capabilities of the delivery system, along with the ability of the optimization algorithm to exploit those capabilities, are of particular importance in single-arc IMRT. We conclude that, given the capabilities available with the RapidArc system, single-arc IMRT can produce complex treatment plans that are delivered efficiently (in approximately 2 min).

  16. Computation-aware algorithm selection approach for interlaced-to-progressive conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jun; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    2010-05-01

    We discuss deinterlacing results in a computationally constrained and varied environment. The proposed computation-aware algorithm selection approach (CASA) for fast interlaced to progressive conversion algorithm consists of three methods: the line-averaging (LA) method for plain regions, the modified edge-based line-averaging (MELA) method for medium regions, and the proposed covariance-based adaptive deinterlacing (CAD) method for complex regions. The proposed CASA uses two criteria, mean-squared error (MSE) and CPU time, for assigning the method. We proposed a CAD method. The principle idea of CAD is based on the correspondence between the high and low-resolution covariances. We estimated the local covariance coefficients from an interlaced image using Wiener filtering theory and then used these optimal minimum MSE interpolation coefficients to obtain a deinterlaced image. The CAD method, though more robust than most known methods, was not found to be very fast compared to the others. To alleviate this issue, we proposed an adaptive selection approach using a fast deinterlacing algorithm rather than using only one CAD algorithm. The proposed hybrid approach of switching between the conventional schemes (LA and MELA) and our CAD was proposed to reduce the overall computational load. A reliable condition to be used for switching the schemes was presented after a wide set of initial training processes. The results of computer simulations showed that the proposed methods outperformed a number of methods presented in the literature.

  17. Matching tomographic IMRT fields with static photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, A.; Leybovich, L.; Dogan, N.; Emami, B.

    2001-01-01

    The matching of abutting radiation fields presents a challenging problem in radiation therapy. Due to sharp penumbra of linear accelerator beams, small (1-2 mm) errors in field positioning can lead to large (>30%) hot or cold spots in the abutment region. With head and neck immobilization devices (thermoplastic mask/aquaplast) an average setup error of 3 mm has been reported. Therefore hot or cold spots approaching 50% of the prescription dose may occur along the matchline. Although abutting radiation fields have been investigated for static fields, there is no reported study regarding matching of tomographic IMRT and static fields. Compared to static fields, the matching of tomographic IMRT fields with static fields is more complicated. Since IMRT and static fields are planned on separate treatment planning computers, the dose in the abutment region is not specified. In addition, commonly used techniques for matching fields, such as feathering of junctions, are not practical. We have developed a method that substantially reduces dose inhomogeneity in the abutment region. In this method, a 'buffer zone' around the matchline was created and was included as part of the target for both IMRT and static field plans. In both fields, a small dose gradient (≤3%/mm) in the buffer zone was created. In the IMRT plan, the buffer zone was divided into three sections with dose varying from 83% to 25% of prescription dose. The static field dose profile was modified using either a specially designed physical (hard) or a dynamic (soft) wedge. When these modified fields were matched, the combined dose in the abutment region varied by ≤10% in the presence of setup errors spanning 4 mm (±2 mm) when the hard wedge was used and 10 mm (±5 mm) with the soft wedge

  18. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields (≥10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10 -10 scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged from

  19. Step and shoot IMRT to mobile targets and techniques to mitigate the interplay effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, Eric D; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate a method to mitigate temporal dose variation due to the interplay effect as well as investigate the effect of randomly varying motion patterns. The multi-leaf collimator (MLC) settings from 5, 9 and 11 field step and shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment plans with tumor motion of 1.53, 1.03 and 1.95 cm, respectively, were used. Static planar dose distributions were determined for each treatment field using the Planar Dose Module in the Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system. The MotionSIM XY/4D robotic diode array was used to recreate the tumor motion orthogonal to each treatment beam. Dose rate modulation was investigated as a method to mitigate temporal dose variation due to the interplay effect. Computer simulation was able to identify individual fields where interplay effects are greatest. Computer simulation and physical measurement have shown that temporal dose variation can be mitigated by the selection of the dose rate or by selective dose rate modulation within a given IMRT treatment field. Selective dose rate modulation within a given IMRT treatment field reduced temporal dose variation to levels comparable to whole field dose rate reduction, while also producing shorter radiation delivery times in six of the seven cases investigated. For the cases considered, the interplay effect did not appear to have a greater effect on hypofractionation compared to traditional fractionation even though fewer fractions were delivered. Randomized motion kernel variation was also considered. For this portion of the study, a nine field step and shoot IMRT configuration was considered with a 1.03 cm tumor motion rather than the five field case. In general, if the extent of the variant motion pattern was mostly contained within the target volume, limited impact on the temporal dose variation was observed. In cases where the variant motion kernels increasingly exceeded the

  20. IMRT QA: Selecting gamma criteria based on error detection sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steers, Jennifer M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Physics and Biology in Medicine IDP, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Fraass, Benedick A., E-mail: benedick.fraass@cshs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: The gamma comparison is widely used to evaluate the agreement between measurements and treatment planning system calculations in patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). However, recent publications have raised concerns about the lack of sensitivity when employing commonly used gamma criteria. Understanding the actual sensitivity of a wide range of different gamma criteria may allow the definition of more meaningful gamma criteria and tolerance limits in IMRT QA. We present a method that allows the quantitative determination of gamma criteria sensitivity to induced errors which can be applied to any unique combination of device, delivery technique, and software utilized in a specific clinic. Methods: A total of 21 DMLC IMRT QA measurements (ArcCHECK®, Sun Nuclear) were compared to QA plan calculations with induced errors. Three scenarios were studied: MU errors, multi-leaf collimator (MLC) errors, and the sensitivity of the gamma comparison to changes in penumbra width. Gamma comparisons were performed between measurements and error-induced calculations using a wide range of gamma criteria, resulting in a total of over 20 000 gamma comparisons. Gamma passing rates for each error class and case were graphed against error magnitude to create error curves in order to represent the range of missed errors in routine IMRT QA using 36 different gamma criteria. Results: This study demonstrates that systematic errors and case-specific errors can be detected by the error curve analysis. Depending on the location of the error curve peak (e.g., not centered about zero), 3%/3 mm threshold = 10% at 90% pixels passing may miss errors as large as 15% MU errors and ±1 cm random MLC errors for some cases. As the dose threshold parameter was increased for a given %Diff/distance-to-agreement (DTA) setting, error sensitivity was increased by up to a factor of two for select cases. This increased sensitivity with increasing dose

  1. Evaluations of secondary cancer risk in spine radiotherapy using 3DCRT, IMRT, and VMAT: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Jalil ur, E-mail: jalil_khanphy@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tailor, Ramesh C. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Isa, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Afzal, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Chow, James [Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the secondary cancer risk from volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for spine radiotherapy compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Computed tomography images of an Radiological Physics Center spine anthropomorphic phantom were exported to a treatment planning system (Pinnacle{sup 3}, version 9.4). Radiation treatment plans for spine were prepared using VMAT (dual-arc), 7-field IMRT (beam angles: 110°, 130°, 150°, 180°, 210°, 230°, and 250°), and 4-field 3DCRT technique. The mean and maximum doses, dose-volume histograms, and volumes receiving more than 2 and 4 Gy to organs at risk (OARs) were calculated and compared. The lifetime risk for secondary cancers was estimated according to the National Cancer Registry Programme Report 116. VMAT delivered the lowest maximum dose to the esophagus (4.03 Gy), bone (8.11 Gy), heart (2.11 Gy), spinal cord (6.45 Gy), and whole lung (5.66 Gy) as compared with other techniques (IMRT and 3DCRT). The volumes of OAR (esophagus) receiving more than 4 Gy were 0% for VMAT, 27.06% for IMRT, and up to 32.35% for 3DCRT. The estimated risk for secondary cancer in the respective OAR is considerably lower in VMAT compared with other techniques. The results of maximum doses and volumes of OARs suggest that the risk of secondary cancer induction for the spine in VMAT is lower than IMRT and 3DCRT, whereas VMAT has the best target coverage compared with the other techniques.

  2. Dosimetric comparison of RapidArc with fixed gantry dynamic IMRT for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hao; Han Shukui; Sun Yan; Jiang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dosimetric difference of RapidArc and fixed gantry angle dynamic IMRT (dIMRT) for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Ten previously treated patients with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were replanned with RapidArc and dIMRT, respectively. The prescription dose was GTV 70 Gy/33 f and PTV 60 Gy/33 f. All plans met the requirement: 95% of PTV was covered by 60 Gy. Dose-volume histogram data, isodose distribution, monitor units, and treatment time were compared. Results: Dose distribution has no significant difference between the two techniques. RapidArc reduced the dose of the brainstem, mandible, and other normal tissues compared with dIMRT. Mean monitor units were 589.5 and 1381.0 for RapidArc and dIMRT (reduced by 57% relatively). Mean treatment time was 2.33 min and 7.82 min for RapidArc and dIMRT (reduced by 70% relatively). Conclusions: Compared with dIMRT, RapidArc achieves equal target coverage and OAR sparing while using fewer monitor units and less time during radiotherapy for patient with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  3. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. Results The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. Conclusion The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques. PMID:26229623

  4. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham

    2013-01-01

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques

  5. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham

    2013-12-01

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147-53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose-volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques.

  6. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong Hospital, Geelong, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques.

  7. A national dosimetric audit of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budgell, Geoff; Berresford, Joe; Trainer, Michael; Bradshaw, Ellie; Sharpe, Peter; Williams, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: A dosimetric audit of IMRT has been carried out within the UK between June 2009 and March 2010 in order to provide an independent check of safe implementation and to identify problems in the modelling and delivery of IMRT. Methods and materials: A mail based audit involving film and alanine dosimeters was utilized. Measurements were made for each individual field in an IMRT plan isocentrically in a flat water-equivalent phantom at a depth of 5 cm. The films and alanine dosimeters were processed and analysed centrally; additional ion chamber measurements were made by each participating centre. Results: 57 of 62 centres participated, with a total of 78 plans submitted. For the film measurements, all 176 fields from the less complex IMRT plans (including prostate and breast plans) achieved over 95% pixels passing a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm within the 20% isodose. For the more complex IMRT plans (mainly head and neck) 8/245 fields (3.3%) achieved less than 95% pixels passing a 4%/4 mm gamma criterion. Of the alanine measurements, 4/78 (5.1%) of the measurements differed by >5% from the dose predicted by the treatment planning system. Three of these were large deviations of -77.1%, -29.1% and 14.1% respectively. Excluding the three measurements outside 10%, the mean difference was 0.05% with a standard deviation of 1.5%. The out of tolerance results have been subjected to further investigations. Conclusions: A dosimetric audit has been successfully carried out of IMRT implementation by over 90% of UK radiotherapy departments. The audit shows that modelling and delivery of IMRT is accurate, suggesting that the implementation of IMRT has been carried out safely.

  8. Poster - Thur Eve - 57: Craniospinal irradiation with jagged-junction IMRT approach without beam edge matching for field junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F; Ramaseshan, R; Corns, R; Harrop, S; Nuraney, N; Steiner, P; Aldridge, S; Liu, M; Carolan, H; Agranovich, A; Karva, A

    2012-07-01

    Craniospinal irradiation were traditionally treated the central nervous system using two or three adjacent field sets. A intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan (Jagged-Junction IMRT) which overcomes problems associated with field junctions and beam edge matching, improves planning and treatment setup efficiencies with homogenous target dose distribution was developed. Jagged-Junction IMRT was retrospectively planned on three patients with prescription of 36 Gy in 20 fractions and compared to conventional treatment plans. Planning target volume (PTV) included the whole brain and spinal canal to the S3 vertebral level. The plan employed three field sets, each with a unique isocentre. One field set with seven fields treated the cranium. Two field sets treated the spine, each set using three fields. Fields from adjacent sets were overlapped and the optimization process smoothly integrated the dose inside the overlapped junction. For the Jagged-Junction IMRT plans vs conventional technique, average homogeneity index equaled 0.08±0.01 vs 0.12±0.02, and conformity number equaled 0.79±0.01 vs 0.47±0.12. The 95% isodose surface covered (99.5±0.3)% of the PTV vs (98.1±2.0)%. Both Jagged-Junction IMRT plans and the conventional plans had good sparing of the organs at risk. Jagged-Junction IMRT planning provided good dose homogeneity and conformity to the target while maintaining a low dose to the organs at risk. Jagged-Junction IMRT optimization smoothly distributed dose in the junction between field sets. Since there was no beam matching, this treatment technique is less likely to produce hot or cold spots at the junction in contrast to conventional techniques. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Tl and OSL dose response of LiF:Mg, Ti and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters using a PMMA phantom for IMRT technique quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, L. C.; Veneziani, G. R.; Campos, L. L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sakuraba, R. K.; Cruz, J. C., E-mail: lmatsushima@usp.br [Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira - Hospital Albert Einstein, Av. Albert Einstein 627/701, Morumbi, 05652-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The principle of IMRT is to treat a patient from a number of different directions (or continuous arcs) with beams of nonuniform fluences, which have been optimized to deliver a high dose to the target volume and an acceptably low dose to the surrounding normal structures (Khan, 2010). This study intends to provide information to the physicist regarding the application of different dosimeters type, phantoms and analysis technique for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) dose distributions evaluation. The measures were performed using dosimeters of LiF:Mg,Ti and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C evaluated by techniques of thermoluminescent (Tl) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). A polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with five cavities, two principal target volumes considered like tumours to be treated and other three cavities to measure the scattered radiation dose was developed to carried out the measures. (Author)

  10. Effects of intra-fraction motion on IMRT dose delivery: statistical analysis and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Goitein, Michael; Kung, Jong; Jiang, Steve B.

    2002-01-01

    There has been some concern that organ motion, especially intra-fraction organ motion due to breathing, can negate the potential merit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). We wanted to find out whether this concern is justified. Specifically, we wanted to investigate whether IMRT delivery techniques with moving parts, e.g., with a multileaf collimator (MLC), are particularly sensitive to organ motion due to the interplay between organ motion and leaf motion. We also wanted to know if, and by how much, fractionation of the treatment can reduce the effects. We performed a statistical analysis and calculated the expected dose values and dose variances for volume elements of organs that move during the delivery of the IMRT. We looked at the overall influence of organ motion during the course of a fractionated treatment. A linear-quadratic model was used to consider fractionation effects. Furthermore, we developed software to simulate motion effects for IMRT delivery with an MLC, with compensators, and with a scanning beam. For the simulation we assumed a sinusoidal motion in an isocentric plane. We found that the expected dose value is independent of the treatment technique. It is just a weighted average over the path of motion of the dose distribution without motion. If the treatment is delivered in several fractions, the distribution of the dose around the expected value is close to a Gaussian. For a typical treatment with 30 fractions, the standard deviation is generally within 1% of the expected value for MLC delivery if one assumes a typical motion amplitude of 5 mm (1 cm peak to peak). The standard deviation is generally even smaller for the compensator but bigger for scanning beam delivery. For the latter it can be reduced through multiple deliveries ('paintings') of the same field. In conclusion, the main effect of organ motion in IMRT is an averaging of the dose distribution without motion over the path of the motion. This is the same as for treatments

  11. Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes Following IMRT Versus Conventional Radiotherapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Min; Karnell, Lucy H.; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Dornfeld, Ken; Buatti, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Patients and Methods: Patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were extracted from the database of an ongoing longitudinal Outcome Assessment Project. Eligible criteria included (1) treated with definitive radiation, and (2) provided 12-month posttreatment HRQOL data. Excluded were 7 patients who received IMRT before October 1, 2002, during this institution's developmental phase of the IMRT technique. The HRQOL outcomes of patients treated with IMRT were compared with those of patients who received CRT. Results: Twenty-six patients treated using IMRT and 27 patients treated using CRT were included. Patients in the IMRT group were older and had more advanced-stage diseases and more patients received concurrent chemotherapy. However, the IMRT group had higher mean Head and Neck Cancer Inventory scores (which represent better outcomes) for each of the four head-and-neck cancer-specific domains, including eating, speech, aesthetics, and social disruption, at 12 months after treatment. A significantly greater percentage of patients in the CRT group had restricted diets compared with those in the IMRT group (48.0% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.032). At 3 months after treatment, both groups had significant decreases from pretreatment eating scores. However, the IMRT group had a significant improvement during the first year, but the CRT group had only small improvement. Conclusions: Proper delivery of IMRT can improve HRQOL for patients with oropharyngeal cancer compared with CRT

  12. Surviving Hypopharynx-Larynx Carcinoma in the Era of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, Gabriela; Peponi, Evangelia; Kloeck, Stephan; Dossenbach, Thomas; Huber, Gerhard; Glanzmann, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Outcome in locoregionally advanced laryngeal carcinoma and hypopharyngeal carcinoma after conventional radiation techniques is known for modest disease control and considerable late toxicity. Considering the lack of standardization in prescription dose for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), we aimed to compare the results after our methods of simultaneously integrated boost IMRT with published results. Methods and Materials: Between March 2002 and December 2008, 65 hypopharyngeal, 31 supraglottic, and 27 locoregionally advanced glottic tumor patients underwent definitive IMRT (with simultaneous chemotherapy in 86%). Of these, 64% presented with locoregionally advanced disease. Mean follow-up was 26 months (range, 3-83 months), with a median of 21 months. Treatment (2.0-2.2Gy per fraction, 66-72.6Gy) followed a prospectively defined protocol. If the boost volume included more than half of the larynx or a substantial part of the pharynx, dose was limited to 2.0Gy per fraction. Results: The 2-year local, nodal, and locoregional control (LRC) rates for the entire cohort were 82%, 90%, and 77%, respectively; the disease-free and overall survival rates were 75% and 83%, respectively. The ultimate 2-year LRC rate, including salvage surgery, was 86%. Laryngectomy was required in 2 LRC patients needing tracheostoma already before; 2 further LRC patients needed tracheostomy before IMRT and remained tracheostoma dependent, and 3 patients remained feeding tube dependent after IMRT. Salvage laryngectomy was successful in 8 of 11. Of all 123 patients, 91 patients (74%) are locoregionally controlled and live with a functional laryngopharynx. Conclusions: Simultaneously integrated boost IMRT with limited acceptance of dose inhomogeneity resulted in very satisfactory disease control despite a slight left shift of planning target volume curves on the dose-volume histogram. Considering the treatment tolerance, a careful increase in dose in our patients seems possible

  13. Prone Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiotherapy Without a Boost to the Tumor Bed: Comparable Toxicity of IMRT Versus a 3D Conformal Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, Matthew E.; Raza, Shahzad; Becker, Stewart J.; Jozsef, Gabor; Lymberis, Stella C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Hochman, Tsivia; Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); DeWyngaert, Keith J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: We report a comparison of the dosimetry and toxicity of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) vs. intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) among patients treated in the prone position with the same fractionation and target of the hypofractionation arm of the Canadian/Whelan trial. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved protocol identified a consecutive series of early-stage breast cancer patients treated according to the Canadian hypofractionation regimen but in the prone position. Patients underwent IMRT treatment planning and treatment if the insurance carrier approved reimbursement for IMRT; in case of refusal, a 3D-CRT plan was used. A comparison of the dosimetric and toxicity outcomes during the acute, subacute, and long-term follow-up of the two treatment groups is reported. Results: We included 97 consecutive patients with 100 treatment plans in this study (3 patients with bilateral breast cancer); 40 patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 57 with IMRT. IMRT significantly reduced the maximum dose (Dmax median, 109.96% for 3D-CRT vs. 107.28% for IMRT; p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test) and improved median dose homogeneity (median, 1.15 for 3D-CRT vs. 1.05 for IMRT; p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test) when compared with 3D-CRT. Acute toxicity consisted primarily of Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis and occurred in 92% of patients. Grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 13% of patients in the 3D-CRT group and 2% in the IMRT group. IMRT moderately decreased rates of acute pruritus (p = 0.03, chi-square test) and Grade 2 to 3 subacute hyperpigmentation (p = 0.01, Fisher exact test). With a minimum of 6 months' follow-up, the treatment was similarly well tolerated in either group, including among women with large breast volumes. Conclusion: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy is well tolerated when treating patients in the prone position, even among those with large breast volumes. Breast IMRT significantly improves dosimetry but yields only a modest

  14. Improving IMRT delivery efficiency with reweighted L1-minimization for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hojin; Becker, Stephen; Lee, Rena; Lee, Soonhyouk; Shin, Sukyoung; Candès, Emmanuel; Xing Lei; Li Ruijiang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents an improved technique to further simplify the fluence-map in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning, thereby reducing plan complexity and improving delivery efficiency, while maintaining the plan quality.Methods: First-order total-variation (TV) minimization (min.) based on L1-norm has been proposed to reduce the complexity of fluence-map in IMRT by generating sparse fluence-map variations. However, with stronger dose sparing to the critical structures, the inevitable increase in the fluence-map complexity can lead to inefficient dose delivery. Theoretically, L0-min. is the ideal solution for the sparse signal recovery problem, yet practically intractable due to its nonconvexity of the objective function. As an alternative, the authors use the iteratively reweighted L1-min. technique to incorporate the benefits of the L0-norm into the tractability of L1-min. The weight multiplied to each element is inversely related to the magnitude of the corresponding element, which is iteratively updated by the reweighting process. The proposed penalizing process combined with TV min. further improves sparsity in the fluence-map variations, hence ultimately enhancing the delivery efficiency. To validate the proposed method, this work compares three treatment plans obtained from quadratic min. (generally used in clinic IMRT), conventional TV min., and our proposed reweighted TV min. techniques, implemented by a large-scale L1-solver (template for first-order conic solver), for five patient clinical data. Criteria such as conformation number (CN), modulation index (MI), and estimated treatment time are employed to assess the relationship between the plan quality and delivery efficiency.Results: The proposed method yields simpler fluence-maps than the quadratic and conventional TV based techniques. To attain a given CN and dose sparing to the critical organs for 5 clinical cases, the proposed method reduces the number of segments

  15. Improving IMRT delivery efficiency with reweighted L1-minimization for inverse planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hojin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States); Becker, Stephen [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, 75005 France (France); Lee, Rena; Lee, Soonhyouk [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sukyoung [Medtronic CV RDN R and D, Santa Rosa, California 95403 (United States); Candes, Emmanuel [Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4065 (United States); Xing Lei; Li Ruijiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5304 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: This study presents an improved technique to further simplify the fluence-map in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning, thereby reducing plan complexity and improving delivery efficiency, while maintaining the plan quality.Methods: First-order total-variation (TV) minimization (min.) based on L1-norm has been proposed to reduce the complexity of fluence-map in IMRT by generating sparse fluence-map variations. However, with stronger dose sparing to the critical structures, the inevitable increase in the fluence-map complexity can lead to inefficient dose delivery. Theoretically, L0-min. is the ideal solution for the sparse signal recovery problem, yet practically intractable due to its nonconvexity of the objective function. As an alternative, the authors use the iteratively reweighted L1-min. technique to incorporate the benefits of the L0-norm into the tractability of L1-min. The weight multiplied to each element is inversely related to the magnitude of the corresponding element, which is iteratively updated by the reweighting process. The proposed penalizing process combined with TV min. further improves sparsity in the fluence-map variations, hence ultimately enhancing the delivery efficiency. To validate the proposed method, this work compares three treatment plans obtained from quadratic min. (generally used in clinic IMRT), conventional TV min., and our proposed reweighted TV min. techniques, implemented by a large-scale L1-solver (template for first-order conic solver), for five patient clinical data. Criteria such as conformation number (CN), modulation index (MI), and estimated treatment time are employed to assess the relationship between the plan quality and delivery efficiency.Results: The proposed method yields simpler fluence-maps than the quadratic and conventional TV based techniques. To attain a given CN and dose sparing to the critical organs for 5 clinical cases, the proposed method reduces the number of segments

  16. From analytic inversion to contemporary IMRT optimization: radiation therapy planning revisited from a mathematical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censor, Yair; Unkelbach, Jan

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we look at the development of radiation therapy treatment planning from a mathematical point of view. Historically, planning for Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) has been considered as an inverse problem. We discuss first the two fundamental approaches that have been investigated to solve this inverse problem: Continuous analytic inversion techniques on one hand, and fully-discretized algebraic methods on the other hand. In the second part of the paper, we review another fundamental question which has been subject to debate from the beginning of IMRT until the present day: The rotation therapy approach versus fixed angle IMRT. This builds a bridge from historic work on IMRT planning to contemporary research in the context of Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy (IMAT). Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: A comparison of IMRT planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Raef S.; Ove, Roger; Duan, Jun; Popple, Richard; Cobb, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of maxillary sinus carcinoma with forward planning can be technically difficult when the neck also requires radiotherapy. This difficulty arises because of the need to spare the contralateral face while treating the bilateral neck. There is considerable potential for error in clinical setup and treatment delivery. We evaluated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as an improvement on forward planning, and compared several inverse planning IMRT platforms. A composite dose-volume histogram (DVH) was generated from a complex forward planned case. We compared the results with those generated by sliding window fixed field dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) IMRT, using sets of coplanar beams. All setups included an anterior posterior (AP) beam, and 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-field configurations were evaluated. The dose prescription and objective function priorities were invariant. We also evaluated 2 commercial tomotherapy IMRT delivery platforms. DVH results from all of the IMRT approaches compared favorably with the forward plan. Results for the various inverse planning approaches varied considerably across platforms, despite an attempt to prescribe the therapy similarly. The improvement seen with the addition of beams in the fixed beam sliding window case was modest. IMRT is an effective means of delivering radiotherapy reliably in the complex setting of maxillary sinus carcinoma with neck irradiation. Differences in objective function definition and optimization algorithms can lead to unexpected differences in the final dose distribution, and our evaluation suggests that these factors are more significant than the beam arrangement or number of beams

  18. Superior sulcus non-small cell lung carcinoma: A comparison of IMRT and 3D-RT dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Pierre; Antoni, Delphine; Santelmo, Nicola; Schumacher, Catherine; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quoix, Elisabeth; Massard, Gilbert; Noël, Georges

    2016-01-01

    A dosimetric study comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by TomoTherapy to conformational 3D radiotherapy (3D-RT) in patients with superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). IMRT became the main technique in modern radiotherapy. However it was not currently used for lung cancers. Because of the need to increase the dose to control lung cancers but because of the critical organs surrounding the tumors, the gains obtainable with IMRT is not still demonstrated. A dosimetric comparison of the planned target and organs at risk parameters between IMRT and 3D-RT in eight patients who received preoperative or curative intent irradiation. In the patients who received at least 66 Gy, the mean V95% was significantly better with IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043). IMRT delivered a lower D2% compared to 3D-RT (p = 0.043). The IH was significantly better with IMRT (p = 0.043). The lung V 5 Gy and V 13 Gy were significantly higher in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043), while the maximal dose (D max) to the spinal cord was significantly lower in IMRT (p = 0.043). The brachial plexus D max was significantly lower in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.048). For patients treated with 46 Gy, no significant differences were found. Our study showed that IMRT is relevant for SS-NSCLC. In patients treated with a curative dose, it led to a reduction of the exposure of critical organs, allowing a better dose distribution in the tumor. For the patients treated with a preoperative schedule, our results provide a basis for future controlled trials to improve the histological complete response by increasing the radiation dose.

  19. Can All Centers Plan Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) Effectively? An External Audit of Dosimetric Comparisons Between Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy and IMRT for Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hans T.; Lee, Brian; Park, Eileen; Lu, Jiade J.; Xia Ping

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric endpoints between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at our center with limited IMRT experience, and to perform an external audit of the IMRT plans. Methods and Materials: Ten patients, who received adjuvant chemoradiation for gastric cancer, formed the study cohort. For standardization, the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk were recontoured with the assistance of a study protocol radiologic atlas. The cohort was replanned with CMS Xio to generate coplanar 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. All 10 datasets, including volumes but without the plans (i.e., blinded), were transmitted to an experienced center where IMRT plans were designed using Nomos Corvus (IMRT-C) and ADAC Pinnacle (IMRT-P). All IMRT plans were normalized to D95% receiving 45 Gy. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy yielded higher PTV V45 (volume that receives ≥45 Gy) (p < 0.001) than 3D-CRT. No difference in V20 was seen in the right (p = 0.9) and left (p 0.3) kidneys, but the liver mean dose (p < 0.001) was superior with IMRT. For the external audit, IMRT-C (p = 0.002) and IMRT-P (p < 0.001) achieved significantly lower left kidney V20 than IMRT, and IMRT-P (p < 0.001) achieved lower right kidney V20 than IMRT. The IMRT-C (p = 0.003) but not IMRT-P (p = 0.6) had lower liver mean doses than IMRT. Conclusions: At our institution with early IMRT experience, IMRT improved PTV dose coverage and liver doses but not kidney doses. An external audit of IMRT plans showed that an experienced center can yield superior IMRT plans

  20. Cardiac dose-sparing effects of deep-inspiration breath-hold in left breast irradiation : Is IMRT more beneficial than VMAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Mazen; Kunzelmann, Leonie; Metzger, Martin; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G

    2017-10-01

    Given the reduction in death from breast cancer, as well as improvements in overall survival, adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment for breast cancer. However, left-sided breast irradiation was associated with an increased rate of fatal cardiovascular events due to incidental irradiation of the heart. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to minimize cardiac toxicity of left-sided breast irradiation by new treatment methods such as deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and new radiation techniques, particularly intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DIBH irradiation on cardiac dose compared with free-breathing (FB) irradiation, while the secondary objective was to compare the advantages of IMRT versus VMAT plans in both the FB and the DIBH position for left-sided breast cancer. In all, 25 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients underwent CT simulation in the FB and DIBH position. Five patients were excluded with no cardiac displacement following DIBH-CT simulation. The other 20 patients were irradiated in the DIBH position using respiratory gating. Four different treatment plans were generated for each patient, an IMRT and a VMAT plan in the DIBH and in the FB position, respectively. The following parameters were used for plan comparison: dose to the heart, left anterior descending coronary artery (mean dose, maximum dose, D25% and D45%), ipsilateral, contralateral lung (mean dose, D20%, D30%) and contralateral breast (mean dose). The percentage in dose reduction for organs at risk achieved by DIBH for both IMRT and VMAT plans was calculated and compared for each patient by each treatment plan. DIBH irradiation significantly reduced mean dose to the heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) using both IMRT (heart -20%; p = 0.0002, LADCA -9%; p = 0.001) and VMAT (heart -23%; p = 0.00003, LADCA -16%; p = 0

  1. Exclusive image guided IMRT vs. radical prostatectomy followed by postoperative IMRT for localized prostate cancer: a matched-pair analysis based on risk-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azelie, Caroline; Créhange, Gilles; Gauthier, Mélanie; Mirjolet, Céline; Cormier, Luc; Martin, Etienne; Peignaux-Casasnovas, Karine; Truc, Gilles; Chamois, Jérôme; Maingon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether patients treated for a localized prostate cancer (PCa) require a radical prostatectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy or exclusive radiotherapy, in the modern era of image guided IMRT. 178 patients with PCa were referred for daily exclusive image guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) using an on-line 3D ultra-sound based system and 69 patients were referred for postoperative IMRT without image guidance after radical prostatectomy (RP + IMRT). Patients were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to their baseline risk group before any treatment. Late toxicity was scored using the CTV v3.0 scale. Biochemical failure was defined as a postoperative PSA ≤ 0.1 ng/mL followed by 1 consecutive rising PSA for the postoperative group of patients and by the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL) for the group of patients treated with exclusive radiotherapy. A total of 98 patients were matched (49:49). From the start of any treatment, the median follow-up was 56.6 months (CI 95% = [49.6-61.2], range [18.2-115.1]). No patient had late gastrointestinal grade ≥ 2 toxicity in the IG-IMRT group vs. 4% in the RP + IMRT group. Forty two percent of the patients in both groups had late grade ≥ 2 genitourinary toxicity. The 5-year FFF rates in the IG-IMRT group and in the RP + IMRT groups were 93.1% [80.0-97.8] and 76.5% [58.3-87.5], respectively (p = 0.031). Patients with a localized PCa treated with IG-IMRT had better oncological outcome than patients treated with RP + IMRT. Further improvements in postoperative IMRT using image guidance and dose escalation are urgently needed

  2. GATE Monte Carlo simulation in radiation therapy for complex and dynamic beams in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhalouche, Saadia

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the three methods of cancer treatment along with surgery and chemotherapy. It has evolved with the development of treatment techniques such as IMRT and VMAT along with IGRT for patient positioning. The aim is to effectively treat tumors while limiting the dose to healthy organs. In our work, we use the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform to model a LINAC for a 6 MV photon beam. The resulting model is then validated with a dosimetric study by calculating relevant parameters for the beam quality. The LINAC model is then used for simulating clinical IMRT treatment plans in the ORL domain. Simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. We also explored the possibility of modeling the LINAC portal imaging system. This technique referred to as MV-CBCT combine the LINAC source with a flat panel detector to acquire 3D images of the patient. This part was validated first by acquiring 2D projections on patient and anthropomorphic phantom, and by reconstructing 3D volumes. Here again, validation was performed by comparing simulated and actual images. As a second step, a dosimetric validation was done by evaluating the dose deposited by IMRT beams, by means of portal signal only. We show in the present work the ability of GATE to perform complex IMRT treatments and portal images as they are performed routinely for dosimetric quality control. (author) [fr

  3. IMRT QA using machine learning: A multi-institutional validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Gilmer; Chan, Maria F; Lim, Seng Boh; Scheuermann, Ryan; Deasy, Joseph O; Solberg, Timothy D

    2017-09-01

    To validate a machine learning approach to Virtual intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for accurately predicting gamma passing rates using different measurement approaches at different institutions. A Virtual IMRT QA framework was previously developed using a machine learning algorithm based on 498 IMRT plans, in which QA measurements were performed using diode-array detectors and a 3%local/3 mm with 10% threshold at Institution 1. An independent set of 139 IMRT measurements from a different institution, Institution 2, with QA data based on portal dosimetry using the same gamma index, was used to test the mathematical framework. Only pixels with ≥10% of the maximum calibrated units (CU) or dose were included in the comparison. Plans were characterized by 90 different complexity metrics. A weighted poison regression with Lasso regularization was trained to predict passing rates using the complexity metrics as input. The methodology predicted passing rates within 3% accuracy for all composite plans measured using diode-array detectors at Institution 1, and within 3.5% for 120 of 139 plans using portal dosimetry measurements performed on a per-beam basis at Institution 2. The remaining measurements (19) had large areas of low CU, where portal dosimetry has a larger disagreement with the calculated dose and as such, the failure was expected. These beams need further modeling in the treatment planning system to correct the under-response in low-dose regions. Important features selected by Lasso to predict gamma passing rates were as follows: complete irradiated area outline (CIAO), jaw position, fraction of MLC leafs with gaps smaller than 20 or 5 mm, fraction of area receiving less than 50% of the total CU, fraction of the area receiving dose from penumbra, weighted average irregularity factor, and duty cycle. We have demonstrated that Virtual IMRT QA can predict passing rates using different measurement techniques and across multiple

  4. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in the postoperative treatment of an adenocarcinoma of the endometrium complicated by a pelvic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Marcus S; Jacinto, Alexandre A; Viani, Gustavo A; Campana, Andre; Carvalho, Juliana; Ferrigno, Robson; Novaes, Paulo ERS; Fogaroli, Ricardo C; Salvajoli, Joao V

    2006-01-01

    Pelvic Radiotherapy (RT) as a postoperative treatment for endometrial cancer improves local regional control. Brachytherapy also improves vaginal control. Both treatments imply significant side effects that a fine RT technique can help avoiding. Intensity Modulated RT (IMRT) enables the treatment of the target volume while protecting normal tissue. It therefore reduces the incidence and severity of side effects. We report on a 50 year-old patient with a serous-papiliferous adenocarcinoma of the uterus who was submitted to surgical treatment without lymph node sampling followed by Brachytherapy, and Chemotherapy. The patient had a pelvic kidney, and was therefore treated with IMRT. So far, the patient has been free from relapse and with normal kidney function. IMRT is a valid technique to prevent the kidney from radiation damage

  5. SU-E-T-372: Dosimetric Comparison of Craniospinal Irradiation Using Different Tomotherapy Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X; Penagaricano, J; Han, E; Liang, X; Morrill, S; Hardee, M; Gupta, S; Vaneerat, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: TomoHDA can treat with fixed jaws, dynamic jaws, and fixed gantry using either 3DCRT or IMRT. This study compares PTV coverage, OAR sparing, and beam-on-time (BOT) among these techniques for craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Methods: This study includes ten CSI patients treated to 23.4 Gy/13 fractions with Hi-Art 3.0 unit (HT-IMRT fixed 5 cm jaw). New plans were regenerated with 5 cm jaw for TomoHDA Hi-Art 5.0 using dynamic jaw (HD-IMRT), TomoDirect-IMRT (TD-IMRT), and Helical Tomotherapy 3DCRT (HT-3DCRT using 5 cm and 2.5 cm jaws with various pitches). Studied parameters include PTV mean dose, D95 (dose covering 95% of PTV), Paddick's conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI – standard deviation of PTV dose/average PTV dose), BOT, and average OAR doses. Results: PTV coverage from these techniques were comparable (p>0.05). The main differences were in OAR sparing; HDIMRT reduced more OAR doses for lenses, bladder and rectum compared to HT-IMRT. For the sparing of visceral organs: liver, lung, heart, and kidneys, the three IMRT techniques gave comparable results. HD-IMRT gave best heart sparing; HT-IMRT best kidney sparing. Liver and lung doses were best reduced by TD-IMRT. All three IMRT techniques gave comparable BOT. OARs sparing was achieved for jaw size of 2.5 cm. HI was also improved but with doubling of BOT. Increasing the pitch number from 0.2 to 0.43 produced no significant improvement in OAR sparing but CI and HI did improve. Conclusion: HT-3DCRT, HT-IMRT, HD-IMRT or TD-IMRT techniques give comparable PTV coverage but the three IMRT plans better spared OARs compared with 3DCRT plans. Dynamic jaw plan is superior to fixed jaw plan to spare more OAR doses at field edge. TD-IMRT cannot reduce BOT for CSI patient but for sparing certain OAR, TD-IMRT may be used to avoid the beam going through the structures of interest

  6. Dosimetric evaluation of the response of the TLD-100 dosemeters in the IMRT technique by 'Step and Shoot'; Evaluacion dosimetrica de la respuesta de los dosimetros TLD-100 en la tecnica de IMRT por 'Step and Shoot'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, J. [Fundacion Clinica Valle del Lili, A.A. 020338, Cali (Colombia); Benavides, S.O. [Depto. de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2005-07-01

    We show the results of the dosimetry response of LiF thermoluminescent crystals: TLD-100, where they were radiated in a linear accelerator Siemens Primus Hl using the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) by step and shoot technique. Previous to the crystals calibration and response evaluation, the acceptation procedures recommended by the TG-53 protocol for validation of the technique were carried out. The planning system utilized was the Theraplan Plus 3.8, using the algorithm of Pencil Kernel. The register and verification system was Lantis 5.2. The response curve of dose versus charge was obtained from the readings of the TLD in a Harshaw 3500. The crystals were radiated in a Bench- Marck phantom with doses previously determined by using ionization chambers for square radiation fields, in a beam with a 0.68 TPR20,10 corresponding to 6 MV of energy. We compare the response of these through of radiation of segmented fields in a Anthropomorphic phantom and the calculated doses by the planning system. The results obtained in the crystals response show deviations less than 5 % between the measured dose and the calculated dose in the zones of low gradient. It allows its implementation like routine control of quality by IMRT. (Author)

  7. Dosimetry of parotid glands in IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiancheng; Yu Xinsheng; Jiang Guoliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan on the dosimetry of parotid in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Under the same constraints and objections, the IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid and the IMRT plan added plan tumor volume (PTV) margin for parotid gland was investigated. Results: Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan spared unilateral parotid, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. On PTV 60 , D min in the plan of sparing one parotid gland was more than that in normal IMRT plan (P 95 in the plan of sparing one parotid gland have improved (P 50%VOL and D mean of parotid gland were similar between the two plans. Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan added 2 or 3 mm margin for parotid gland, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. D min , D mean and D 95 of PTV 60 have decreased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. D max of brainstem and spine cord have increased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. Conclusions: The IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid may be adopted not to protect both two parotids, while PTV margin for parotid added as parotid move. (authors)

  8. Multi-wire detector characterization for daily quality control on IMRT; Caracterizacao de um detector planar de multiplos fios para controle de qualidade diario de tratamentos com IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Vilma A.; Watanabe, Erika Y.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Menegussi, Gisela, E-mail: vilmaferrari@uol.com.br [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo (ICESP), SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia

    2012-08-15

    Several dosimetry devices are being developed for quality control of radiation treatments using modern techniques as, for example, the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). The main function of these devices are to daily quality control of treatments of patients submitted to IMRT technique. The aim of this study is to characterize a type of planar multi-wire detector - DAVID (PTW) - for use in clinical practice. It was evaluated the influence of the system in the radiation beam by measuring the absorption factors and surface dose. We also analyzed the dose-linearity, reproducibility, the dependence with the dose rate and the angle of the linac head. Small errors in the position of the multi-leaf were inserted to evaluate the sensitivity of the system. The results showed that the detector can absorb up to 6.7% of the dose, depending of the energy beam and the field size. A significant increase in surface dose was observed, indicating that individual analysis is necessary for each patient. The system showed good reproducibility, linear response with dose, low dependence with dose rate and low dependence with the angle of the linac head. When small errors were inserted in the position of the multi-leaf, the system was able to detect them. Thus, the detector DAVID proved to be suitable for daily verification of IMRT treatments. (author)

  9. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy clinical evidence and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Successful clinical use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) represents a significant advance in radiation oncology. Because IMRT can deliver high-dose radiation to a target with a reduced dose to the surrounding organs, it can improve the local control rate and reduce toxicities associated with radiation therapy. Since IMRT began being used in the mid-1990s, a large volume of clinical evidence of the advantages of IMRT has been collected. However, treatment planning and quality assurance (QA) of IMRT are complicated and difficult for the clinician and the medical physicist. This book, by authors renowned for their expertise in their fields, provides cumulative clinical evidence and appropriate techniques for IMRT for the clinician and the physicist. Part I deals with the foundations and techniques, history, principles, QA, treatment planning, radiobiology and related aspects of IMRT. Part II covers clinical applications with several case studies, describing contouring and dose distribution with cl...

  10. Solution IMRT static of a radiotherapy treatment of breast cancer with lymphangitis; Solucion IMRT estatica de un tratamiento radioterapico del cancer de mama con linfangitis carcinomatosa cutanea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertolas Hernandez, J. R.; Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Urraca de la Serna, J. M.; Lozano Flores, F. J.; Pino Leon, C.; Larretxa Etxarri, R.

    2013-07-01

    In breast cancer, the planning of treatment with IMRT technique mode static MLC has been efficient to get a perfect union of doses in the skin between the lower limit of the supraclavicular fields and the upper limit of the tangential fields. The technique Planning requires the creation of auxiliary volumes that allow you to manage the particularities inherent to the tangential fields of breast. (Author)

  11. Influence of intra-fractional breathing movement in step-and-shoot IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M; Muenter, M W; Thilmann, C; Sterzing, F; Haering, P; Combs, S E; Debus, J

    2004-01-01

    Efforts have been made to extend the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy to a variety of organs. One of the unanswered questions is whether breathing-induced organ motion may lead to a relevant over- or underdosage, e.g., in treatment plans for the irradiation of lung cancer. Theoretical considerations have been made concerning the different kinds of IMRT but there is still a lack of experimental data. We examined 18 points in a fraction of a clinical treatment plan of a NSCLC delivered in static IMRT with a new phantom and nine ionization chambers. Measurements were performed at a speed of 12 and 16 breathing cycles per minute. The dose differences between static points and moving target points ranged between -2.4% and +5.5% (mean: +0.2%, median: -0.1%) when moving with 12 cycles min -1 and between -3.6% and +5.0% (mean: -0.4%, median: -0.6%) when moving with 16 cycles min -1 . All differences of measurements with and without movements were below 5%, with one exception. In conclusion, our results underline that at least in static IMRT breathing effects (concerning target dose coverage) due to interplay effects between collimator leaf movement and target movement are of secondary importance and will not reduce the clinical value of IMRT in the step-and-shoot technique for irradiation of thoracic targets. (note)

  12. Effect of beamlet step-size on IMRT plan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Jiang Ziping; Shepard, David; Earl, Matt; Yu, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the degree to which beamlet step-size impacts the quality of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. Treatment planning for IMRT begins with the application of a grid that divides each beam's-eye-view of the target into a number of smaller beamlets (pencil beams) of radiation. The total dose is computed as a weighted sum of the dose delivered by the individual beamlets. The width of each beamlet is set to match the width of the corresponding leaf of the multileaf collimator (MLC). The length of each beamlet (beamlet step-size) is parallel to the direction of leaf travel. The beamlet step-size represents the minimum stepping distance of the leaves of the MLC and is typically predetermined by the treatment planning system. This selection imposes an artificial constraint because the leaves of the MLC and the jaws can both move continuously. Removing the constraint can potentially improve the IMRT plan quality. In this study, the optimized results were achieved using an aperture-based inverse planning technique called direct aperture optimization (DAO). We have tested the relationship between pencil beam step-size and plan quality using the American College of Radiology's IMRT test case. For this case, a series of IMRT treatment plans were produced using beamlet step-sizes of 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm. Continuous improvements were seen with each reduction in beamlet step size. The maximum dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was reduced from 134.7% to 121.5% and the mean dose to the organ at risk (OAR) was reduced from 38.5% to 28.2% as the beamlet step-size was reduced from 10 to 1 mm. The smaller pencil beam sizes also led to steeper dose gradients at the junction between the target and the critical structure with gradients of 6.0, 7.6, 8.7, and 9.1 dose%/mm achieved for beamlet step sizes of 10, 5, 2, and 1 mm, respectively

  13. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Cao, F; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Leong, C; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Schroeder, J; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Lee, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  14. Structure Interlacing and Pore Engineering of Zn2GeO4 Nanofibers for Achieving High Capacity and Rate Capability as an Anode Material of Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jinwen; Cao, Minhua

    2016-01-20

    An interlaced Zn2GeO4 nanofiber network with continuous and interpenetrated mesoporous structure was prepared using a facile electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment. The mesoporous structure in Zn2GeO4 nanofibers is directly in situ constructed by the decomposition of polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP), while the interlaced nanofiber network is achieved by the mutual fusion of the junctions between nanofibers in higher calcination temperatures. When used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), it exhibits superior lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The pore engineering and the interlaced network structure are believed to be responsible for the excellent lithium storage performance. The pore structure allows for easy diffusion of electrolyte, shortens the pathway of Li(+) transport, and alleviates large volume variation during repeated Li(+) extraction/insertion. Moreover, the interlaced network structure can provide continuous electron/ion pathways and effectively accommodate the strain induced by the volume change during the electrochemical reaction, thus maintaining structural stability and mechanical integrity of electrode materials during lithiation/delithiation process. This strategy in current work offers a new perspective in designing high-performance electrodes for LIBs.

  15. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT in the postoperative treatment of an adenocarcinoma of the endometrium complicated by a pelvic kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Paulo ERS

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic Radiotherapy (RT as a postoperative treatment for endometrial cancer improves local regional control. Brachytherapy also improves vaginal control. Both treatments imply significant side effects that a fine RT technique can help avoiding. Intensity Modulated RT (IMRT enables the treatment of the target volume while protecting normal tissue. It therefore reduces the incidence and severity of side effects. Case We report on a 50 year-old patient with a serous-papiliferous adenocarcinoma of the uterus who was submitted to surgical treatment without lymph node sampling followed by Brachytherapy, and Chemotherapy. The patient had a pelvic kidney, and was therefore treated with IMRT. So far, the patient has been free from relapse and with normal kidney function. Conclusion IMRT is a valid technique to prevent the kidney from radiation damage.

  16. Minimizing Late Effects for Patients With Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold, IMRT, or Both?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Marianne C., E-mail: marianne.camille.aznar@regionh.dk [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Faculty of Sciences, Niels Bohr Institute, and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Maraldo, Maja V.; Schut, Deborah A. [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lundemann, Michael [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Faculty of Sciences, Niels Bohr Institute, and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Brodin, N Patrik [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Vogelius, Ivan R. [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena; Petersen, Peter M. [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CD), lung cancer, and breast cancer. We investigated the risk for the development of CD and secondary lung, breast, and thyroid cancer after radiation therapy (RT) delivered with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) compared with free-breathing (FB) using 3-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT (IMRT). The aim of this study was to determine which treatment modality best reduced the combined risk of life-threatening late effects in patients with mediastinal HL. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with early-stage mediastinal HL were eligible for the study. Treatment plans were calculated with both 3DCRT and IMRT on both DIBH and FB planning computed tomographic scans. We reported the estimated dose to the heart, lung, female breasts, and thyroid and calculated the estimated life years lost attributable to CD and to lung, breast, and thyroid cancer. Results: DIBH lowered the estimated dose to heart and lung regardless of delivery technique (P<.001). There was no significant difference between IMRT-FB and 3DCRT-DIBH in mean heart dose, heart V20Gy, and lung V20Gy. The mean breast dose was increased with IMRT regardless of breathing technique. Life years lost was lowest with DIBH and highest with FB. Conclusions: In this cohort, 3DCRT-DIBH resulted in lower estimated doses and lower lifetime excess risks than did IMRT-FB. Combining IMRT and DIBH could be beneficial for a subgroup of patients.

  17. An analysis of tolerance levels in IMRT quality assurance procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basran, Parminder S.; Woo, Milton K.

    2008-01-01

    Increased use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has resulted in increased efforts in patient quality assurance (QA). Software and detector systems intended to streamline the IMRT quality assurance process often report metrics, such as percent discrepancies between measured and computed doses, which can be compared to benchmark or threshold values. The purpose of this work is to examine the relationships between two different types of IMRT QA processes in order to define, or refine, appropriate tolerances values. For 115 IMRT plans delivered in a 3 month period, we examine the discrepancies between (a) the treatment planning system (TPS) and results from a commercial independent monitor unit (MU) calculation program; (b) TPS and results from a commercial diode-array measurement system; and (c) the independent MU calculation and the diode-array measurements. Statistical tests were performed to assess significance in the IMRT QA results for different disease site and machine models. There is no evidence that the average total dose discrepancy in the monitor unit calculation depends on the disease site. Second, the discrepancies in the two IMRT QA methods are independent: there is no evidence that a better --or worse--monitor unit validation result is related to a better--or worse--diode-array measurement result. Third, there is marginal benefit in repeating the independent MU calculation with a more suitable dose point, if the initial IMRT QA failed a certain tolerance. Based on these findings, the authors conclude at some acceptable tolerances based on disease site and IMRT QA method. Specifically, monitor unit validations are expected to have a total dose discrepancy of 3% overall, and 5% per beam, independent of disease site. Diode array measurements are expected to have a total absolute dose discrepancy of 3% overall, and 3% per beam, independent of disease site. The percent of pixels exceeding a 3% and 3 mm threshold in a gamma analysis should be

  18. Retrospective analysis of 'gamma distribution' based IMRT QA criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, C.; Chappell, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: IMRT has been implemented into clinical practice at Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH) since mid 2006 for treating patients with Head and Neck (H and N) or prostate tumours. A local quality assurance (QA) acceptance criteria based on 'gamma distribution' for approving IMRT plan was developed and implemented in early 2007. A retrospective analysis of such criteria over 194 clinical cases will be presented. The RHH IMRT criteria was established with assumption that gamma distribution obtained through inter-comparison of 2 D dose maps between planned and delivered was governed by a positive-hail' normal distribution. A commercial system-MapCheck was used for 2 D dose map comparison with a built-in gamma analysis tool. Gamma distribution histogram was generated and recorded for all cases. By retrospectively analysing those distributions using curve fitting technique, a statistical gamma distribution can be obtained and evaluated. This analytical result can be used for future IMRT planing and treatment delivery. The analyses indicate that gamma distribution obtained through MapCheckTM is well under the normal distribution, particularly for prostate cases. The applied pass/fail criteria is not overly sensitive to identify 'false fails' but can be further tighten-up for smaller field while for larger field found in both H and N and prostate cases, the criteria was correctly applied. Non-uniform distribution of detectors in MapCheck and experience level of planners are two major factors to variation in gamma distribution among clinical cases. This criteria derived from clinical statistics is superior and more accurate than single-valued criteria for lMRT QA acceptance procedure. (author)

  19. SU-F-T-616: Comparison of Different Techniques Using RTOG0631 Guidelines in Spine SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, H; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Codel, G; Pacaci, P; Serin, E; Sanli, E; Kucuk, N; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Caglar, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) for spine metastases involves irradiation using a single high dose fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for spine SBRT in terms of its dosimetric quality and treatment efficiency using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0631 guidelines. Methods: 7 fields IMRT, 2 full arcs VMAT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT were created for ten previously treated patients. The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 1 full VMAT arc and 5 IMRT fields. Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans were compared with IMRT and VMAT plans in terms of the dose distribution, spinal cord sparing, homogeneity, conformity and gradient indexies, monitor unit (MU) and beam on time (BOT). RTOG 0631 recommendations were applied for treatment planning. All plans were normalized and prescribed to deliver 18.0 Gy in a single fraction to 90% of the target volume. Results: The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with IMRT and VMAT techniques. Providing sharp dose gradient Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans spare the spinal cord and healthy tissue more effectively. Although, both MU and BOT slightly increased in Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans there is no statistically meaningful difference between VMAT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans. Conclusion: In IMRT, a smaller volume of healthy tissue can be irradiated in the low dose region, VMAT plans provide better target volume coverage, favorable dose gradient, conformity and better OAR sparing and also they require a much smaller number of MUs and thus a shorter treatment time than IMRT plans. Hybrid plan offers a sinergy through combination of these two techniques with slightly increased number of MU and thus more treatment time.

  20. SU-F-T-616: Comparison of Different Techniques Using RTOG0631 Guidelines in Spine SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, H; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Codel, G; Pacaci, P; Serin, E; Sanli, E; Kucuk, N; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Caglar, H [Ozkok Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) for spine metastases involves irradiation using a single high dose fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for spine SBRT in terms of its dosimetric quality and treatment efficiency using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0631 guidelines. Methods: 7 fields IMRT, 2 full arcs VMAT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT were created for ten previously treated patients. The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 1 full VMAT arc and 5 IMRT fields. Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans were compared with IMRT and VMAT plans in terms of the dose distribution, spinal cord sparing, homogeneity, conformity and gradient indexies, monitor unit (MU) and beam on time (BOT). RTOG 0631 recommendations were applied for treatment planning. All plans were normalized and prescribed to deliver 18.0 Gy in a single fraction to 90% of the target volume. Results: The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with IMRT and VMAT techniques. Providing sharp dose gradient Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans spare the spinal cord and healthy tissue more effectively. Although, both MU and BOT slightly increased in Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans there is no statistically meaningful difference between VMAT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans. Conclusion: In IMRT, a smaller volume of healthy tissue can be irradiated in the low dose region, VMAT plans provide better target volume coverage, favorable dose gradient, conformity and better OAR sparing and also they require a much smaller number of MUs and thus a shorter treatment time than IMRT plans. Hybrid plan offers a sinergy through combination of these two techniques with slightly increased number of MU and thus more treatment time.

  1. SU-F-T-378: Evaluation of Dose-Volume Variability and Parameters Between Prostate IMRT and VMAT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, J [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jiang, R [Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, ON (Canada); Kiciak, A [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study compared the rectal dose-volume consistency, equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) in prostate intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: For forty prostate IMRT and fifty VMAT patients treated using the same dose prescription (78 Gy/39 fraction) and dose-volume criteria in inverse planning optimization, the rectal EUD and NTCP were calculated for each patient. The rectal dose-volume consistency, showing the variability of dose-volume histogram (DVH) among patients, was defined and calculated based on the deviation between the mean and corresponding rectal DVH. Results: From both the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans, the rectal EUD and NTCP were found decreasing with the rectal volume. The decrease rates for the IMRT plans (EUD = 0.47 × 10{sup −3} Gy cm{sup −3} and NTCP = 3.94 × 10{sup −2} % cm{sup −3}) were higher than those for the VMAT (EUD = 0.28 × 10{sup −3} Gy cm{sup −3} and NTCP = 2.61 × 10{sup −2} % cm{sup −3}). In addition, the dependences of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the dose-volume consistency were found very similar between the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans. This shows that both delivery techniques have similar variations of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the dose-volume consistency. Conclusion: Dependences of the dose-volume consistency on the rectal EUD and NTCP were compared between the prostate IMRT and VMAT plans. It is concluded that both rectal EUD and NTCP decreased with an increase of the rectal volume. The variation rates of the rectal EUD and NTCP on the rectal volume were higher for the IMRT plans than VMAT. However, variations of the rectal dose-volume consistency on the rectal EUD and NTCP were found not significant for both delivery techniques.

  2. Combined Adjuvant Radiochemotherapy With IMRT/XELOX Improves Outcome With Low Renal Toxicity in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Weiss, Christel; Mennemeyer, Philipp; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermes, Petra; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Post, Stefan; Massner, Bernd; Hieber, Udo; Hochhaus, Andreas; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Adjuvant radiochemotherapy improves survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer. We assessed in two sequential cohorts whether improved radiotherapy technique (IMRT) together with intensified chemotherapy improves outcome vs. conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and standard chemotherapy in these patients while maintaining or reducing renal toxicity. Materials and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients treated for gastric cancer either with 3D-CRT (n = 27) and IMRT (n = 33) were evaluated. More than 70% had undergone D2 resection. Although there was a slight imbalance in R0 status between cohorts, N+ status was balanced. Chemotherapy consisted predominantly of 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (n = 36) in the earlier cohort and mostly of oxaliplatin/capecitabine (XELOX, n = 24) in the later cohort. Primary end points were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and renal toxicity based on creatinine levels. Results: Median follow-up (FU) of all patients in the 3D-CRT group was 18 months and in the IMRT group 22 months (median FU of surviving patients 67 months in the 3D-CRT group and 25 months in the IMRT group). Overall median survival (and DFS) were 18 (13) months in the 3D-CRT group and both not reached in the IMRT group (p = 0.0492 and 0.0216). Actuarial 2-year survival was 37% and 67% in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively. No late renal toxicity >Grade 2 (LENT-SOMA scale) was observed in either cohort. Conclusion: When comparing sequentially treated patient cohorts with similar characteristics, OS and DFS improved with the use of IMRT and intensified chemotherapy without signs of increased renal toxicity.

  3. A mathematical framework for virtual IMRT QA using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, G; Scheuermann, R; Hung, C Y; Olszanski, A; Bellerive, M; Solberg, T D

    2016-07-01

    It is common practice to perform patient-specific pretreatment verifications to the clinical delivery of IMRT. This process can be time-consuming and not altogether instructive due to the myriad sources that may produce a failing result. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm capable of predicting IMRT QA passing rates a priori. From all treatment, 498 IMRT plans sites were planned in eclipse version 11 and delivered using a dynamic sliding window technique on Clinac iX or TrueBeam Linacs. 3%/3 mm local dose/distance-to-agreement (DTA) was recorded using a commercial 2D diode array. Each plan was characterized by 78 metrics that describe different aspects of their complexity that could lead to disagreements between the calculated and measured dose. A Poisson regression with Lasso regularization was trained to learn the relation between the plan characteristics and each passing rate. Passing rates 3%/3 mm local dose/DTA can be predicted with an error smaller than 3% for all plans analyzed. The most important metrics to describe the passing rates were determined to be the MU factor (MU per Gy), small aperture score, irregularity factor, and fraction of the plan delivered at the corners of a 40 × 40 cm field. The higher the value of these metrics, the worse the passing rates. The Virtual QA process predicts IMRT passing rates with a high likelihood, allows the detection of failures due to setup errors, and it is sensitive enough to detect small differences between matched Linacs.

  4. SU-F-T-384: Step and Shoot IMRT, VMAT and Autoplan VMAT Nasopharnyx Plan Robustness to Linear Accelerator Delivery Errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogson, EM; Hansen, C; Blake, S; Thwaites, D; Arumugam, S; Holloway, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the robustness of different treatment techniques in respect to simulated linac errors on the dose distribution to the target volume and organs at risk for step and shoot IMRT (ssIMRT), VMAT and Autoplan generated VMAT nasopharynx plans. Methods: A nasopharynx patient dataset was retrospectively replanned with three different techniques: 7 beam ssIMRT, one arc manual generated VMAT and one arc automatically generated VMAT. Treatment simulated uncertainties: gantry, collimator, MLC field size and MLC shifts, were introduced into these plans at increments of 5,2,1,−1,−2 and −5 (degrees or mm) and recalculated in Pinnacle. The mean and maximum doses were calculated for the high dose PTV, parotids, brainstem, and spinal cord and then compared to the original baseline plan. Results: Simulated gantry angle errors have <1% effect on the PTV, ssIMRT is most sensitive. The small collimator errors (±1 and ±2 degrees) impacted the mean PTV dose by <2% for all techniques, however for the ±5 degree errors mean target varied by up to 7% for the Autoplan VMAT and 10% for the max dose to the spinal cord and brain stem, seen in all techniques. The simulated MLC shifts introduced the largest errors for the Autoplan VMAT, with the larger MLC modulation presumably being the cause. The most critical error observed, was the MLC field size error, where even small errors of 1 mm, caused significant changes to both the PTV and the OAR. The ssIMRT is the least sensitive and the Autoplan the most sensitive, with target errors of up to 20% over and under dosages observed. Conclusion: For a nasopharynx patient the plan robustness observed is highest for the ssIMRT plan and lowest for the Autoplan generated VMAT plan. This could be caused by the more complex MLC modulation seen for the VMAT plans. This project is supported by a grant from NSW Cancer Council.

  5. SU-F-T-384: Step and Shoot IMRT, VMAT and Autoplan VMAT Nasopharnyx Plan Robustness to Linear Accelerator Delivery Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogson, EM [Institute of Medical Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hansen, C [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Blake, S; Thwaites, D [Institute of Medical Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Arumugam, S [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Holloway, L [Institute of Medical Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the robustness of different treatment techniques in respect to simulated linac errors on the dose distribution to the target volume and organs at risk for step and shoot IMRT (ssIMRT), VMAT and Autoplan generated VMAT nasopharynx plans. Methods: A nasopharynx patient dataset was retrospectively replanned with three different techniques: 7 beam ssIMRT, one arc manual generated VMAT and one arc automatically generated VMAT. Treatment simulated uncertainties: gantry, collimator, MLC field size and MLC shifts, were introduced into these plans at increments of 5,2,1,−1,−2 and −5 (degrees or mm) and recalculated in Pinnacle. The mean and maximum doses were calculated for the high dose PTV, parotids, brainstem, and spinal cord and then compared to the original baseline plan. Results: Simulated gantry angle errors have <1% effect on the PTV, ssIMRT is most sensitive. The small collimator errors (±1 and ±2 degrees) impacted the mean PTV dose by <2% for all techniques, however for the ±5 degree errors mean target varied by up to 7% for the Autoplan VMAT and 10% for the max dose to the spinal cord and brain stem, seen in all techniques. The simulated MLC shifts introduced the largest errors for the Autoplan VMAT, with the larger MLC modulation presumably being the cause. The most critical error observed, was the MLC field size error, where even small errors of 1 mm, caused significant changes to both the PTV and the OAR. The ssIMRT is the least sensitive and the Autoplan the most sensitive, with target errors of up to 20% over and under dosages observed. Conclusion: For a nasopharynx patient the plan robustness observed is highest for the ssIMRT plan and lowest for the Autoplan generated VMAT plan. This could be caused by the more complex MLC modulation seen for the VMAT plans. This project is supported by a grant from NSW Cancer Council.

  6. Optimization of dose distributions for adjuvant locoregional radiotherapy of gastric cancer by IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Dobler, B.; Mai, S.; Hermann, B.; Tiefenbacher, U.; Wieland, P.; Steil, V.; Wenz, F.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Locoregional relapse is a problem frequently encountered with advanced gastric cancer. Data from the randomized Intergroup trial 116 suggest effectiveness of adjuvant radiochemotherapy, albeit with significant toxicity. The potential of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to reduce toxicity by significantly reducing maximum and median doses to organs at risk while still applying sufficient dose to the target volume in the upper abdomen was studied. Patient and Methods: For a typical configuration of target volumes and organs, a step-and-shoot IMRT plan (eight beam orientations), developed as a class solution for treatment of tumors in the upper abdomen (Figures 1 to 3), a conventional plan, a combination of the conventional plan with a kidney-sparing boost plan, and a conventional plan with noncoplanar ap and pa fields for improved kidney sparing were compared with respect to coverage of target volume and dose to organs at risk with a dose of 45 Gy delivered as the median dose to the target volume. Results: When using the conventional three-dimensionally planned box techniques, the right kidney could be kept below tolerance, but median dose to the left kidney amounted to between 14.8 and 26.9 Gy, depending on the plan. IMRT reduced the median dose to the left kidney to 10.5 Gy, while still keeping the dose to the right kidney 90% of prescription dose were delivered to > 90% of target volume with IMRT (Table 1). Conclusion: IMRT has the potential to deliver efficient doses to target volumes in the upper abdomen, while delivering dose to organs at risk in a more advantageous fashion than a conventional technique. For clinical implementation, the possibility of extensive organ motion in the upper abdomen has to be taken into account for treatment planning and patient positioning. The multitude of potential risks related to its application has to be the subject of thorough follow-up and further studies. (orig.)

  7. Inverse vs. forward breast IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Alina; Rakovitch, Eileen; Sixel, Katharina; Woo, Tony; Cardoso, Marlene; Bell, Chris; Ruschin, Mark; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves dose distribution homogeneity within the whole breast. Previous publications report the use of inverse or forward dose optimization algorithms. Because the inverse technique is not widely available in commercial treatment planning systems, it is important to compare the 2 algorithms. The goal of this work is to compare them on a prospective cohort of 30 patients. Dose distributions were evaluated on differential dose-volume histograms using the volumes receiving more than 105% (V 105 ) and 110% (V 110 ) of the prescribed dose, and on the maximum dose (D max ) or hot spot and the sagittal dose gradient (SDG) being the gradient between the dose on inframammary crease and the dose prescribed. The data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The inverse planning significantly improves the V 105 (mean value 9.7% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.002), and the V 110 (mean value 1.4% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.006). However, the SDG is not statistically significantly different for either algorithm. Looking at the potential impact on skin acute reaction, although there is a significant reduction of V 110 using an inverse algorithm, it is unlikely this 1.6% volume reduction will present a significant clinical advantage over a forward algorithm. Both algorithms are equivalent in removing the hot spots on the inframammary fold, where acute skin reactions occur more frequently using a conventional wedge technique. Based on these results, we recommend that both forward and inverse algorithms should be considered for breast IMRT planning

  8. Solution IMRT static of a radiotherapy treatment of breast cancer with lymphangitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertolas Hernandez, J. R.; Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Urraca de la Serna, J. M.; Lozano Flores, F. J.; Pino Leon, C.; Larretxa Etxarri, R.

    2013-01-01

    In breast cancer, the planning of treatment with IMRT technique mode static MLC has been efficient to get a perfect union of doses in the skin between the lower limit of the supraclavicular fields and the upper limit of the tangential fields. The technique Planning requires the creation of auxiliary volumes that allow you to manage the particularities inherent to the tangential fields of breast. (Author)

  9. SU-C-BRD-03: Closing the Loop On Virtual IMRT QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, G; Scheuermann, R; Y, H C.; Olszanski, A; Bellerive, M; Solberg, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an algorithm that predicts a priori IMRT QA passing rates. Methods: 416 IMRT plans from all treatment sites were planned in Eclipse version 11 and delivered using a dynamic sliding window technique on Clinac iX or TrueBeam linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm local distance to agreement (DTA) were recorded during clinical operations using a commercial 2D diode array (MapCHECK 2, Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL). Each plan was characterized by 37 metrics that describe different failure modes between the calculated and measured dose. Machine-learning algorithms (MLAs) were trained to learn the relation between the plan characteristics and each passing rate. Minimization of the cross validated error, together with maximum a posteriori estimation (MAP), were used to choose the model parameters. Results: 3%/3mm local DTA can be predicted with an error smaller than 3% for 98% of the plans. For the remaining 2% of plans, the residual error was within 5%. For 2%/2mm local DTA passing rates, 96% percent of the plans were successfully predicted with an error smaller than 5%. All high-risk plans that failed the 2%/2mm local criteria were correctly identified by the algorithm. The most important metric to describe the passing rates was determined to be the MU per Gray (modulation factor). Conclusions: Logs files and independent dose calculations have been suggested as possible substitutes for measurement based IMRT QA. However, none of these methods answer the fundamental question of whether a plan can be delivered with a clinically acceptable error given the limitations of the linacs and the treatment planning system. Predicting the IMRT QA passing rates a priori closes that loop. For additional robustness, virtual IMRT QA can be combined with Linac QA and log file analysis to confirm appropriate delivery

  10. SU-C-BRD-03: Closing the Loop On Virtual IMRT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, G; Scheuermann, R; Y, H C.; Olszanski, A; Bellerive, M; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an algorithm that predicts a priori IMRT QA passing rates. Methods: 416 IMRT plans from all treatment sites were planned in Eclipse version 11 and delivered using a dynamic sliding window technique on Clinac iX or TrueBeam linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm local distance to agreement (DTA) were recorded during clinical operations using a commercial 2D diode array (MapCHECK 2, Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL). Each plan was characterized by 37 metrics that describe different failure modes between the calculated and measured dose. Machine-learning algorithms (MLAs) were trained to learn the relation between the plan characteristics and each passing rate. Minimization of the cross validated error, together with maximum a posteriori estimation (MAP), were used to choose the model parameters. Results: 3%/3mm local DTA can be predicted with an error smaller than 3% for 98% of the plans. For the remaining 2% of plans, the residual error was within 5%. For 2%/2mm local DTA passing rates, 96% percent of the plans were successfully predicted with an error smaller than 5%. All high-risk plans that failed the 2%/2mm local criteria were correctly identified by the algorithm. The most important metric to describe the passing rates was determined to be the MU per Gray (modulation factor). Conclusions: Logs files and independent dose calculations have been suggested as possible substitutes for measurement based IMRT QA. However, none of these methods answer the fundamental question of whether a plan can be delivered with a clinically acceptable error given the limitations of the linacs and the treatment planning system. Predicting the IMRT QA passing rates a priori closes that loop. For additional robustness, virtual IMRT QA can be combined with Linac QA and log file analysis to confirm appropriate delivery.

  11. Statistical process control analysis for patient-specific IMRT and VMAT QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghangthum, Taweap; Suriyapee, Sivalee; Srisatit, Somyot; Pawlicki, Todd

    2013-05-01

    This work applied statistical process control to establish the control limits of the % gamma pass of patient-specific intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA), and to evaluate the efficiency of the QA process by using the process capability index (Cpml). A total of 278 IMRT QA plans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were measured with MapCHECK, while 159 VMAT QA plans were undertaken with ArcCHECK. Six megavolts with nine fields were used for the IMRT plan and 2.5 arcs were used to generate the VMAT plans. The gamma (3%/3 mm) criteria were used to evaluate the QA plans. The % gamma passes were plotted on a control chart. The first 50 data points were employed to calculate the control limits. The Cpml was calculated to evaluate the capability of the IMRT/VMAT QA process. The results showed higher systematic errors in IMRT QA than VMAT QA due to the more complicated setup used in IMRT QA. The variation of random errors was also larger in IMRT QA than VMAT QA because the VMAT plan has more continuity of dose distribution. The average % gamma pass was 93.7% ± 3.7% for IMRT and 96.7% ± 2.2% for VMAT. The Cpml value of IMRT QA was 1.60 and VMAT QA was 1.99, which implied that the VMAT QA process was more accurate than the IMRT QA process. Our lower control limit for % gamma pass of IMRT is 85.0%, while the limit for VMAT is 90%. Both the IMRT and VMAT QA processes are good quality because Cpml values are higher than 1.0.

  12. Esophagus and contralateral lung-sparing IMRT for locally advanced lung cancer in the community hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny eKao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal technique for performing lung IMRT remains poorly defined. We hypothesize that improved dose distributions associated with normal tissue sparing IMRT can allow for safe dose escalation resulting in decreased acute and late toxicity. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 82 consecutive lung cancer patients treated with curative intent from 1/10 to 9/14. From 1/10 to 4/12, 44 patients were treated with the community standard of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or IMRT without specific esophagus or contralateral lung constraints (standard RT. From 5/12 to 9/14, 38 patients were treated with normal tissue-sparing IMRT with selective sparing of contralateral lung and esophagus. The study endpoints were dosimetry, toxicity and overall survival.Results: Despite higher mean prescribed radiation doses in the normal tissue-sparing IMRT cohort (64.5 Gy vs. 60.8 Gy, p=0.04, patients treated with normal tissue-sparing IMRT had significantly lower lung V20, V10, V5, mean lung, maximum esophagus and mean esophagus doses compared to patients treated with standard RT (p≤0.001. Patients in the normal tissue-sparing IMRT group had reduced acute grade ≥3 esophagitis (0% vs. 11%, p<0.001, acute grade ≥2 weight loss (2% vs. 16%, p=0.04, late grade ≥2 pneumonitis (7% vs. 21%, p=0.02. The 2-year overall survival was 52% with normal tissue-sparing IMRT arm compared to 28% for standard RT (p=0.015.Conclusion: These data provide proof of principle that suboptimal radiation dose distributions are associated with significant acute and late lung and esophageal toxicity that may result in hospitalization or even premature mortality. Strict attention to contralateral lung and esophageal dose volume constraints are feasible in the community hospital setting without sacrificing disease control.

  13. Single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (sVMAT) as adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer: Dosimetric comparisons with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guangjun; Zhang, Yingjie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Youling

    2013-01-01

    To compare the dosimetric differences between the single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (sVMAT), 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for gastric cancer as adjuvant radiotherapy. Twelve patients were retrospectively analyzed. In each patient's case, the parameters were compared based on the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the sVMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT plans, respectively. Three techniques showed similar target dose coverage. The maximum and mean doses of the target were significantly higher in the sVMAT plans than that in 3D-CRT plans and in the 3D-CRT/IMRT plans, respectively, but these differences were clinically acceptable. The IMRT and sVMAT plans successfully achieved better target dose conformity, reduced the V 20/30 , and mean dose of the left kidney, as well as the V 20/30 of the liver, compared with the 3D-CRT plans. And the sVMAT technique reduced the V 20 of the liver much significantly. Although the maximum dose of the spinal cord were much higher in the IMRT and sVMAT plans, respectively (mean 36.4 vs 39.5 and 40.6 Gy), these data were still under the constraints. Not much difference was found in the analysis of the parameters of the right kidney, intestine, and heart. The IMRT and sVMAT plans achieved similar dose distribution to the target, but superior to the 3D-CRT plans, in adjuvant radiotherapy for gastric cancer. The sVMAT technique improved the dose sparings of the left kidney and liver, compared with the 3D-CRT technique, but showed few dosimetric advantages over the IMRT technique. Studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical benefits of the VMAT treatment for patients with gastric cancer after surgery in the future

  14. Definitive Upfront Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Combined with Image-Guided, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IG-IMRT or IG-IMRT Alone for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Chi

    Full Text Available Image-guided (IG intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT enables maximal tumor margin reduction for the sparing of organs at risk (OARs when used to treat locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with definitive chemo-radiation. It also allows for the incorporation of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR into the treatment regimen. Here, we describe our initial experience in combining definitive upfront SABR to the primary lesion with chemo-radiation delivered with conventionally fractionated IG-IMRT to the remaining regional disease; along with clinical outcome following chemo-radiation with conventionally fractionated IG-IMRT alone in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC.The clinical outcome of 29 patients with locally advanced NSCLC who underwent conventionally fractionated IG-IMRT, or definitive upfront SABR followed by IG-IMRT combined with chemotherapy (induction, concurrent, or both was retrospectively reviewed.After a median follow up of 23.7 months, the median overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were 19.8 and 11.3 months, respectively. The 2 year local, regional, and distant control was 60%, 62%, and 38%, respectively. No local failure was observed in 3 patients following SABR + IG-IMRT while 6/26 patients failed locally following IG-IMRT alone. SABR + IG-IMRT was well tolerated. No ≥ grade 3 radiation-related toxicity was observed.Definitive upfront SABR followed by IG-IMRT in selected patients with locally advanced NSCLC warrants further investigation in future clinical trials, while chemo-radiation with IG-IMRT alone was well tolerated.

  15. The effect on IMRT conformality of elastic tissue movement and a practical suggestion for movement compensation via the modified dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S

    2005-01-01

    A major remaining problem in delivering radiotherapy, specifically intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), is the need to accommodate and correct for intrafraction movement. The developing availability of 4D computed tomographic images can potentially form the basis of the new field of image-guided IMRT. It is important to understand the effects on delivered dose of the patient breathing during IMRT and this paper models the effect which applies whether there is or is not a time component to the IMRT delivery method. It then goes on to suggest a practical correction strategy. The 'stretch-and-shift-the-planned-modulations' strategy is proposed and a practical method to deliver this is explained. This practical strategy is based on a modification of the dynamic multileaf collimator IMRT method whereby the leaves are arranged to 'breath' in tandem with the breathing of the patient. Some examples are also given from a study of mismatching the patient and leaf-correction motions

  16. IMRT delivers lower radiation doses to dental structures than 3DRT in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues; Parahyba, Cláudia Joffily; Morais-Faria, Karina; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Ramos, Pedro Augusto Mendes; de Moraes, Fábio Yone; da Conceição Vasconcelos, Karina Gondim Moutinho; Menegussi, Gisela; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Brandão, Thais B

    2016-09-07

    Radiotherapy (RT) is frequently used in the treatment of head and neck cancer, but different side-effects are frequently reported, including a higher frequency of radiation-related caries, what may be consequence of direct radiation to dental tissue. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was developed to improve tumor control and decrease patient's morbidity by delivering radiation beams only to tumor shapes and sparing normal tissue. However, teeth are usually not included in IMRT plannings and the real efficacy of IMRT in the dental context has not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess whether IMRT delivers lower radiation doses to dental structures than conformal 3D radiotherapy (3DRT). Radiation dose delivery to dental structures of 80 patients treated for head and neck cancers (oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx and oropharynx) with IMRT (40 patients) and 3DRT (40 patients) were assessed by individually contouring tooth crowns on patients' treatment plans. Clinicopathological data were retrieved from patients' medical files. The average dose of radiation to teeth delivered by IMRT was significantly lower than with 3DRT (p = 0.007); however, only patients affected by nasopharynx and oral cavity cancers demonstrated significantly lower doses with IMRT (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011, respectively). Molars received more radiation with both 3DRT and IMRT, but the latter delivered significantly lower radiation in this group of teeth (p dental groups. Maxillary teeth received lower doses than mandibular teeth, but only IMRT delivered significantly lower doses (p = 0.011 and p = 0.003). Ipsilateral teeth received higher doses than contralateral teeth with both techniques and IMRT delivered significantly lower radiation than 3DRT for contralateral dental structures (p radiation doses to teeth than 3DRT, but only for some groups of patients and teeth, suggesting that this decrease was more likely due to the protection of

  17. A dose planning study on applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenholt, Marianne S.; Petersen, Joergen B.; Nielsen, Soeren K.; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Locally advanced cervical cancer is usually treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy (BT). However, if response or tumour topography is unfavourable it may be difficult to reach a sufficient BT dose. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost could be combined with brachytherapy to improve dose volume parameters. Material and methods. Dose plans of 6 patients with HR CTV volumes of 31-100cc at the time of BT were analysed. MRI was performed with a combined intracavitary (IC)-interstitial (IS) ring applicator in situ. A radiotherapy schedule consisting of 45Gy (1.8Gyx25) IMRT followed by boost of 28Gy (7Gyx4fx) was modelled. Four different boost techniques were evaluated: IC-BT, IC/IS-BT, IC-BT+IMRT and IMRT. Dose plans were optimised for maximal tumour dose (D90) and coverage (V85Gy) while respecting DVH constraints in organs at risk: D2cc <75Gy in rectum and sigmoid and <90Gy in bladder (EQD2). In combined BT+IMRT dose plans, the IMRT plan was optimised on top of the BT dose distribution. Volumes irradiated to more than 60 Gy EQD2 (V60Gy) were evaluated. Results. Median dose coverage in IC plans was 74% [66-93%]. By using IC/IS or IC-BT+IMRT boost, the median coverage was improved to 95% [78-99%], and to 96% [69-99%] respectively. For IMRT alone, a median coverage of 98% [90-100%] was achieved, but V60Gy volumes were significantly increased by a median factor of 2.0 [1.4-2.3] as compared to IC/IS. It depended on the individual tumour topography whether IC/IS-BT or IC-BT+IMRT boost was the most favourable technique. Conclusion. It is technically possible to create dose plans that combine image guided BT and IMRT. In this study the dose coverage could be significantly increased by adding IS-BT or IMRT boost to the intracavitary dose. Using IMRT alone for boost cannot be advocated since this results in a significant increase of the volume irradiated to 60Gy

  18. A randomized phase II/III study of adverse events between sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; preliminary result on acute adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songthong, Anussara P; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit

    2015-08-08

    To investigate acute and late toxicities comparing sequential (SEQ-IMRT) versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Newly diagnosed stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two sequential radiation treatment plans: 2 Gy x 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV-LR) followed by 2 Gy x 10 fractions to high-risk planning target volume (PTV-HR). In contrast, SIB-IMRT consisted of only one treatment plan: 2.12 Gy and 1.7 Gy x 33 fractions to PTV-HR and PTV-LR, respectively. Toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 4.0. Between October 2010 and November 2013, 122 eligible patients were randomized between SEQ-IMRT (54 patients) and SIB-IMRT (68 patients). With median follow-up time of 16.8 months, there was no significant difference in toxicities between the two IMRT techniques. During chemoradiation, the most common grade 3-5 acute toxicities were mucositis (15.4% vs 13.6%, SEQ vs SIB, p = 0.788) followed by dysphagia (9.6% vs 9.1%, p = 1.000) and xerostomia (9.6% vs 7.6%, p = 0.748). During the adjuvant chemotherapy period, 25.6% and 32.7% experienced grade 3 weight loss in SEQ-IMRT and SIB-IMRT (p = 0.459). One-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 95.8% and 95.5% in SEQ-IMRT and 98% and 90.2% in SIB-IMRT, respectively (p = 0.472 for OS and 0.069 for PFS). This randomized, phase II/III trial comparing SIB-IMRT versus SEQ-IMRT in NPC showed no statistically significant difference between both IMRT techniques in terms of acute adverse events. Short-term tumor control and survival outcome were promising.

  19. A randomized phase II/III study of adverse events between sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; preliminary result on acute adverse events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songthong, Anussara P.; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit

    2015-01-01

    To investigate acute and late toxicities comparing sequential (SEQ-IMRT) versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Newly diagnosed stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two sequential radiation treatment plans: 2Gy x 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV-LR) followed by 2Gy x 10 fractions to high-risk planning target volume (PTV-HR). In contrast, SIB-IMRT consisted of only one treatment plan: 2.12Gy and 1.7Gy x 33 fractions to PTV-HR and PTV-LR, respectively. Toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 4.0. Between October 2010 and November 2013, 122 eligible patients were randomized between SEQ-IMRT (54 patients) and SIB-IMRT (68 patients). With median follow-up time of 16.8 months, there was no significant difference in toxicities between the two IMRT techniques. During chemoradiation, the most common grade 3–5 acute toxicities were mucositis (15.4 % vs 13.6 %, SEQ vs SIB, p = 0.788) followed by dysphagia (9.6 % vs 9.1 %, p = 1.000) and xerostomia (9.6 % vs 7.6 %, p = 0.748). During the adjuvant chemotherapy period, 25.6 % and 32.7 % experienced grade 3 weight loss in SEQ-IMRT and SIB-IMRT (p = 0.459). One-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 95.8 % and 95.5 % in SEQ-IMRT and 98 % and 90.2 % in SIB-IMRT, respectively (p = 0.472 for OS and 0.069 for PFS). This randomized, phase II/III trial comparing SIB-IMRT versus SEQ-IMRT in NPC showed no statistically significant difference between both IMRT techniques in terms of acute adverse events. Short-term tumor control and survival outcome were promising

  20. Gamma index evaluation of IMRT technique using gafchromic film EBT3 for homogeneous and inhomogeneous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisauf, T. A.; Wibowo, W. E.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    This study was done to evaluate the gamma index for registering between the planar of dose planning and the measurement of EBT film. The treatment plan was simulated for 5 patients using Fan Beam Computerized Tomography (FBCT) modality, Philips Pinnacle planning system, 6 MV photon energy, 50 segments IMRT technique, and calculation grid resolution (CGR) of 0.2 cm. Gamma Index (GI) evaluation was done with criteria of dose difference (DD) of 2 %, dose to agreement (DTA) of 2 mm and dose difference (DD) of 5 % DTA of 3 mm, SAD 100 cm, depth of 5 cm and 10 cm of the phantom. The result shows that GI for homogeneous material is greater than for inhomogeneous material with discrepancy to previous work is about 1.98 % for homogeneous material (depth 5 cm) and 2.05 % (depth 10 cm) while it was found of 2.98 % for inhomogeneous material (equivalent depth 5 cm) and 4.59 % (equivalent depth 10 cm).

  1. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU–based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results: At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1–7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–6.2, respectively). Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant

  2. IMRT delivers lower radiation doses to dental structures than 3DRT in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues; Parahyba, Cláudia Joffily; Morais-Faria, Karina; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Ramos, Pedro Augusto Mendes; Moraes, Fábio Yone de; Conceição Vasconcelos, Karina Gondim Moutinho da; Menegussi, Gisela; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Brandão, Thais B.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is frequently used in the treatment of head and neck cancer, but different side-effects are frequently reported, including a higher frequency of radiation-related caries, what may be consequence of direct radiation to dental tissue. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was developed to improve tumor control and decrease patient’s morbidity by delivering radiation beams only to tumor shapes and sparing normal tissue. However, teeth are usually not included in IMRT plannings and the real efficacy of IMRT in the dental context has not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess whether IMRT delivers lower radiation doses to dental structures than conformal 3D radiotherapy (3DRT). Radiation dose delivery to dental structures of 80 patients treated for head and neck cancers (oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx and oropharynx) with IMRT (40 patients) and 3DRT (40 patients) were assessed by individually contouring tooth crowns on patients’ treatment plans. Clinicopathological data were retrieved from patients’ medical files. The average dose of radiation to teeth delivered by IMRT was significantly lower than with 3DRT (p = 0.007); however, only patients affected by nasopharynx and oral cavity cancers demonstrated significantly lower doses with IMRT (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011, respectively). Molars received more radiation with both 3DRT and IMRT, but the latter delivered significantly lower radiation in this group of teeth (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was found for the other dental groups. Maxillary teeth received lower doses than mandibular teeth, but only IMRT delivered significantly lower doses (p = 0.011 and p = 0.003). Ipsilateral teeth received higher doses than contralateral teeth with both techniques and IMRT delivered significantly lower radiation than 3DRT for contralateral dental structures (p < 0.001). IMRT delivered lower radiation doses to teeth than 3DRT, but only for some groups of patients and

  3. Dosimetry investigation of MOSFET for clinical IMRT dose verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudesh; Kumar, Rajesh; Ghadi, Yogesh; Neharu, R M; Kannan, V

    2013-06-01

    In IMRT, patient-specific dose verification is followed regularly at each centre. Simple and efficient dosimetry techniques play a very important role in routine clinical dosimetry QA. The MOSFET dosimeter offers several advantages over the conventional dosimeters such as its small detector size, immediate readout, immediate reuse, multiple point dose measurements. To use the MOSFET as routine clinical dosimetry system for pre-treatment dose verification in IMRT, a comprehensive set of experiments has been conducted, to investigate its linearity, reproducibility, dose rate effect and angular dependence for 6 MV x-ray beam. The MOSFETs shows a linear response with linearity coefficient of 0.992 for a dose range of 35 cGy to 427 cGy. The reproducibility of the MOSFET was measured by irradiating the MOSFET for ten consecutive irradiations in the dose range of 35 cGy to 427 cGy. The measured reproducibility of MOSFET was found to be within 4% up to 70 cGy and within 1.4% above 70 cGy. The dose rate effect on the MOSFET was investigated in the dose rate range 100 MU/min to 600 MU/min. The response of the MOSFET varies from -1.7% to 2.1%. The angular responses of the MOSFETs were measured at 10 degrees intervals from 90 to 270 degrees in an anticlockwise direction and normalized at gantry angle zero and it was found to be in the range of 0.98 ± 0.014 to 1.01 ± 0.014. The MOSFETs were calibrated in a phantom which was later used for IMRT verification. The measured calibration coefficients were found to be 1 mV/cGy and 2.995 mV/cGy in standard and high sensitivity mode respectively. The MOSFETs were used for pre-treatment dose verification in IMRT. Nine dosimeters were used for each patient to measure the dose in different plane. The average variation between calculated and measured dose at any location was within 3%. Dose verification using MOSFET and IMRT phantom was found to quick and efficient and well suited for a busy radiotherapy

  4. Institutional Patient-specific IMRT QA Does Not Predict Unacceptable Plan Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Molineu, Andrea [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kerns, James R.; Faught, Austin M.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Pulliam, Kiley B.; Tonigan, Jackie [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States); Alvarez, Paola [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Stingo, Francesco [The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Followill, David S. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether in-house patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) results predict Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC)-Houston phantom results. Methods and Materials: IROC Houston's IMRT head and neck phantoms have been irradiated by numerous institutions as part of clinical trial credentialing. We retrospectively compared these phantom results with those of in-house IMRT QA (following the institution's clinical process) for 855 irradiations performed between 2003 and 2013. The sensitivity and specificity of IMRT QA to detect unacceptable or acceptable plans were determined relative to the IROC Houston phantom results. Additional analyses evaluated specific IMRT QA dosimeters and analysis methods. Results: IMRT QA universally showed poor sensitivity relative to the head and neck phantom, that is, poor ability to predict a failing IROC Houston phantom result. Depending on how the IMRT QA results were interpreted, overall sensitivity ranged from 2% to 18%. For different IMRT QA methods, sensitivity ranged from 3% to 54%. Although the observed sensitivity was particularly poor at clinical thresholds (eg 3% dose difference or 90% of pixels passing gamma), receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that no threshold showed good sensitivity and specificity for the devices evaluated. Conclusions: IMRT QA is not a reasonable replacement for a credentialing phantom. Moreover, the particularly poor agreement between IMRT QA and the IROC Houston phantoms highlights surprising inconsistency in the QA process.

  5. Institutional Patient-specific IMRT QA Does Not Predict Unacceptable Plan Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, Stephen F.; Molineu, Andrea; Kerns, James R.; Faught, Austin M.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Pulliam, Kiley B.; Tonigan, Jackie; Alvarez, Paola; Stingo, Francesco; Followill, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether in-house patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) results predict Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC)-Houston phantom results. Methods and Materials: IROC Houston's IMRT head and neck phantoms have been irradiated by numerous institutions as part of clinical trial credentialing. We retrospectively compared these phantom results with those of in-house IMRT QA (following the institution's clinical process) for 855 irradiations performed between 2003 and 2013. The sensitivity and specificity of IMRT QA to detect unacceptable or acceptable plans were determined relative to the IROC Houston phantom results. Additional analyses evaluated specific IMRT QA dosimeters and analysis methods. Results: IMRT QA universally showed poor sensitivity relative to the head and neck phantom, that is, poor ability to predict a failing IROC Houston phantom result. Depending on how the IMRT QA results were interpreted, overall sensitivity ranged from 2% to 18%. For different IMRT QA methods, sensitivity ranged from 3% to 54%. Although the observed sensitivity was particularly poor at clinical thresholds (eg 3% dose difference or 90% of pixels passing gamma), receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that no threshold showed good sensitivity and specificity for the devices evaluated. Conclusions: IMRT QA is not a reasonable replacement for a credentialing phantom. Moreover, the particularly poor agreement between IMRT QA and the IROC Houston phantoms highlights surprising inconsistency in the QA process

  6. Phantoms for IMRT dose distribution measurement and treatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel A.; Gerber, Russell L.; Mutic, Sasa; Purdy, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) patient treatment dose distributions is currently based on custom-built or modified dose measurement phantoms. The only commercially available IMRT treatment planning and delivery system (Peacock, NOMOS Corp.) is supplied with a film phantom that allows accurate spatial localization of the dose distribution using radiographic film. However, measurements using other dosimeters are necessary for the thorough verification of IMRT. Methods: We have developed a phantom to enable dose measurements using a cylindrical ionization chamber and the localization of prescription isodose curves using a matrix of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chips. The external phantom cross-section is identical to that of the commercial phantom, to allow direct comparisons of measurements. A supplementary phantom has been fabricated to verify the IMRT dose distributions for pelvis treatments. Results: To date, this phantom has been used for the verification of IMRT dose distributions for head and neck and prostate cancer treatments. Designs are also presented for a phantom insert to be used with polymerizing gels (e.g., BANG-2) to obtain volumetric dose distribution measurements. Conclusion: The phantoms have proven useful in the quantitative evaluation of IMRT treatments

  7. Implementation of IMRT in a real case of breast cancer radiotherapy in the 'Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras' Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Zayas, Michael; Correa Pablos, Tamara; Perez Guevara, Adrian; Gonzalez Perez, Yelina; Sola Rodriguez, Yeline; Reyes Gonzalez, Tommy; Caballero, Roberto; Del Castillo Carrillo, Concepcion; Mena Huerta, Yailen

    2009-01-01

    Patients with left breast cancer suggest a clinical challenge because it radiates significantly heart, lung and contralateral breast with tangential beam techniques. We performed a study to: (1) design a plan using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), (2) compare IMRT plan with a plan of 3DCRT beam shear, (3) quantify the benefits of a treatment modality over another. A case diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with IMRT planned. The planning is done with the TPS Precise Plan version 2.16, with the inverse method based on openings, the treatment is carried out by way of step and shoot in the Elekta Precise Linac model with nominal energy of photons 6mV (TPR20, 10 = 0.681). (Author)

  8. Cardiac dose-sparing effects of deep-inspiration breath-hold in left breast irradiation. Is IMRT more beneficial than VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakka, Mazen; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. [Coburg Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Coburg (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Faculty of Medicine, Erlangen (Germany); Kunzelmann, Leonie; Metzger, Martin [Coburg Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Coburg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Given the reduction in death from breast cancer, as well as improvements in overall survival, adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment for breast cancer. However, left-sided breast irradiation was associated with an increased rate of fatal cardiovascular events due to incidental irradiation of the heart. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to minimize cardiac toxicity of left-sided breast irradiation by new treatment methods such as deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and new radiation techniques, particularly intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DIBH irradiation on cardiac dose compared with free-breathing (FB) irradiation, while the secondary objective was to compare the advantages of IMRT versus VMAT plans in both the FB and the DIBH position for left-sided breast cancer. In all, 25 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients underwent CT simulation in the FB and DIBH position. Five patients were excluded with no cardiac displacement following DIBH-CT simulation. The other 20 patients were irradiated in the DIBH position using respiratory gating. Four different treatment plans were generated for each patient, an IMRT and a VMAT plan in the DIBH and in the FB position, respectively. The following parameters were used for plan comparison: dose to the heart, left anterior descending coronary artery (mean dose, maximum dose, D25% and D45%), ipsilateral, contralateral lung (mean dose, D20%, D30%) and contralateral breast (mean dose). The percentage in dose reduction for organs at risk achieved by DIBH for both IMRT and VMAT plans was calculated and compared for each patient by each treatment plan. DIBH irradiation significantly reduced mean dose to the heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) using both IMRT (heart -20%; p = 0.0002, LADCA -9%; p = 0.001) and VMAT (heart -23%; p = 0.00003, LADCA -16%; p = 0

  9. Dose-volume based ranking of incident beam direction and its utility in facilitating IMRT beam placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreibmann, Eduard; Xing Lei

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Beam orientation optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is computationally intensive, and various single beam ranking techniques have been proposed to reduce the search space. Up to this point, none of the existing ranking techniques considers the clinically important dose-volume effects of the involved structures, which may lead to clinically irrelevant angular ranking. The purpose of this work is to develop a clinically sensible angular ranking model with incorporation of dose-volume effects and to show its utility for IMRT beam placement. Methods and Materials: The general consideration in constructing this angular ranking function is that a beamlet/beam is preferable if it can deliver a higher dose to the target without exceeding the tolerance of the sensitive structures located on the path of the beamlet/beam. In the previously proposed dose-based approach, the beamlets are treated independently and, to compute the maximally deliverable dose to the target volume, the intensity of each beamlet is pushed to its maximum intensity without considering the values of other beamlets. When volumetric structures are involved, the complication arises from the fact that there are numerous dose distributions corresponding to the same dose-volume tolerance. In this situation, the beamlets are not independent and an optimization algorithm is required to find the intensity profile that delivers the maximum target dose while satisfying the volumetric constraints. In this study, the behavior of a volumetric organ was modeled by using the equivalent uniform dose (EUD). A constrained sequential quadratic programming algorithm (CFSQP) was used to find the beam profile that delivers the maximum dose to the target volume without violating the EUD constraint or constraints. To assess the utility of the proposed technique, we planned a head-and-neck and abdominal case with and without the guidance of the angular ranking information. The qualities of the

  10. Multi-institutional comparison of simulated treatment delivery errors in ssIMRT, manually planned VMAT and autoplan-VMAT plans for nasopharyngeal radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogson, Elise M; Aruguman, Sankar; Hansen, Christian R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the impact of simulated errors for nasopharynx radiotherapy across multiple institutions and planning techniques (auto-plan generated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (ap-VMAT), manually planned VMAT (mp-VMAT) and manually planned step and shoot Intensity Modulated Radiation...... Therapy (mp-ssIMRT)). METHODS: Ten patients were retrospectively planned with VMAT according to three institution's protocols. Within one institution two further treatment plans were generated using differing treatment planning techniques. This resulted in mp-ssIMRT, mp-VMAT, and ap-VMAT plans. Introduced...

  11. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in France: the boost of the national funding for the new expensive innovative technologies (STIC 2001 and 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, C.; Lapeyre, M.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Gerard, J.P.; Hasle, E.; Carrere, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    The STIC 2001 and STIC 2002 projects intend to allow the implementation and the assessment of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in France. IMRT is an innovative technique in which the high-dose radiation volume conforms to an accurately defined target volume with less morbidity to the surrounding normal tissues. The main medical objectives of the projects are (1) to improve the therapeutic index while decreasing acute toxicity and late sequelae (mainly xerostomia and acute mucite for head and neck tumors), which allows an increase in the radiation dose to the tumor and then a better tumor control; (2) to propose a salvage treatment to patients who locally recurred in previously irradiated sites; (3) to determine the optimal treatment guidelines for a safe use of the technique in clinical routine. Our projects also aim at comparing IMRT and 3D conformal treatments on the one hand (STIC 2001), and IMRT and conventional treatments on the other hand (STIC 2002), with regard to costs. As a matter of fact, the use of IMRT is presently limited in France because its implementation requires high investment and personnel costs. The seventeen French Regional Cancer Centres involved in the two projects intend to study the additional cost of the use IMRT in comparison with the use of standard techniques, which appears to be a step for a wide use of this technique in France. Each of the studies is two-year prospective, and includes patients with head and neck tumors treated with a curative intend (post operative or exclusive treatments for STIC 2002 and STIC 2002), and patients with a prostate cancer (STIC 2001). (author)

  12. Lhermitte's Sign Developing after IMRT for Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong C. Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lhermitte's sign (LS is a benign form of myelopathy with neck flexion producing an unpleasant electric-shock sensation radiating down the extremities. Although rare, it can occur after head and neck radiotherapy. Results. We report a case of Lhermitte's developing after curative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for a patient with locoregionally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. IMRT delivers a conformal dose of radiation in head and neck cancer resulting in a gradient of radiation dose throughout the spinal cord. Using IMRT, more dose is delivered to the anterior spinal cord than the posterior cord. Conclusions. Lhermitte's sign can develop after IMRT for head and neck cancer. We propose an anterior spinal cord structure, the spinothalamic tract to be the target of IMRT-caused LS.

  13. Treatment accuracy of hypofractionated spine and other highly conformal IMRT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.; Hanlon, P.; Charles, P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Spinal cord metastases pose difficult challenges for radiation treatment due to tight dose constraints and a concave PTY. This project aimed to thoroughly test the treatment accuracy of the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) for highly modulated IMRT treatments, in particular of the thoracic spine, using an Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator. The increased understanding obtained through different quality assurance techniques allowed recommendations to be made for treatment site commissioning with improved accuracy at the Princess Alexandra Hospital (PAH). Three thoracic spine IMRT plans at the PAH were used for data collection. Complex phantom models were built using CT data, and fields simulated using Monte Carlo modelling. The simulated dose distributions were compared with the TPS using gamma analysis and DYH comparison. High resolution QA was done for all fields using the MatriXX ion chamber array, MapCHECK2 diode array shifted, and the EPlD to determine a procedure for commissioning new treatment sites. Basic spine simulations found the TPS overestimated absorbed dose to bone, however within spinal cord there was good agreement. High resolution QA found the average gamma pass rate of the fields to be 99.1 % for MatriXX, 96.5% for MapCHECK2 shifted and 97.7% for EPlD. Preliminary results indicate agreement between the TPS and delivered dose distributions higher than previously believed for the investigated IMRT plans. The poor resolution of the MatriXX, and normalisation issues with MapCHECK2 leads to probable recommendation of EPlD for future IMRT commissioning due to the high resolution and minimal setup required.

  14. Acceptance for clinical use of a treatment planning system with IMRT and VMAT techniques; Aceptacion para uso clinico de un sistema de planificacion de tratamientos con tecnicas de IMRT y VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna, A.; Puchades, V.; Mata, F.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: In this work the set of measurements and results to test the reliability of the calculated absorbed dose by our treatment planning system (Tps) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (Imr) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (Vat) is reported. Method: A set of measures was performed, both point and planar absorbed dose, selecting a set of conventional and Imr and Vat treatment fields. A gamma criteria 3 mm distance to agreement and 3% dose difference (referred to the maximum dose) was used for the planar distribution analysis, using a 10% of maximum dose as threshold. Based on this set of measures the confidence limits were calculated for the Imr and VMAT plans, and compared with the reference values given in AAPM TG119 document. Results: The average percentage deviation of point dose measures was lower than 0.5% for conventional fields and lower than 1% for IMRT and VMAT fields. Calculated confidence limits were 3.6% and 4.6% for point dose and almost zero for planar dose distributions, for IMRT and VMAT respectively. Conclusions: Our confidence levels improve significantly the AAPM TG119 reference levels both for point and planar doses, thus ensuring the reliability of the TPS performing IMRT and VMAT dose calculations. (Author) 17 refs.

  15. Limited parameter set IMRT for carcinoma breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, M.; Sharma, Sanjiv; Vivek, T.R.; Suparna; Deka, Preeti; Manikandan; Giriraj

    2008-01-01

    Post operative radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery is an effective and widely accepted treatment modality in early stage breast cancer. The treatment is usually performed using two wedged tangential photon beams. The disadvantage of this technique is significant dose inhomogeneity as large as 15-20% in the superior and inferior regions of the breast due to lesser transmission thickness and in the medial and lateral aspect of the breast due to lower attenuation of lung tissue in the field. The aim of the study is to modify the conventional wedged tangential pair to achieve a more homogeneous dose distribution and a reduction in acute toxicity and improved cosmetic result. A comparative study is done between the conventional wedged technique and limited parameter set IMRT

  16. Comparative dosimetric analysis of IMRT and VMAT (RapidArc in brain, head and neck, breast and prostate malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Athar Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in the recent past has established itself as a gold standard for organs at risk (OAR sparing, target coverage and dose conformity. With the advent of a rotational treatment technology such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT, an inter-comparison is warranted to address the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Methods: Twenty patients were selected retrospectively from our patient database. Sites included were brain, head and neck, chest wall, and prostate, with five patients for each site. For all the selected patients, both the IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated. Plan comparison was done in terms of OAR dose, dose homogeneity index (HI, dose conformity index (CI, target coverage, low isodose volumes, monitor units (MUs, and treatment time.Results: The VMAT showed better sparing of “parotids minus planning target volume (PTV”, spinal cord and head of femur as compared to the IMRT. The lung V40 for VMAT was lower, whereas the lung V10, contralateral lung mean dose, contralateral breast mean dose and mean body dose were lower with IMRT for chest wall cases. Both the VMAT and IMRT achieved comparable HI except for the brain site, where IMRT scored over VMAT. The CI achieved by the IMRT and VMAT were similar except for chest wall cases, whereas the VMAT achieved better dose conformity. The target coverage was comparable with both the plans. The VMAT clearly scored over IMRT in terms of average MUs (486 versus 812 respectively and average treatment time (2.54 minutes versus 5.54 minutes per treatment session. Conclusion: The VMAT (RapidArc has a potential to generate treatment plans for various anatomical sites which are comparable with the corresponding IMRT plans in terms of OAR sparing and plan quality parameters. The VMAT significantly reduces treatment time as compared to the IMRT, thus VMAT can increase the throughput of a busy radiotherapy department.

  17. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salz, H.; Wiezorek, T.; Scheithauer, M.; Kleen, W.; Schwedas, M.; Wendt, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation with intensity-modulated fields is possible with static as well as dynamic methods. In our university hospital, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators was prepared and used for the first time for patient irradiation in July 2001. The compensators consist of a mixture of tin granulate and wax, which is filled in a milled negative mould. The treatment planning is performed with Helax-TMS (MDS Nordion). An additional software is used for editing the modulation matrix ('Modifix'). Before irradiation of the first patient, extensive measurements have been carried out in terms of quality assurance of treatment planning and production of compensators. The results of the verification measurements have shown that IMRT with compensators possesses high spatial and dosimetric exactness. The calculated dose distributions are applied correctly. The accuracy of the calculated monitor units is normally better than 3%; in small volumes, further dosimetric inaccuracies between calculated and measured dose distributions are mostly less than 3%. Therefore, the compensators contribute to the achievement of high-level IMRT even when apparatuses without MLC are used. This paper describes the use of the IMRT with compensators, presents the limits of this technology, and discusses the first practical experiences. (orig.) [de

  18. Planning issues for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, P.; Schneider, M.; Smee, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Despite the 'inverse planning' stage of an intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment there remains a large number of variables that can, and must, be set manually. These variables can significantly affect the quality of the dose distribution arrived at by the optimisation. Clinical IMRT planning with the Radionics XPlan system for micro-multileaf collimator (MMLC) delivery has allowed for important lessons to be learned regarding the best beam and organ configurations prior to optimisation of beamlet weights. Important user-definable variables are beam directions, organ parameters (dose goals/penalties), and the margin (if any) around the planning target volume (PTV) used to aid coverage. Conventional stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments typically involve non-coplanar beams since there is often an advantage in terms of cranial organ at risk (OAR) sparing. IMRT can also benefit from such a configuration. The balance between target coverage and OAR sparing is largely controlled by user-defined goal doses and penalties. Once optimisation has been performed, intensity maps can be discretised into a selected number of levels. Less levels means less field segments and thus a shorter treatment time. Although IMRT beams attempt to spare structures which are in the 'beam's eye view' (BEV) of the target volume, sparing is greater if beams which minimise the involvement of OARs in their view are used. It has been found that the use of a margin is an effective way to ensure adequate PTV coverage. Alternatively the PTV penalties can be made larger. The best result is often obtained by the use of a 3-4 mm margin, whose penalty for underdosage is somewhat less than that for the PTV. Discretising the intensity maps to 4 or 5 levels is typically a good balance between shortening treatment time and not overly degrading the dose distribution. Beam configuration is still an important step in IMRT planning, even though optimisation of intensity maps is

  19. SU-E-T-393: Evaluation of Large Field IMRT Versus RapidArc Planning for Carcinoma Cervix with Para-Aotic Node Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S Kothanda; Girigesh, Y; MISHRA, M; Lalit, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare Large field IMRT and RapidArc planning for Carcinoma Cervix and Para-aotic node irradiation. Methods: In this study, ten patients of Cervix with para-aotic node have been selected with PTV length 35+2cm. All plans were generated in Eclipse TPS V10.0 with Dynamic IMRT and RapidArc technique using 6MV photon energy. In IMRT planning, 7 fields were chosen to get optimal plan and in RapidArc, double Full arc clockwise and counter clockwise were used for planning. All the plans were generated with single isocenter and calculated using AAA dose algorithm. For all the cases the prescribed dose to PTV was same and the plan acceptance criteria is; 95% of the PTV volume should receive 100% prescribed dose. The tolerance doses for the OAR’s is also taken in to account. The evaluation criteria used for analysis are; 1) Homogeneity Index, 2) Conformity Index, 3) Mean Dose to OAR’s, 4)Total monitor units delivered. Results: DVH analysis were performed for both IMRT and RapidArc planning. In both the plans, 95% of PTV volume receives prescribed dose and maximum dose are less than 107%. The conformity index are same in both the techniques. The mean Homogeneity index are 1.036 and 1.053 for IMRT and RapidArc plan. The mean (mean + SD) dose of bladder and rectum in IMRT is 44.2+1.55, 42.05+2.52 and RapidArc is 46.66+1.6, 44.2+2.75 respectively. There is no significant difference found in Right Femoral head, Left Femoral head and Kidney doses. It is found that total MU’s are more in IMRT compared with RapidArc planning. Conclusion: In the case of cervix with Para-arotic node single isocenter irradiation, IMRT planning in large-field is better compared to RapidArc planning in terms of Homogeneity Index and mean dose of Bladder and Rectum

  20. SU-E-T-393: Evaluation of Large Field IMRT Versus RapidArc Planning for Carcinoma Cervix with Para-Aotic Node Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, S Kothanda; Girigesh, Y; MISHRA, M; Lalit, K [Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare Large field IMRT and RapidArc planning for Carcinoma Cervix and Para-aotic node irradiation. Methods: In this study, ten patients of Cervix with para-aotic node have been selected with PTV length 35+2cm. All plans were generated in Eclipse TPS V10.0 with Dynamic IMRT and RapidArc technique using 6MV photon energy. In IMRT planning, 7 fields were chosen to get optimal plan and in RapidArc, double Full arc clockwise and counter clockwise were used for planning. All the plans were generated with single isocenter and calculated using AAA dose algorithm. For all the cases the prescribed dose to PTV was same and the plan acceptance criteria is; 95% of the PTV volume should receive 100% prescribed dose. The tolerance doses for the OAR’s is also taken in to account. The evaluation criteria used for analysis are; 1) Homogeneity Index, 2) Conformity Index, 3) Mean Dose to OAR’s, 4)Total monitor units delivered. Results: DVH analysis were performed for both IMRT and RapidArc planning. In both the plans, 95% of PTV volume receives prescribed dose and maximum dose are less than 107%. The conformity index are same in both the techniques. The mean Homogeneity index are 1.036 and 1.053 for IMRT and RapidArc plan. The mean (mean + SD) dose of bladder and rectum in IMRT is 44.2+1.55, 42.05+2.52 and RapidArc is 46.66+1.6, 44.2+2.75 respectively. There is no significant difference found in Right Femoral head, Left Femoral head and Kidney doses. It is found that total MU’s are more in IMRT compared with RapidArc planning. Conclusion: In the case of cervix with Para-arotic node single isocenter irradiation, IMRT planning in large-field is better compared to RapidArc planning in terms of Homogeneity Index and mean dose of Bladder and Rectum.

  1. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Materials and methods: The incidence of high grade (⩾G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D 50 ) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ⩾G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p = 0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p = 0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p = 0.15). D 50 for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7–28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8–30.3) for c-IMRT. Conclusion: Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone

  2. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. The incidence of high grade (≥G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D₅₀) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100mg/m(2) was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ≥G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p=0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p=0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p=0.15). D₅₀ for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7-28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8-30.3) for c-IMRT. Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. BENEFITS OF INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY (IMRT IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD AND NECK MALIGNANCIES- A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Seasor Abraham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Radiotherapy and surgery are the principal curative modalities in treatment of head and neck cancer. Conventional twodimensional and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy result in significant side effects and altered quality of life. IntensityModulated Radiotherapy (IMRT can spare the normal tissues, while delivering a curative dose to the tumour-bearing tissues. This study reveals the role of IMRT in head and neck cancer in view of normal tissue sparing with good tumour control. MATERIALS AND METHODS Radical radiotherapy was given using linear accelerator up to a dose of 66 to 70 gray in 30 to 33 fractions (intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost over 6 to 7 weeks to 56 eligible patients. Concurrent cisplatin was given to patients with locally-advanced disease up to a dose of 40 mg/m2 weekly once along with radiation. The patients were monitored weekly once during the treatment for acute skin and mucosal toxicities using the RTOG scoring criteria. After the treatment, locoregional response was assessed and recorded at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months intervals. RESULTS Severe skin toxicity (grade III or more was seen in approximately 7% patients. Severe mucosal toxicity (grade III or more was seen in approximately 80% of patients. IMRT technique showed better skin sparing compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy. Severe mucosal toxicity was slightly higher in this study due to the simultaneous integrated boost technique used for dose intensification to the mucosa, which results in better primary tumour control. At the end of 6 months, 75% patients achieved locoregional control and residual/recurrent disease was seen in 25% of patients. IMRT offered good locoregional control with less skin toxicity and acceptable mucosal toxicity. The results were similar to the previous study reports using IMRT. CONCLUSION IMRT is a better treatment option in locally-advanced head and neck malignancies providing good

  4. IMRT treatment planning-A comparative inter-system and inter-centre planning exercise of the ESTRO QUASIMODO group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohsung, Joerg; Gillis, Sofie; Arrans, Rafael; Bakai, Annemarie; De Wagter, Carlos; Knoeoes, Tommy; Mijnheer, Ben J.; Paiusco, Marta; Perrin, Bruce A.; Welleweerd, Hans; Williams, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this work was a comparison of realistic IMRT plans based on the same CT-image data set and a common predefined set of dose objectives for the planning target volume and the organs at risk. This work was part of the larger European QUASIMODO IMRT verification project. Materials and methods: Eleven IMRT plans were produced by nine different European groups, each applying a representative set of clinically used IMRT treatment planning systems. The plans produced were to be deliverable in a clinically acceptable treatment time with the local technical equipment. All plans were characterized using a set of different quality measures such as dose-volume histograms, number of monitor units and treatment time. Results: Only one plan was able to fulfil all dose objectives strictly; six plans failed some of the objectives but were still considered to be clinically acceptable; four plans were not able to reach the objectives. Additional quality scores such as the number of monitor units and treatment time showed large variations, which mainly depend on the delivery technique. Conclusion: The presented planning study showed that with nearly all presently available IMRT planning and delivery systems comparable dose distributions could be achieved if the planning goals are clearly defined in advance

  5. Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Gainey, Mark B; Flentje, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ('2-Step Fast'). 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR). A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV), a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ('old' linac) and two Elekta Synergy™ 'S' linacs ('new' linacs). 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured) values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21%) for the new linac, and of 7% (3%) for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time reduction. 2-Step

  6. Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratengeier Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. Materials/Methods A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ("2-Step Fast". 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV and the organs at risk (OAR. A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV, a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ("old" linac and two Elekta Synergy™ "S" linacs ("new" linacs. Results 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21% for the new linac, and of 7% (3% for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time

  7. Endocavitary in vivo Dosimetry for IMRT Treatments of Gynecologic Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilla, Savino; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesù, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Sabatino, Domenico; Morganti, Alessio G.; Piermattei, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy and reproducibility of endometrial carcinoma treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was assessed by means of in vivo dosimetry. Six patients who had previously undergone radical hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma were treated with IMRT using a vaginal applicator with radio-opaque fiducial markers. An ion-chamber inserted into the applicator supplied an endocavitary in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance purposes. The ratio R = D/D TPS between the in vivo measured dose D and the predicted dose by the treatment planning system D TPS was determined for every fraction of the treatment. Results showed that 90% and 100% of the ratios resulted equal to 1 within 5% and 10%, respectively. The mean value of the ratios distribution for the 6 patients was R = 0.995 and the SD = 0.034. The ratio R* between the measured and predicted total doses for each patient was near to 1, within 2%. The dosimetric results suggest that the use of a vaginal applicator in an image-guided approach could make the interfractions target position stable and reproducible, allowing a safe use of the IMRT technique in the treatment of postoperative vaginal vault. In vivo dosimetry may supply useful information about the discrimination of random vs. systematic errors. The workload is minimum and this in vivo dosimetry can be applied also in the clinical routine.

  8. Comparison of radiotherapy dosimetry for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on electron density calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartutik, K; Pawiro, S A; Wibowo, W E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculation of dose distribution affected by inhomogeneity tissue is required in radiotherapy planning. This study was performed to determine the ratio between radiotherapy planning using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on a calibrated curve of CT-number in the lung for different target's shape in 3D-CRT, IMRT, and spinal cord for SBRT. Calibration curves of CT-number were generated under measurement basis and introduced into TPS, then planning was performed for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT with 7, and 15 radiation fields. Afterwards, planning evaluation was performed by comparing the DVH curve, HI, and CI. 3D-CRT and IMRT produced the lowest HI at calibration curve of CIRS 002LFC with the value 0.24 and 10. Whereas SBRT produced the lowest HI on a linear calibration curve with a value of 0.361. The highest CI in IMRT and SBRT technique achieved using a linear calibration curve was 0.97 and 1.77 respectively. For 3D-CRT, the highest CI was obtained by using calibration curve of CIRS 062M with the value of 0.45. From the results of CI and HI, it is concluded that the calibration curve of CT-number does not significantly differ with Schneider's calibrated curve, and inverse planning gives a better result than forward planning. (paper)

  9. Acute effects of Radiotherapy in patients with Head and Neck Cancer: IMRT vs RapidArcTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a standard treatment in the multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of head and neck carcinomas (HNC. The description and perception of the effects caused by the treatment in the normal tissues is important for the clinical evaluation of the patient because treatment is interrupted if the patient develops several acute side effects which directly affect their survival. This study involved 46 patients over 6 weeks of treatment and evaluated the observed acute effects of treatment in five different anatomical areas - skin, mucosa, salivary glands, pharynx /esophagus and larynx. This evaluation adopted the classification of the Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG. Data analysis revealed that the acute effects related to the RapidArcTM technique appeared earlier when compared to IMRT techniques. On the other hand, the IMRT technique showed more exacerbated high-grade effects.

  10. Conformal intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered by robotic linac - testing IMRT to the limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could be delivered optimally by a short-length linac mounted on a robotic arm. The robot would allow the linac to 'plant' narrow pencils of photon radiation with any orientation (excluding zones within which the linac and couch might collide) relative to the planning target volume (PTV). The treatment is specified by the trajectory of the robot and by the number of monitor units (MUs) delivered at each robotic orientation. An inverse-planning method to determine the optimum robotic trajectory is presented. It is shown that for complex PTVs, specifically those with concavities in their outline, the conformality of the treatment is improved by the use of a complex trajectory in comparison with a less complex constrained trajectory and this improvement is quantified. It is concluded that robotic linac delivery would lead to a great flexibility in those IMRT treatments requiring very complicated dose distributions with complex 3D shapes. However, even using very fast computers, the goal of determining whether robotic linac delivery is the ultimate IMRT cannot be conclusively reached at present. (author)

  11. Dosimetric characterization of the PTW Seven29 dosimeter and Octavius Phantom for IMRT quality control; Caracterizacao dosimetrica do dosimetro PTW Seven29 e Octavius Phantom para controle de qualidade em IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Leandro R.; Habitzreuter, Angela B.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Watanabe, Erica Y.; Silva, Marco A.; Menegussi, Gisela; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: leandrorg11@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cacer do Estado de Sao Paulo (ICESP), SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2012-12-15

    Techniques like IMRT, VMAT and tomotherapy has been used to improve dose conformity in the target, while sparing adjacent normal tissues. The complexity of this techniques challenge to correctly verify the dose delivery, in an independent way. Matrix detectors have been used for this purpose. Although, to exactly understand the dosimeter response and to identify his limitations, characterization measurements need to be performed. These dosimeters, for instance, can present angular dependence. Phantoms has been designed to, when used together the detector, eliminate this angular dependence. The aim of this work was to characterize PTW Seven 29 dosimeter and also his use with Octavius Phantom (PTW). The dosimeter showed reproducible with 0.25% the biggest standard deviation, good dose linearity and dose rate independence. Differences for output factors were obtained (<6%), but a clinical case measurement showed that the set can be used for IMRT verification. When used with Octavius Phantom the dosimeter showed low angular dependence. (author)

  12. SU-E-T-478: Sliding Window Multi-Criteria IMRT Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, D; Papp, D; Unkelbach, J; Bokrantz, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a method for what-you-see-is-what-you-get multi-criteria Pareto surface navigation for step and shoot IMRT treatment planning. Methods: We show mathematically how multiple sliding window treatment plans can be averaged to yield a single plan whose dose distribution is the dosimetric average of the averaged plans. This is incorporated into the Pareto surface navigation based approach to treatment planning in such a way that as the user navigates the surface, the plans he/she is viewing are ready to be delivered (i.e. there is no extra ‘segment the plans’ step that often leads to unacceptable plan degradation in step and shoot Pareto surface navigation). We also describe how the technique can be applied to VMAT. Briefly, sliding window VMAT plans are created such that MLC leaves paint out fluence maps every 15 degrees or so. These fluence map leaf trajectories are averaged in the same way the static beam IMRT ones are. Results: We show mathematically that fluence maps are exactly averaged using our leaf sweep averaging algorithm. Leaf transmission and output factor corrections effects, which are ignored in this work, can lead to small errors in terms of the dose distributions not being exactly averaged even though the fluence maps are. However, our demonstrations show that the dose distributions are almost exactly averaged as well. We demonstrate the technique both for IMRT and VMAT. Conclusions: By turning to sliding window delivery, we show that the problem of losing plan fidelity during the conversion of an idealized fluence map plan into a deliverable plan is remedied. This will allow for multicriteria optimization that avoids the pitfall that the planning has to be redone after the conversion into MLC segments due to plan quality decline. David Craft partially funded by RaySearch Laboratories

  13. SU-E-T-478: Sliding Window Multi-Criteria IMRT Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, D; Papp, D; Unkelbach, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bokrantz, R [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a method for what-you-see-is-what-you-get multi-criteria Pareto surface navigation for step and shoot IMRT treatment planning. Methods: We show mathematically how multiple sliding window treatment plans can be averaged to yield a single plan whose dose distribution is the dosimetric average of the averaged plans. This is incorporated into the Pareto surface navigation based approach to treatment planning in such a way that as the user navigates the surface, the plans he/she is viewing are ready to be delivered (i.e. there is no extra ‘segment the plans’ step that often leads to unacceptable plan degradation in step and shoot Pareto surface navigation). We also describe how the technique can be applied to VMAT. Briefly, sliding window VMAT plans are created such that MLC leaves paint out fluence maps every 15 degrees or so. These fluence map leaf trajectories are averaged in the same way the static beam IMRT ones are. Results: We show mathematically that fluence maps are exactly averaged using our leaf sweep averaging algorithm. Leaf transmission and output factor corrections effects, which are ignored in this work, can lead to small errors in terms of the dose distributions not being exactly averaged even though the fluence maps are. However, our demonstrations show that the dose distributions are almost exactly averaged as well. We demonstrate the technique both for IMRT and VMAT. Conclusions: By turning to sliding window delivery, we show that the problem of losing plan fidelity during the conversion of an idealized fluence map plan into a deliverable plan is remedied. This will allow for multicriteria optimization that avoids the pitfall that the planning has to be redone after the conversion into MLC segments due to plan quality decline. David Craft partially funded by RaySearch Laboratories.

  14. Biomimetic synthesis of interlaced mesh structures TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanghui [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering(Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 China (China); Zhang, Tianyong, E-mail: tyzhang@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering(Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 China (China); Li, Bin, E-mail: libin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering(Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 China (China); Zhang, Xia; Chen, Xingwei [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 China (China)

    2016-05-25

    A facile and economical method assisted by PPs (the spongy white peels of pomelo peel) was applied for preparing interlaced mesh structures TiO{sub 2} nanofibers by a liquid impregnation method followed by a calcination process in this study. And the as-prepared materials were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The resultant TiO{sub 2} materials exhibit unique morphology, in which the curly nanofibers with the diameter about 90 nm interweave each other for assembling hierarchical mesh structures and there are abundant grooves on the surface of the nanofibers. During the bio-inspired synthetic process, the PPs play important roles as template and induction for forming the hierarchical mesh structures of TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. Furthermore, some of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} samples exhibit 99% degradation rate for methyl orange in 30 min under UV light irradiation, which can be ascribed to the larger surface area and the unique hierarchical mesh structures. In addition, the stability tests of 5 cycling runs of the photocatalysts indicate that the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanofibers can be applied as a practical photocatalyst for degrading organic dyes under UV light irradiation. Therefore, hopefully, the strategy for preparing the TiO{sub 2} nanofibers can be extended to design many more powerful photocatalysts for the environmental remediation in the near future. - Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with interlaced mesh structures were prepared with PPs (the spongy white peels of pomelo peel) as the reactive substrate and directing template, and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) as titanium resource. And the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} samples exhibit highly photocatalytic activity and good stability for degrading methyl orange under UV light irradiation. - Highlights: • A

  15. Comparative evaluation of Map-Check and Arc-Check for dosimetric verification in patients treaties with IMRT; Evaluacion comparativa de MapCHECK y ArcCHECK para verificacion dosimetrica en pacientes tratados con IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; Marquina, J.; Ramirez, J.; Gonzales, A., E-mail: bertha.garcia@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The dosimetric controls that are realized to the patients in the Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques; are indispensable since allows in real time to verify the quantity of imparted dose to the patient, these controls should be carried out every time that will begin a treatment, because these techniques impart dose dynamically modulating the dose intensity and movements of the Multi leaf Collimator (MLC), for they exist different diodes devices prepared in spiral (3-D) and planar form (2-D); that allows to estimate the dose fluence in a certain area. Treatment studies for head and neck with IMRT were compared regarding the reading average carried out by the diodes in the corresponding areas, using the criteria of the gamma index like dose difference 3% or 3m m of distance for both diode arrangements, in the IMRT case was found in Arc-Check a minor difference of 3/3 for an average of 99.37% of read diodes in a correct way contrary to the reading obtained with the Map-Check 3/3 an average of difference of 96.19%; in IMRT the difference was lower due to different factors like sensibility of the diodes reading, resolution, diodes disposition, as well as the average reading of entrance and exit of the radiation beams. Within the parameters delivered by the diodes arrangement is considered the positioning correction for both acceptance indexes like the gamma factor and the Distance-to-agreement (Dta), the existent difference of reading in factor gamma and Dta fundamentally is the way in like they compare the dose distribution; the Gamma uses dose averages of high and low gradients and Dta use only averages of areas of high gradients between the nearest points giving the distance as a result among the distribution point and the nearest point what makes stricter. (Author)

  16. Head-and-neck IMRT treatments assessed with a Monte Carlo dose calculation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, J; Adams, E; Bidmead, M; Partridge, M; Verhaegen, F

    2005-01-01

    IMRT is frequently used in the head-and-neck region, which contains materials of widely differing densities (soft tissue, bone, air-cavities). Conventional methods of dose computation for these complex, inhomogeneous IMRT cases involve significant approximations. In the present work, a methodology for the development, commissioning and implementation of a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine for intensity modulated radiotherapy (MC-IMRT) is proposed which can be used by radiotherapy centres interested in developing MC-IMRT capabilities for research or clinical evaluations. The method proposes three levels for developing, commissioning and maintaining a MC-IMRT dose calculation engine: (a) development of a MC model of the linear accelerator, (b) validation of MC model for IMRT and (c) periodic quality assurance (QA) of the MC-IMRT system. The first step, level (a), in developing an MC-IMRT system is to build a model of the linac that correctly predicts standard open field measurements for percentage depth-dose and off-axis ratios. Validation of MC-IMRT, level (b), can be performed in a rando phantom and in a homogeneous water equivalent phantom. Ultimately, periodic quality assurance of the MC-IMRT system is needed to verify the MC-IMRT dose calculation system, level (c). Once the MC-IMRT dose calculation system is commissioned it can be applied to more complex clinical IMRT treatments. The MC-IMRT system implemented at the Royal Marsden Hospital was used for IMRT calculations for a patient undergoing treatment for primary disease with nodal involvement in the head-and-neck region (primary treated to 65 Gy and nodes to 54 Gy), while sparing the spinal cord, brain stem and parotid glands. Preliminary MC results predict a decrease of approximately 1-2 Gy in the median dose of both the primary tumour and nodal volumes (compared with both pencil beam and collapsed cone). This is possibly due to the large air-cavity (the larynx of the patient) situated in the centre

  17. Comparison of three concomitant boost techniques for early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Janet K.; Halle, Jan S.; Chang, Sha X.; Sartor, Carolyn I.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Whole breast radiotherapy (RT) followed by a tumor bed boost typically spans 5-6 weeks of treatment. Interest is growing in RT regimens, such as concomitant boost, that decrease overall treatment time, lessening the time/cost burden to patients and facilities. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography (CT) scans from 20 cases were selected for this retrospective, dosimetric study to compare three different techniques of concomitant boost delivery: (1) standard tangents plus an electron boost (2) intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) tangents using custom compensators plus an electron boost, and (3) IMRT tangents plus a conformal photon boost. The equivalent uniform dose model was used to compare the plans. Results: The average breast equivalent uniform dose value for the three techniques (standard, IMRT plus electrons, and IMRT plus photons) was 48.6, 47.9, and 48.3, respectively. The plans using IMRT more closely approximated the prescribed dose of 46 Gy to the whole breast. The breast volume receiving >110% of the dose was less with the IMRT tangents than with standard RT (p 0.037), but no significant difference in the maximal dose or other evaluated parameters was noted. Conclusion: Although the IMRT techniques delivered the prescribed dose with better dose uniformity, the small improvement seen did not support a goal of improved resource use

  18. Tomotherapy: IMRT and tomographic verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: External beam radiation therapy delivery began around the turn of the century with the use of one or a few kilovoltage beams directed to the presumed site of the tumor. Often the treatment lasted until erythema dose was reached. Delivering the beams rotationally allowed the dose to be focused on the tumor and the skin to be spared. With the advent of megavoltage radiation therapy in the 1950's, using Co-60 teletherapy and betatrons, the treatment could once again be delivered from only a few beam directions and the dose to the skin would be kept below tolerance. Fields were shaped by lead blocks and later by custom-made blocks fabricated from low-melting temperature heavy metal. Linear accelerators did not fundamentally change the way in which radiation was delivered. It is likely that this delivery paradigm would not have changed had it not been for the advent of computers. Brahme and Cormack showed in the late 1980's that highly conformal treatments could be delivered with non-uniform intensity beams. At that time the only way in which the intensity modulated beams could be delivered was using custom-milled compensators. Fabricating and using compensators for multiple fields is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Serial tomotherapy was the first successful delivery method for IMRT and went back to the earlier practice of rotation therapy. The NOMOS Peacock system uses a binary (on-off) multileaf collimator (MLC) system to modulate a fan beam of radiation. It uses an optimization system to determine when leaves should be opened and closed. The system delivers two beam slices at once and the couch is indexed to the next slices by precisely translating the couch. This approach was first used in 1994 and to-date has treated several thousand patients. Prior to the advent of IMRT, accelerator vendors introduced the multileaf collimator (MLC) to provide field shaping without the need to fabricate custom blocking. Most new linear accelerator purchases today

  19. Analysis of PTV margin for IMRT and VMAT techniques in prostate cancer using IGRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrini, E.S.; Silveira, T.B.; Vieira, D.S.; Anjos, L.E.A.; Lopez, J.C.C.; Batista, D.V.S.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical radiotherapy procedures aim at high precision. However, there are many errors sources that act during treatment preparation and execution that limit its accuracy. The use of imaged-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) increases the agreement between the planned dose and the actual dose deposited in the target, at the same time allows to evaluate the uncertainties related to the setup and a possible reduction in the planning target volume (PTV) margin. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the best PTV margin to be used in radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) techniques associated with IGRT. A total of four patients with prostate daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were analyzed. Systematic and random errors were calculated statistically based on the displacements couch for 128 CBCTs. It was found that a symmetric margin of 0.75 cm from clinical treatment volume (CTV) to PTV is sufficient to encompass the uncertainties inherent to the treatment applying IGRT. Besides without that and maintaining the same tumor control probability, a symmetric margin of 1,24 cm would be necessary. This study showed that using daily image verification the setup errors are reduced, which generates a lower PTV margin. (author)

  20. Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Goozee, Gary; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, − 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing

  1. Study on the possibility of using a 60 Co therapeutical unity in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Samuel Cesar

    2009-06-01

    With the increasing advances in complex treatment techniques, there is a tendency to obtain more sophisticated equipment to deliver the dose. The use of 3D conformal radiotherapy is now routine in many radiotherapy facilities as well as the utilization of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Both are usually implemented using linear accelerators equipped with multi leaves collimators, which create the conformity and the fluence distributions required. However, the complexity of increasingly sophisticated equipment, such as linear accelerators, requires a frequent quality control of their operation, as well as a detailed and constant maintenance. Even carrying out these procedures, the accelerators may present technical problems interrupting for a long time a treatment using the IMRT technique. Despite the clear practical and technological advantages that linear accelerators have on 60 Co irradiators, these devices occupy an important place in radiotherapy, mainly due to the low cost of equipment installation and maintenance when compared to those required by accelerators. Many radiotherapy facilities that work with IMRT have tele therapeutic isocentric 60 Co units. In principle, such equipment would be able to be used for treatment with IMRT using compensating blocks to modulate the beam. This study investigates this possibility and shows that it is feasible. The comparison of treatment plans of a head-and-neck cancer and other of a cancer of the central nervous system, based on a 60 Co irradiator and a Linac 2300 C/D, presented advantages for the 60 Co irradiator. Furthermore; the delivery of dose obtained with the two systems showed themselves equivalent when compared to their respective plans. (author)

  2. Deep nets vs expert designed features in medical physics: An IMRT QA case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interian, Yannet; Rideout, Vincent; Kearney, Vasant P; Gennatas, Efstathios; Morin, Olivier; Cheung, Joey; Solberg, Timothy; Valdes, Gilmer

    2018-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of Deep Neural Networks against a technique designed by domain experts in the prediction of gamma passing rates for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance (IMRT QA). A total of 498 IMRT plans across all treatment sites were planned in Eclipse version 11 and delivered using a dynamic sliding window technique on Clinac iX or TrueBeam Linacs. Measurements were performed using a commercial 2D diode array, and passing rates for 3%/3 mm local dose/distance-to-agreement (DTA) were recorded. Separately, fluence maps calculated for each plan were used as inputs to a convolution neural network (CNN). The CNNs were trained to predict IMRT QA gamma passing rates using TensorFlow and Keras. A set of model architectures, inspired by the convolutional blocks of the VGG-16 ImageNet model, were constructed and implemented. Synthetic data, created by rotating and translating the fluence maps during training, was created to boost the performance of the CNNs. Dropout, batch normalization, and data augmentation were utilized to help train the model. The performance of the CNNs was compared to a generalized Poisson regression model, previously developed for this application, which used 78 expert designed features. Deep Neural Networks without domain knowledge achieved comparable performance to a baseline system designed by domain experts in the prediction of 3%/3 mm Local gamma passing rates. An ensemble of neural nets resulted in a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.70 ± 0.05 and the domain expert model resulted in a 0.74 ± 0.06. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with transfer learning can predict IMRT QA passing rates by automatically designing features from the fluence maps without human expert supervision. Predictions from CNNs are comparable to a system carefully designed by physicist experts. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. SU-E-T-49: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H; Tachibana, H; Kamima, T; Takahashi, R; Kawai, D; Sugawara, Y; Yamamoto, T; Sato, A; Yamashita, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: AAPM TG114 does not cover the independent verification for IMRT. We conducted a study of independent dose verification for IMRT in seven institutes to show the feasibility. Methods: 384 IMRT plans in the sites of prostate and head and neck (HN) were collected from the institutes, where the planning was performed using Eclipse and Pinnacle3 with the two techniques of step and shoot (S&S) and sliding window (SW). All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. An ion-chamber measurement in a water-equivalent slab phantom was performed to compare the doses computed using the TPS and an independent dose verification program. Additionally, the agreement in dose computed in patient CT images between using the TPS and using the SMU was assessed. The dose of the composite beams in the plan was evaluated. Results: The agreement between the measurement and the SMU were −2.3±1.9 % and −5.6±3.6 % for prostate and HN sites, respectively. The agreement between the TPSs and the SMU were −2.1±1.9 % and −3.0±3.7 for prostate and HN sites, respectively. There was a negative systematic difference with similar standard deviation and the difference was larger in the HN site. The S&S technique showed a statistically significant difference between the SW. Because the Clarkson-based method in the independent program underestimated (cannot consider) the dose under the MLC. Conclusion: The accuracy would be improved when the Clarkson-based algorithm should be modified for IMRT and the tolerance level would be within 5%

  4. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques and standard wedged tangents for whole breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, Andrew; Bromley, Regina; Beat, Mardi; Vien, Din; Dineley, Jude; Morgan, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Prior to introducing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) into our department we undertook a comparison of the dose parameters of several IMRT techniques and standard wedged tangents (SWT). Our aim was to improve the dose distribution to the breast and to decrease the dose to organs at risk (OAR): heart, lung and contralateral breast (Contra Br). Treatment plans for 20 women (10 right-sided and 10 left-sided) previously treated with SWT for WBRT were used to compare (a) SWT; (b) electronic compensators IMRT (E-IMRT); (c) tangential beam IMRT (T-IMRT); (d) coplanar multi-field IMRT (CP-IMRT); and (e) non-coplanar multi-field IMRT (NCP-IMRT). Plans for the breast were compared for (i) dose homogeneity (DH); (ii) conformity index (CI); (iii) mean dose; (iv) maximum dose; (v) minimum dose; and dose to OAR were calculated (vi) heart; (vii) lung and (viii) Contra Br. Compared with SWT, all plans except CP-IMRT gave improvement in at least two of the seven parameters evaluated. T-IMRT and NCP-IMRT resulted in significant improvement in all parameters except DH and both gave significant reduction in doses to OAR. As on initial evaluation NCP-IMRT is likely to be too time consuming to introduce on a large scale, T-IMRT is the preferred technique for WBRT for use in our department.

  5. Inverse IMRT workflow process at Austin health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykers, K.; Fernando, W.; Grace, M.; Liu, G.; Rolfo, A.; Viotto, A.; Mantle, C.; Lawlor, M.; Au-Yeung, D.; Quong, G.; Feigen, M.; Lim-Joon, D.; Wada, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The work presented here will review the strategies adopted at Austin Health to bring IMRT into clinical use. IMRT is delivered using step and shoot mode on an Elekta Precise machine with 40 pairs of 1cm wide MLC leaves. Planning is done using CMS Focus/XiO. A collaborative approach for RO's, Physicists and RTs from concept to implementation was adopted. An overview will be given of the workflow for the clinic, the equipment used, tolerance levels and the lessons learned. 1. Strategic Planning for IMRT 2. Training a. MSKCC (New York) b.ESTRO (Amsterdam) c.Elekta (US and UK) 3. Linac testing and data acquisition a. Equipment and software review and selection b. Linac reliability/geometric and mechanical checks c. Draft Patient QA procedure d. EPI Image matching checks and procedures 4. Planning system checks a. export of dose matrix (options) b. dose calculation choices 5. IMRT Research Initiatives a. IMRT Planning Studies, Stabilisation, On-line Imaging 6. Equipment Procurement and testing a. Physics and Linac Equipment, Hardware, Software/Licences, Stabilisation 7. Establishing a DICOM Environment a. Prescription sending, Image transfer for EPI checks b. QA Files 8. Physics QA (Pre-Treatment) a.Clinical plan review; DVH checks b. geometry; dosimetry checks; DICOM checks c. 2D Distance to agreement; mm difference reports; Gamma function index 9. Documentation a.Protocol Development i. ICRU 50/62 reporting and prescribing b. QA for Physics c. QA for RT's d. Generation of a report for RO/patient history. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  6. A predictive model for dysphagia following IMRT for head and neck cancer: Introduction of the EMLasso technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, De Ruyck; Duprez, Fréderic; Werbrouck, Joke; Sabbe, Nick; Sofie, De Langhe; Boterberg, Tom; Madani, Indira; Thas, Olivier; Wilfried, De Neve; Thierens, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Design a model for prediction of acute dysphagia following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Illustrate the use of the EMLasso technique for model selection. Material and methods: Radiation-induced dysphagia was scored using CTCAE v.3.0 in 189 head and neck cancer patients. Clinical data (gender, age, nicotine and alcohol use, diabetes, tumor location), treatment parameters (chemotherapy, surgery involving the primary tumor, lymph node dissection, overall treatment time), dosimetric parameters (doses delivered to pharyngeal constrictor (PC) muscles and esophagus) and 19 genetic polymorphisms were used in model building. The predicting model was achieved by EMLasso, i.e. an EM algorithm to account for missing values, applied to penalized logistic regression, which allows for variable selection by tuning the penalization parameter through crossvalidation on AUC, thus avoiding overfitting. Results: Fifty-three patients (28%) developed acute ⩾ grade 3 dysphagia. The final model has an AUC of 0.71 and contains concurrent chemotherapy, D 2 to the superior PC and the rs3213245 (XRCC1) polymorphism. The model’s false negative rate and false positive rate in the optimal operation point on the ROC curve are 21% and 49%, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the utility of the EMLasso technique for model selection in predictive radiogenetics

  7. Parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Preserved parotid function after IMRT on quantitative salivary scintigraphy, and comparison with historical data after conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, C.-Y.; Ting, H.-M.; Huang, H.-Y.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the parotid function after parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From March 2003 to May 2004, 16 patients with nonmetastatic NPC underwent parotid-sparing IMRT. Eight of these patients had Stage III or IV NPC based on the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. The post-IMRT parotid function was evaluated by quantitative salivary scintigraphy and represented by the maximal excretion ratio (MER) of the parotid gland after sialogogue stimulation. The parotid function of 16 NPC patients who were previously treated with conventional radiotherapy was reviewed as the historical control. Results: In the parotid-sparing IMRT group, all 16 patients were alive and without cancer at the end of follow-up period (median, 24.2 months). The mean parotid MER was 53.5% before radiotherapy, 10.7% at 1 month post-IMRT, and 23.3% at 9 months post-IMRT. In the conventional radiotherapy group, the mean parotid MER was 0.6% at 6 to 12 months postradiotherapy. The difference was statistically significant (23.3% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). In the IMRT group, the mean parotid doses ranged from 33.2 Gy to 58.8 Gy (average, 43.9 Gy). The correlation between the mean parotid dose and the percentage decrease of parotid MER at 9 months post-IMRT (dMER) was statically significant (p = 0.008, Pearson correlation). Conclusions: Although the mean parotid doses are relatively high, the significant preservation of parotid function is achieved with IMRT for NPC patients. The significant correlation between mean parotid dose and parotid dMER demonstrates the dose-function relationship of the parotid gland

  8. Comparison of dose distribution between 3DCRT and IMRT in middle thoracic and under thoracic esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingjie; Liu Hailong; Mao Ronghu; Liu Ru; Guo Xiaoqi; Lei Hongchang; Wang Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dose distribution between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in treating esophageal carcinoma (middle thoracic section and under thoracic section) and to select reasonable treatment methods for esophagus cancer. Methods: Ten cases with cancer of the middle thoracic section and under thoracic section esophagus were chosen for a retrospective treatment-planning study. 3DCRT and IMRT plans were created for each patient: Some critical indicators were evolved in evaluating the treatment plans of IMRT (5B and 7B) and 3DCRT (3B), such as, PTV coverage and dose-volumes to irradiated normal structures. Evaluation indicators: prescription of 50 Gy. total lung volume (V5, V10, V20), mean lung dose (MLD), spinal cord (Dmax), heart (V40) and conformality index (CI). Each plan was evaluated with respect to dose distribution,dose-volume histograms (DVHs), and additional dosimetric endpoints described below. Results: There is no significance of CRT and IMRT technique in protection of total lung volume,mean lung dose, spinal cord (Dmax), target, CI and heart. Conclusion: As To radiotherapy of esophagus cancer of the middle thoracic section and under thoracic section, IMRT has no advantage compared with 3DCRT, the selection of plan should be adapted to the situations of every patient. (authors)

  9. Dosimetric impact of interplay effect in lung IMRT and VMAT treatment using in-house dynamic thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhlisin; Pawiro, S A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor motion due to patient's respiratory is a significant problem in radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer. The purpose of this project is to study the interplay effect through dosimetry verification between the calculated and delivered dose, as well as the dosimetric impact of leaf interplay with breathing-induced tumor motion in IMRT and VMAT treatment. In this study, a dynamic thorax phantom was designed and constructed for dosimetry measurement. The phantom had a linear sinusoidal tumor motion toward superior-inferior direction with variation of amplitudes and periods. TLD-100 LiF:Mg,Ti and Gafchromic EBT2 film were used to measure dose in the midpoint target and the spinal cord. The IMRT and VMAT treatment had prescription dose of 200 cGy per fraction. The dosimetric impact due to interplay effect during IMRT and VMAT treatment were resulted in the range of 0.5% to -6.6% and 0.9% to -5.3% of target dose reduction, respectively. Meanwhile, mean dose deviation of spinal cord in IMRT and VMAT treatment were around 1.0% to -6.9% and 0.9% to -6.3%, respectively. The results showed that if respiratory management technique were not implemented, the presence of lung tumor motion during dose delivery in IMRT and VMAT treatment causes dose discrepancies inside tumor volume. (paper)

  10. Soft-Rt: software for IMRT simulations based on MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira F, T. C.; Campos, T.

    2015-10-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment technique, widely used in external radiotherapy. This paper presents the Soft-Rt which allows the simulation of an entire IMRT treatment protocol. The Soft-Rt performs a full three-dimensional rendering of a set of patient images, including the definitions of region of interest with organs in risk, and the target tumor volume and margins (PTV). Thus, a more accurate analysis and planning can be performed, taking into account the features and orientation of the radiation beams. The exposed tissues as well as the amount of absorbed dose is depicted in healthy and/or cancerous tissues. As conclusion, Soft-Rt can predict dose on the PTV accurately, preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Soft-Rt is coupled with SISCODES code. The SISCODES code is firstly applied to segment the set of CT or MRI patient images in distinct tissues pointing out its respective density and chemical compositions. Later, the voxel model is export to the Soft-Rt IMRT planning module in which a full treatment planning is created. All geometrical parameters are sent to the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code - MCNP - to simulate the interaction of each incident beam towards to the PTV avoiding organs in risk. The normalized dose results are exported to the Soft-Rt out-module, in which the three-dimensional model visualization is shown in a transparent glass procedure adopting gray scale for the dependence on the mass density of the correlated tissue; while, a color scale to depict dose values in a superimpose protocol. (Author)

  11. Soft-Rt: software for IMRT simulations based on MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira F, T. C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Campos, T., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment technique, widely used in external radiotherapy. This paper presents the Soft-Rt which allows the simulation of an entire IMRT treatment protocol. The Soft-Rt performs a full three-dimensional rendering of a set of patient images, including the definitions of region of interest with organs in risk, and the target tumor volume and margins (PTV). Thus, a more accurate analysis and planning can be performed, taking into account the features and orientation of the radiation beams. The exposed tissues as well as the amount of absorbed dose is depicted in healthy and/or cancerous tissues. As conclusion, Soft-Rt can predict dose on the PTV accurately, preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Soft-Rt is coupled with SISCODES code. The SISCODES code is firstly applied to segment the set of CT or MRI patient images in distinct tissues pointing out its respective density and chemical compositions. Later, the voxel model is export to the Soft-Rt IMRT planning module in which a full treatment planning is created. All geometrical parameters are sent to the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code - MCNP - to simulate the interaction of each incident beam towards to the PTV avoiding organs in risk. The normalized dose results are exported to the Soft-Rt out-module, in which the three-dimensional model visualization is shown in a transparent glass procedure adopting gray scale for the dependence on the mass density of the correlated tissue; while, a color scale to depict dose values in a superimpose protocol. (Author)

  12. A dosimetric selectivity intercomparison of HDR brachytherapy, IMRT and helical tomotherapy in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermesse, Johanne; Biver, Sylvie; Jansen, Nicolas; Coucke, Philippe [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Liege Univ. Hospital (Belgium); Lenaerts, Eric [Dept. of Medical Physics, Liege Univ. Hospital (Belgium); De Patoul, Nathalie; Vynckier, Stefaan [Dept. of Medical Physics, St Luc Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Scalliet, Pierre [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, St Luc Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Nickers, Philippe [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France)

    2009-11-15

    Background and purpose: dose escalation in order to improve the biochemical control in prostate cancer requires the application of irradiation techniques with high conformality. The dosimetric selectivity of three radiation modalities is compared: high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT), intensity-modulated radiation radiotherapy (IMRT), and helical tomotherapy (HT). Patients and methods: ten patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated by a 10-Gy HDR-BT boost after external-beam radiotherapy were investigated. For each patient, HDR-BT, IMRT and HT theoretical treatment plans were realized using common contour sets. A 10-Gy dose was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). The PTVs and critical organs' dose-volume histograms obtained were compared using Student's t-test. Results: HDR-BT delivers spontaneously higher mean doses to the PTV with smaller cold spots compared to IMRT and HT. 33% of the rectal volume received a mean HDR-BT dose of 3.86 {+-} 0.3 Gy in comparison with a mean IMRT dose of 6.57 {+-} 0.68 Gy and a mean HT dose of 5.58 {+-} 0.71 Gy (p < 0.0001). HDR-BT also enables to better spare the bladder. The hot spots inside the urethra are greater with HDR-BT. The volume of healthy tissue receiving 10% of the prescribed dose is reduced at least by a factor of 8 with HDR-BT (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: HDR-BT offers better conformality in comparison with HT and IMRT and reduces the volume of healthy tissue receiving a low dose. (orig.)

  13. Application of monomer/polymer gel dosimetry to study the effects of tissue inhomogeneities on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, Koen; De Deene, Yves; Claus, Filip; De Gersem, Werner; Van Duyse, Bart; Paelinck, Leen; Achten, Eric; De Neve, Wilfried; De Wagter, Carlos

    2003-04-01

    When planning an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment in a heterogeneous region (e.g. the thorax), the dose computation algorithm of a treatment planning system may need to account for these inhomogeneities in order to obtain a reliable prediction of the dose distribution. An accurate dose verification technique such as monomer/polymer gel dosimetry is suggested to verify the outcome of the planning system. The effects of low-density structures: (a) on narrow high-energy (18 MV) photon beams; and (b) on a class-solution IMRT treatment delivered to a thorax phantom have been examined using gel dosimetry. The used phantom contained air cavities that could be filled with water to simulate a homogeneous or heterogeneous configuration. The IMRT treatment for centrally located lung tumors was delivered on both cases, and gel derived dose maps were compared with computations by both the GRATIS and Helax-TMS planning system. Dose rebuildup due to electronic disequilibrium in a narrow photon beam is demonstrated. The gel measurements showed good agreement with diamond detector measurements. Agreement between measured IMRT dose maps and dose computations was demonstrated by several quantitative techniques. An underdosage of the planning target volume (PTV) was revealed. The homogeneity of the phantom had only a minor influence on the dose distribution in the PTV. An expansion of low-level isodoses in the lung volume was predicted by collapsed cone computations in the heterogeneous case. For the class-solution described, the dose in centrally located mediastinal tumors can be computed with sufficient accuracy, even when neglecting the lower lung density. Polymer gel dosimetry proved to be a valuable technique to verify dose calculation algorithms for IMRT in 3D in heterogeneous configurations.

  14. Toxicity and outcome of pelvic IMRT for node-positive prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.; Luetjens, J.; Eckert, F.; Bamberg, M.; Alber, M.; Schilling, D.; Belka, C.; Gaswindt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study reports on the treatment techniques, toxicity, and outcome of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for lymph node-positive prostate cancer (LNPPC, T1-4, c/pN1 cM0). Patients and methods: Pelvic IMRT to 45-50.4 Gy was applied in 39 cases either after previous surgery of involved lymph nodes (n = 18) or with a radiation boost to suspicious nodes (n = 21) with doses of 60-70 Gy, usually combined with androgen deprivation (n = 37). The prostate and seminal vesicles received 70-74 Gy. In cases of previous prostatectomy, prostatic fossa and remnants of seminal vesicles were given 66-70 Gy. Treatment-related acute and late toxicity was graded according to the RTOG criteria. Results: Acute radiation-related toxicity higher than grade 2 occurred in 2 patients (with the need for urinary catheter/subileus related to adhesions after surgery). Late toxicity was mild (grade 1-2) after a median follow-up of 70 months. Over 50% of the patients reported no late morbidity (grade 0). PSA control and cancer-specific survival reached 67% and 97% at over 5 years. Conclusion: Pelvic IMRT after the removal of affected nodes or with a radiation boost to clinically positive nodes led to an acceptable late toxicity (no grade 3/4 events), thus justifying further evaluation of this approach in a larger cohort. (orig.)

  15. Stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and inverse treatment planning for advanced pleural mesothelioma. Feasibility and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenter, M.W.; Thilmann, C.; Hof, H.; Debus, J. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, S.; Hoess, A.; Partridge, M. [Dept. of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Haering, P. [Dept. of Central Dosimetry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Manegold, C. [Dept. of Medical Oncology/Internal Medicine, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg gGmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Wannenmacher, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Background and Purpose: Complex-shaped malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs) with challenging volumes are extremely difficult to treat by conventional radiotherapy due to tolerance doses of the surrounding normal tissue. In a feasibility study, we evaluated if inversely planned stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) could be applied in the treatment of MPM. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with unresectable lesions were treated after failure of chemotherapy. All patients were positioned using noninvasive patient fixation techniques which can be attached to the applied extracranial stereotactic system. Due to craniocaudal extension of the tumor, it was necessary to develop a special software attached to the inverse planning program KonRad, which can connect two inverse treatment plans and consider the applied dose of the first treatment plan in the area of the matchline of the second treatment plan. Results: Except for one patient, in whom radiotherapy was canceled due to abdominal metastasis, treatment could be completed in all patients and was well tolerated. Median survival after diagnosis was 20 months and after IMRT 6.5 months. Therefore, both the 1-year actuarial overall survival from the start of radiotherapy and the 2-year actuarial overall survival since diagnosis were 28%. IMRT did not result in clinically significant acute side effects. By using the described inverse planning software, over- or underdosage in the region of the field matchline could be prevented. Pure treatment time ranged between 10 and 21 min. Conclusion: This study showed that IMRT is feasible in advanced unresectable MPM. The presented possibilities of stereotactic IMRT in the treatment of MPM will justify the evaluation of IMRT in early-stage pleural mesothelioma combined with chemotherapy in a study protocol, in order to improve the outcome of these patients. Furthermore, dose escalation should be possible by using IMRT. (orig.)

  16. The clinical impact of the couch top and rails on IMRT and arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulliam, Kiley B; Howell, Rebecca M; Followill, David; Luo, Dershan; Kry, Stephen F; White, R Allen

    2011-01-01

    The clinical impact of the Varian Exact Couch on dose, volume coverage to targets and critical structures, and tumor control probability (TCP) has not been described. Thus, we examined their effects on IMRT and arc therapy. Five clinical prostate patients were planned with both 6 MV eight-field IMRT and 6 MV two-arc RapidArc techniques using the Eclipse treatment planning system. These plans neglected treatment couch attenuation, as is a common clinical practice. Dose distributions were then recalculated in Eclipse with the inclusion of the Varian Exact Couch (imaging couch top) and the rails in varying configurations. The changes in dose and coverage were evaluated using the dose-volume histograms from each plan iteration. We used a TCP model to calculate losses in tumor control resulting from not accounting for the couch top and rails. We also verified dose measurements in a phantom. Failure to account for the treatment couch and rails resulted in clinically unacceptable dose and volume coverage losses to the targets for both IMRT and RapidArc. The couch caused average prescription dose losses (relative to plans that ignored the couch) to the prostate of 4.2% and 2.0% for IMRT with the rails out and in, respectively, and 3.2% and 2.9% for RapidArc with the rails out and in, respectively. On average, the percentage of the target covered by the prescribed dose dropped to 35% and 84% for IMRT (rails out and in, respectively) and to 18% and 17% for RapidArc (rails out and in, respectively). The TCP was also reduced by as much as 10.5% (6.3% on average). Dose and volume coverage losses for IMRT plans were primarily due to the rails, while the imaging couch top contributed most to losses for RapidArc. Both the couch top and rails contribute to dose and coverage losses that can render plans clinically unacceptable. A follow-up study we performed found that the less attenuating unipanel mesh couch top available with the Varian Exact couch does not cause a clinically

  17. Step-and-Shoot versus Compensator-based IMRT: Calculation and Comparison of Integral Dose in Non-tumoral and Target Organs in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Shirani Tak Abi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT is becoming an increasingly routine treatment method. IMRT can be delivered by use of conventional Multileaf Collimators (MLCs and/or physical compensators. One of the most important factors in selecting an appropriate IMRT technique is integral dose. Integral dose is equal to the mean energy deposited in the total irradiated volume of the patient. The aim of the present study was to calculate and compare the integral dose in normal and target organs in two different procedures of IMRT: Step-and-Shoot (SAS and compensator-based IMRT. Materials and Methods In this comparative study, five patients with prostate cancer were selected. Module Integrated Radiotherapy System was applied, using three energy ranges. In both treatment planning methods, the integral dose dramatically decreased by increasing energy. Results Comparison of two treatment methods showed that on average, the integral dose of body in SAS radiation therapy was about 1.62% lower than that reported in compensator-based IMRT. In planning target volume, rectum, bladder, and left and right femoral heads, the integral doses for SAS method were 1.01%, 1.02%, 1.11%, 1.47%, and 1.40% lower than compensator-based IMRT, respectively. Conclusion Considering the treatment conditions, the definition of dose volume constraints for healthy tissues, and the equal volume of organs in both treatment methods, SAS radiation therapy by providing a lower integral dose seems to be more advantageous and efficient for prostate cancer treatment, compared to compensator-based IMRT.

  18. An inter-centre quality assurance network for IMRT verification: Results of the ESTRO QUASIMODO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, Sofie; Wagter, Carlos de; Bohsung, Joerg; Perrin, Bruce; Williams, Peter; Mijnheer, Ben J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: IMRT necessitates extension of existing inter-centre quality assurance programs due to its increased complexity. We assessed the feasibility of an inter-centre verification method for different IMRT techniques. Materials and methods: Eight European radiotherapy institutions of the QUASIMODO network, have designed an IMRT plan for a horseshoe-shaped PTV surrounding a cylindrical OAR in a simplified pelvic phantom. All centres applied common plan objectives but used their own equipment for planning and delivery. They verified the delivery of this plan according to a common protocol with radiographic film and ionisation chamber measurements. The irradiated films, the results of the ionisation chamber measurements and the computed dose distributions were sent to one analysis centre that compared the measured and computed dose distributions with the gamma method and composite dose-area histograms. Results: 4% (relative to the prescribed dose) and 3 mm (distance-to-agreement) were decided feasible gamma criteria. The composite dose-area histograms showed a maximum local deviation of 3.5% in the mean dose of the PTV and 5% in the OAR. Systematic differences could be identified, and in some cases explained. Conclusions: This multi-centre dosimetric verification study demonstrated both the feasibility of a multi-centre quality assurance network to evaluate any IMRT planning and delivery system combination, as well as the validity of the methodology involved

  19. Implementation of an integral program of quality assurance based on EPID to the IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannez Ruiz-Labrandera; Emilio; Gonzalez Perez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We bring forward with this research the implementation of a procedure related to the assurance guaranty in the control of tue quality of IMRT treatment based on the technology of electronic portal images digital (EPID). For the sake of accomplishing quality controls, based in pylic digital images, we used like main tool the System of pylic digital images IviewGT TM with his application software. For the control of positioning of the multi-plates, we implemented a program in MATLAB, which yields the errors of positioning of the plates. For the dosimetric controls, the images obtained for the fields of treatment were climbed with the software ImageJ, and compared with the treatment planning systems (TPS) model Elekta's PrecisePlan ® for it we used the software Verisoft. We managed to implement a comprehensive program of quality control for IMRT. The positioning errors of the multiplates intervening bayouth's test younger errors of positioning under a 1m threw which the requisite is for the IMRT. The rest of the geometric proofs yielded favorable results inmail with them tolerance, same as the test Picket Fence. We verified 2 cases with the technique step and shoot, for it we verified 16 field, where gamma Index varied 85,8 - 98,9. It was checked the possibility to accomplish the quality controls for IMRT using pylic digital images, in our case checked itself himself I apply the Linac Elekta specify on the Ameijeiras. (Author)

  20. Overview of IMRT - definitions and basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed advanced outline of the title topic is presented. Summary is formulated as follows: (i) Conventional MLC, developed for block replacement, require corrections and careful QA when when used for IMRT; (ii) There are both advantages and disadvantages of static or dynamic MLC delivery; (iii) Tomotherapy uses binary MLC systems specifically designed for IMRT; (iv) There are two types of optimization, grid of beamlets and direct aperture methods; (v) Optimization is controlled by objective functions. (P.A.)

  1. Dosimetric characterization of the PTW Seven29 dosimeter and Octavius Phantom for IMRT quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Leandro R.; Habitzreuter, Angela B.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Watanabe, Erica Y.; Silva, Marco A.; Menegussi, Gisela; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Furnari, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Techniques like IMRT, VMAT and tomotherapy has been used to improve dose conformity in the target, while sparing adjacent normal tissues. The complexity of this techniques challenge to correctly verify the dose delivery, in an independent way. Matrix detectors have been used for this purpose. Although, to exactly understand the dosimeter response and to identify his limitations, characterization measurements need to be performed. These dosimeters, for instance, can present angular dependence. Phantoms has been designed to, when used together the detector, eliminate this angular dependence. The aim of this work was to characterize PTW Seven 29 dosimeter and also his use with Octavius Phantom (PTW). The dosimeter showed reproducible with 0.25% the biggest standard deviation, good dose linearity and dose rate independence. Differences for output factors were obtained (<6%), but a clinical case measurement showed that the set can be used for IMRT verification. When used with Octavius Phantom the dosimeter showed low angular dependence. (author)

  2. Consequences of leaf calibration errors on IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Padro, M; Welleweerd, J; Malinen, E; Eilertsen, K; Olsen, D R; Heide, U A van der

    2007-01-01

    IMRT treatments using multi-leaf collimators may involve a large number of segments in order to spare the organs at risk. When a large proportion of these segments are small, leaf positioning errors may become relevant and have therapeutic consequences. The performance of four head and neck IMRT treatments under eight different cases of leaf positioning errors has been studied. Systematic leaf pair offset errors in the range of ±2.0 mm were introduced, thus modifying the segment sizes of the original IMRT plans. Thirty-six films were irradiated with the original and modified segments. The dose difference and the gamma index (with 2%/2 mm criteria) were used for evaluating the discrepancies between the irradiated films. The median dose differences were linearly related to the simulated leaf pair errors. In the worst case, a 2.0 mm error generated a median dose difference of 1.5%. Following the gamma analysis, two out of the 32 modified plans were not acceptable. In conclusion, small systematic leaf bank positioning errors have a measurable impact on the delivered dose and may have consequences for the therapeutic outcome of IMRT

  3. An IMRT dose distribution study using commercial verification software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, M.; Liu, G.; Fernando, W.; Rykers, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The introduction of IMRT requires users to confirm that the isodose distributions and relative doses calculated by their planning system match the doses delivered by their linear accelerators. To this end the commercially available software, VeriSoft TM (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was trialled to determine if the tools and functions it offered would be of benefit to this process. The CMS Xio (Computer Medical System) treatment planning system was used to generate IMRT plans that were delivered with an upgraded Elekta SL15 linac. Kodak EDR2 film sandwiched in RW3 solid water (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was used to measure the IMRT fields delivered with 6 MV photons. The isodose and profiles measured with the film generally agreed to within ± 3% or ± 3 mm with the planned doses, in some regions (outside the IMRT field) the match fell to within ± 5%. The isodose distributions of the planning system and the film could be compared on screen and allows for electronic records of the comparison to be kept if so desired. The features and versatility of this software has been of benefit to our IMRT QA program. Furthermore, the VeriSoft TM software allows for quick and accurate, automated planar film analysis.Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  4. Comparative evaluation of Map-Check and Arc-Check for dosimetric verification in patients treaties with IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, B.; Marquina, J.; Ramirez, J.; Gonzales, A.

    2014-08-01

    The dosimetric controls that are realized to the patients in the Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques; are indispensable since allows in real time to verify the quantity of imparted dose to the patient, these controls should be carried out every time that will begin a treatment, because these techniques impart dose dynamically modulating the dose intensity and movements of the Multi leaf Collimator (MLC), for they exist different diodes devices prepared in spiral (3-D) and planar form (2-D); that allows to estimate the dose fluence in a certain area. Treatment studies for head and neck with IMRT were compared regarding the reading average carried out by the diodes in the corresponding areas, using the criteria of the gamma index like dose difference 3% or 3m m of distance for both diode arrangements, in the IMRT case was found in Arc-Check a minor difference of 3/3 for an average of 99.37% of read diodes in a correct way contrary to the reading obtained with the Map-Check 3/3 an average of difference of 96.19%; in IMRT the difference was lower due to different factors like sensibility of the diodes reading, resolution, diodes disposition, as well as the average reading of entrance and exit of the radiation beams. Within the parameters delivered by the diodes arrangement is considered the positioning correction for both acceptance indexes like the gamma factor and the Distance-to-agreement (Dta), the existent difference of reading in factor gamma and Dta fundamentally is the way in like they compare the dose distribution; the Gamma uses dose averages of high and low gradients and Dta use only averages of areas of high gradients between the nearest points giving the distance as a result among the distribution point and the nearest point what makes stricter. (Author)

  5. A feasibility study of using conventional jaws to deliver complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Xia, P

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans can be produced with a series of rectangular segments formed by conventional jaws. This study investigates whether complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer can be delivered with the conventional jaws efficiently. Six nasopharyngeal cancer patients, previously treated with multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-IMRT plans, were re-planned using conventional jaw delivery options. All IMRT plans were subject to the plan acceptance criteria of the RTOG-0225 protocol. For a selected patient, the maximum number of segments varied from five to nine per beam, and was tested for both jaws-only IMRT (JO-IMRT) plans and MLC-IMRT plans. Subsequently, JO-IMRT plans and MLC-IMRT on the same treatment planning system were attempted for all patients with identical beams. The dose distribution, dose volume histograms (DVH), the conformal index (COIN), the uniformity index and delivery efficiency were compared between the MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans. All JO-IMRT plans met the RTOG-0225 criteria for tumor coverage and sensitive structures sparing. The corresponding MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans show comparable conformality and uniformity, with average COINs of the planning gross tumor volume(pGTV) 37.7% ± 18.7% versus 37.9% ± 18.1%, and the average uniformity index 82.8% ± 2.5% versus 83.6% ± 3.1%, respectively. The average monitor unit for JO-IMRT plans was about twice that of MLC-IMRT plans. In conclusion, conventional jaws can be used solely to deliver complex IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer yet still within a practical delivery time.

  6. Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Ying; Zhang Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors’ POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors’ POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency.

  7. A Comprehensive Comparison of IMRT and VMAT Plan Quality for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Enzhuo M.; Li Xiaoqiang; Li Yupeng; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Zhang Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We performed a comprehensive comparative study of the plan quality between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with prostate cancer treated at our institution were randomly selected for this study. For each patient, a VMAT plan and a series of IMRT plans using an increasing number of beams (8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 beams) were examined. All plans were generated using our in-house–developed automatic inverse planning (AIP) algorithm. An existing eight-beam clinical IMRT plan, which was used to treat the patient, was used as the reference plan. For each patient, all AIP-generated plans were optimized to achieve the same level of planning target volume (PTV) coverage as the reference plan. Plan quality was evaluated by measuring mean dose to and dose–volume statistics of the organs at risk, especially the rectum, from each type of plan. Results: For the same PTV coverage, the AIP-generated VMAT plans had significantly better plan quality in terms of rectum sparing than the eight-beam clinical and AIP-generated IMRT plans (p < 0.0001). However, the differences between the IMRT and VMAT plans in all the dosimetric indices decreased as the number of beams used in IMRT increased. IMRT plan quality was similar or superior to that of VMAT when the number of beams in IMRT was increased to a certain number, which ranged from 12 to 24 for the set of patients studied. The superior VMAT plan quality resulted in approximately 30% more monitor units than the eight-beam IMRT plans, but the delivery time was still less than 3 min. Conclusions: Considering the superior plan quality as well as the delivery efficiency of VMAT compared with that of IMRT, VMAT may be the preferred modality for treating prostate cancer.

  8. IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy with or without elective nodal irradiation in locally advanced NSCLC: A direct comparison of PET-based treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Kremp, Katharina; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Rübe, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The potential of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as opposed to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is analyzed for two different concepts of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-based target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC): involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) vs. elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Treatment planning was performed for 41 patients with LA-NSCLC, using four different planning approaches (3D-CRT-IF, 3D-CRT-ENI, IMRT-IF, IMRT-ENI). ENI included a boost irradiation after 50 Gy. For each plan, maximum dose escalation was calculated based on prespecified normal tissue constraints. The maximum prescription dose (PD), tumor control probability (TCP), conformal indices (CI), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were analyzed. IMRT resulted in statistically significant higher prescription doses for both target volume concepts as compared with 3D-CRT (ENI: 68.4 vs. 60.9 Gy, p ENI, there was a considerable theoretical increase in TCP (IMRT: 27.3 vs. 17.7 %, p ENI: 12.3 vs. 30.9 % p < 0.0001; IF: 15.9 vs. 24.1 %; p < 0.001). The IMRT technique and IF target volume delineation allow a significant dose escalation and an increase in TCP. IMRT results in an improved sparing of OARs as compared with 3D-CRT at equivalent dose levels.

  9. High-precision radiosurgical dose delivery by interlaced microbeam arrays of high-flux low-energy synchrotron X-rays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Serduc

    Full Text Available Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT is a preclinical form of radiosurgery dedicated to brain tumor treatment. It uses micrometer-wide synchrotron-generated X-ray beams on the basis of spatial beam fractionation. Due to the radioresistance of normal brain vasculature to MRT, a continuous blood supply can be maintained which would in part explain the surprising tolerance of normal tissues to very high radiation doses (hundreds of Gy. Based on this well described normal tissue sparing effect of microplanar beams, we developed a new irradiation geometry which allows the delivery of a high uniform dose deposition at a given brain target whereas surrounding normal tissues are irradiated by well tolerated parallel microbeams only. Normal rat brains were exposed to 4 focally interlaced arrays of 10 microplanar beams (52 microm wide, spaced 200 microm on-center, 50 to 350 keV in energy range, targeted from 4 different ports, with a peak entrance dose of 200Gy each, to deliver an homogenous dose to a target volume of 7 mm(3 in the caudate nucleus. Magnetic resonance imaging follow-up of rats showed a highly localized increase in blood vessel permeability, starting 1 week after irradiation. Contrast agent diffusion was confined to the target volume and was still observed 1 month after irradiation, along with histopathological changes, including damaged blood vessels. No changes in vessel permeability were detected in the normal brain tissue surrounding the target. The interlacing radiation-induced reduction of spontaneous seizures of epileptic rats illustrated the potential pre-clinical applications of this new irradiation geometry. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations performed on a human-sized head phantom suggested that synchrotron photons can be used for human radiosurgical applications. Our data show that interlaced microbeam irradiation allows a high homogeneous dose deposition in a brain target and leads to a confined tissue necrosis while sparing

  10. Poster - Thur Eve - 29: Detecting changes in IMRT QA using statistical process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drever, L; Salomons, G

    2012-07-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) methods were used to analyze 239 measurement based individual IMRT QA events. The selected IMRT QA events were all head and neck (H&N) cases with 70Gy in 35 fractions, and all prostate cases with 76Gy in 38 fractions planned between March 2009 and 2012. The results were used to determine if the tolerance limits currently being used for IMRT QA were able to indicate if the process was under control. The SPC calculations were repeated for IMRT QA of the same type of cases that were planned after the treatment planning system was upgraded from Eclipse version 8.1.18 to version 10.0.39. The initial tolerance limits were found to be acceptable for two of the three metrics tested prior to the upgrade. After the upgrade to the treatment planning system the SPC analysis found that the a priori limits were no longer capable of indicating control for 2 of the 3 metrics analyzed. The changes in the IMRT QA results were clearly identified using SPC, indicating that it is a useful tool for finding changes in the IMRT QA process. Routine application of SPC to IMRT QA results would help to distinguish unintentional trends and changes from the random variation in the IMRT QA results for individual plans. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn; Woodruff, Henry C; van Uytven, Eric; McCurdy, Boyd M C; Kuncic, Zdenka; O'Connor, Daryl J; Greer, Peter B

    2013-09-01

    To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient. The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance. The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ∼1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s). A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

  12. The role and strategy of IMRT in radiotherapy of pelvic tumors: Dose escalation and critical organ sparing in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.-M.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Lee, M.-L.; Huang, P.-I.; Hsieh, C.-M.; Chen, P.-H.; Lin, Y.-H.; Wang, L.-W.; Yen, S.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) strategy in dose escalation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Plan dosimetric data of 10 prostate cancer patients were compared with two-dimensional (2D) or IMRT techniques for pelvis (two-dimensional whole pelvic radiation therapy [2D-WPRT] or IM-WPRT) to receive 50 Gy or 54 Gy and additional prostate boost by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or IMRT (3D-PBRT or IM-PBRT) techniques up to 72 Gy or 78 Gy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs), normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) of critical organ, and conformity of target volume in various combinations were calculated. Results: In DVH analysis, the plans with IM-WPRT (54 Gy) and additional boost up to 78 Gy had lower rectal and bladder volume percentage at 50 Gy and 60 Gy, compared with those with 2D-WPRT (50 Gy) and additional boost up to 72 Gy or 78 Gy. Those with IM-WPRT (54 Gy) also had better small bowel sparing at 30 Gy and 50 Gy, compared with those with 2D-WPRT (50 Gy). In NTCP, those with IM-WPRT and total dose of 78 Gy achieved lower complication rates in rectum and small bowel, compared with those of 2D-WPRT with total dose of 72 Gy. In conformity, those with IM-WPRT had better conformity compared with those with 2D-WPRT with significance (p < 0.005). No significant difference in DVHs, NTCP, or conformity was found between IM-PBRT and 3D-PBRT after IM-WPRT. Conclusions: Initial pelvic IMRT is the most important strategy in dose escalation and critical organ sparing. IM-WPRT is recommended for patients requiring WPRT. There is not much benefit for critical organ sparing by IMRT after 2D-WPRT

  13. Study of the Contact Resistance of Interlaced Stainless Steel Yarns Embedded in Hybrid Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Simona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contact resistance of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns embedded in a hybrid woven fabric will constitute a problem for electro-conductive textiles under certain circumstances. A high contact resistance can induce hotspots, while a variable contact resistance may cause malfunctioning of the components that are interconnected by the electro-conductive yarns. Moreover, the contact robustness should be preserved over time and various treatments such as washing or abrading should not alter the functioning of the electro-conductive textiles. The electrical resistance developed in the contact point of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns is the result of various factors. The influence of diameter of the electro-conductive stainless steel yarns, the weave pattern, the weft density, and the abrasion on the contact resistance was investigated. Hybrid polyester fabrics were produced according to the design of experiments (DoE and statistical models were found that describe the variation of the contact resistance with the selected input parameters. It was concluded that the diameter of the stainless steel warp and weft yarns has a statistically significant influence on the contact resistance regardless of the weave. Weft density had a significant influence on the contact resistance but only in case of the twill fabrics. Abrasion led to an increase in contact resistance regardless of the weave pattern and the type of stainless steel yarn that was used. Finally, a combination of parameters that leads to plain and twill fabrics with low contact resistance and robust contacts is recommended.

  14. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) following forward planned field-in field IMRT: Results from the Cambridge Breast IMRT trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukesh, Mukesh B.; Qian, Wendi; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Dorling, Leila; Barnett, Gillian C.; Moody, Anne M.; Wilson, Charles; Twyman, Nicola; Burnet, Neil G.; Wishart, Gordon C.; Coles, Charlotte E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in breast cancer reduces clinician-assessed breast tissue toxicity including fibrosis, telangectasia and sub-optimal cosmesis. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are also important as they provide the patient’s perspective. This longitudinal study reports on (a) the effect of forward planned field-in-field IMRT (∼simple IMRT) on PROMs compared to standard RT at 5 years after RT, (b) factors affecting PROMs at 5 years after RT and (c) the trend of PROMs over 5 years of follow up. Methods: PROMs were assessed at baseline (pre-RT), 6, 24 and 60 months after completion of RT using global health (EORTC QLQ C30) and 4 breast symptom questions (BR23). Also, 4 breast RT-specific questions were included at 6, 24 and 60 months: change in skin appearance, firmness to touch, reduction in breast size and overall change in breast appearance since RT. The benefits of simple IMRT over standard RT at 5 years after RT were assessed using standard t-test for global health and logistic regression analysis for breast symptom questions and breast RT-specific questions. Clinical factors affecting PROMs at 5 years were investigated using a multivariate analysis. A repeated mixed model was applied to explore the trend over time for each of PROMs. Results: (89%) 727/815, 84%, 81% and 61% patients completed questionnaires at baseline, 6, 24 and 60 months respectively. Patients reported worse toxicity for all four BR23 breast symptoms at 6 months, which then improved over time (p < 0.0001). They also reported improvement in skin appearance and breast hardness over time (p < 0.0001), with no significant change for breast shrinkage (p = 0.47) and overall breast appearance (p = 0.13). At 5 years, PROMs assessments did not demonstrate a benefit for simple IMRT over standard radiotherapy. Large breast volume, young age, baseline surgical cosmesis and post-operative infection were the most important variables to affect PROMs

  15. Direct aperture optimization of breast IMRT and the dosimetric impact of respiration motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Jiang Ziping; Shepard, David; Zhang Bin; Yu, Cedric

    2006-01-01

    motion effects, the most uniform and conformal dose distributions were achieved when the open segment weights were in the range of 65-80%. Within this range, high-quality IMRT plans were produced for each case. The study demonstrates that DAO with tangential fields provides a robust and efficient technique for breast IMRT planning and delivery when the open segment weight is selected between 65% and 80%. (note)

  16. Evaluation of IMRT plans for prostate treatment using energies of 6 MV and 15 MV; Avaliacao de planejamentos de IMRT para tratamento de prostata utilizando energias de 6 MV e 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lucas Francisco C.; Silva, Murilo C. da; Silveira, Paula J.; Flosi, Adriana A.; Boccaletti, Karina W., E-mail: mcollete@gmail.com [A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-08-15

    This study aims to evaluate and compare radiotherapy plans with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer treatments optimized for photon energies of 6 MV and 15 MV. We retrospectively evaluated 29 patients with prostate cancer, planned with IMRT technique with prescribed dose of 78 Gy. The initial plan was done for the two photon energies, keeping the same optimization parameters and comparing maximum, minimum and modal PTV doses, conformity and homogeneity indexes, dose gradients, isodoses volumes of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 Gy, and the total number of monitor units. It was found that the plans are equivalent regarding higher isodose volumes, conformity and homogeneity indexes, maximum, minimum and modal PTV doses. However, for 6 MV plans there was a considerable increase in both number of monitor units and volume lower isodose volumes, especially the 30 Gy. (author)

  17. SU-E-T-521: Feasibility Study of a Rotational Step-And-Shoot IMRT Treatment Planning Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X; Chang, S; Cullip, T; Yuan, L; Zhang, X; Lian, J; Tang, X; Tracton, G; Dooley, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rotational step-and-shot IMRT (r-IMRT) could improve delivery efficiency with good dose conformity, especially if it can leverage the burst mode of the accelerator where radiation is turned on/off momentarily while the gantry rotates continuously. The challenge for the r-IMRT planning is to minimize the number of beams to achieve a fast and smooth rotational delivery. Methods: Treatment plans for r-IMRT were created using an in-house treatment planning system. To generate the plan using a very few beams, gantry angle was optimized by weighting the beam monitoring unit (MU), and beam shape optimization was a combination of column search with k-means clustering. A prostate case and a head and neck case were planned using r-IMRT. The dosimetry is compared to s-IMRT planned with Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. Results: With the same PTV dose coverage D95=100%, the r-IMRT plans shows comparable sparing as the s-IMRT plans in the prostate for the rectum D10cc and the bladder Dmean, and in the head and neck for the spinal cord Dmax, the brain stem Dmax, the left/right parotid Dmean, the larynx Dmean, and the mandible Dmean. Both plans meet the established institutional clinical dosimetric criteria. The r-IMRT plan uses 19 beam/405 MU for the prostate, and 68 beam/880 MU for the head and neck, while the s-IMRT uses 7 beam/724 MU and 9 beam/1812 MU, respectively. Compared to the corresponding s-IMRT, r-IMRT has a reduction of MUs of 44% for the prostate case and 41% for the head and neck case. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a rotational step and shoot IMRT treatment planning approach that significantly shortens the conventional IMRT treatment beam-on time without degrading the dose comformity

  18. SU-E-T-521: Feasibility Study of a Rotational Step-And-Shoot IMRT Treatment Planning Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chang, S [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Cullip, T [UNC Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Yuan, L; Zhang, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Lian, J; Tang, X [UniversityNorth Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tracton, G; Dooley, J [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Rotational step-and-shot IMRT (r-IMRT) could improve delivery efficiency with good dose conformity, especially if it can leverage the burst mode of the accelerator where radiation is turned on/off momentarily while the gantry rotates continuously. The challenge for the r-IMRT planning is to minimize the number of beams to achieve a fast and smooth rotational delivery. Methods: Treatment plans for r-IMRT were created using an in-house treatment planning system. To generate the plan using a very few beams, gantry angle was optimized by weighting the beam monitoring unit (MU), and beam shape optimization was a combination of column search with k-means clustering. A prostate case and a head and neck case were planned using r-IMRT. The dosimetry is compared to s-IMRT planned with Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. Results: With the same PTV dose coverage D95=100%, the r-IMRT plans shows comparable sparing as the s-IMRT plans in the prostate for the rectum D10cc and the bladder Dmean, and in the head and neck for the spinal cord Dmax, the brain stem Dmax, the left/right parotid Dmean, the larynx Dmean, and the mandible Dmean. Both plans meet the established institutional clinical dosimetric criteria. The r-IMRT plan uses 19 beam/405 MU for the prostate, and 68 beam/880 MU for the head and neck, while the s-IMRT uses 7 beam/724 MU and 9 beam/1812 MU, respectively. Compared to the corresponding s-IMRT, r-IMRT has a reduction of MUs of 44% for the prostate case and 41% for the head and neck case. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a rotational step and shoot IMRT treatment planning approach that significantly shortens the conventional IMRT treatment beam-on time without degrading the dose comformity.

  19. Heterogeneity in head and neck IMRT target design and clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Theodore S.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Harari, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patterns of H and N IMRT practice with particular emphasis on elective target delineation. Materials and methods: Twenty institutions with established H and N IMRT expertise were solicited to design clinical target volumes for the identical H and N cancer case. To limit contouring variability, a primary tonsil GTV and ipsilateral level II node were pre-contoured. Participants were asked to accept this GTV, and contour their recommended CTV and PTV. Dose prescriptions, contouring time, and recommendations regarding chemotherapy were solicited. Results: All 20 institutions responded. Remarkable heterogeneity in H and N IMRT design and practice was identified. Seventeen of 20 centers recommended treatment of bilateral necks whereas 3/20 recommended treatment of the ipsilateral neck only. The average CTV volume was 250 cm 3 (range 37–676 cm 3 ). Although there was high concordance in coverage of ipsilateral neck levels II and III, substantial variation was identified for levels I, V, and the contralateral neck. Average CTV expansion was 4.1 mm (range 0–15 mm). Eight of 20 centers recommended chemotherapy (cisplatin), whereas 12/20 recommended radiation alone. Responders prescribed on average 69 and 68 Gy to the tumor and metastatic node GTV, respectively. Average H and N target volume contouring time was 102.5 min (range 60–210 min). Conclusion: This study identifies substantial heterogeneity in H and N IMRT target definition, prescription, neck treatment, and use of chemotherapy among practitioners with established H and N IMRT expertise. These data suggest that continued efforts to standardize and simplify the H and N IMRT process are desirable for the safe and effective global advancement of H and N IMRT practice.

  20. Monte Carlo-based QA for IMRT of head and neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F.; Sham, J.; Ma, C.-M.; Li, J.-S.

    2007-06-01

    It is well-known that the presence of large air cavity in a dense medium (or patient) introduces significant electronic disequilibrium when irradiated with megavoltage X-ray field. This condition may worsen by the possible use of tiny beamlets in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs), in particular those based on the pencil-beam method, do not provide accurate dose computation for the lungs and other cavity-laden body sites such as the head and neck. In this paper we present the use of Monte Carlo (MC) technique for dose re-calculation of IMRT of head and neck cancers. In our clinic, a turn-key software system is set up for MC calculation and comparison with TPS-calculated treatment plans as part of the quality assurance (QA) programme for IMRT delivery. A set of 10 off-the-self PCs is employed as the MC calculation engine with treatment plan parameters imported from the TPS via a graphical user interface (GUI) which also provides a platform for launching remote MC simulation and subsequent dose comparison with the TPS. The TPS-segmented intensity maps are used as input for the simulation hence skipping the time-consuming simulation of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). The primary objective of this approach is to assess the accuracy of the TPS calculations in the presence of air cavities in the head and neck whereas the accuracy of leaf segmentation is verified by fluence measurement using a fluoroscopic camera-based imaging device. This measurement can also validate the correct transfer of intensity maps to the record and verify system. Comparisons between TPS and MC calculations of 6 MV IMRT for typical head and neck treatments review regional consistency in dose distribution except at and around the sinuses where our pencil-beam-based TPS sometimes over-predicts the dose by up to 10%, depending on the size of the cavities. In addition, dose re-buildup of up to 4% is observed at the posterior nasopharyngeal

  1. SU-E-T-309: Dosimetric Comparison of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Treatment Plan Between Intensity Modulated Radiotherapies (IMRTs), Dual Arc Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (DA-VMAT) and Single Arc Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (SA-VMAT) for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R; Janardhan, N; Bhavani, P; Surendran, J; Saranganathan, B; Ibrahim, S; Jhonson, B; Madhuri, B; Anuradha, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the plan quality and performance of Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) Treatment plan between Seven field (7F) and Nine field(9F) Intensity Modulated Radiotherapies and Single Arc (SA) and Dual Arc (DA) Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy( VMAT). Methods: Retrospective planning study of 16 patients treated in Elekta Synergy Platform (mlci2) by 9F-IMRT were replanned with 7F-IMRT, Single Arc VMAT and Dual Arc VMAT using CMS, Monaco Treatment Planning System (TPS) with Monte Carlo simulation. Target delineation done as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Protocols (RTOG 0225&0615). Dose Prescribed as 70Gy to Planning Target Volumes (PTV70) and 61Gy to PTV61 in 33 fraction as a SIB technique. Conformity Index(CI), Homogeneity Index(HI) were used as analysis parameter for Target Volumes as well as Mean dose and Max dose for Organ at Risk(OAR,s).Treatment Delivery Time(min), Monitor unit per fraction (MU/fraction), Patient specific quality assurance were also analysed. Results: A Poor dose coverage and Conformity index (CI) was observed in PTV70 by 7F-IMRT among other techniques. SA-VMAT achieved poor dose coverage in PTV61. No statistical significance difference observed in OAR,s except Spinal cord (P= 0.03) and Right optic nerve (P=0.03). DA-VMAT achieved superior target coverage, higher CI (P =0.02) and Better HI (P=0.03) for PTV70 other techniques (7F-IMRT/9F-IMRT/SA-VMAT). A better dose spare for Parotid glands and spinal cord were seen in DA-VMAT. The average treatment delivery time were 5.82mins, 6.72mins, 3.24mins, 4.3mins for 7F-IMRT, 9F-IMRT, SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT respectively. Significance difference Observed in MU/fr (P <0.001) and Patient quality assurance pass rate were >95% (Gamma analysis (Γ3mm, 3%). Conclusion: DA-VAMT showed better target dose coverage and achieved better or equal performance in sparing OARs among other techniques. SA-VMAT offered least Treatment Time than other techniques but achieved poor target coverage. DA-VMAT offered

  2. SU-E-T-309: Dosimetric Comparison of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Treatment Plan Between Intensity Modulated Radiotherapies (IMRTs), Dual Arc Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (DA-VMAT) and Single Arc Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (SA-VMAT) for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, R; Janardhan, N; Bhavani, P; Surendran, J; Saranganathan, B; Ibrahim, S; Jhonson, B; Madhuri, B [Omega Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana (India); Anuradha, C [Vit University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the plan quality and performance of Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) Treatment plan between Seven field (7F) and Nine field(9F) Intensity Modulated Radiotherapies and Single Arc (SA) and Dual Arc (DA) Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy( VMAT). Methods: Retrospective planning study of 16 patients treated in Elekta Synergy Platform (mlci2) by 9F-IMRT were replanned with 7F-IMRT, Single Arc VMAT and Dual Arc VMAT using CMS, Monaco Treatment Planning System (TPS) with Monte Carlo simulation. Target delineation done as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Protocols (RTOG 0225&0615). Dose Prescribed as 70Gy to Planning Target Volumes (PTV70) and 61Gy to PTV61 in 33 fraction as a SIB technique. Conformity Index(CI), Homogeneity Index(HI) were used as analysis parameter for Target Volumes as well as Mean dose and Max dose for Organ at Risk(OAR,s).Treatment Delivery Time(min), Monitor unit per fraction (MU/fraction), Patient specific quality assurance were also analysed. Results: A Poor dose coverage and Conformity index (CI) was observed in PTV70 by 7F-IMRT among other techniques. SA-VMAT achieved poor dose coverage in PTV61. No statistical significance difference observed in OAR,s except Spinal cord (P= 0.03) and Right optic nerve (P=0.03). DA-VMAT achieved superior target coverage, higher CI (P =0.02) and Better HI (P=0.03) for PTV70 other techniques (7F-IMRT/9F-IMRT/SA-VMAT). A better dose spare for Parotid glands and spinal cord were seen in DA-VMAT. The average treatment delivery time were 5.82mins, 6.72mins, 3.24mins, 4.3mins for 7F-IMRT, 9F-IMRT, SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT respectively. Significance difference Observed in MU/fr (P <0.001) and Patient quality assurance pass rate were >95% (Gamma analysis (Γ3mm, 3%). Conclusion: DA-VAMT showed better target dose coverage and achieved better or equal performance in sparing OARs among other techniques. SA-VMAT offered least Treatment Time than other techniques but achieved poor target coverage. DA-VMAT offered

  3. SU-F-T-388: Comparison of Biophysical Indices in Hippocampal-Avoidance Whole Brain VMAT and IMRT Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, E; Ahmad, S; Algan, O; Higby, C; Hossain, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare biophysical indices of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for whole brain radiation therapy following the NRG-CC001 protocol. Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of fifteen patients were planned with Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System using VMAT (RapidArc) and IMRT techniques. The planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the whole brain volume excluding a uniform three-dimensional 5mm expansion of the hippocampus volume. Prescribed doses in all plans were 30 Gy delivered over 10 fractions normalized to a minimum of 95% of the target volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose. The NRG Oncology protocol guidelines were followed for contouring and dose-volume constraints. A single radiation oncologist evaluated all treatment plans. Calculations of statistical significance were performed using Student’s paired t-test. Results: All VMAT and IMRT plans met the NRG-CC001 protocol dose-volume criteria. The average equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the PTV for VMAT vs. IMRT was respectively (19.05±0.33 Gy vs. 19.38±0.47 Gy) for α/β of 2 Gy and (19.47±0.30 Gy vs. 19.84±0.42 Gy) for α/β of 10 Gy. For the PTV, the average mean and maximum doses were 2% and 5% lower in VMAT plans than in IMRT plans, respectively. The average EUD and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the hippocampus in VMAT vs. IMRT plans were (15.28±1.35 Gy vs. 15.65±0.99 Gy, p=0.18) and (0.305±0.012 Gy vs. 0.308±0.008 Gy, p=0.192), respectively. The average EUD and NTCP for the optic chiasm were both 2% higher in VMAT than in IMRT plans. Conclusion: Though statistically insignificant, VMAT plans indicate a lower hippocampus EUD than IMRT plans. Also, a small variation in NTCP was found between plans.

  4. SU-F-T-388: Comparison of Biophysical Indices in Hippocampal-Avoidance Whole Brain VMAT and IMRT Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, E; Ahmad, S; Algan, O; Higby, C; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare biophysical indices of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for whole brain radiation therapy following the NRG-CC001 protocol. Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of fifteen patients were planned with Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System using VMAT (RapidArc) and IMRT techniques. The planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the whole brain volume excluding a uniform three-dimensional 5mm expansion of the hippocampus volume. Prescribed doses in all plans were 30 Gy delivered over 10 fractions normalized to a minimum of 95% of the target volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose. The NRG Oncology protocol guidelines were followed for contouring and dose-volume constraints. A single radiation oncologist evaluated all treatment plans. Calculations of statistical significance were performed using Student’s paired t-test. Results: All VMAT and IMRT plans met the NRG-CC001 protocol dose-volume criteria. The average equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the PTV for VMAT vs. IMRT was respectively (19.05±0.33 Gy vs. 19.38±0.47 Gy) for α/β of 2 Gy and (19.47±0.30 Gy vs. 19.84±0.42 Gy) for α/β of 10 Gy. For the PTV, the average mean and maximum doses were 2% and 5% lower in VMAT plans than in IMRT plans, respectively. The average EUD and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the hippocampus in VMAT vs. IMRT plans were (15.28±1.35 Gy vs. 15.65±0.99 Gy, p=0.18) and (0.305±0.012 Gy vs. 0.308±0.008 Gy, p=0.192), respectively. The average EUD and NTCP for the optic chiasm were both 2% higher in VMAT than in IMRT plans. Conclusion: Though statistically insignificant, VMAT plans indicate a lower hippocampus EUD than IMRT plans. Also, a small variation in NTCP was found between plans.

  5. SU-E-T-365: Dosimetric Impact of Dental Amalgam CT Image Artifacts On IMRT and VMAT Head and Neck Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, N; Young, L; Parvathaneni, U; Liao, J; Richard, P; Ford, E; Sandison, G [University of Washington, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The presence of high density dental amalgam in patient CT image data sets causes dose calculation errors for head and neck (HN) treatment planning. This study assesses and compares dosimetric variations in IMRT and VMAT treatment plans due to dental artifacts. Methods: Sixteen HN patients with similar treatment sites (oropharynx), tumor volume and extensive dental artifacts were divided into two groups: IMRT (n=8, 6 to 9 beams) and VMAT (n=8, 2 arcs with 352° rotation). All cases were planned with the Pinnacle 9.2 treatment planning software using the collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm and a range of prescription dose from 60 to 72Gy. Two different treatment plans were produced, each based on one of two image sets: (a)uncorrected; (b)dental artifacts density overridden (set to 1.0g/cm{sup 3}). Differences between the two treatment plans for each of the IMRT and VMAT techniques were quantified by the following dosimetric parameters: maximum point dose, maximum spinal cord and brainstem dose, mean left and right parotid dose, and PTV coverage (V95%Rx). Average differences generated for these dosimetric parameters were compared between IMRT and VMAT plans. Results: The average absolute dose differences (plan a minus plan b) for the VMAT and IMRT techniques, respectively, caused by dental artifacts were: 2.2±3.3cGy vs. 37.6±57.5cGy (maximum point dose, P=0.15); 1.2±0.9cGy vs. 7.9±6.7cGy (maximum spinal cord dose, P=0.026); 2.2±2.4cGy vs. 12.1±13.0cGy (maximum brainstem dose, P=0.077); 0.9±1.1cGy vs. 4.1±3.5cGy (mean left parotid dose, P=0.038); 0.9±0.8cGy vs. 7.8±11.9cGy (mean right parotid dose, P=0.136); 0.021%±0.014% vs. 0.803%±1.44% (PTV coverage, P=0.17). Conclusion: For the HN plans studied, dental artifacts demonstrated a greater dose calculation error for IMRT plans compared to VMAT plans. Rotational arcs appear on the average to compensate dose calculation errors induced by dental artifacts. Thus, compared to VMAT, density

  6. Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa. Conclusions: There is a lack of correlation between

  7. The Quality Control of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT for ONCOR Siemens Linear Accelerators Using Film Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Jabbari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT has made a significant progress in radiation therapy centers in recent years. In this method, each radiation beam is divided into many subfields that create a field with a modulated intensity. Considering the complexity of this method, the quality control for IMRT is a topic of interest for researchers. This article is about the various steps of planning and quality control of Siemens linear accelerators for IMRT, using film dosimetry. This article in addition to review of the techniques, discusses the details of experiments and possible sources of errors which are not mentioned in the protocols and other references. Materials and Methods This project was carried out in Isfahan Milad hospital which has two Siemens ONCOR linear accelerators. Both accelerators are equipped with Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC which enables us to perform IMRT delivery in the step-and-shoot method. The quality control consists of various experiments related to the sections of radiation therapy. In these experiments, the accuracy of some components such as treatment planning system, imaging device (CT, MLC, control system of accelerator, and stability of the output are evaluated. The dose verification is performed using film dosimetry method. The films were KODAK-EDR2, which were calibrated before the experiments. One of the important steps is the comparison of the calculated dose with planning system and the measured dose in experiments. Results The results of the experiments in various steps have been acceptable according to the standard protocols. The calibration of MLC and evaluation of the leakage through the leaves of MLC was performed by using the film dosimetry and visual check. In comparison with calculated and measured dose, more that 80% of the points have to be in agreement within 3% of the value. In our experiments, between 85 and 90% of the points had such an agreement with IMRT delivery. Conclusion

  8. Prostate Dose Escalation by a Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Lei

    2008-01-01

    ...) Developed a voxel-specific penalty scheme for TRV-based inverse planning; (iv) Established a cine-EPID image retrospective dose reconstruction in IMRT dose delivery for adaptive planning and IMRT dose verification. These works are both timely and important and should lead to widespread impact on prostate cancer management.

  9. IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy with or without elective nodal irradiation in locally advanced NSCLC. A direct comparison of PET-based treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Kremp, Katharina; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Ruebe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The potential of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as opposed to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is analyzed for two different concepts of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-based target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC): involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) vs. elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Treatment planning was performed for 41 patients with LA-NSCLC, using four different planning approaches (3D-CRT-IF, 3D-CRT-ENI, IMRT-IF, IMRT-ENI). ENI included a boost irradiation after 50 Gy. For each plan, maximum dose escalation was calculated based on prespecified normal tissue constraints. The maximum prescription dose (PD), tumor control probability (TCP), conformal indices (CI), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were analyzed. IMRT resulted in statistically significant higher prescription doses for both target volume concepts as compared with 3D-CRT (ENI: 68.4 vs. 60.9 Gy, p < 0.001; IF: 74.3 vs. 70.1 Gy, p < 0.03). With IMRT-IF, a PD of at least 66 Gy was achieved for 95 % of all plans. For IF as compared with ENI, there was a considerable theoretical increase in TCP (IMRT: 27.3 vs. 17.7 %, p < 0.00001; 3D-CRT: 20.2 vs. 9.9 %, p < 0.00001). The esophageal NTCP showed a particularly good sparing with IMRT vs. 3D-CRT (ENI: 12.3 vs. 30.9 % p < 0.0001; IF: 15.9 vs. 24.1 %; p < 0.001). The IMRT technique and IF target volume delineation allow a significant dose escalation and an increase in TCP. IMRT results in an improved sparing of OARs as compared with 3D-CRT at equivalent dose levels. (orig.) [de

  10. Flat Knitting Loop Deformation Simulation Based on Interlacing Point Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Gaoming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the faster CAD of the flat-knitted fabric, we have performed research on the model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. This paper proposes an interlacing point-based model for the loop center curve, and uses the cubic Bezier curve to fit the central curve of the regular loop, elongated loop, transfer loop, and irregular deformed loop. In this way, a general model for the central curve of the deformed loop is obtained. The obtained model is then utilized to perform texture mapping, texture interpolation, and brightness processing, simulating a clearly structured and lifelike deformed loop. The computer program LOOP is developed by using the algorithm. The deformed loop is simulated with different yarns, and the deformed loop is applied to design of a cable stitch, demonstrating feasibility of the proposed algorithm. This paper provides a loop primitive simulation method characterized by lifelikeness, yarn material variability, and deformation flexibility, and facilitates the loop-based fast computer-aided design (CAD of the knitted fabric.

  11. MO-B-BRB-02: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: IMRT Technique Validation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceberg, S. [Lund University (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. The potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced considerably in the last decade by the development of improved 3D dosimeters (e.g., radiochromic plastics, radiochromic gel dosimeters and normoxic polymer gel systems) and by improved readout protocols using optical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In this session, established users of some current 3D chemical dosimeters will briefly review the current status of 3D dosimetry, describe several dosimeters and their appropriate imaging for dose readout, present workflow procedures required for good dosimetry, and analyze some limitations for applications in select settings. We will review the application of 3D dosimetry to various clinical situations describing how 3D approaches can complement other dose delivery validation approaches already available in the clinic. The applications presented will be selected to inform attendees of the unique features provided by full 3D techniques. Learning Objectives: L. John Schreiner: Background and Motivation Understand recent developments enabling clinically practical 3D dosimetry, Appreciate 3D dosimetry workflow and dosimetry procedures, and Observe select examples from the clinic. Sofie Ceberg: Application to dynamic radiotherapy Observe full dosimetry under dynamic radiotherapy during respiratory motion, and Understand how the measurement of high resolution dose data in an

  12. MO-B-BRB-02: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: IMRT Technique Validation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceberg, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. The potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced considerably in the last decade by the development of improved 3D dosimeters (e.g., radiochromic plastics, radiochromic gel dosimeters and normoxic polymer gel systems) and by improved readout protocols using optical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In this session, established users of some current 3D chemical dosimeters will briefly review the current status of 3D dosimetry, describe several dosimeters and their appropriate imaging for dose readout, present workflow procedures required for good dosimetry, and analyze some limitations for applications in select settings. We will review the application of 3D dosimetry to various clinical situations describing how 3D approaches can complement other dose delivery validation approaches already available in the clinic. The applications presented will be selected to inform attendees of the unique features provided by full 3D techniques. Learning Objectives: L. John Schreiner: Background and Motivation Understand recent developments enabling clinically practical 3D dosimetry, Appreciate 3D dosimetry workflow and dosimetry procedures, and Observe select examples from the clinic. Sofie Ceberg: Application to dynamic radiotherapy Observe full dosimetry under dynamic radiotherapy during respiratory motion, and Understand how the measurement of high resolution dose data in an

  13. Dosimetry audit for a multi-centre IMRT head and neck trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Catharine H.; Hansen, Vibeke Nordmark; Chantler, Hannah; Edwards, Craig; James, Hayley V.; Webster, Gareth; Miles, Elizabeth A.; Guerrero Urbano, M. Teresa; Bhide, Shree A.; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Nutting, Christoper M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: PARSPORT was a multi-centre randomised trial in the UK which compared Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for patients with head and neck cancer. The dosimetry audit goals were to verify the plan delivery in participating centres, ascertain what tolerances were suitable for head and neck IMRT trials and develop an IMRT credentialing program. Materials and methods: Centres enrolling patients underwent rigorous quality assurance before joining the trial. Following this each centre was visited for a dosimetry audit, which consisted of treatment planning system tests, fluence verification films, combined field films and dose point measurements. Results: Mean dose point measurements were made at six centres. For the primary planning target volume (PTV) the differences with the planned values for the IMRT and CRT arms were -0.6% (1.8% to -2.4%) and 0.7% (2.0% to -0.9%), respectively. Ninety-four percent of the IMRT fluence films for individual fields passed gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm and 75% of the films for combined fields passed gamma criterion 4%/3 mm (no significant difference between dynamic delivery and step and shoot delivery). Conclusions: This audit suggests that a 3% tolerance could be applied for PTV point doses. For dose distributions tolerances of 3%/3 mm on individual fields and 4%/3 mm for combined fields are proposed for multi-centre head and neck IMRT trials.

  14. Evaluation of dose coverage to target volume and normal tissue sparing in the adjuvant radiotherapy of gastric cancers: 3D-CRT compared with dynamic IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Kk; Shukeili, Ka; Kumar, Ss; Davis, Ca; Chandran, Rr; Namrata, S

    2010-01-01

    To assess the potential advantage of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) over 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning in postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with gastric carcinoma. In a retrospective study, for plan comparison, dose distribution was recalculated in 15 patients treated with 3D-CRT on the contoured structures of same CT images using an IMRT technique. 3D-conformal plans with three fields and four-fields were compared with seven-field dynamic IMRT plans. The different plans were compared by analyzing the dose coverage of planning target volume using TV(95), D(mean), uniformity index, conformity index and homogeneity index parameters. To assess critical organ sparing, D(mean), D(max), dose to one-third and two-third volumes of the OARs and percentage of volumes receiving more than their tolerance doses were compared. The average dose coverage values of PTV with 3F-CRT and 4F-CRT plans were comparable, where as IMRT plans achieved better target coverage(p3D-CRT plans. The doses to the liver and bowel reduced significantly (p3D-CRT plans. For all OARs the percentage of volumes receiving more than their tolerance doses were reduced with the IMRT plans. This study showed that a better target coverage and significant dose reduction to OARs could be achieved with the IMRT plans. The IMRT can be preferred with caution for organ motion. The authors are currently studying organ motion in the upper abdomen to use IMRT for patient treatment.

  15. Image guided IMRT dosimetry using anatomy specific MOSFET configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Norrlinger, Bern; Heaton, Robert; Islam, Mohammad

    2008-06-23

    We have investigated the feasibility of using a set of multiple MOSFETs in conjunction with the mobile MOSFET wireless dosimetry system, to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance (QA) of IMRT plans. Anatomy specific MOSFET configurations incorporating 5 MOSFETs have been developed for a specially designed IMRT dosimetry phantom. Kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV CBCT) imaging was used to increase the positional precision and accuracy of the detectors and phantom, and so minimize dosimetric uncertainties in high dose gradient regions. The effectiveness of the MOSFET based dose measurements was evaluated by comparing the corresponding doses measured by an ion chamber. For 20 head and neck IMRT plans the agreement between the MOSFET and ionization chamber dose measurements was found to be within -0.26 +/- 0.88% and 0.06 +/- 1.94% (1 sigma) for measurement points in the high dose and low dose respectively. A precision of 1 mm in detector positioning was achieved by using the X-Ray Volume Imaging (XVI) kV CBCT system available with the Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator. Using the anatomy specific MOSFET configurations, simultaneous measurements were made at five strategically located points covering high dose and low dose regions. The agreement between measurements and calculated doses by the treatment planning system for head and neck and prostate IMRT plans was found to be within 0.47 +/- 2.45%. The results indicate that a cylindrical phantom incorporating multiple MOSFET detectors arranged in an anatomy specific configuration, in conjunction with image guidance, can be utilized to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance of IMRT plans.

  16. The MLC tongue-and-groove effect on IMRT dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States). E-mail: jun@reyes.stanford.edu; Pawlicki, Todd; Chen Yan; Li Jinsheng; Jiang, Steve B.; Ma, C.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions for a Varian MLC. We have compared the dose distributions calculated using the intensity maps with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Our results showed that, for one intensity-modulated treatment field, the maximum tongue-and-groove effect could be up to 10% of the maximum dose in the dose distributions. For an IMRT treatment with multiple gantry angles ({>=} 5), the difference between the dose distributions with and without the tongue-and-groove effect was hardly visible, less than 1.6% for the two typical clinical cases studied. After considering the patient setup errors, the dose distributions were smoothed with reduced and insignificant differences between plans with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Therefore, for a multiple-field IMRT plan ({>=} 5), the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions will be generally clinically insignificant due to the smearing effect of individual fields. The tongue-and-groove effect on an IMRT plan with small number of fields (<5) will vary depending on the number of fields in a plan (coplanar or non-coplanar), the MLC leaf sequences and the patient setup uncertainty, and may be significant (>5% of maximum dose) in some cases, especially when the patient setup uncertainty is small ({<=} 2 mm). (author)

  17. Fluence complexity for IMRT field and simplification of IMRT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanushova, Tereza; Vondarchek, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) requires dosimetric verification of each patient’s plan, which is time consuming. This work deals with the idea of minimizing the number of fields for control, or even replacing plan verification by machine quality assurance (QA). We propose methods for estimation of fluence complexity in an IMRT field based on dose gradients and investigate the relation between results of gamma analysis and this quantity. If there is a relation, it might be possible to only verify the most complex field of a plan. We determine the average fluence complexity in clinical fields and design a test fluence corresponding to this amount of complexity which might be used in daily QA and potentially replace patient-related verification. Its applicability is assessed in clinical practice. The relation between fluence complexity and results of gamma analysis has been confirmed for plans but not for single fields. There is an agreement between the suggested test fluence and clinical fields in the average gamma parameter. A critical value of average gamma has been specified for the test fluence as a criterion for distinguishing between poorly and well deliverable plans. It will not be possible to only verify the most complex field of a plan but verification of individual plans could be replaced by a morning check of the suggested test fluence, together with a well-established set of QA tests. (Author)

  18. TH-A-9A-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - 4D IMRT Planning Using Highly- Parallelizable Particle Swarm Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modiri, A; Gu, X; Sawant, A [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We present a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based 4D IMRT planning technique designed for dynamic MLC tracking delivery to lung tumors. The key idea is to utilize the temporal dimension as an additional degree of freedom rather than a constraint in order to achieve improved sparing of organs at risk (OARs). Methods: The target and normal structures were manually contoured on each of the ten phases of a 4DCT scan acquired from a lung SBRT patient who exhibited 1.5cm tumor motion despite the use of abdominal compression. Corresponding ten IMRT plans were generated using the Eclipse treatment planning system. These plans served as initial guess solutions for the PSO algorithm. Fluence weights were optimized over the entire solution space i.e., 10 phases × 12 beams × 166 control points. The size of the solution space motivated our choice of PSO, which is a highly parallelizable stochastic global optimization technique that is well-suited for such large problems. A summed fluence map was created using an in-house B-spline deformable image registration. Each plan was compared with a corresponding, internal target volume (ITV)-based IMRT plan. Results: The PSO 4D IMRT plan yielded comparable PTV coverage and significantly higher dose—sparing for parallel and serial OARs compared to the ITV-based plan. The dose-sparing achieved via PSO-4DIMRT was: lung Dmean = 28%; lung V20 = 90%; spinal cord Dmax = 23%; esophagus Dmax = 31%; heart Dmax = 51%; heart Dmean = 64%. Conclusion: Truly 4D IMRT that uses the temporal dimension as an additional degree of freedom can achieve significant dose sparing of serial and parallel OARs. Given the large solution space, PSO represents an attractive, parallelizable tool to achieve globally optimal solutions for such problems. This work was supported through funding from the National Institutes of Health and Varian Medical Systems. Amit Sawant has research funding from Varian Medical Systems, VisionRT Ltd. and Elekta.

  19. A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kuncic, Zdenka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ∼1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

  20. A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn; Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J.; Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Greer, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ∼1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy

  1. Development and implementation of In-vivo dosimetry with OSL in special techniques (IMRT, TBI, TSE); Desarrollo e implementacion de dosimetria In-vivo con OSL en tecnicas especiales (IMRT, TBI, TSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourel, V., E-mail: vbourel@favaloro.edu.ar [Universidad Favaloro, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Special techniques of radiation treatments generally require a quality control very thorough because in general tend to be high-risk techniques of complications due to imparting high doses in a small volume or involve a very large volume of the patient are the techniques of total body irradiation either photons or electrons. In these techniques a moderate error in the given dose can mean a very significant variation in tumor control probability (Tcp) or the likelihood of complications in normal tissues has happened in known published accidents and can be deduced from the typical sigmoid curve of response vs. dose. The technique In-vivo dosimetry has proved useful a final tool to detect any possible error in the chain of procedures to which is subjected prior to radiation treatment. This chain of procedures includes initial imaging, treatment planning involving the calibration of the equipment s, location and immobilization of the patient. The In-vivo dosimetry involves a measurement of the dose delivered to the patient in the treatment conditions to detect a possible deviation between the prescribed and the delivered dose. The experience so far has been done mainly with semiconductor elements (diodes) or thermoluminescent dosimetry. The advent of the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD), particularly in the nano Dots form, is a very appropriate tool for its size, ease of handling, accurate and fast reading. With these dosimeters has been developed and implemented the In-vivo dosimetry in three techniques in which the accuracy of the dose delivered is extremely important. These techniques are the treatment of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that seeks to impart a very high dose in the tumor tissues protecting organs in risk around the target and the techniques of total body irradiation with photons, whose function is to generate immune suppression in patients before being transplanted, or with electrons for the treatment of

  2. SU-E-T-621: Planning Methodologies for Cancer of the Anal Canal: Comparing IMRT, Rapid Arc, and Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlade, J; Kassaee, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate planning methods for anal canal cancer and compare the results of 9-field Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (Varian, RapidArc), and Proton Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS). Methods: We generated plans with IMRT, RapidArc (RA) and PBS for twenty patients for both initial phase including nodes and cone down phase of treatment using Eclipe (Varian). We evaluated the advantage of each technique for each phase. RA plans used 2 to 4 arcs and various collimator orientations. PBS used two posterior oblique fields. We evaluated the plans comparing dose volume histogram (DVH), locations of hot spots, and PTV dose conformity. Results: Due to complex shape of target, for RA plans, multiple arcs (>2) are required to achieve optimal PTV conformity. When the PTV exceeds 15 cm in the superior-inferior direction, limitations of deliverability start to dominate. The PTV should be divided into a superior and an inferior structure. The optimization is performed with fixed jaws for each structure and collimator set to 90 degrees for the inferior PTV. Proton PBS plans show little advantage in small bowel sparing when treating the nodes. However, PBS plan reduces volumetric dose to the bladder at the cost of higher doses to the perineal skin. IMRT plans provide good target conformity, but they generate hot spots outside of the target volume. Conclusion: When using one planning technique for entire course of treatment, Multiple arc (>2) RA plans are better as compared to IMRT and PBS plans. When combining techniques, RA for the initial phase in combination with PBS for the cone down phase results in the most optimal plans

  3. SU-E-T-621: Planning Methodologies for Cancer of the Anal Canal: Comparing IMRT, Rapid Arc, and Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlade, J; Kassaee, A [University of Pennsylvenia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate planning methods for anal canal cancer and compare the results of 9-field Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (Varian, RapidArc), and Proton Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS). Methods: We generated plans with IMRT, RapidArc (RA) and PBS for twenty patients for both initial phase including nodes and cone down phase of treatment using Eclipe (Varian). We evaluated the advantage of each technique for each phase. RA plans used 2 to 4 arcs and various collimator orientations. PBS used two posterior oblique fields. We evaluated the plans comparing dose volume histogram (DVH), locations of hot spots, and PTV dose conformity. Results: Due to complex shape of target, for RA plans, multiple arcs (>2) are required to achieve optimal PTV conformity. When the PTV exceeds 15 cm in the superior-inferior direction, limitations of deliverability start to dominate. The PTV should be divided into a superior and an inferior structure. The optimization is performed with fixed jaws for each structure and collimator set to 90 degrees for the inferior PTV. Proton PBS plans show little advantage in small bowel sparing when treating the nodes. However, PBS plan reduces volumetric dose to the bladder at the cost of higher doses to the perineal skin. IMRT plans provide good target conformity, but they generate hot spots outside of the target volume. Conclusion: When using one planning technique for entire course of treatment, Multiple arc (>2) RA plans are better as compared to IMRT and PBS plans. When combining techniques, RA for the initial phase in combination with PBS for the cone down phase results in the most optimal plans.

  4. Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Canis Lupus LLC and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Departments of Human Oncology, Medical Physics, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa

  5. Independent dosimetric calculation with inclusion of head scatter and MLC transmission for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Xing, L.; Li, J.G.; Palta, J.; Chen, Y.; Luxton, Gary; Boyer, A.

    2003-01-01

    Independent verification of the MU settings and dose calculation of IMRT treatment plans is an important step in the IMRT quality assurance (QA) procedure. At present, the verification is mainly based on experimental measurements, which are time consuming and labor intensive. Although a few simplified algorithms have recently been proposed for the independent dose (or MU) calculation, head scatter has not been precisely taken into account in all these investigations and the dose validation has mainly been limited to the central axis. In this work we developed an effective computer algorithm for IMRT MU and dose validation. The technique is superior to the currently available computer-based MU check systems in that (1) it takes full consideration of the head scatter and leaf transmission effects; and (2) it allows a precise dose calculation at an arbitrary spatial point instead of merely a point on the central axis. In the algorithm the dose at an arbitrary spatial point is expressed as a summation of the contributions of primary and scatter radiation from all beamlets. Each beamlet is modulated by a dynamic modulation factor (DMF), which is determined by the MLC leaf trajectories, the head scatter, the jaw positions, and the MLC leaf transmission. A three-source model was used to calculate the head scatter distribution for irregular segments shaped by MLC and the scatter dose contributions were computed using a modified Clarkson method. The system reads in MLC leaf sequence files (or RTP files) generated by the Corvus (NOMOS Corporation, Sewickley, PA) inverse planning system and then computes the doses at the desired points. The algorithm was applied to study the dose distributions of several testing intensity modulated fields and two multifield Corvus plans and the results were compared with Corvus plans and experimental measurements. The final dose calculations at most spatial points agreed with the experimental measurements to within 3% for both the specially

  6. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N.D.; Thomas, C.G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-01-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%). (authors)

  7. Direct aperture optimization for IMRT using Monte Carlo generated beamlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Alanah M.; Bush, Karl; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Popescu, I. Antoniu; Otto, Karl; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    This work introduces an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) beamlet does distribution matrix into a direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm for IMRT inverse planning. The technique is referred to as Monte Carlo-direct aperture optimization (MC-DAO). The goal is to assess if the combination of accurate Monte Carlo tissue inhomogeneity modeling and DAO inverse planning will improve the dose accuracy and treatment efficiency for treatment planning. Several authors have shown that the presence of small fields and/or inhomogeneous materials in IMRT treatment fields can cause dose calculation errors for algorithms that are unable to accurately model electronic disequilibrium. This issue may also affect the IMRT optimization process because the dose calculation algorithm may not properly model difficult geometries such as targets close to low-density regions (lung, air etc.). A clinical linear accelerator head is simulated using BEAMnrc (NRC, Canada). A novel in-house algorithm subdivides the resulting phase space into 2.5x5.0 mm 2 beamlets. Each beamlet is projected onto a patient-specific phantom. The beamlet dose contribution to each voxel in a structure-of-interest is calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions are linked to the location of the beamlet does distributions. The MLC shapes are optimized using direct aperture optimization (DAO). A final Monte Carlo calculation with MLC modeling is used to compute the final dose distribution. Monte Carlo simulation can generate accurate beamlet dose distributions for traditionally difficult-to-calculate geometries, particularly for small fields crossing regions of tissue inhomogeneity. The introduction of DAO results in an additional improvement by increasing the treatment delivery efficiency. For the examples presented in this paper the reduction in the total number of monitor units to deliver is ∼33% compared to fluence-based optimization methods

  8. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  9. Automated IMRT planning in Pinnacle. A study in head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusters, J.M.A.M.; Kollenburg, P.G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, M.C.; Wendling, M.; Dijkema, T.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bzdusek, K. [Philips Healthcare, Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI (United States); Kumar, P. [Philips Electronics India Ltd., Philips Innovation Campus, Bangalore (India)

    2017-12-15

    This study evaluates the performance and planning efficacy of the Auto-Planning (AP) module in the clinical version of Pinnacle 9.10 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI, USA). Twenty automated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared with the original manually planned clinical IMRT plans from patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Auto-Planning with IMRT offers similar coverage of the planning target volume as the original manually planned clinical plans, as well as better sparing of the contralateral parotid gland, contralateral submandibular gland, larynx, mandible, and brainstem. The mean dose of the contralateral parotid gland and contralateral submandibular gland could be reduced by 2.5 Gy and 1.7 Gy on average. The number of monitor units was reduced with an average of 143.9 (18%). Hands-on planning time was reduced from 1.5-3 h to less than 1 h. The Auto-Planning module was able to produce clinically acceptable head and neck IMRT plans with consistent quality. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie untersucht die Leistungsfaehigkeit und Planungseffektivitaet des Auto-Planning-Moduls in der klinischen Version von Pinnacle 9.10 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI, USA). Zwanzig automatisch erstellte Plaene fuer die intensitaetsmodulierte Strahlentherapie (IMRT) wurden mit den urspruenglichen manuell erstellten klinischen IMRT-Plaenen von Patienten mit Oropharynxkarzinom verglichen. Die automatisch erstellten IMRT-Plaene bieten eine vergleichbare Deckung des Planungszielvolumens (PTV) wie die urspruenglichen, manuell erstellten klinischen Plaene sowie eine verbesserte Schonung der kontralateralen Ohrspeicheldruese, der kontralateralen Unterkieferspeicheldruese, des Kehlkopfs, des Unterkiefers und des Hirnstamms. Die mittlere Dosis der kontralateralen Ohr- und kontralateralen Unterkieferspeicheldruese konnte um durchschnittlich 2,5 bzw. 1,7 Gy reduziert werden. Die Anzahl der Monitoreinheiten wurde im Durchschnitt um 143

  10. Comparison of three IMRT inverse planning techniques that allow for partial esophagus sparing in patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Ying; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Michalski, D.; Houser, C.; Bednarz, G.; Curran, W.; Galvin, James

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare 3 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse treatment planning techniques as applied to locally-advanced lung cancer. This study evaluates whether sufficient radiotherapy (RT) dose is given for durable control of tumors while sparing a portion of the esophagus, and whether large number of segments and monitor units are required. We selected 5 cases of locally-advanced lung cancer with large central tumor, abutting the esophagus. To ensure that no more than half of the esophagus circumference at any level received the specified dose limit, it was divided into disk-like sections and dose limits were imposed on each. Two sets of dose objectives were specified for tumor and other critical structures for standard dose RT and for dose escalation RT. Plans were generated using an aperture-based inverse planning (ABIP) technique with the Cimmino algorithm for optimization. Beamlet-based inverse treatment planning was carried out with a commercial simulated annealing package (CORVUS) and with an in-house system that used the Cimmino projection algorithm (CIMM). For 3 of the 5 cases, results met all of the constraints from the 3 techniques for the 2 sets of dose objectives. The CORVUS system without delivery efficiency consideration required the most segments and monitor units. The CIMM system reduced the number while the ABIP techniques showed a further reduction, although for one of the cases, a solution was not readily obtained using the ABIP technique for dose escalation objectives

  11. Evaluation of IMRT plans for prostate treatment using energies of 6 MV and 15 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lucas Francisco C.; Silva, Murilo C. da; Silveira, Paula J.; Flosi, Adriana A.; Boccaletti, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare radiotherapy plans with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer treatments optimized for photon energies of 6 MV and 15 MV. We retrospectively evaluated 29 patients with prostate cancer, planned with IMRT technique with prescribed dose of 78 Gy. The initial plan was done for the two photon energies, keeping the same optimization parameters and comparing maximum, minimum and modal PTV doses, conformity and homogeneity indexes, dose gradients, isodoses volumes of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 Gy, and the total number of monitor units. It was found that the plans are equivalent regarding higher isodose volumes, conformity and homogeneity indexes, maximum, minimum and modal PTV doses. However, for 6 MV plans there was a considerable increase in both number of monitor units and volume lower isodose volumes, especially the 30 Gy. (author)

  12. A novel approach to EPID-based 3D volumetric dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT QA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazmi, Abdulaziz; Gianoli, Chiara; Neppl, Sebastian; Martins, Juliana; Veloza, Stella; Podesta, Mark; Verhaegen, Frank; Reiner, Michael; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia

    2018-06-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are relatively complex treatment delivery techniques and require quality assurance (QA) procedures. Pre-treatment dosimetric verification represents a fundamental QA procedure in daily clinical routine in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to develop an EPID-based approach to reconstruct a 3D dose distribution as imparted to a virtual cylindrical water phantom to be used for plan-specific pre-treatment dosimetric verification for IMRT and VMAT plans. For each depth, the planar 2D dose distributions acquired in air were back-projected and convolved by depth-specific scatter and attenuation kernels. The kernels were obtained by making use of scatter and attenuation models to iteratively estimate the parameters from a set of reference measurements. The derived parameters served as a look-up table for reconstruction of arbitrary measurements. The summation of the reconstructed 3D dose distributions resulted in the integrated 3D dose distribution of the treatment delivery. The accuracy of the proposed approach was validated in clinical IMRT and VMAT plans by means of gamma evaluation, comparing the reconstructed 3D dose distributions with Octavius measurement. The comparison was carried out using (3%, 3 mm) criteria scoring 99% and 96% passing rates for IMRT and VMAT, respectively. An accuracy comparable to the one of the commercial device for 3D volumetric dosimetry was demonstrated. In addition, five IMRT and five VMAT were validated against the 3D dose calculation performed by the TPS in a water phantom using the same passing rate criteria. The median passing rates within the ten treatment plans was 97.3%, whereas the lowest was 95%. Besides, the reconstructed 3D distribution is obtained without predictions relying on forward dose calculation and without external phantom or dosimetric devices. Thus, the approach provides a fully automated, fast and easy QA

  13. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Development of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafailovici, L.; Alva, R.; Chiozza, J.; Donato, H.; Falomo, S.; Cardiello, C.; Furia, O.; Martinez, A.; Filomia, M.L.; Sansogne, R.; Arbiser, S.; Dosoretz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a result of advances in computer sciences that allowed the development of new technology related to planning and radiation therapy. IMRT was developed to homogenize the dose in the target volumes and decrease the dose in the surrounding healthy tissue. Using a software with high calculation capacity a simultaneous irradiation with different doses in a given volume is achieved. IMRT is based on internal planning. Material and methods: 628 patients were treated with IMRT in prostate lesions, head and neck, breast, thorax, abdomen and brain since August 2008. The software for IMRT is the XIO CMS and the accelerator used is a Varian Clinac 6 / 100. IMRT requires a first simulation, where immobilization systems are selected (mats, thermoplastic masks, among others) and the demarcation of the target structures, healthy tissue and dose prescription by a tattoo. Images of CT / MRI are merged when necessary. Once the system made the treatment optimization, this one is regulated by modulators. These are produced by numerical control machines from digital files produced by software. In a second modulation the planned irradiation is checked and tattoo is carried out according with this. We have a strict process of quality assurance to assess the viability of the plan before its implementation. We use the Map Check it possible to compare the dose on the central axis and the distribution in the whole plane regarding to that generated by the planning system. From 03/2008 the virtual simulation process was implemented integrating the described stages. Results and Conclusions: IMRT is a complex technique. The meticulous planning, implementation of process and quality control allows the use of this technique in a reliable and secure way. With IMRT we achieved a high level of dose conformation, less irradiation of healthy tissue, lower rates of complications and the dose escalation for some tumors. (authors) [es

  14. Dependence of Achievable Plan Quality on Treatment Technique and Planning Goal Refinement: A Head-and-Neck Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Ruan, Dan; Lee, Steve P.; Pham, Andrew; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.; Steinberg, Michael; Demarco, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a practical workflow for retrospectively analyzing target and normal tissue dose–volume endpoints for various intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques; to develop technique-specific planning goals to improve plan consistency and quality when feasible. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive head-and-neck patients from our patient registry were selected and retrospectively analyzed. All IMRT plans were generated using the same dose–volume guidelines for TomoTherapy (Tomo, Accuray), TrueBeam (TB, Varian) using fixed-field IMRT (TB-IMRT) or RAPIDARC (TB-RAPIDARC), or Siemens Oncor (Siemens-IMRT, Siemens). A MATLAB-based dose–volume extraction and analysis tool was developed to export dosimetric endpoints for each patient. With a fair stratification of patient cohort, the variation of achieved dosimetric endpoints was analyzed among different treatment techniques. Upon identification of statistically significant variations, technique-specific planning goals were derived from dynamically accumulated institutional data. Results: Retrospective analysis showed that although all techniques yielded comparable target coverage, the doses to the critical structures differed. The maximum cord doses were 34.1 ± 2.6, 42.7 ± 2.1, 43.3 ± 2.0, and 45.1 ± 1.6 Gy for Tomo, TB-IMRT, TB-RAPIDARC, and Siemens-IMRT plans, respectively. Analyses of variance showed significant differences for the maximum cord doses but no significant differences for other selected structures among the investigated IMRT delivery techniques. Subsequently, a refined technique-specific dose–volume guideline for maximum cord dose was derived at a confidence level of 95%. The dosimetric plans that failed the refined technique-specific planning goals were reoptimized according to the refined constraints. We observed better cord sparing with minimal variations for the target coverage and other organ at risk sparing for the Tomo cases, and higher

  15. An examination of the number of required apertures for step-and-shoot IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Z; Earl, M A; Zhang, G W; Yu, C X; Shepard, D M

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the degree to which step-and-shoot IMRT treatment plans can be simplified (using a small number of apertures) without sacrificing the dosimetric quality of the plans. A key element of this study was the use of direct aperture optimization (DAO), an inverse planning technique where all of the multi-leaf collimator constraints are incorporated into the optimization. For seven cases (1 phantom, 1 prostate, 3 head-and-neck and 2 lung), DAO was used to perform a series of optimizations where the number of apertures per beam direction varied from 1 to 15. In this work, we attempt to provide general guidelines for how many apertures per beam direction are sufficient for various clinical cases using DAO. Analysis of the optimized treatment plans reveals that for most cases, only modest improvements in the objective function and the corresponding DVHs are seen beyond 5 apertures per beam direction. However, for more complex cases, some dosimetric gain can be achieved by increasing the number of apertures per beam direction beyond 5. Even in these cases, however, only modest improvements are observed beyond 9 apertures per beam direction. In our clinical experience, 38 out of the first 40 patients treated using IMRT plans produced using DAO were treated with 9 or fewer apertures per beam direction. The results indicate that many step-and-shoot IMRT treatment plans delivered today are more complex than necessary and can be simplified without sacrificing plan quality

  16. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea; Purdie, Thomas G.; Jaffray, David A.; Levinshtein, Alex; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Pekar, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  17. Matching IMRT fields with static photon field in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jonathan G.; Liu, Chihray; Kim, Siyong; Amdur, Robert J.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation treatment with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer usually involves treating the superior aspects of the target volume with intensity-modulated (IM) fields, and the inferior portion of the target volume (the low neck nodes) with a static anterior-posterior field (commonly known as the low anterior neck, or LAN field). A match line between the IM and the LAN fields is created with possibly large dose inhomogeneities, which are clinically undesirable. We propose a practical method to properly match these fields with minimal dependence on patient setup errors. The method requires mono-isocentric setup of the IM and LAN fields with half-beam blocks as defined by the asymmetric jaws. The inferior jaws of the IM fields, which extend ∼1 cm inferiorly past the isocenter, are changed manually before patient treatment, so that they match the superior jaw of the LAN field at the isocenter. The matching of these fields therefore does not depend on the particular treatment plan of IMRT and depends only on the matching of the asymmetric jaws. Measurements in solid water phantom were performed to verify the field-matching technique. Dose inhomogeneities of less than 5% were obtained in the match-line region. Feathering of the match line is done twice during the course of a treatment by changing the matching jaw positions superiorly at 3-mm increments each time, which further reduces the dose inhomogeneity. Compared to the method of including the lower neck nodes in the IMRT fields, the field-matching technique increases the delivery efficiency and significantly reduces the total treatment time

  18. Radiation efficacy and biological risk from whole-breast irradiation via intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, David M.

    Radiotherapy is an established modality for women with breast cancer. During the delivery of external beam radiation to the breast, leakage, scattered x-rays from the patient and the linear accelerator also expose healthy tissues and organs outside of the breast, thereby increasing the patient's whole-body dose, which then increases the chance of developing a secondary, radiation-induced cancer. Generally, there are three IntensityModulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery techniques from a conventional linear accelerator; forward planned (FMLC), inverse planned 'sliding window' (DMLC), and inverse planned 'step-and-shoot' (SMLC). The goal of this study was to determine which of these three techniques delivers an optimal dose to the breast with the least chance of causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. A conventional, non-IMRT, 'Wedge' plan also was compared. Computerized Tomography (CT) data sets for both a large and small sized patient were used in this study. With Varian's Eclipse AAA algorithm, the organ doses specified in the revised ICRP 60 publication were used to calculate the whole-body dose. Also, an anthropomorphic phantom was irradiated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at each organ site for measured doses. The risk coefficient from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report of 4.69 x 10-2 deaths per Gy was used to convert whole-body dose to risk of a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. The FMLC IMRT delivered superior tumor coverage over the 3D conventional plan and the inverse DMLC or SMLC treatment plans delivered clinically equivalent tumor coverage. However, the FMLC plan had the least likelihood of inadvertently causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer compared to the inverse DMLC, SMLC, and Wedge plans.

  19. A fast dose calculation method based on table lookup for IMRT optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Lauterbach, Marc; Wu Yan; Mohan, Radhe

    2003-01-01

    This note describes a fast dose calculation method that can be used to speed up the optimization process in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Most iterative optimization algorithms in IMRT require a large number of dose calculations to achieve convergence and therefore the total amount of time needed for the IMRT planning can be substantially reduced by using a faster dose calculation method. The method that is described in this note relies on an accurate dose calculation engine that is used to calculate an approximate dose kernel for each beam used in the treatment plan. Once the kernel is computed and saved, subsequent dose calculations can be done rapidly by looking up this kernel. Inaccuracies due to the approximate nature of the kernel in this method can be reduced by performing scheduled kernel updates. This fast dose calculation method can be performed more than two orders of magnitude faster than the typical superposition/convolution methods and therefore is suitable for applications in which speed is critical, e.g., in an IMRT optimization that requires a simulated annealing optimization algorithm or in a practical IMRT beam-angle optimization system. (note)

  20. Risk profile for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible in the IMRT era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, Gabriela; Glanzmann, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Bredell, Marius; Studer, Stephan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Craniomaxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Huber, Gerhard [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Head and Neck Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    The risk for osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is positively related to bone volume exposed to >∝ 60 Gy. We hypothesized that in combined treatment, surgery may also be a risk factor. The impact of mandibular surgery on ORN in locally disease-free IMRT cohorts was retrospectively analyzed. Between October 2002 and October 2013, 531 of 715 patients with oral cavity cancer (OCC), mesopharyngeal cancer (MC), or salivary gland tumor were treated with the mandible bone exposed to ∝> 60 Gy (mean follow-up, 38 months; 7-143 months). Of the 531 patients, 36 developed ORN (7 %; 1.5 % with grade 3-4). The ORN rate in definitive IMRT MC (16/227) and in postoperative IMRT OCC patients with no mandibular surgery (3/46) was 7 % each; in OCC patients with mandibular surgery the rate was 29 % (15/60, p = 0.002). Marginal or periosteal bone resection was found to be a high risk factor (39 %, vs. 7 % followed by segmental or no resection, p < 0.0001). Marginal or periosteal bone resection of the mandible was identified as the highest ORN risk factor in our IMRT cohort. (orig.) [German] Das Risiko fuer die Entwicklung einer Kiefernekrose nach Radiotherapie (Osteoradionekrose, ORN) korreliert bekanntlich mit dem Knochenvolumen, das einer Dosis von ∝> 60 Gy ausgesetzt wurde. Hypothese war, dass die Chirurgie bei kombinierten Therapien ebenfalls einen Risikofaktor darstellt. Der Einfluss chirurgischer Interventionen am Kiefer auf das Risiko einer ORN wurde in unserem lokal krankheitsfreien IMRT-Kollektiv retrospektiv analysiert. Zwischen Oktober 2002 und Oktober 2013 wurden 531/715 Patienten mit Mundhoehlenkarzinomen (OCC), Mesopharynxkarzinomen (MC) oder Speicheldruesentumoren mit Dosen > 60 Gy am Kieferknochen behandelt (mittlere Beobachtungszeit 38 Monate; Spanne 7-143 Monate). Von 531 Patienten entwickelten 36 eine ORN (7 %; 1,5 % mit Grad 3-4). Die ORN-Rate nach definitiver IMRT bei MC (16/227) und nach postoperativer IMRT bei OCC ohne chirurgischen Eingriff am

  1. An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE ® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE ® formulations were studied for their temporal stability post-irradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE ® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2–22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R 2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ∼63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE ® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3–24 h, 2–6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE ® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful

  2. Dosimetric comparison of 3DCRT versus IMRT in whole breast irradiation of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The counseling regarding the treatment option is an important objective in the management of early stages breast cancer. In this study, we attempt to compare and analyze the dosimetric aspects of 3DRT over IMRT in the whole breast radiotherapy.Methods and Materials:  Both right and left sided computed tomography simulations of 14 women with early stage breast cancer were used for our retrospective study to compare the 3DCRT and IMRT. The dose prescribed was 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast PTV. The PTV was defined by adding unequal margins to the directional safety margin status of each lumpectomy cavity (i.e., medial, lateral, superior, inferior and deep margins measured from the tumor front after the examination of the surgical specimen: 2, 1.5, and 1 cm for resection margins < 1 cm, 1-2 cm, and > 2cm, respectively. And than modified so that it was no longer closer than 3mm to the skin surface and was no deep than the lung –chest interface. The prescribed dose delivered in 5 fractions per week schedule. Treatment plans were compared for target minimum dose, maximum dose, mean dose, conformity index, heterogeneity index and doses to organs at risk were compared and analysed.Results: The target coverage was achieved with 90% prescription to the 95% of the PTV. Conformity to the PTV was significantly higher with 3DCRT technique than IMRT. 3DCRT technique seems better in sparing critical organs parameters like lung V20 and Mean, heart, V25, Maximum, both lungs V20, Mean and Dose to the Normal Healthy tissue.Conclusion: We conclude from our study that treatment technique selection for whole Breast irradiation is an important factor in sparing the adjacent normal structures and in determining the associated risk. 3DCRT produces better conformity and heterogeneity indices of the target volume, also reduces dose to OARs the 3DCRT reduces the risk of radiation induced heart diseases

  3. Comparison of 3D CRT and IMRT Tratment Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakiu, Erjona; Telhaj, Ervis; Kozma, Elvisa; Ruçi, Ferdinand; Malkaj, Partizan

    2013-01-01

    Plans of patients with prostate tumor have been studied. These patients have been scanned in the CT simulator and the images have been sent to the Focal, the system where the doctor delineates the tumor and the organs at risk. After that in the treatment planning system XiO there are created for the same patients three dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment plans. The planes are compared according to the dose volume histograms. It is observed that the plans with IMRT technique conform better the isodoses to the planning target volume and protect more the organs at risk, but the time needed to create such plans and to control it is higher than 3D CRT. So it necessary to decide in which patients to do one or the other technique depending on the full dose given to PTV and time consuming in genereral. PMID:24167395

  4. IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy with or without elective nodal irradiation in locally advanced NSCLC. A direct comparison of PET-based treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Kremp, Katharina; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Ruebe, Christian [Saarland University Medical School, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The potential of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as opposed to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is analyzed for two different concepts of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-based target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC): involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) vs. elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Treatment planning was performed for 41 patients with LA-NSCLC, using four different planning approaches (3D-CRT-IF, 3D-CRT-ENI, IMRT-IF, IMRT-ENI). ENI included a boost irradiation after 50 Gy. For each plan, maximum dose escalation was calculated based on prespecified normal tissue constraints. The maximum prescription dose (PD), tumor control probability (TCP), conformal indices (CI), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were analyzed. IMRT resulted in statistically significant higher prescription doses for both target volume concepts as compared with 3D-CRT (ENI: 68.4 vs. 60.9 Gy, p < 0.001; IF: 74.3 vs. 70.1 Gy, p < 0.03). With IMRT-IF, a PD of at least 66 Gy was achieved for 95 % of all plans. For IF as compared with ENI, there was a considerable theoretical increase in TCP (IMRT: 27.3 vs. 17.7 %, p < 0.00001; 3D-CRT: 20.2 vs. 9.9 %, p < 0.00001). The esophageal NTCP showed a particularly good sparing with IMRT vs. 3D-CRT (ENI: 12.3 vs. 30.9 % p < 0.0001; IF: 15.9 vs. 24.1 %; p < 0.001). The IMRT technique and IF target volume delineation allow a significant dose escalation and an increase in TCP. IMRT results in an improved sparing of OARs as compared with 3D-CRT at equivalent dose levels. (orig.) [German] Das Potenzial der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IMRT) soll im Rahmen der FDG-PET basierten Bestrahlungsplanung des lokal fortgeschrittenen nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms (LA-NSCLC) fuer 2 Zielvolumenansaetze (Involved-Field-Bestrahlung, IF) sowie elektive Nodalbestrahlung (ENI) geprueft und mit der 3-D-konformalen Strahlentherapie (3-D

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldosary, Ghada [Medical Physics Unit, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal [Biomedical Physics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT.

  7. The Treatment Outcome and Radiation-Induced Toxicity for Patients with Head and Neck Carcinoma in the IMRT Era: A Systematic Review with Dosimetric and Clinical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Kouloulias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive analysis was made in terms of the related radiation induced acute and late mucositis and xerostomia along with survival and tumor control rates (significance level at 0.016, bonferroni correction, for irradiation in head and neck carcinomas with either 2D Radiation Therapy (2DRT and 3D conformal (3DCRT or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT. The mean score of grade > II xerostomia for IMRT versus 2-3D RT was 0.31 ± 0.23 and 0.56 ± 0.23, respectively (Mann Whitney, P<0.001. The parotid-dose for IMRT versus 2-3D RT was 29.56 ± 5.45 and 50.73 ± 6.79, respectively (Mann Whitney, P=0.016. The reported mean parotid-gland doses were significantly correlated with late xerostomia (spearman test, rho = 0.5013, P<0.001. A trend was noted for the superiority of IMRT concerning the acute oral mucositis. The 3-year overall survival for either IMRT or 2-3DRT was 89.5% and 82.7%, respectively (P=0.026, Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean 3-year locoregional control rate was 83.6% (range: 70–97% and 74.4 (range: 61–82%, respectively (P=0.025, Kruskal-Wallis. In conclusion, no significant differences in terms of locoregional control, overall survival and acute mucositis could be noted, while late xerostomia is definitely higher in 2-3D RT versus IMRT. Patients with head and neck carcinoma should be referred preferably to IMRT techniques.

  8. Evaluation tools of quality control for patients submitted to IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavor, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently been implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical routine practice. The aim of this work is to evaluate and propose a methodology for quality assurance in IMRT treatments. An ionization chamber and a two-dimensional array detector were performed to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields in one specific point. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array at one depth in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of +-3% dose difference and +-3 mm distance to agreement. As a result of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about +- 5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This can be concluded that for an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multileaf collimator, the absolute value of the total dose and the relative total dose distribution should be checked by absolute and relative dosimetry respectively. (author)

  9. Tolerance limits and methodologies for IMRT measurement-based verification QA: Recommendations of AAPM Task Group No. 218.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miften, Moyed; Olch, Arthur; Mihailidis, Dimitris; Moran, Jean; Pawlicki, Todd; Molineu, Andrea; Li, Harold; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Shi, Jie; Xia, Ping; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Low, Daniel A

    2018-04-01

    Patient-specific IMRT QA measurements are important components of processes designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered radiation doses. Discrepancy tolerance limits are neither well defined nor consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report provides a comprehensive review aimed at improving the understanding and consistency of these processes as well as recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. The performance of the dose difference/distance-to-agreement (DTA) and γ dose distribution comparison metrics are investigated. Measurement methods are reviewed and followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of each. Methodologies for absolute dose verification are discussed and new IMRT QA verification tools are presented. Literature on the expected or achievable agreement between measurements and calculations for different types of planning and delivery systems are reviewed and analyzed. Tests of vendor implementations of the γ verification algorithm employing benchmark cases are presented. Operational shortcomings that can reduce the γ tool accuracy and subsequent effectiveness for IMRT QA are described. Practical considerations including spatial resolution, normalization, dose threshold, and data interpretation are discussed. Published data on IMRT QA and the clinical experience of the group members are used to develop guidelines and recommendations on tolerance and action limits for IMRT QA. Steps to check failed IMRT QA plans are outlined. Recommendations on delivery methods, data interpretation, dose normalization, the use of γ analysis routines and choice of tolerance limits for IMRT QA are made with focus on detecting differences between calculated and measured doses via the use of robust analysis methods and an in-depth understanding of IMRT verification metrics. The recommendations are intended to improve the IMRT QA process and establish consistent, and comparable IMRT QA

  10. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rij, CM van; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the 'spared' parotid below 26 Gy. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT

  11. Incorporating prior knowledge into beam orientation optimization in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei M.S.; Lei Xing

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Selection of beam configuration in currently available intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning systems is still based on trial-and-error search. Computer beam orientation optimization has the potential to improve the situation, but its practical implementation is hindered by the excessive computing time associated with the calculation. The purpose of this work is to provide an effective means to speed up the beam orientation optimization by incorporating a priori geometric and dosimetric knowledge of the system and to demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm for beam placement in IMRT. Methods and Materials: Beam orientation optimization was performed in two steps. First, the quality of each possible beam orientation was evaluated using beam's-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) developed in our previous study. A simulated annealing algorithm was then employed to search for the optimal set of beam orientations, taking into account the BEVD scores of different incident beam directions. During the calculation, sampling of gantry angles was weighted according to the BEVD score computed before the optimization. A beam direction with a higher BEVD score had a higher probability of being included in the trial configuration, and vice versa. The inclusion of the BEVD weighting in the stochastic beam angle sampling process made it possible to avoid spending valuable computing time unnecessarily at 'bad' beam angles. An iterative inverse treatment planning algorithm was used for beam intensity profile optimization during the optimization process. The BEVD-guided beam orientation optimization was applied to an IMRT treatment of paraspinal tumor. The advantage of the new optimization algorithm was demonstrated by comparing the calculation with the conventional scheme without the BEVD weighting in the beam sampling. Results: The BEVD tool provided useful guidance for the selection of the potentially good directions for the beams to incident and was used

  12. Automated IMRT planning in Pinnacle. A study in head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusters, J.M.A.M.; Kollenburg, P.G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, M.C.; Wendling, M.; Dijkema, T.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Bzdusek, K.; Kumar, P.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance and planning efficacy of the Auto-Planning (AP) module in the clinical version of Pinnacle 9.10 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI, USA). Twenty automated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared with the original manually planned clinical IMRT plans from patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Auto-Planning with IMRT offers similar coverage of the planning target volume as the original manually planned clinical plans, as well as better sparing of the contralateral parotid gland, contralateral submandibular gland, larynx, mandible, and brainstem. The mean dose of the contralateral parotid gland and contralateral submandibular gland could be reduced by 2.5 Gy and 1.7 Gy on average. The number of monitor units was reduced with an average of 143.9 (18%). Hands-on planning time was reduced from 1.5-3 h to less than 1 h. The Auto-Planning module was able to produce clinically acceptable head and neck IMRT plans with consistent quality. (orig.) [de

  13. Fast online Monte Carlo-based IMRT planning for the MRI linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, G. H.; Hissoiny, S.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2012-03-01

    The MRI accelerator, a combination of a 6 MV linear accelerator with a 1.5 T MRI, facilitates continuous patient anatomy updates regarding translations, rotations and deformations of targets and organs at risk. Accounting for these demands high speed, online intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) re-optimization. In this paper, a fast IMRT optimization system is described which combines a GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for online beamlet generation and a fast inverse dose optimization algorithm. Tightly conformal IMRT plans are generated for four phantom cases and two clinical cases (cervix and kidney) in the presence of the magnetic fields of 0 and 1.5 T. We show that for the presented cases the beamlet generation and optimization routines are fast enough for online IMRT planning. Furthermore, there is no influence of the magnetic field on plan quality and complexity, and equal optimization constraints at 0 and 1.5 T lead to almost identical dose distributions.

  14. Automated IMRT planning in Pinnacle : A study in head-and-neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, J M A M; Bzdusek, K; Kumar, P; van Kollenburg, P G M; Kunze-Busch, M C; Wendling, M; Dijkema, T; Kaanders, J H A M

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance and planning efficacy of the Auto-Planning (AP) module in the clinical version of Pinnacle 9.10 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI, USA). Twenty automated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared with the original manually planned clinical IMRT plans from patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Auto-Planning with IMRT offers similar coverage of the planning target volume as the original manually planned clinical plans, as well as better sparing of the contralateral parotid gland, contralateral submandibular gland, larynx, mandible, and brainstem. The mean dose of the contralateral parotid gland and contralateral submandibular gland could be reduced by 2.5 Gy and 1.7 Gy on average. The number of monitor units was reduced with an average of 143.9 (18%). Hands-on planning time was reduced from 1.5-3 h to less than 1 h. The Auto-Planning module was able to produce clinically acceptable head and neck IMRT plans with consistent quality.

  15. An implementation strategy for IMRT of ethmoid sinus cancer with bilateral sparing of the optic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, Filip; Gersem, Werner de; Wagter, Carlos de; Severen, Robert van; Vanhoutte, Ilse; Duthoy, Wim; Remouchamps, Vincent; Duyse, Bart van.; Vakaet, Luc; Lemmerling, Marc; Vermeersch, Hubert; Neve, Wilfried de

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a protocol for the irradiation of ethmoid sinus cancer, with the aim of sparing binocular vision; of developing a strategy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning that produces dose distributions that (1) are consistent with the protocol prescriptions and (2) are deliverable by static segmental IMRT techniques within a 15-minute time slot; of fine tuning the implementation strategy to a class solution approach that is sufficiently automated and efficient, allowing routine clinical application; of reporting on the early clinical implementation involving 11 patients between February 1999 and July 2000. Patients and Methods: Eleven consecutive T1-4N0M0 ethmoid sinus cancer patients were enrolled in the study. For Patients 1-8, a first protocol was implemented, defining a planning target volume prescription dose of 60 to 66 Gy in 30-33 fractions and a maximum dose (Dmax) of 50 Gy to optic pathway structures and spinal cord and limit of 60 Gy to brainstem. For Patients 9-11, an adapted (now considered mature) protocol was implemented, defining a (planning target volume) prescription dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions and a Dmax to optic pathway structures and brainstem of 60 Gy and to spinal cord of 50 Gy. Results: The class solution-directed strategy developed during this study reduced the protocol translation process from a few days to about 2 hours of planner time. The mature class solution involved the use of 7 beam incidences (20-37 segments), which could be delivered within a 15-minute time slot. Acute side effects were limited and mild. None of the patients developed dry eye syndrome or other visual disturbances. The follow-up period is too short for detection of retinopathy or optic nerve and chiasm toxicity. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of ethmoid sinus tumors is associated with serious morbidity, including blindness. We hypothesize that IMRT has the potential to save binocular vision. The dose to the optic pathway

  16. Reducing dose calculation time for accurate iterative IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Lauterbach, Marc; Tong, Shidong; Wu Qiuwen; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-01-01

    A time-consuming component of IMRT optimization is the dose computation required in each iteration for the evaluation of the objective function. Accurate superposition/convolution (SC) and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations are currently considered too time-consuming for iterative IMRT dose calculation. Thus, fast, but less accurate algorithms such as pencil beam (PB) algorithms are typically used in most current IMRT systems. This paper describes two hybrid methods that utilize the speed of fast PB algorithms yet achieve the accuracy of optimizing based upon SC algorithms via the application of dose correction matrices. In one method, the ratio method, an infrequently computed voxel-by-voxel dose ratio matrix (R=D SC /D PB ) is applied for each beam to the dose distributions calculated with the PB method during the optimization. That is, D PB xR is used for the dose calculation during the optimization. The optimization proceeds until both the IMRT beam intensities and the dose correction ratio matrix converge. In the second method, the correction method, a periodically computed voxel-by-voxel correction matrix for each beam, defined to be the difference between the SC and PB dose computations, is used to correct PB dose distributions. To validate the methods, IMRT treatment plans developed with the hybrid methods are compared with those obtained when the SC algorithm is used for all optimization iterations and with those obtained when PB-based optimization is followed by SC-based optimization. In the 12 patient cases studied, no clinically significant differences exist in the final treatment plans developed with each of the dose computation methodologies. However, the number of time-consuming SC iterations is reduced from 6-32 for pure SC optimization to four or less for the ratio matrix method and five or less for the correction method. Because the PB algorithm is faster at computing dose, this reduces the inverse planning optimization time for our implementation

  17. Optimization of the primary collimator settings for fractionated IMRT stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Watson, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Advances in field-shaping techniques for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy have allowed dynamic adjustment of field shape with gantry rotation (dynamic conformal arc) in an effort to minimize dose to critical structures. Recent work evaluated the potential for increased sparing of dose to normal tissues when the primary collimator setting is optimized to only the size necessary to cover the largest shape of the dynamic micro multi leaf field. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is now a treatment option for patients receiving stereotactic radiotherapy treatments. This multisegmentation of the dose delivered through multiple fixed treatment fields provides for delivery of uniform dose to the tumor volume while allowing sparing of critical structures, particularly for patients whose tumor volumes are less suited for rotational treatment. For these segmented fields, the total number of monitor units (MUs) delivered may be much greater than the number of MUs required if dose delivery occurred through an unmodulated treatment field. As a result, undesired dose delivered, as leakage through the leaves to tissues outside the area of interest, will be proportionally increased. This work will evaluate the role of optimization of the primary collimator setting for these IMRT treatment fields, and compare these results to treatment fields where the primary collimator settings have not been optimized

  18. Evaluation of Dosimetry Check software for IMRT patient-specific quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Zalman, Travis; Ha, Chul S; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of the Dosimetry Check system for patient-specific IMRT QA. Typical QA methods measure the dose in an array dosimeter surrounded by homogenous medium for which the treatment plan has been recomputed. With the Dosimetry Check system, fluence measurements acquired on a portal dosimeter is applied to the patient's CT scans. Instead of making dose comparisons in a plane, Dosimetry Check system produces isodose lines and dose-volume histograms based on the planning CT images. By exporting the dose distribution from the treatment planning system into the Dosimetry Check system, one is able to make a direct comparison between the calculated dose and the planned dose. The versatility of the software is evaluated with respect to the two IMRT techniques - step and shoot and volumetric arc therapy. The system analyzed measurements made using EPID, PTW seven29, and IBA MatriXX, and an intercomparison study was performed. Plans from patients previously treated at our institution with treated anatomical site on brain, head & neck, liver, lung, and prostate were analyzed using Dosimetry Check system for any anatomical site dependence. We have recommendations and possible precautions that may be necessary to ensure proper QA with the Dosimetry Check system.

  19. SU-F-T-296: Modulated Therapy Down Under: A Survey of IMRT & VMAT Physics Practice in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J; Vial, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A comprehensive survey of Australasian radiation oncology physics departments was undertaken to capture a snapshot of current usage, commissioning and QA practices for intensity-modulated therapies. Methods: An online survey was developed and advertised to Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology physicists through the local college (ACPSEM) in April 2015. The survey consisted of 147 questions in total, covering IMRT, VMAT and Tomotherapy, and details specific to different treatment planning systems. Questions captured detailed information on equipment, policies and procedures for the commissioning and QA of each treatment technique. Results: 41 partial or complete responses were collected, representing 59 departments out of the 78 departments operational. 137 and 84 linacs from these departments were using IMRT and VMAT respectively, from a total 150 linacs. 100% and 78% of respondents were treating with IMRT and VMAT respectively. There are at least 8 different treatment planning systems being used for IMRT or VMAT, and large variations in all aspects of QA policies and procedures. 29 responses indicated 72 methods routinely used for pre-treatment QA, when breaking down by device and analysis type. Similar numbers of departments use field-by-field analysis compared to composite analysis (56% to 44%) while a majority use true gantry angle delivery compared to fixed gantry at 0° (72% to 28%). 19 different implementations of gamma index analysis parameters were reported from 33 responses. A follow-up one-day workshop to highlight the results, discuss the role of QA and share equipment-specific knowledge across users was conducted in November 2015. Conclusion: While IMRT and VMAT are almost universally available in Australasia, large variations in practice indicate a need for national or consensus guidelines.

  20. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rij, CM; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT. PMID:19068126

  1. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balm AJM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192. Overall response was 85% (n = 163; 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75 and 77% in the control group (n = 88 the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT.

  2. Development of three-dimensional radiotherapy techniques in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Charlotte E.

    Radiotherapy following conservation surgery decreases local relapse and death from breast cancer. Currently, the challenge is to minimise the morbidity caused by this treatment without losing efficacy. Despite many advances in radiation techniques in other sites of the body, the majority of breast cancer patients are still planned and treated using 2-dimensional simple radiotherapy techniques. In addition, breast irradiation currently consumes 30% of the UK's radiotherapy workload. Therefore, any change to more complex treatment should be of proven benefit. The primary objective of this research is to develop and evaluate novel radiotherapy techniques to decrease irradiation of normal structures and improve localisation of the tumour bed. I have developed a forward-planned intensity modulated (IMRT) breast radiotherapy technique, which has shown improved dosimetry results compared to standard breast radiotherapy. Subsequently, I have developed and implemented a phase III randomised controlled breast IMRT trial. This National Cancer Research Network adopted trial will answer an important question regarding the clinical benefit of breast IMRT. It will provide DNA samples linked with high quality clinical outcome data, for a national translational radiogenomics study investigating variation in normal tissue toxicity. Thus, patients with significant late normal tissue side effects despite good dose homogeneity will provide the best model for finding differences due to underlying genetics. I evaluated a novel technique using high definition free-hand 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in a phantom study, and the results suggested that this is an accurate and reproducible method for tumour bed localisation. I then compared recognised methods of tumour bed localisation with the 3D ultrasound method in a clinical study. The 3D ultrasound technique appeared to accurately represent the shape and spatial position of the tumour cavity. This tumour bed localisation research

  3. Monte Carlo simulations to replace film dosimetry in IMRT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzfried, Thomas; Trautwein, Marius; Koelbi, Oliver; Bogner, Ludwig; Rickhey, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Patient-specific verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans can be done by dosimetric measurements or by independent dose or monitor unit calculations. The aim of this study was the clinical evaluation of IMRT verification based on a fast Monte Carlo (MC) program with regard to possible benefits compared to commonly used film dosimetry. 25 head-and-neck IMRT plans were recalculated by a pencil beam based treatment planning system (TPS) using an appropriate quality assurance (QA) phantom. All plans were verified both by film and diode dosimetry and compared to MC simulations. The irradiated films, the results of diode measurements and the computed dose distributions were evaluated, and the data were compared on the basis of gamma maps and dose-difference histograms. Average deviations in the high-dose region between diode measurements and point dose calculations performed with the TPS and MC program were 0.7 ± 2.7% and 1.2 ± 3.1%, respectively. For film measurements, the mean gamma values with 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement were 0.74 ± 0.28 (TPS as reference) with dose deviations up to 10%. Corresponding values were significantly reduced to 0.34 ± 0.09 for MC dose calculation. The total time needed for both verification procedures is comparable, however, by far less labor intensive in the case of MC simulations. The presented study showed that independent dose calculation verification of IMRT plans with a fast MC program has the potential to eclipse film dosimetry more and more in the near future. Thus, the linac-specific QA part will necessarily become more important. In combination with MC simulations and due to the simple set-up, point-dose measurements for dosimetric plausibility checks are recommended at least in the IMRT introduction phase. (orig.)

  4. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Treatment technique and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan James Rao, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: IMRT for vulvar cancer is associated with high rates of LRC in the postoperative setting and limited radiation-related toxicity. Durable LRC of disease after definitive IMRT remains challenging, and several refinements to our treatment technique are suggested.

  5. After low and high dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy followed by IMRT radiotherapy for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Murakami, Naoya; Inaba, Koji; Wakita, Akihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Takahashi, Kana; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Umezawa, Rei; Morota, Madoka; Sumi, Minako; Igaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to compare urinary symptoms in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer after a combination of either low-dose-rate or high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy along with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (LDR-ISBT + IMRT or HDR-ISBT + IMRT). From June 2009 to April 2014, 16 and 22 patients were treated with LDR-ISBT + IMRT and HDR-ISBT + IMRT, respectively. No patient from these groups was excluded from this study. The prescribed dose of LDR-ISBT, HDR-ISBT, and IMRT was 115 Gy, 20 Gy in 2 fractions, and 46 Gy in 23 fractions, respectively. Obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms were assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) examined before and after treatments. After ISBT, IPSS was evaluated in the 1st and 4th weeks, then every 2–3 months for the 1st year, and every 6 months thereafter. The median follow-up of the patients treated with LDR-ISBT + IMRT and HDR-ISBT + IMRT was 1070.5 days and 1048.5 days, respectively (p = 0.321). The IPSS-increment in the LDR-ISBT + IMRT group was greater than that in the HDR-ISBT + IMRT between 91 and 180 days after ISBT (p = 0.015). In the LDR-ISBT + IMRT group, the IPSS took longer time to return to the initial level than in the HDR-ISBT + IMRT group (in LDR-ISBT + IMRT group, the recovery time was 90 days later). The dose to urethra showed a statistically significant association with the IPSS-increment in the irritative urinary symptoms (p = 0.011). Clinical outcomes were comparable between both the groups. Both therapeutic modalities are safe and well suited for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer; however, it took patients longer to recover from LDR-ISBT + IMRT than from HDR-ISBT + IMRT. It is possible that fast dose delivery induced early symptoms and early recovery, while gradual dose delivery induced late symptoms and late recovery. Urethral dose reductions were associated with small increments in IPSS

  6. Local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome following IMRT for nasal tumors. An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Yuki [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Janssen, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Glanzmann, Christoph; Studer, Gabriela [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Institute for Radiation Oncology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Holzmann, David [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    This study aims to evaluate local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome in patients with cancer of the nose treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From June 2008 to September 2015, 36 consecutive patients presenting with nasal cavity, ala of the nose, or nasal vestibule tumors were treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich either postoperatively (n = 14; 3/14 with nasal ablation) or with definitive IMRT (n = 22). Of these 36 patients, 8 presented with recurrent disease after surgery only and 1/36 with N1 disease. Concurrent systemic therapy was administered in 18/36 patients (50%). Nasal follow-up (FU) imaging documentation of 13 patients with preserved organ and >6 months FU offers a pre/post IMRT FU comparison. In addition, these patients' subjective evaluation of cosmesis was assessed. Mean/median FU was 41/33 months (range 5-92 months). Salvage ablation with curative intent was undergone by 3 patients with local relapse after definitive (n = 2) and postoperative (n = 1) IMRT. The 3-year local control, ultimate local control, and overall survival rates were 90, 97, and 90 %, respectively. Subjective and objective cosmetic outcome after IMRT is very satisfying so far. IMRT for nasal tumors was found to be effective and well tolerated. Intermediate-term cosmetic results are good. Radical surgical procedures may be saved for curative salvage treatment. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der Lokalkontrolle und des mittelfristigen kosmetischen Resultats nach intensitaetsmodulierter Radiotherapie (IMRT) von Patienten mit Nasentumoren. Von Juni 2008 bis September 2015 wurden an der Klinik fuer RadioOnkologie am UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich 36 konsekutive Patienten mit Tumoren der Nasenhoehle, der Nasenfluegel oder des Vestibulum nasi postoperativ (n = 14; 3/14 nach Nasenablation) oder definitiv IMRT-bestrahlt (n = 22). Von diesen 36 Patienten zeigten 8 ein Lokalrezidiv nach alleiniger vorangegangener Chirurgie und

  7. [Dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ke-Li; Chang, Qing-Rui

    2007-09-01

    By using the 1986, 1993 and 2003 Landsat TM images and with the help of GIS, the dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi in 1986-2003 were analyzed. The results showed that in the past 17 years, the desertification area in the zone decreased by 206,655.2 hm2, with the patches in landscape structure reduced and fragmentation abated. Fortunately, the desertification degree decreased obviously, and moderate and light desertification took the leading position. From 1986 to 2003, the spatial centroid of desertification landscape patches expanded southwestward and northeastward, giving serious threat to the ecological safety of the southeast and northeast loess gully and hilly areas.

  8. Simulation of respiratory motion during IMRT dose delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Silje; Wasboe, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background. When intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is realised with dynamic multi-leaf collimators (MLC) and given under respiratory motion, dosimetric errors may occur. These errors are a consequence of the dose blurring and the interplay between the organ motion and the leaf motion. In the present study, a model for evaluating these dosimetric effects for patient-specific cases has been developed and tested. Material and methods. In the purpose written software, three dimensional (3D) dose distributions can be calculated both with and without a generated breathing cycle. To validate the presented model and illustrate its application, periodic breathing cycles were generated, where the starting phase was set randomly for each field during the calculations. Respiration in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) direction was tested and verified. To illustrate the application of the presented model, two 5-fields IMRT plans with different complexity were calculated with a 2 cm peak-to-peak motion in the AP direction for one fraction and for 25 fractions. Results. The results showed that the calculation method is of good accuracy, in particular for IMRT plans consisting of several fields, where 97% of the pixels within the body fulfilled a tolerance set to 4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement (DTA). For the two IMRT plans with different complexity, pronounced respiratory induced dose errors, which increased with increasing complexity, were found for both one fraction and 25 fractions, but due to the random stating phase the interplay effect was considerably reduced for the plans consisting of 25 fractions. This illustrates how the dosimetric effects will vary depending on the dose plan and on the number of fractions investigated. Conclusion. For patient specific cases, the model can with good accuracy calculate 3D dose distributions both with and without respiratory motion, and evaluate the dosimetric effects

  9. MRI-based treatment planning for radiotherapy: Dosimetric verification for prostate IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lili; Price, Robert A.; Wang Lu; Li Jinsheng; Qin Lihong; McNeeley, Shawn; Ma, C.-M. Charlie; Freedman, Gary M.; Pollack, Alan

    2004-01-01

    and dose predicted by the planning system in the physical phantom. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool for radiotherapy simulation. Compared with CT-based treatment planning, MR imaging-based treatment planning meets the accuracy for dose calculation and provides consistent treatment plans for prostate IMRT. Because MR imaging-based digitally reconstructed radiographs do not provide adequate bony structure information, a technique is suggested for producing a wire-frame image that is intended to replace the traditional digitally reconstructed radiographs that are made from CT information

  10. Normal tissue complication probability: Does simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy score over other techniques in treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothy Basu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyze the radiobiological effect of different treatment strategies on high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Ten cases of high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma were selected for this dosimetric study. Four different treatment strategies used for treating prostate cancer were compared. Conventional four-field box technique covering prostate and nodal volumes followed by three-field conformal boost (3D + 3DCRT, four-field box technique followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT boost (3D + IMRT, IMRT followed by IMRT boost (IMRT + IMRT, and simultaneous integrated boost IMRT (SIBIMRT were compared in terms of tumor control probability (TCP and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP. The dose prescription except for SIBIMRT was 45 Gy in 25 fractions for the prostate and nodal volumes in the initial phase and 27 Gy in 15 fractions for the prostate in the boost phase. For SIBIMRT, equivalent doses were calculated using biologically equivalent dose assuming the α/β ratio of 1.5 Gy with a dose prescription of 60.75 Gy for the gross tumor volume (GTV and 45 Gy for the clinical target volume in 25 fractions. IMRT plans were made with 15-MV equispaced seven coplanar fields. NTCP was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB model. Results: An NTCP of 10.7 ± 0.99%, 8.36 ± 0.66%, 6.72 ± 0.85%, and 1.45 ± 0.11% for the bladder and 14.9 ± 0.99%, 14.04 ± 0.66%, 11.38 ± 0.85%, 5.12 ± 0.11% for the rectum was seen with 3D + 3DCRT, 3D + IMRT, IMRT + IMRT, and SIBIMRT respectively. Conclusions: SIBIMRT had the least NTCP over all other strategies with a reduced treatment time (3 weeks less. It should be the technique of choice for dose escalation in prostate carcinoma.

  11. Clinical experience transitioning from IMRT to VMAT for head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studenski, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.studenski@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bar-Ad, Voichita; Siglin, Joshua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cognetti, David; Curry, Joseph [Department of Otolaryngology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tuluc, Madalina [Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harrison, Amy S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    To quantify clinical differences for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in terms of dosimetric endpoints and planning and delivery time, twenty head and neck cancer patients have been considered for VMAT using Nucletron Oncentra MasterPlan delivered via an Elekta linear accelerator. Differences in planning time between IMRT and VMAT were estimated accounting for both optimization and calculation. The average delivery time per patient was obtained retrospectively using the record and verify software. For the dosimetric comparison, all contoured organs at risk (OARs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were evaluated. Of the 20 cases considered, 14 had VMAT plans approved. Six VMAT plans were rejected due to unacceptable dose to OARs. In terms of optimization time, there was minimal difference between the two modalities. The dose calculation time was significantly longer for VMAT, 4 minutes per 358 degree arc versus 2 minutes for an entire IMRT plan. The overall delivery time was reduced by 9.2 ± 3.9 minutes for VMAT (51.4 ± 15.6%). For the dosimetric comparison of the 14 clinically acceptable plans, there was almost no statistical difference between the VMAT and IMRT. There was also a reduction in monitor units of approximately 32% from IMRT to VMAT with both modalities demonstrating comparable quality assurance results. VMAT provides comparable coverage of target volumes while sparing OARs for the majority of head and neck cases. In cases where high dose modulation was required for OARs, a clinically acceptable plan was only achievable with IMRT. Due to the long calculation times, VMAT plans can cause delays during planning but marked improvements in delivery time reduce patient treatment times and the risk of intra-fraction motion.

  12. Breast-conserving radiation therapy using combined electron and intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.G.; Williams, S.S.; Goffinet, D.R.; Boer, A.L.; Xing, L.

    2000-01-01

    An electron beam with appropriate energy was combined with four intensity modulated photon beams. The direction of the electron beam was chosen to be tilted 10-20 laterally from the anteroposterior direction. Two of the intensity-modulated photon beams had the same gantry angles as the conventional tangential fields, whereas the other two beams were rotated 15-25' toward the anteroposterior directions from the first two photon beams. An iterative algorithm was developed which optimizes the weight of the electron beam as well as the fluence profiles of the photon beams for a given patient. Two breast cancer patients with early-stage breast tumors were planned with the new technique and the results were compared with those from 3D planning using tangential fields as well as 9-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. The combined electron and IMRT plans showed better dose conformity to the target with significantly reduced dose to the ipsilateral lung and, in the case of the left-breast patient, reduced dose to the heart, than the tangential field plans. In both the right-sided and left-sided breast plans, the dose to other normal structures was similar to that from conventional plans and was much smaller than that from the 9-field IMRT plans. The optimized electron beam provided between 70 to 80% of the prescribed dose at the depth of maximum dose of the electron beam. The combined electron and IMRT technique showed improvement over the conventional treatment technique using tangential fields with reduced dose to the ipsilateral lung and the heart. The customized beam directions of the four IMRT fields also kept the dose to other critical structures to a minimum. (author)

  13. DARS: a phase III randomised multicentre study of dysphagia- optimised intensity- modulated radiotherapy (Do-IMRT) versus standard intensity- modulated radiotherapy (S-IMRT) in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkar, Imran; Rooney, Keith; Roe, Justin W. G.; Patterson, Joanne M.; Bernstein, David; Tyler, Justine M.; Emson, Marie A.; Morden, James P.; Mertens, Kathrin; Miles, Elizabeth; Beasley, Matthew; Roques, Tom; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Hall, Emma; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent dysphagia following primary chemoradiation (CRT) for head and neck cancers can have a devastating impact on patients’ quality of life. Single arm studies have shown that the dosimetric sparing of critical swallowing structures such as the pharyngeal constrictor muscle and supraglottic larynx can translate to better functional outcomes. However, there are no current randomised studies to confirm the benefits of such swallow sparing strategies. The aim of Dysphagia/Aspiration at risk structures (DARS) trial is to determine whether reducing the dose to the pharyngeal constrictors with dysphagia-optimised intensity- modulated radiotherapy (Do-IMRT) will lead to an improvement in long- term swallowing function without having any detrimental impact on disease-specific survival outcomes. The DARS trial (CRUK/14/014) is a phase III multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) for patients undergoing primary (chemo) radiotherapy for T1-4, N0-3, M0 pharyngeal cancers. Patients will be randomised (1:1 ratio) to either standard IMRT (S-IMRT) or Do-IMRT. Radiotherapy doses will be the same in both groups; however in patients allocated to Do-IMRT, irradiation of the pharyngeal musculature will be reduced by delivering IMRT identifying the pharyngeal muscles as organs at risk. The primary endpoint of the trial is the difference in the mean MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) composite score, a patient-reported outcome, measured at 12 months post radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints include prospective and longitudinal evaluation of swallow outcomes incorporating a range of subjective and objective assessments, quality of life measures, loco-regional control and overall survival. Patients and speech and language therapists (SLTs) will both be blinded to treatment allocation arm to minimise outcome-reporting bias. DARS is the first RCT investigating the effect of swallow sparing strategies on improving long-term swallowing outcomes in pharyngeal cancers. An integral

  14. Dose distribution of IMRT and 3D-CRT on treating central non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaoyang; Yu Guangwei

    2010-01-01

    3D-CRT and IMRT were used in the radiation therapy of Central Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the dose difference of the methods was estimated. Thirty-two patients suffering with II class NSCLC were selected. Based on CT images, each patient was given 1 3D-CRT (3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy) and 2 IMRT(intensity modulated radiation therapy) treatment plans (5 fields and 7 fields), respectively, and the dose distribution was evaluated too. The results showed that PTVD mean and the PTV max , PTVD max (%) and CI of IMRT were both higher than those of 3D-CRT, but the uniformity was not as good as 3D-CRT. All indexes of lung and spinal cord treated with IMRT were lower than that treated with 3D-CRT. Moreover, there was no significance of the difference between 5 fields and 7 fields. In a conclusion, IMRT could not only decrease the target dose of NSCLC, but it can protect normal tissue from radiation damage effectively. And when IMRT was used, 5 fields might be enough. (authors)

  15. Pre-segmented 2-Step IMRT with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation – a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Meyer, Jürgen; Flentje, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Modern intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) mostly uses iterative optimisation methods. The integration of machine parameters into the optimisation process of step and shoot leaf positions has been shown to be successful. For IMRT segmentation algorithms based on the analysis of the geometrical structure of the planning target volumes (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR), the potential of such procedures has not yet been fully explored. In this work, 2-Step IMRT was combined with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation (DMPO-Raysearch Laboratories, Sweden) to investigate this potential. In a planning study DMPO on a commercial planning system was compared with manual primary 2-Step IMRT segment generation followed by DMPO optimisation. 15 clinical cases and the ESTRO Quasimodo phantom were employed. Both the same number of optimisation steps and the same set of objective values were used. The plans were compared with a clinical DMPO reference plan and a traditional IMRT plan based on fluence optimisation and consequent segmentation. The composite objective value (the weighted sum of quadratic deviations of the objective values and the related points in the dose volume histogram) was used as a measure for the plan quality. Additionally, a more extended set of parameters was used for the breast cases to compare the plans. The plans with segments pre-defined with 2-Step IMRT were slightly superior to DMPO alone in the majority of cases. The composite objective value tended to be even lower for a smaller number of segments. The total number of monitor units was slightly higher than for the DMPO-plans. Traditional IMRT fluence optimisation with subsequent segmentation could not compete. 2-Step IMRT segmentation is suitable as starting point for further DMPO optimisation and, in general, results in less complex plans which are equal or superior to plans generated by DMPO alone

  16. Kidney-Sparing Methods for Extended-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) in Cervical Carcinoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunogi, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Nanae; Terao, Yasuhisa; Sasai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) targeting the whole-pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes in patients with advanced cervical cancer results in impaired creatinine clearance. An improvement in renal function cannot be expected unless low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) kidney exposure is reduced. The dosimetric method should be considered during EF-IMRT planning to further reduce low-dose exposure to the kidneys. To assess the usefulness of non-coplanar EF-IMRT with kidney-avoiding beams to spare the kidneys during cervical carcinoma treatment in dosimetric analysis between non-coplanar and coplanar EF-IMRT, we compared the doses of the target organ and organs at risk, including the kidney, in 10 consecutive patients. To estimate the influence of EFRT on renal dysfunction, creatinine clearance values after treatment were also examined in 18 consecutive patients. Of these 18 patients, 10 patients who were included in the dosimetric analysis underwent extended field radiation therapy (EFRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, and eight patients underwent whole-pelvis radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy to treat cervical carcinoma between April 2012 and March 2015 at our institution. In the dosimetric analysis, non-coplanar EF-IMRT was effective at reducing low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) exposure to the kidneys, thus maintaining target coverage and sparing other organs at risk, such as the small bowel, rectum, and bladder, compared with coplanar EF-IMRT. Renal function in all 10 patients who underwent EFRT, including coplanar EF-IMRT (with kidney irradiation), was low after treatment, and differed significantly from that of the eight patients who underwent WPRT (no kidney irradiation) 6 months after the first day of treatment (P = 0.005). In conclusion, non-coplanar EF-IMRT should be considered in patients with advanced cervical cancer, particularly in patients with a long life expectancy or with pre-existing renal dysfunction.

  17. Reliable detection of fluence anomalies in EPID-based IMRT pretreatment quality assurance using pixel intensity deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of ≥5% in ∼1 mm 2 areas and ≥2% in ∼20 mm 2 areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences (≤2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.

  18. 3D shape measurement for moving scenes using an interlaced scanning colour camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Senpeng; Cao, Yiping; Lu, Mingteng; Zhang, Qican

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform deinterlacing algorithm (FTDA) is proposed to eliminate the blurring and dislocation of the fringe patterns on a moving object captured by an interlaced scanning colour camera in phase measuring profilometry (PMP). Every frame greyscale fringe from three colour channels of every colour fringe is divided into even and odd field fringes respectively, each of which is respectively processed by FTDA. All of the six frames deinterlaced fringes from one colour fringe form two sets of three-step phase-shifted greyscale fringes, with which two 3D shapes corresponding to two different moments are reconstructed by PMP within a frame period. The deinterlaced fringe is identical with the exact frame fringe at the same moment theoretically. The simulation and experiments show its feasibility and validity. The method doubles the time resolution, maintains the precision of the traditional phase measurement profilometry, and has potential applications in the moving and online object’s 3D shape measurements. (paper)

  19. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crijns, Wouter; Van Herck, Hans; Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin; Slagmolen, Pieter; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy have become standard treatments but are more sensitive to anatomical variations than 3D conformal techniques. To correct for inter- and intrafraction anatomical variations, fast and easy to implement methods are needed. Here, the authors propose a full dosimetric IMRT correction that finds a compromise in-between basic repositioning (the current clinical practice) and full replanning. It simplifies replanning by avoiding a recontouring step and a full dose calculation. It surpasses repositioning by updating the preoptimized fluence and monitor units (MU) using a limited number of fiducial points and a pretreatment (CB)CT. To adapt the fluence the fiducial points were projected in the beam's eye view (BEV). To adapt the MUs, point dose calculation towards the same fiducial points were performed. The proposed method is intrinsically fast and robust, and simple to understand for operators, because of the use of only four fiducial points and the beam data based point dose calculations. Methods: To perform our dosimetric adaptation, two fluence corrections in the BEV are combined with two MU correction steps along the beam's path. (1) A transformation of the fluence map such that it is realigned with the current target geometry. (2) A correction for an unintended scaling of the penumbra margin when the treatment beams scale to the current target size. (3) A correction for the target depth relative to the body contour and (4) a correction for the target distance to the source. The impact of the correction strategy and its individual components was evaluated by simulations on a virtual prostate phantom. This heterogeneous reference phantom was systematically subjected to population based prostate transformations to simulate interfraction variations. Additionally, a patient example illustrated the clinical practice. The correction strategy was evaluated using both dosimetric

  20. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, Wouter, E-mail: wouter.crijns@uzleuven.be [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van Herck, Hans [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Slagmolen, Pieter [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); iMinds-KU Leuven Medical IT Department, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven and iMinds, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Oncology, MRC-CR-UK Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy have become standard treatments but are more sensitive to anatomical variations than 3D conformal techniques. To correct for inter- and intrafraction anatomical variations, fast and easy to implement methods are needed. Here, the authors propose a full dosimetric IMRT correction that finds a compromise in-between basic repositioning (the current clinical practice) and full replanning. It simplifies replanning by avoiding a recontouring step and a full dose calculation. It surpasses repositioning by updating the preoptimized fluence and monitor units (MU) using a limited number of fiducial points and a pretreatment (CB)CT. To adapt the fluence the fiducial points were projected in the beam's eye view (BEV). To adapt the MUs, point dose calculation towards the same fiducial points were performed. The proposed method is intrinsically fast and robust, and simple to understand for operators, because of the use of only four fiducial points and the beam data based point dose calculations. Methods: To perform our dosimetric adaptation, two fluence corrections in the BEV are combined with two MU correction steps along the beam's path. (1) A transformation of the fluence map such that it is realigned with the current target geometry. (2) A correction for an unintended scaling of the penumbra margin when the treatment beams scale to the current target size. (3) A correction for the target depth relative to the body contour and (4) a correction for the target distance to the source. The impact of the correction strategy and its individual components was evaluated by simulations on a virtual prostate phantom. This heterogeneous reference phantom was systematically subjected to population based prostate transformations to simulate interfraction variations. Additionally, a patient example illustrated the clinical practice. The correction strategy was evaluated using both dosimetric

  1. Comparison of dental health of patients with head and neck cancer receiving IMRT vs conventional radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Victor M; Liu, Yuan F; Rafizadeh, Sassan; Tajima, Tracey; Nabili, Vishad; Wang, Marilene B

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the dental health of patients with head and neck cancer who received comprehensive dental care after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with radiation therapy (RT). Historical cohort study. Veteran Affairs (VA) hospital. In total, 158 patients at a single VA hospital who were treated with RT or IMRT between 2003 and 2011 were identified. A complete dental evaluation was performed prior to radiation treatment, including periodontal probing, tooth profile, cavity check, and mobility. The dental treatment plan was formulated to eliminate current and potential dental disease. The rates of dental extractions, infections, caries, mucositis, xerostomia, and osteoradionecrosis (ORN) were analyzed, and a comparison was made between patients treated with IMRT and those treated with RT. Of the 158 patients, 99 were treated with RT and 59 were treated with IMRT. Compared with those treated with IMRT, significantly more patients treated with RT exhibited xerostomia (46.5% vs 16.9%; P radiation treatment (32.2% vs 11.1%; P = .002; OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.65-8.73). Patients who were treated with IMRT had fewer instances of dental disease, more salivary flow, and fewer requisite posttreatment extractions compared with those treated with RT. The number of posttreatment extractions has been reduced with the advent of IMRT and more so with a complete dental evaluation prior to treatment.

  2. TU-C-BRE-01: KEYNOTE PRESENTATION - Emerging Frontiers in IMRT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebers, J [University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    As IMRT treatment processes advance and mature, so must the quality assurance processes being used to validate their delivery. In some respects, treatment delivery advancements (e.g. VMAT) have out-paced QA advancements. The purpose of this session is to describe new processes that are being implemented to bring IMRT QA up-to-date with the treatment delivery advances. It would explore emerging IMRT QA paradigms, including requirements-based IMRT QA which necessitates definition of delivery errors (e.g. patient dose error, leaf positioning error) and development of processes to ensure reliable error detection. Engineeringbased QA approaches, including use of IMRT treatment delivery process trees, fault tree analysis and failure modes effects analysis would be described. Approaches to detect errors such as (1) during treatment delivery validation using exit fluence detectors (e.g. EPIDs); (2) analysis of treatment delivery via use of machine parameter log files; (3) dose recalculation using (3a) treatment planning system; (3b) record-and-verify; or (3c) entrance and exit fluence measurement parameters would be explained. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method would be discussed. Schemes for error classification and root cause analysis would be described – steps which are essential for future error prevention. For each QA method, testing procedures and results would be presented indicating the types of errors that can be detected, those that cannot be detected, and the reliability of the error detection method (for example determined via ROC analysis). For speakers, we are seeking to engage non-commercially biased experts. Those listed below are a sub-sample of possible qualified individuals.

  3. TU-C-BRE-01: KEYNOTE PRESENTATION - Emerging Frontiers in IMRT QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, J

    2014-01-01

    As IMRT treatment processes advance and mature, so must the quality assurance processes being used to validate their delivery. In some respects, treatment delivery advancements (e.g. VMAT) have out-paced QA advancements. The purpose of this session is to describe new processes that are being implemented to bring IMRT QA up-to-date with the treatment delivery advances. It would explore emerging IMRT QA paradigms, including requirements-based IMRT QA which necessitates definition of delivery errors (e.g. patient dose error, leaf positioning error) and development of processes to ensure reliable error detection. Engineeringbased QA approaches, including use of IMRT treatment delivery process trees, fault tree analysis and failure modes effects analysis would be described. Approaches to detect errors such as (1) during treatment delivery validation using exit fluence detectors (e.g. EPIDs); (2) analysis of treatment delivery via use of machine parameter log files; (3) dose recalculation using (3a) treatment planning system; (3b) record-and-verify; or (3c) entrance and exit fluence measurement parameters would be explained. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method would be discussed. Schemes for error classification and root cause analysis would be described – steps which are essential for future error prevention. For each QA method, testing procedures and results would be presented indicating the types of errors that can be detected, those that cannot be detected, and the reliability of the error detection method (for example determined via ROC analysis). For speakers, we are seeking to engage non-commercially biased experts. Those listed below are a sub-sample of possible qualified individuals

  4. MO-FG-202-09: Virtual IMRT QA Using Machine Learning: A Multi-Institutional Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, G; Scheuermann, R; Solberg, T; Chan, M; Deasy, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a machine learning approach to Virtual IMRT QA for accurately predicting gamma passing rates using different QA devices at different institutions. Methods: A Virtual IMRT QA was constructed using a machine learning algorithm based on 416 IMRT plans, in which QA measurements were performed using diode-array detectors and a 3%local/3mm with 10% threshold. An independent set of 139 IMRT measurements from a different institution, with QA data based on portal dosimetry using the same gamma index and 10% threshold, was used to further test the algorithm. Plans were characterized by 90 different complexity metrics. A weighted poison regression with Lasso regularization was trained to predict passing rates using the complexity metrics as input. Results: In addition to predicting passing rates with 3% accuracy for all composite plans using diode-array detectors, passing rates for portal dosimetry on per-beam basis were predicted with an error <3.5% for 120 IMRT measurements. The remaining measurements (19) had large areas of low CU, where portal dosimetry has larger disagreement with the calculated dose and, as such, large errors were expected. These beams need to be further modeled to correct the under-response in low dose regions. Important features selected by Lasso to predict gamma passing rates were: complete irradiated area outline (CIAO) area, jaw position, fraction of MLC leafs with gaps smaller than 20 mm or 5mm, fraction of area receiving less than 50% of the total CU, fraction of the area receiving dose from penumbra, weighted Average Irregularity Factor, duty cycle among others. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the Virtual IMRT QA can predict passing rates using different QA devices and across multiple institutions. Prediction of QA passing rates could have profound implications on the current IMRT process.

  5. MO-FG-202-09: Virtual IMRT QA Using Machine Learning: A Multi-Institutional Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, G; Scheuermann, R; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chan, M; Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To validate a machine learning approach to Virtual IMRT QA for accurately predicting gamma passing rates using different QA devices at different institutions. Methods: A Virtual IMRT QA was constructed using a machine learning algorithm based on 416 IMRT plans, in which QA measurements were performed using diode-array detectors and a 3%local/3mm with 10% threshold. An independent set of 139 IMRT measurements from a different institution, with QA data based on portal dosimetry using the same gamma index and 10% threshold, was used to further test the algorithm. Plans were characterized by 90 different complexity metrics. A weighted poison regression with Lasso regularization was trained to predict passing rates using the complexity metrics as input. Results: In addition to predicting passing rates with 3% accuracy for all composite plans using diode-array detectors, passing rates for portal dosimetry on per-beam basis were predicted with an error <3.5% for 120 IMRT measurements. The remaining measurements (19) had large areas of low CU, where portal dosimetry has larger disagreement with the calculated dose and, as such, large errors were expected. These beams need to be further modeled to correct the under-response in low dose regions. Important features selected by Lasso to predict gamma passing rates were: complete irradiated area outline (CIAO) area, jaw position, fraction of MLC leafs with gaps smaller than 20 mm or 5mm, fraction of area receiving less than 50% of the total CU, fraction of the area receiving dose from penumbra, weighted Average Irregularity Factor, duty cycle among others. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the Virtual IMRT QA can predict passing rates using different QA devices and across multiple institutions. Prediction of QA passing rates could have profound implications on the current IMRT process.

  6. Analysis of PTV margin for IMRT and VMAT techniques in prostate cancer using IGRT; Analise de margem de PTV para as tecnicas de IMRT e VMAT em cancer de prostata utilizando IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrini, E.S.; Silveira, T.B.; Vieira, D.S.; Anjos, L.E.A.; Lopez, J.C.C.; Batista, D.V.S., E-mail: emmilyfisica@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer Jose de Alencar Gomes da Silva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Clinical radiotherapy procedures aim at high precision. However, there are many errors sources that act during treatment preparation and execution that limit its accuracy. The use of imaged-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) increases the agreement between the planned dose and the actual dose deposited in the target, at the same time allows to evaluate the uncertainties related to the setup and a possible reduction in the planning target volume (PTV) margin. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the best PTV margin to be used in radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) techniques associated with IGRT. A total of four patients with prostate daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were analyzed. Systematic and random errors were calculated statistically based on the displacements couch for 128 CBCTs. It was found that a symmetric margin of 0.75 cm from clinical treatment volume (CTV) to PTV is sufficient to encompass the uncertainties inherent to the treatment applying IGRT. Besides without that and maintaining the same tumor control probability, a symmetric margin of 1,24 cm would be necessary. This study showed that using daily image verification the setup errors are reduced, which generates a lower PTV margin. (author)

  7. Process control analysis of IMRT QA: implications for clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Rice, Roger K; Yoo, Sua; Court, Laurence E; McMillan, Sharon K; Russell, J Donald; Pacyniak, John M; Woo, Milton K; Basran, Parminder S; Boyer, Arthur L; Bonilla, Claribel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: first is to investigate the process of IMRT QA using control charts and second is to compare control chart limits to limits calculated using the standard deviation (σ). Head and neck and prostate IMRT QA cases from seven institutions in both academic and community settings are considered. The percent difference between the point dose measurement in phantom and the corresponding result from the treatment planning system (TPS) is used for analysis. The average of the percent difference calculations defines the accuracy of the process and is called the process target. This represents the degree to which the process meets the clinical goal of 0% difference between the measurements and TPS. IMRT QA process ability defines the ability of the process to meet clinical specifications (e.g. 5% difference between the measurement and TPS). The process ability is defined in two ways: (1) the half-width of the control chart limits, and (2) the half-width of ±3σ limits. Process performance is characterized as being in one of four possible states that describes the stability of the process and its ability to meet clinical specifications. For the head and neck cases, the average process target across institutions was 0.3% (range: -1.5% to 2.9%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 7.2% (range: 5.3% to 9.8%) compared to 6.7% (range: 5.3% to 8.2%) using standard deviation limits. For the prostate cases, the average process target across the institutions was 0.2% (range: -1.8% to 1.4%). The average process ability using control chart limits was 4.4% (range: 1.3% to 9.4%) compared to 5.3% (range: 2.3% to 9.8%) using standard deviation limits. Using the standard deviation to characterize IMRT QA process performance resulted in processes being preferentially placed in one of the four states. This is in contrast to using control charts for process characterization where the IMRT QA processes were spread over three of the

  8. A Method for Correcting IMRT Optimizer Heterogeneity Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacarias, Albert S.; Brown, Mellonie F.; Mills, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning for volumes close to the patient's surface, in lung tissue and in the head and neck region, can be challenging for the planning system optimizer because of the complexity of the treatment and protected volumes, as well as striking heterogeneity corrections. Because it is often the goal of the planner to produce an isodose plan with uniform dose throughout the planning target volume (PTV), there is a need for improved planning optimization procedures for PTVs located in these anatomical regions. To illustrate such an improved procedure, we present a treatment planning case of a patient with a lung lesion located in the posterior right lung. The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan generated using standard optimization procedures produced substantial dose nonuniformity across the tumor caused by the effect of lung tissue surrounding the tumor. We demonstrate a novel iterative method of dose correction performed on the initial IMRT plan to produce a more uniform dose distribution within the PTV. This optimization method corrected for the dose missing on the periphery of the PTV and reduced the maximum dose on the PTV to 106% from 120% on the representative IMRT plan.

  9. A project proposal for implementing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for treatment of head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoles Morales, Misleidy; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Rodriguez Machado, Jorge; Yanes Lopez, Yaima; Pomares Gomez, Yenes; Mena, Yailen

    2009-01-01

    Malignant tumors located in the structures of the head and neck, excluding the skull and its contents, constitute 10% of all cancers, remains the most frequent locations, which correspond to the oral cavity between 40 to 60%. Diagnosed between 60 to 80% in early stages and a 15 to 30% in more advanced forms of the disease. Radiotherapy and surgery are the essential therapeutic tools in the treatment of these tumors planning processes and administration of radiotherapy treatments currently in a situation of rapid and radical change. Since the beginning of radiotherapy to this day the greatest advances in treatment have been linked to a better definition of the tumor irradiation thus get a reduced dose in healthy tissue. The use of radiation, can be severe sequelae affecting quality of life of the patient, organs at risk receiving high dose and advanced technique of IMRT treatment planning and allows treatments shaped fields, especially when the target of radiation is irregular, with fewer side effects by limiting the dose in the tumor tissues and organs at risk and to allow us to increase the doses in the tumor. So we decided to develop a protocol for the implementation of IMRT, taking into account that we have the appropriate equipment, trained staff to develop this technique. (Author)

  10. Re-Planning for Compensator-Based IMRT with Original Compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  11. Implementation of dosimetric quality control on IMRT and VMAT treatments in radiotherapy using diodes; Implementacion de control de calidad dosimetrico en tratamientos de IMRT y VMAT en radioterapia usando diodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, A.; Garcia, B.; Ramirez, J.; Marquina, J., E-mail: andres.gonzales@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    To implement quality control of IMRT and VMAT treatments Rapid Arc radiotherapy using diode array. Were tested 90 patients with IMRT and VMAT Rapid Arc, comparing the planned dose to the dose administered, used the Map-Check-2 and Arc-Check of Sun Nuclear, they using the gamma factor for calculating and using comparison parameters 3% / 3m m. The statistic shows that the quality controls of the 90 patients analyzed, presented a percentage of diodes that pass the test between 96,7% and 100,0% of the irradiated diodes. Implemented in Clinical ALIADA Oncologia Integral, the method for quality control of IMRT and VMAT treatments Rapid Arc radiotherapy using diode array. (Author)

  12. Comparison of film dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulations in small field IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.R.; Suh, T.S.; Choe, B.Y.; Lee, H.K. [The Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn. Jason W. [Washington Univ., St. Louis (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) is a recent useful technique that conforms a high dose to the target volume while restricting dose to the surrounding critical organs. In IMRT, the small size beam let is used for intensity modulation. Thus, dose calculation in small field is very important. But, dose calculation in small field is not accurate in recent RTP system because electronic disequilibrium and the effect of multiple scattering electron are not considered in dose calculation. and therefore, We have evaluated the errors of depth dose and beam profile between measurement data and Monte Carlo simulation. With a homogeneous phantom and two heterogeneous phantoms, A thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and radiochromic films have been selected for dose measurement in 6 MV photon beams. A linear accelerator Varian 2300C (Varian Medical Systems, USA) equipped with a multileaf collimator have been used in dose measurement. The results of simulations using the Monte Carlo systems BEAM/EGS4 (NRC, Canada) to model the beam geometry have been compared with dose measurements. Generally good agreements were found between measurements and dose calculations of Monte Carlo simulation. But some discrepancies were found in this study. Thus further study will be needed to compensate these errors.

  13. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Andrea [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John, E-mail: john.atyeo@sydney.edu.au [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Rinks, Marianne [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Radiation Oncology, Cancer Services, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to 3D

  14. Is ad-hoc plan adaptation based on 2-Step IMRT feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Polat, Buelent; Gainey, Mark; Grewenig, Patricia; Meyer, Juergen; Flentje, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: The ability of a geometry-based method to expeditiously adapt a '2-Step' step and shoot IMRT plan was explored. Both changes of the geometry of target and organ at risk have to be balanced. A retrospective prostate planning study was performed to investigate the relative benefits of beam segment adaptation to the changes in target and organ at risk coverage. Methods: Four patients with six planning cases with extraordinarily large deformations of rectum and prostate were chosen for the study. A 9-field IMRT plan (A) using 2-Step IMRT segments was planned on an initial CT study. The plan had to fulfil all the requirements of a conventional high-quality step and shoot IMRT plan. To adapt to changes of the anatomy in a further CT data set, three approaches were considered: the original plan with optimized isocentre position (B), a newly optimized plan (C) and the original plan, adapted using the 2-Step IMRT optimization rules (D). DVH parameters were utilized for quantification of plan quality: D 99 for the CTV and the central planning target volume (PTV), D 95 for an outer PTV, V 95 , V 80 and V 50 for rectum and bladder. Results: The adapted plan (D) achieved almost the same target coverage as the newly optimized plan (C). Target coverage for plan B was poor and for the organs at risk, the rectum V 80 was slightly increased. The volume with more than 95% of the target dose (V 95 ) was 1.5 ± 1.5 cm 3 for the newly optimized plan (C), compared to 2.2 ± 1.3 cm 3 for the original plan (A) and 7.2 ± 4.8 cm 3 (B) on the first and the second CT, respectively. The adapted plan resulted in 4.3 ± 2.1 cm 3 (D), an intermediate dose load to the rectum. All other parameters were comparable for the newly optimized and the adapted plan. Conclusions: The first results for adaptation of interfractional changes using the 2-Step IMRT algorithm are encouraging. The plans were superior to plans with optimized isocentre position and only marginally inferior to a newly

  15. Verification of patient position and delivery of IMRT by electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, Andrew L.; Evans, Philip M.; Clark, Catharine H.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of the work presented in this paper was to determine whether patient positioning and delivery errors could be detected using electronic portal images of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and methods: We carried out a series of controlled experiments delivering an IMRT beam to a humanoid phantom using both the dynamic and multiple static field method of delivery. The beams were imaged, the images calibrated to remove the IMRT fluence variation and then compared with calibrated images of the reference beams without any delivery or position errors. The first set of experiments involved translating the position of the phantom both laterally and in a superior/inferior direction a distance of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm. The phantom was also rotated 1 and 2 deg. For the second set of measurements the phantom position was kept fixed and delivery errors were introduced to the beam. The delivery errors took the form of leaf position and segment intensity errors. Results: The method was able to detect shifts in the phantom position of 1 mm, leaf position errors of 2 mm, and dosimetry errors of 10% on a single segment of a 15 segment IMRT step and shoot delivery (significantly less than 1% of the total dose). Conclusions: The results of this work have shown that the method of imaging the IMRT beam and calibrating the images to remove the intensity modulations could be a useful tool in verifying both the patient position and the delivery of the beam

  16. Micro ionization chamber dosimetry in IMRT verification: Clinical implications of dosimetric errors in the PTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco; Capote, Roberto; Rosello, Joan V.; Leal, Antonio; Lagares, Juan I.; Arrans, Rafael; Hartmann, Guenther H.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Absolute dose measurements for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) beamlets is difficult due to the lack of lateral electron equilibrium. Recently we found that the absolute dosimetry in the penumbra region of the IMRT beamlet, can suffer from significant errors (Capote et al., Med Phys 31 (2004) 2416-2422). This work has the goal to estimate the error made when measuring the Planning Target Volume's (PTV) absolute dose by a micro ion chamber (μIC) in typical IMRT treatment. The dose error comes from the assumption that the dosimetric parameters determining the absolute dose are the same as for the reference conditions. Materials and Methods: Two IMRT treatment plans for common prostate carcinoma case, derived by forward and inverse optimisation, were considered. Detailed geometrical simulation of the μIC and the dose verification set-up was performed. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation allows us to calculate the delivered dose to water and the dose delivered to the active volume of the ion chamber. However, the measured dose in water is usually derived from chamber readings assuming reference conditions. The MC simulation provides needed correction factors for ion chamber dosimetry in non reference conditions. Results: Dose calculations were carried out for some representative beamlets, a combination of segments and for the delivered IMRT treatments. We observe that the largest dose errors (i.e. the largest correction factors) correspond to the smaller contribution of the corresponding IMRT beamlets to the total dose delivered in the ionization chamber within PTV. Conclusion: The clinical impact of the calculated dose error in PTV measured dose was found to be negligible for studied IMRT treatments

  17. MAGAT gel dosimetry for its application in small field treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopishankar, N; Vivekanandhan, S; Kale, S S; Rath, G K; Kumaran, S Senthil; Thulkar, Sanjay; Subramani, V; Laviraj, M A; Bisht, R K; Mahapatra, A K

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this work is to present the role of in-house manufactured MAGAT gel for treatment verification in small field dosimetric techniques such as Gammaknife (GK) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most extensively used imaging technique for polymer gel dosimetry hence we used this method for gel evaluation. Different MR scanners and MRI sequences were used in this study for obtaining calibration plot between R2 and absorbed dose. An experimental plan was created for Gammaknife and IMRT. The prepared gel was filled in spherical glass phantom and in-house designed human head shape phantom for verification purpose. We used 8 TE values for all the imaging sequences for two reasons. Firstly it is sufficient enough to give good signal to noise ratio. Second considering the enormous scanning time involved in multiple spin echo sequence. MATLAB based in-house programs were used for R2 estimation and dose comparison. The isodose comparison with MAGAT gel showed reasonable agreement for both Gammaknife and IMRT techniques.

  18. Advantages and limitations of navigation-based multicriteria optimization (MCO) for localized prostate cancer IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, Conor K.; Bokrantz, Rasmus; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of inverse planning is becoming increasingly important for advanced radiotherapy techniques. This study’s aims were to validate multicriteria optimization (MCO) in RayStation (v2.4, RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden) against standard intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization in Oncentra (v4.1, Nucletron BV, the Netherlands) and characterize dose differences due to conversion of navigated MCO plans into deliverable multileaf collimator apertures. Step-and-shoot IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with localized prostate cancer using both standard optimization and MCO. Acceptable standard IMRT plans with minimal average rectal dose were chosen for comparison with deliverable MCO plans. The trade-off was, for the MCO plans, managed through a user interface that permits continuous navigation between fluence-based plans. Navigated MCO plans were made deliverable at incremental steps along a trajectory between maximal target homogeneity and maximal rectal sparing. Dosimetric differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans were also quantified. MCO plans, chosen as acceptable under navigated and deliverable conditions resulted in similar rectal sparing compared with standard optimization (33.7 ± 1.8 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.117). The dose differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans increased as higher priority was placed on rectal avoidance. If the best possible deliverable MCO was chosen, a significant reduction in rectal dose was observed in comparison with standard optimization (30.6 ± 1.4 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.047). Improvements were, however, to some extent, at the expense of less conformal dose distributions, which resulted in significantly higher doses to the bladder for 2 of the 3 tolerance levels. In conclusion, similar IMRT plans can be created for patients with prostate cancer using MCO compared with standard optimization. Limitations exist within MCO regarding conversion of navigated plans to

  19. Importance of protocol target definition on the ability to spare normal tissue: An IMRT and 3D-CRT planning comparison for intraorbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Patrick A.; Gladstone, David J.; Bellerive, Marc R.; Hug, Eugen B.

    2005-01-01

    were fulfilled in all cases (5/5) with 3D-CRT and IMRT. Using the protocol criteria, lens sparing was achieved only for two tumor sites (retrobulbar and lateral position) with either planning technique. Mean lens doses were 8.5 and 10.4 Gy for 3D-CRT and 7.5 and 13.2 Gy for IMRT, respectively. The mean lens doses for the other three tumor locations averaged 26.8 Gy. IMRT plans reduced the lens dose in four of five cases by an average of 2.6 Gy compared with 3D-CRT. Modified target protocol prescription markedly reduced mean lens doses by 23-50% and by as much as 18 Gy. Recorded mean lens doses after protocol modification were 26% lower using IMRT plans compared with 3D-CRT. The cold spot as a result of the relaxed volume coverage requirements was within 2% of the original protocol criteria and located at the edge of the PTV, outside the CTV. Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT resulted in an increase of brain volume receiving 10% (V10) and 20% (V20) of the prescribed dose. Conclusion: Strict adherence to IRS-V protocol criteria prohibits at present lens sparing within compliance criteria for the majority of intraorbital tumor locations because of protocol-specific CTV and PTV target definitions. Changing protocol definitions by prescribing to the volume rather than to a dose constraint, IMRT planning significantly reduced lens doses. This was not accomplished to the same degree with 3D-CRT. Our study underlines the importance of appropriate selection of planning objectives to maximize the specific capabilities and advantages of IMRT in terms of sufficient target coverage and simultaneous sparing of critical structures. Our results can add to the ongoing discussion in the design of future 3D-CRT/IMRT protocols

  20. Experimental IMRT breast dosimetry in a thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Elsa B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Lima, Andre C.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential therapeutic method. RT is often used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. The dose-volume restrictions of the organs at risk limit the prescribed dose to the target volume and biological and clinical effects may influence the final treatment outcome. The breast RT provides large risks to the adjacent organs and consequently the recommended dosimetry to the prescribed dose volume (PTV) is 50 Gy, lower than the most prescribed dose in other treatments (70-85 Gy). Such values implies in less tumor control compared to other sites. The present research proposal aimed to measure absorbed dose in a thorax phantom with synthetic breasts provided by an Intensity-Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) protocol in a RT center. On the methodology, IMRT protocol was selected following recommendations from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiochromic films and a thorax simulator were prepared by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI). Dosimeters were calibrated on a selected linear accelerator (LINAC). The comparison of the dosimetry from treatment planning system (TPS), Xio (Elekta) and from experimental data was performed. The spatial distribution of the breast internal dose and in the adjacent organs was depicted by the experimental data. In the film's calibration, the quadratic polynomial fit presented a satisfactory coefficient. Two-dimensional dose profiles were obtained in the breast suggesting that films can supply details and information that TPS does not provide. At the phantom's dosimetry, the internal mean doses taken at the synthetic breast presented usual values above the prescribed dose, besides overall values were within the dosimetric MSKCC criterion. The non full reproduction of the build-up region in the films had occurred due to the asymmetrical positioning of the films in the inner breast, in addition to their non constant distance from the skin. The hot regions were present may be due to

  1. Evaluation of the Delta4 phantom for IMRT and VMAT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, James L; Lee, Young K; Wai, Philip; South, Christopher P; Warrington, Alan P

    2009-01-01

    The Delta 4 diode array phantom (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden) was evaluated for verification of segmental intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on an Elekta linear accelerator (Crawley UK). The device was tested for angular sensitivity by irradiating it from 36 different gantry angles, and the responses of the device to various step-and-shoot segment doses and dose rates were evaluated using an ionization chamber as a comparison. The phantom was then compared with ionization chamber and film results for two prostate and pelvic nodes IMRT plans, two head and neck IMRT plans and two lung VMAT plans. These plans were calculated using Pinnacle 3 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Madison, WI). The uniformity of angular response was better than 0.5% over the range of gantry angles. The uniformity of response of the Delta 4 to different segment monitor units and dose rates was better than 0.5%. The assessment of the IMRT and VMAT plans showed that the Delta 4 measured a dose within 2.5% of the ionization chamber, and compared to film recorded a slightly larger region (range -2% to +7%) agreeing with the planned dose to within 3% and 3 mm. The Delta 4 is a complex device and requires careful benchmarking, but following the successful completion of these measurements, the Delta 4 has been introduced into clinical use. (note)

  2. Computational model to simulate the interplay effect in dynamic IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoganathan, S A; Maria Das, K J; Kumar, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and experimentally verify a patient specific model for simulating the interplay effect in a DMLC based IMRT delivery. A computational model was developed using MATLAB program to incorporate the interplay effect in a 2D beams eye view fluence of dynamic IMRT fields. To simulate interplay effect, the model requires two inputs: IMRT field (DMLC file with dose rate and MU) and the patient specific respiratory motion. The interplay between the DMLC leaf motion and target was simulated for three lung patients. The target trajectory data was acquired using RPM system during the treatment simulation. The model was verified experimentally for the same patients using Imatrix 2D array device placed over QUASAR motion platform in CL2100 linac. The simulated fluences and measured fluences were compared with the TPS generated static fluence (no motion) using an in-house developed gamma evaluation program (2%/2mm). The simulated results were well within agreement with the measured. Comparison of the simulated and measured fluences with the TPS static fluence resulted 55.3% and 58.5% pixels passed the gamma criteria. A patient specific model was developed and validated for simulating the interplay effect in the dynamic IMRT delivery. This model can be clinically used to quantify the dosimetric uncertainty due to the interplay effect prior to the treatment delivery.

  3. Six years of experience in the planning and verification of the IMRT dynamics with portal dosimetry; Seis anos de expereincia en la planificacion y verificacion de la IMRT dinamica con portal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Pardo Perez, E.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Castro Novais, J.; Diaz Gavela, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is the make a review of the method of verification of the IMRT throughout the 6 years of functioning of the service of-radiophysics and radiology protection, analyzing the parameters of each field evaluation to the 718 made IMRT during this period. (Author)

  4. An evaluation of gating window size, delivery method, and composite field dosimetry of respiratory-gated IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2002-01-01

    A respiratory gating system has been developed based on a commercial patient positioning system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of the gating system to reproduce normal, nongated IMRT operation and to quantify the errors produced by delivering a nongated IMRT treatment onto a moving target. A moving phantom capable of simultaneous two-dimensional motion was built, and an analytical liver motion function was used to drive the phantom. Studies were performed to assess the effect of gating window size and choice of delivery method (segmented and dynamic multileaf collimation). Additionally, two multiple field IMRT cases were delivered to quantify the error in gated and nongated IMRT with motion. Dosimetric error between nonmoving and moving deliveries is related to gating window size. By reducing the window size, the error can be reduced. Delivery error can be reduced for both dynamic and segmented delivery with gating. For the implementation of dynamic IMRT delivery in this study, dynamic delivery was found to generate larger delivery errors than segmented delivery in most cases studied. For multiple field IMRT delivery, the largest errors were generated in regions where high field modulation was present parallel to the axis of motion. Gating was found to reduce these large errors to clinically acceptable levels

  5. IMRT and radiation protection in the prostate cancer therapy; IMRT e a protecao radiologica no tratamento do cancer de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helena C.; Silva, Andre R.M.; Oliveira, Claudia F.M., E-mail: andrerichard88@bol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to specify the technological advances that IMRT presents relative to other traditional radiotherapy, particularly to conformal radiotherapy three dimensional (3D-TCR) and benefits compared to the side effects caused by from treatment of radiotherapy.

  6. A retrospective planning analysis comparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using two optimization algorithms for the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elith, Craig A; Dempsey, Shane E; Warren-Forward, Helen M

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for the radical treatment of prostate cancer using version 10.0 (v10.0) of Varian Medical Systems, RapidArc radiation oncology system. Particular focus was placed on plan quality and the implications on departmental resources. The secondary objective was to compare the results in v10.0 to the preceding version 8.6 (v8.6). Twenty prostate cancer cases were retrospectively planned using v10.0 of Varian's Eclipse and RapidArc software. Three planning techniques were performed: a 5-field IMRT, VMAT using one arc (VMAT-1A), and VMAT with two arcs (VMAT-2A). Plan quality was assessed by examining homogeneity, conformity, the number of monitor units (MUs) utilized, and dose to the organs at risk (OAR). Resource implications were assessed by examining planning and treatment times. The results obtained using v10.0 were also compared to those previously reported by our group for v8.6. In v10.0, each technique was able to produce a dose distribution that achieved the departmental planning guidelines. The IMRT plans were produced faster than VMAT plans and displayed improved homogeneity. The VMAT plans provided better conformity to the target volume, improved dose to the OAR, and required fewer MUs. Treatments using VMAT-1A were significantly faster than both IMRT and VMAT-2A. Comparison between versions 8.6 and 10.0 revealed that in the newer version, VMAT planning was significantly faster and the quality of the VMAT dose distributions produced were of a better quality. VMAT (v10.0) using one or two arcs provides an acceptable alternative to IMRT for the treatment of prostate cancer. VMAT-1A has the greatest impact on reducing treatment time

  7. Cardiac avoidance in breast radiotherapy: a comparison of simple shielding techniques with intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, David; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Webb, Steve; Ross, Gillian

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) is now part of the routine care of patients with early breast cancer. However, analysis of the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative suggests that patients with the lowest risk of dying of breast cancer are at significant risk of cardiac mortality due to longer relapse-free survival. Patients with a significant amount of heart in the high-dose volume have been shown to be at risk of fatal cardiac events. This study was designed to assess whether conformal planning or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques allow reduced cardiac irradiation whilst maintaining full target coverage. Material and methods: Ten patients with early breast cancer were available for computed tomography (CT) planning. Each had at least 1 cm maximum heart depth within the posterior border of conventional tangents. For each patient, plans were generated and compared using dose volume histograms for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk. The plans included conventional tangents with and without shielding. The shielding was designed to either completely spare the heart or to shield as much heart as possible without compromising PTV coverage. IMRT plans were also prepared using two- and four-field tangential and six-field arc-like beam arrangements. Results: PTV homogeneity was better for the tangential IMRT techniques. For all patients, cardiac irradiation was reduced by the addition of partial cardiac shielding to conventional tangents, without compromise of PTV coverage. The two- and four-field IMRT techniques also reduced heart doses. The average percentage volume of heart receiving >60% of the prescription dose was 4.4% (range 1.0-7.1%) for conventional tangents, 1.5% (0.2-3.9%) for partial shielding, 2.3% (0.5-4.6%) for the two-field IMRT technique and 2.2% (0.4-5.6%) for the four-field IMRT technique. For patients with larger maximum heart depths the four-field IMRT plan achieved greater heart sparing

  8. Dosimetric comparison of metastatic spinal photon treatment techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Marvene M., E-mail: mewing@iuhealth.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Carnes, Samuel M.; Henderson, Mark A.; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Traditional palliative treatment of metastatic cancer to the vertebral bodies often results in doses to the spinal cord that are higher than the dose prescribed to the target, or gross tumor volume (GTV). This study compares traditional techniques of spine palliation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The purpose of the study is 2-fold: first, the study demonstrates the benefits of using IMRT to lower the dose to the organs at risk (OAR), particularly for the spinal cord and other nonspecified normal tissues; second, the article provides information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used conventional techniques for treating the vertebral bodies based on patient anatomy. Because the use of IMRT or other advanced techniques may be prohibitive because of insurance issues, treatment plans were created that compared optimal coverage vs. optimal sparing for single-field, wedged-pair, and opposed-beam arrangements. Fifty-five patients were selected and divided by location of target (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine) and also by the measured separation between the anterior and posterior surface of the patient at the level of mid-GTV. Within each anatomic category the patients again were divided into the categories of small, medium, and large based on separation. The patient dataset that most closely represented the average separation within each category was selected, resulting in a total of 9 patients, and the appropriate treatment plan techniques were calculated for each of the 9 patients. The results of the study do show that the use of IMRT is far superior when compared with other techniques, both for coverage and for sparing of the surrounding tissue, regardless of patient size and the section of spine being treated. Based on a combination of both target coverage and sparing of normal tissues, the conventional plan of choice may vary by both the section of spine to be treated and by the size of the patient.

  9. Node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Does VMAT improve treatment plan quality with respect to IMRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, M.; Bartelt, S.; Lutterbach, J. [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, D. [Medical University Vienna/AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to explore plan quality and dosimetric accuracy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Methods: VMAT and IMRT plans were generated with the Pinnacle{sup 3} V9.0 treatment planning system for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients. VMAT plans were created using a single arc and IMRT was performed with 4 beams using 6, 10, and 15 MV photon energy, respectively. Plans were evaluated both manually and automatically using ArtiView trademark. Dosimetric plan verification was performed with a 2D ionization chamber array placed in a full scatter phantom. Results: Photon energy had no significant influence on plan quality for both VMAT and IMRT. Large variability in low doses to the heart was found due to patient anatomy (range V{sub 5} {sub Gy} 26.5-95 %). Slightly more normal tissue dose was found for VMAT (e.g., V{sub Tissue30%} = 22 %) than in IMRT (V{sub Tissue30%} = 18 %). The manual and ArtiView trademark plan evaluation coincided very accurately for most dose metrics (difference < 1 %). In VMAT, 96.7 % of detector points passed the 3 %/3 mm gamma criterion; marginally better accuracy was found in IMRT (98.3 %). Conclusion: VMAT for node-positive left-sided breast cancer retains target homogeneity and coverage when compared to IMRT and allows maximum doses to organs at risk to be reduced. ArtiView trademark enables fast and accurate plan evaluation. (orig.)

  10. The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets (±1 mm in two banks, ±0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

  11. The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets ({+-}1 mm in two banks, {+-}0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

  12. Is IMRT Superior or Inferior to 3DCRT in Radiotherapy for NSCLC? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available There are no adequate data to determine whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT is superior to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of IMRT and 3DCRT in the treatment of NSCLC.No exclusions were made based on types of study design. We performed a literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library databases from their inceptions to April 30, 2015. The overall survival (OS and relative risk (RR of radiation pneumonitis and radiation oesophagitis were evaluated. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted data. Publication bias was evaluated by funnel plot using Egger's test results.From the literature search, 10 retrospective studies were collected, and of those, 5 (12,896 patients were selected for OS analysis, 4 (981 patients were selected for radiation pneumonitis analysis, and 4 (1339 patients were selected for radiation oesophagitis analysis. Cox multivariate proportional hazards models revealed that 3DCRT and IMRT had similar OS (HR = 0.96, P = 0.477 but that IMRT reduced the incidence of grade 2 radiation pneumonitis (RR = 0.74, P = 0.009 and increased the incidence of grade 3 radiation oesophagitis (RR = 2.47, P = 0.000.OS of IMRT for NSCLC is not inferior to that of 3DCRT, but IMRT significantly reduces the risk of radiation pneumonitis and increases the risk of radiation oesophagitis compared to 3DCRT.

  13. Optimization of Stereotactic Radiotherapy Treatment Delivery Technique for Base-Of-Skull Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Candish, Charles; Vollans, Emily; Gete, Ermias; Lee, Richard; Martin, Monty; Ma, Roy; McKenzie, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study compares static conformal field (CF), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and dynamic arcs (DA) for the stereotactic radiotherapy of base-of-skull meningiomas. Twenty-one cases of base-of-skull meningioma (median planning target volume [PTV] = 21.3 cm 3 ) previously treated with stereotactic radiotherapy were replanned with each technique. The plans were compared for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI), and doses to normal structures at 6 dose values from 50.4 Gy to 5.6 Gy. The mean CI was 1.75 (CF), 1.75 (DA), and 1.66 (IMRT) (p 3 , the CI (IMRT) was always superior to CI (DA) and CI (CF). At PTV sizes below 25 cm 3 , there was no significant difference in CI between each technique. There was no significant difference in HI between plans. The total volume of normal tissue receiving 50.4, 44.8, and 5.6 Gy was significantly lower when comparing IMRT to CF and DA plans (p 3 , due to improved conformity and normal tissue sparing, in particular for the brain stem and ipsilateral temporal lobe

  14. First application of quantum annealing to IMRT beamlet intensity optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazareth, Daryl P; Spaans, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Optimization methods are critical to radiation therapy. A new technology, quantum annealing (QA), employs novel hardware and software techniques to address various discrete optimization problems in many fields. We report on the first application of quantum annealing to the process of beamlet intensity optimization for IMRT.We apply recently-developed hardware which natively exploits quantum mechanical effects for improved optimization. The new algorithm, called QA, is most similar to simulated annealing, but relies on natural processes to directly minimize a system’s free energy. A simple quantum system is slowly evolved into a classical system representing the objective function. If the evolution is sufficiently slow, there are probabilistic guarantees that a global minimum will be located.To apply QA to IMRT-type optimization, two prostate cases were considered. A reduced number of beamlets were employed, due to the current QA hardware limitations. The beamlet dose matrices were computed using CERR and an objective function was defined based on typical clinical constraints, including dose-volume objectives, which result in a complex non-convex search space. The objective function was discretized and the QA method was compared to two standard optimization methods, simulated annealing and Tabu search, run on a conventional computing cluster.Based on several runs, the average final objective function value achieved by the QA was 16.9 for the first patient, compared with 10.0 for Tabu and 6.7 for the simulated annealing (SA) method. For the second patient, the values were 70.7 for the QA, 120.0 for Tabu and 22.9 for the SA. The QA algorithm required 27–38% of the time required by the other two methods.In this first application of hardware-enabled QA to IMRT optimization, its performance is comparable to Tabu search, but less effective than the SA in terms of final objective function values. However, its speed was 3–4 times faster than the other two methods

  15. IMRT commissioning: Multiple institution planning and dosimetry comparisons, a report from AAPM Task Group 119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzell, Gary A.; Burmeister, Jay W.; Dogan, Nesrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, MCSB Concourse, Phoenix, Arizona 89054 (United States); and others

    2009-11-15

    AAPM Task Group 119 has produced quantitative confidence limits as baseline expectation values for IMRT commissioning. A set of test cases was developed to assess the overall accuracy of planning and delivery of IMRT treatments. Each test uses contours of targets and avoidance structures drawn within rectangular phantoms. These tests were planned, delivered, measured, and analyzed by nine facilities using a variety of IMRT planning and delivery systems. Each facility had passed the Radiological Physics Center credentialing tests for IMRT. The agreement between the planned and measured doses was determined using ion chamber dosimetry in high and low dose regions, film dosimetry on coronal planes in the phantom with all fields delivered, and planar dosimetry for each field measured perpendicular to the central axis. The planar dose distributions were assessed using gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm. The mean values and standard deviations were used to develop confidence limits for the test results using the concept confidence limit=|mean|+1.96{sigma}. Other facilities can use the test protocol and results as a basis for comparison to this group. Locally derived confidence limits that substantially exceed these baseline values may indicate the need for improved IMRT commissioning.

  16. Optimisation of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the parotid gland: a comparison of conventional, three-dimensional conformal, and intensity-modulated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutting, Christopher M.; Rowbottom, Carl G.; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Henk, J. Michael; Dearnaley, David P.; Robinson, Martin H.; Conway, John; Webb, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare external beam radiotherapy techniques for parotid gland tumours using conventional radiotherapy (RT), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). To optimise the IMRT techniques, and to produce an IMRT class solution. Materials and methods: The planning target volume (PTV), contra-lateral parotid gland, oral cavity, brain-stem, brain and cochlea were outlined on CT planning scans of six patients with parotid gland tumours. Optimised conventional RT and 3DCRT plans were created and compared with inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions using dose-volume histograms. The aim was to reduce the radiation dose to organs at risk and improve the PTV dose distribution. A beam-direction optimisation algorithm was used to improve the dose distribution of the IMRT plans, and a class solution for parotid gland IMRT was investigated. Results: 3DCRT plans produced an equivalent PTV irradiation and reduced the dose to the cochlea, oral cavity, brain, and other normal tissues compared with conventional RT. IMRT further reduced the radiation dose to the cochlea and oral cavity compared with 3DCRT. For nine- and seven-field IMRT techniques, there was an increase in low-dose radiation to non-target tissue and the contra-lateral parotid gland. IMRT plans produced using three to five optimised intensity-modulated beam directions maintained the advantages of the more complex IMRT plans, and reduced the contra-lateral parotid gland dose to acceptable levels. Three- and four-field non-coplanar beam arrangements increased the volume of brain irradiated, and increased PTV dose inhomogeneity. A four-field class solution consisting of paired ipsilateral coplanar anterior and posterior oblique beams (15, 45, 145 and 170 degree sign from the anterior plane) was developed which maintained the benefits without the complexity of individual patient optimisation. Conclusions: For patients with parotid gland tumours

  17. Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k Q factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k Q factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k Q factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V cyl which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V cyl : (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V cyl , no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used. The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing

  18. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 μm) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1.1%

  19. Evaluation of intrafraction patient movement for CNS and head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Siyong; Akpati, Hilary C.; Kielbasa, Jerrold E.; Li, Jonathan G.; Liu, Chihray; Amdur, Robert J.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2004-01-01

    Intrafraction patient motion is much more likely in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) than in conventional radiotherapy primarily due to longer beam delivery times in IMRT treatment. In this study, we evaluated the uncertainty of intrafraction patient displacement in CNS and head and neck IMRT patients. Immobilization is performed in three steps: (1) the patient is immobilized with thermoplastic facemask, (2) the patient displacement is monitored using a commercial stereotactic infrared IR camera (ExacTrac, BrainLab) during treatment, and (3) repositioning is carried out as needed. The displacement data were recorded during beam-on time for the entire treatment duration for 5 patients using the camera system. We used the concept of cumulative time versus patient position uncertainty, referred to as an uncertainty time histogram (UTH), to analyze the data. UTH is a plot of the accumulated time during which a patient stays within the corresponding movement uncertainty. The University of Florida immobilization procedure showed an effective immobilization capability for CNS and head and neck IMRT patients by keeping the patient displacement less than 1.5 mm for 95% of treatment time (1.43 mm for 1, and 1.02 mm for 1, and less than 1.0 mm for 3 patients). The maximum displacement was 2.0 mm

  20. Physics acceptance and QA procedures for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSasso, T.; Ling, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may improve tumor control without compromising normal tissues by facilitating higher, more conformal tumor doses relative to 3D CRT. Intensity modulation (IM) is now possible with inverse planning and radiation delivery using dynamic multileaf collimation. Compared to 3D CRT, certain components in the IMRT process are more obscure to the user. Thus, special quality assurance procedures are required. Hardware and software are still relatively new to many users, and the potential for error is unknown. The relationship between monitor unit (MU) setting and radiation dose for IM beams is much more complex than for non-IM fields. The leaf sequence computer files, which control the MLC position as a function of MU, are large and do not lend themselves to simple manual verification. The 'verification' port film for each IM treatment field, usually obtained with the MLC set at the extreme leaf positions for that field to outline the entire irradiated area, does not verify the intensity modulation pattern. Finally, in IMRT using DMLC (the so-called sliding window technique), a small error in the window (or gap) width will lead to a significant dose error. In earlier papers, we provided an evaluation of the mechanical and dosimetric aspects in the use of a MLC in the dynamic mode. Mechanical tolerances are significantly tighter for DMLC than for static MLC treatments. Transmission through the leaves and through rounded leaf ends and head scatter were shown to be significant to the accuracy of radiation dose delivery using DMLC. With these considerations, we concluded that the present DMLC hardware and software are effective for routine clinical implementation, provided that a carefully designed routine QA procedure is followed to assure the normality of operation. In our earlier studies, an evaluation of the long-term stability of DMLC operation had not yet been performed. This paper describes the current status of our

  1. Beam angle selection for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer: are noncoplanar beam angles necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D S; Bartlett, G K; Das, I J; Cardenes, H R

    2013-09-01

    External beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy (CRT) is widely used for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. Noncoplanar (NCP) 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and coplanar (CP) IMRT have been reported to lower the radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs). The purpose of this article is to examine the utility of noncoplanar beam angles in IMRT for the management of pancreatic cancer. Sixteen patients who were treated with CRT for unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head or neck were re-planned using CP and NCP beams in 3DCRT and IMRT with the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. Compared to CP IMRT, NCP IMRT had similar target coverage with slightly increased maximum point dose, 5,799 versus 5,775 cGy (p = 0.008). NCP IMRT resulted in lower mean kidney dose, 787 versus 1,210 cGy (p kidney dose, but did not improve other dose-volume criteria. The use of NCP beam angles is preferred only in patients with risk factors for treatment-related kidney dysfunction.

  2. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3DCRT and IMRT Using Different Multileaf Collimators in the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Meisong; Newman, Francis M.S.; Chen Changhu; Stuhr, Kelly; Gaspar, Laurie E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the differences between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and the impact of collimator leaf-width on IMRT plans for the treatment of nonspherical brain tumors. Eight patients treated by 3DCRT with Novalis were selected. We developed 3 IMRT plans with different multileaf collimators (Novalis m3, Varian MLC-120, and Varian MLC-80) with the same treatment margins, number of beams, and gantry positions as in the 3DCRT treatment plans. Treatment planning utilized the BrainLAB treatment planning system. For each patient, the dose constraints and optimization parameters remained identical for all plans. The heterogeneity index, the percentage target coverage, critical structures, and normal tissue volumes receiving 50% of the prescription dose were calculated to compare the dosimetric difference. Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) were also introduced to evaluate the radiobiological effect for different plans. We found that IMRT significantly improved the target dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT. However, IMRT showed the same radiobiological effect as 3DCRT. For the brain tumors adjacent to (or partially overlapping with) critical structures, IMRT dramatically spared the volume of the critical structures to be irradiated. In IMRT plans, the smaller collimator leaf width could reduce the volume of critical structures irradiated to the 50% level for those partially overlapping with the brain tumors. For relatively large and spherical brain tumors, the smaller collimator leaf widths give no significant benefit

  3. Comparative analysis of dosimetric parameters of three different radiation techniques for patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy treated with retro-orbital irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Victor HF; Ng, Sherry CY; Choi, Cheuk Wai; Luk, Mai Yee; Leung, To Wai; Au, Gordon KH; Kwong, Dora LW

    2012-01-01

    We would like to investigate the if IMRT produced better target coverage and dose sparing to adjacent normal structures as compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and lateral opposing fields (LOF) for patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy treated with retro-orbital irradiation. Ten consecutive patients diagnosed with Graves’ ophthalmopathy were prospectively recruited into this study. An individual IMRT, 3DCRT and LOF plan was created for each patient. Conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and other dosimetric parameters of the targets and organs-at-risk (OAR) generated by IMRT were compared with the other two techniques. Mann–Whitney U test demonstrated that CI generated by IMRT was superior to that produced by 3DCRT and LOF (p=0.005 for both respectively). Similarly HI with IMRT was proven better than 3DCRT (p=0.007) and LOF (p=0.005). IMRT gave rise to better dose sparing to some OARs including globes, lenses and optic nerves as compared with 3DCRT but not with LOF. IMRT, as compared with 3DCRT and LOF, was found to have a better target coverage, conformity and homogeneity and dose sparing to some surrounding structures, despite a slight increase but clinically negligible dose to other structures. Dosimetrically it might be a preferred treatment technique and a longer follow up is warranted to establish its role in routine clinical use

  4. Volumetric modulated arc therapy: IMRT in a single gantry arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Karl

    2008-01-01

    In this work a novel plan optimization platform is presented where treatment is delivered efficiently and accurately in a single dynamically modulated arc. Improvements in patient care achieved through image-guided positioning and plan adaptation have resulted in an increase in overall treatment times. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has also increased treatment time by requiring a larger number of beam directions, increased monitor units (MU), and, in the case of tomotherapy, a slice-by-slice delivery. In order to maintain a similar level of patient throughput it will be necessary to increase the efficiency of treatment delivery. The solution proposed here is a novel aperture-based algorithm for treatment plan optimization where dose is delivered during a single gantry arc of up to 360 deg. The technique is similar to tomotherapy in that a full 360 deg. of beam directions are available for optimization but is fundamentally different in that the entire dose volume is delivered in a single source rotation. The new technique is referred to as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf motion and number of MU per degree of gantry rotation is restricted during the optimization so that gantry rotation speed, leaf translation speed, and dose rate maxima do not excessively limit the delivery efficiency. During planning, investigators model continuous gantry motion by a coarse sampling of static gantry positions and fluence maps or MLC aperture shapes. The technique presented here is unique in that gantry and MLC position sampling is progressively increased throughout the optimization. Using the full gantry range will theoretically provide increased flexibility in generating highly conformal treatment plans. In practice, the additional flexibility is somewhat negated by the additional constraints placed on the amount of MLC leaf motion between gantry samples. A series of studies are performed that characterize the relationship

  5. Specific patient verification of IMRT plans using two-dimensional array of ionization chambers.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Zayas, Michael; Perez Guevara, Adrian; Reyes Gonzalez, Tommy; Gonzalez Perez, Yelina; Sola Rodriguez, Yeline; Caballero, Roberto; Lopez Lopez, Alberto; Castro Crespo, Diosdado

    2009-01-01

    The most common procedures to validate treatments with IMRT combine planning and administration which introduces the specific patient approach. IMRT is being introduced in Cuba, so it is a study to use as verification for each IMRT treatment plan with the collapsed beam method (Collapsed beams). We present three case studies to look at different situations and presentation of data. The treatment beam and collapsed obtained with an Elekta Precise linear accelerator and TPS PrecisePLAN respectively. The system used to measure a two-dimensional array of ionization chambers and VeriSoft system, both of the firm PTW. Dummy is used as solid sheets of water. The dose difference is evaluated using the gamma index applied to dose map resulting of the comparison between measured and simulated projections. Also the dose absolute is measured using a cylindrical chamber with United electrometer, which is compare with the results of the TPS. In the cases studied are shown along two perpendicular profiles. Tolerance is taken as the gamma index (5%, 5 mm). The method of collapsed beams under two- dimensional beam ionization chambers has been accepted for verification of IMRT treatments at the Radiotherapy Service of the Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras. (Author)

  6. Adjuvant IMRT/XELOX radiochemotherapy improves long-term overall- and disease-free survival in advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, J.; Schneider, V.; Weiss, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In a retrospective analysis, adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with modern chemotherapy improved advanced gastric cancer survival rates compared to a combination of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional chemotherapy. We report on the long-term outcomes of two consecutive patient cohorts that were treated with either IMRT and intensive chemotherapy, or 3D-CRT and conventional chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Between 2001 and 2008, 65 consecutive gastric cancer patients received either 3D-CRT (n = 27) or IMRT (n = 38) following tumor resection. Chemotherapy comprised predominantly 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (5-FU/FA) in the earlier cohort and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) in the latter. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Median OS times were 18 and 43 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0602). Actuarial 5-year OS rates were 26 and 47 %, respectively. Within the IMRT group, XELOX gave better results than 5-FU/FA in terms of OS, but this difference was not statistically significant. The primary cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. Median DFS times were 14 and 35 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0693). Actuarial 5-year DFS rates were 22 and 44 %, respectively. Among patients receiving 5-FU/FA, DFS tended to be better in the IMRT group, but this was not statistically significant. A similar analysis for the XELOX group was not possible as 3D-CRT was almost never used to treat these patients. No late toxicity exceeding grade 3 or secondary tumors were observed. Conclusion: After a median follow-up period of over 5 years, OS and DFS were improved in the IMRT/XELOX treated patients compared to the 3D-CRT/5-FU/FA group. Long-term observation revealed no clinical indications of therapy-induced secondary tumors or renal toxicity. (orig.)

  7. Adjuvant IMRT/XELOX radiochemotherapy improves long-term overall- and disease-free survival in advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda-Heggemann, J.; Schneider, V. [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Weiss, C. [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Biomathematics and Medical Statistics] [and others

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: In a retrospective analysis, adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with modern chemotherapy improved advanced gastric cancer survival rates compared to a combination of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional chemotherapy. We report on the long-term outcomes of two consecutive patient cohorts that were treated with either IMRT and intensive chemotherapy, or 3D-CRT and conventional chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Between 2001 and 2008, 65 consecutive gastric cancer patients received either 3D-CRT (n = 27) or IMRT (n = 38) following tumor resection. Chemotherapy comprised predominantly 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (5-FU/FA) in the earlier cohort and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) in the latter. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Median OS times were 18 and 43 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0602). Actuarial 5-year OS rates were 26 and 47 %, respectively. Within the IMRT group, XELOX gave better results than 5-FU/FA in terms of OS, but this difference was not statistically significant. The primary cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. Median DFS times were 14 and 35 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0693). Actuarial 5-year DFS rates were 22 and 44 %, respectively. Among patients receiving 5-FU/FA, DFS tended to be better in the IMRT group, but this was not statistically significant. A similar analysis for the XELOX group was not possible as 3D-CRT was almost never used to treat these patients. No late toxicity exceeding grade 3 or secondary tumors were observed. Conclusion: After a median follow-up period of over 5 years, OS and DFS were improved in the IMRT/XELOX treated patients compared to the 3D-CRT/5-FU/FA group. Long-term observation revealed no clinical indications of therapy-induced secondary tumors or renal toxicity. (orig.)

  8. PET/CT Staging Followed by Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) Improves Treatment Outcome of Locally Advanced Pharyngeal Carcinoma: a matched-pair comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, Sacha; Studer, Gabriela; Seifert, Burkhardt; Huguenin, Pia; Glanzmann, Christoph; Davis, J Bernard; Lütolf, Urs M; Hany, Thomas F; Ciernik, I Frank

    2007-01-01

    Impact of non-pharmacological innovations on cancer cure rates is difficult to assess. It remains unclear, whether outcome improves with 2- [18-F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and integrated computer tomography (PET/CT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for curative treatment of advanced pharyngeal carcinoma. Forty five patients with stage IVA oro- or hypopharyngeal carcinoma were staged with an integrated PET/CT and treated with definitive chemoradiation with IMRT from 2002 until 2005. To estimate the impact of PET/CT with IMRT on outcome, a case-control analysis on all patients with PET/CT and IMRT was done after matching with eighty six patients treated between 1991 and 2001 without PET/CT and 3D-conformal radiotherapy with respect to gender, age, stage, grade, and tumor location with a ratio of 1:2. Median follow-up was eighteen months (range, 6–49 months) for the PET/CT-IMRT group and twenty eight months (range, 1–168 months) for the controls. PET/CT and treatment with IMRT improved cure rates compared to patients without PET/CT and IMRT. Overall survival of patients with PET/CT and IMRT was 97% and 91% at 1 and 2 years respectively, compared to 74% and 54% for patients without PET/CT or IMRT (p = 0.002). The event-free survival rate of PET/CT-IMRT group was 90% and 80% at 1 and 2 years respectively, compared to 72% and 56% in the control group (p = 0.005). PET/CT in combination with IMRT and chemotherapy for pharyngeal carcinoma improve oncological therapy of pharyngeal carcinomas. Long-term follow-up is needed to confirm these findings

  9. Total dural irradiation: RapidArc versus static-field IMRT: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Paul J., E-mail: paulj.kelly@hse.ie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mannarino, Edward; Lewis, John Henry; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Hacker, Fred L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional fixed-gantry angle intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with RapidArc for total dural irradiation. We also hypothesize that target volume-individualized collimator angles may produce substantial normal tissue sparing when planning with RapidArc. Five-, 7-, and 9-field fixed-gantry angle sliding-window IMRT plans were generated for comparison with RapidArc plans. Optimization and normal tissue constraints were constant for all plans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 100% of the dose. RapidArc was delivered using 350 Degree-Sign clockwise and counterclockwise arcs. Conventional collimator angles of 45 Degree-Sign and 315 Degree-Sign were compared with 90 Degree-Sign on both arcs. Dose prescription was 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions. PTV metrics used for comparison were coverage, V{sub 107}%, D1%, conformality index (CI{sub 95}%), and heterogeneity index (D{sub 5}%-D{sub 95}%). Brain dose, the main challenge of this case, was compared using D{sub 1}%, Dmean, and V{sub 5} Gy. Dose to optic chiasm, optic nerves, globes, and lenses was also compared. The use of unconventional collimator angles (90 Degree-Sign on both arcs) substantially reduced dose to normal brain. All plans achieved acceptable target coverage. Homogeneity was similar for RapidArc and 9-field IMRT plans. However, heterogeneity increased with decreasing number of IMRT fields, resulting in unacceptable hotspots within the brain. Conformality was marginally better with RapidArc relative to IMRT. Low dose to brain, as indicated by V5Gy, was comparable in all plans. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed no clinically meaningful differences. The number of monitor units was lower and delivery time was reduced with RapidArc. The case-individualized RapidArc plan compared favorably with the 9-field conventional IMRT plan. In view of lower monitor unit requirements and shorter delivery time, Rapid

  10. Assessment of the secondary dosimetric benefit due to the implementation of the IMRT technique for an anal canal cancer; Evaluation du benefice dosimetrique secondaire a la mise en oeuvre de la technique de RCMI dans le cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau-Claeys, M.V.; Huger, S.; Lostette, J.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Boutenbat, G.; Marchesi, V.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a prospective comparison, for a same patient, of delivered doses for the coverage of target volumes and for the protection of organs at risk within the frame of an intensity-modulated conformational irradiation (IMRT) with respect to a conventional conformational radiotherapy for an anal canal cancer. The tumour conformity indexes are compared for the different target volumes. The average received doses are also compared for different organs and bones about the treated area. IMRT ensures a better protection of organs. The authors are developing a dynamic arc therapy approach. Short communication

  11. Dosimetric verification of IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.; Cheimicski, K.; Rostkowska, J.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a complex procedure requiring proper dosimetric verification. IMRT dose distributions are characterized by steep dose gradients which enable to spare organs at risk and allow for an escalation of the dose to the tumor. They require large number of radiation beams (sometimes over 10). The fluence measurements for individual beams are not sufficient for evaluation of the total dose distribution and to assure patient safety. The methods used at the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw are presented. In order to measure dose distributions in various cross-sections the film dosimeters were used (radiographic Kodak EDR2 films and radiochromic Gafchromic EBT films). The film characteristics were carefully examined. Several types of tissue equivalent phantoms were developed. A methodology of comparing measured dose distributions against the distributions calculated by treatment planning systems (TPS) was developed and tested. The tolerance level for this comparison was set at 3% difference in dose and 3 mm in distance to agreement. The so called gamma formalism was used. The results of these comparisons for a group of over 600 patients are presented. Agreement was found in 87 % of cases. This film dosimetry methodology was used as a benchmark to test and validate the performance of commercially available 2D and 3D matrices of detectors (ionization chambers or diodes). The results of these validations are also presented. (authors)

  12. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, S; Zavgorodni, S; Popescu, I A; Beckham, W A

    2005-01-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot

  13. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, S.; Zavgorodni, S.; Popescu, I. A.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-02-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot.

  14. Implementation of dosimetric quality control on IMRT and VMAT treatments in radiotherapy using diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, A.; Garcia, B.; Ramirez, J.; Marquina, J.

    2014-08-01

    To implement quality control of IMRT and VMAT treatments Rapid Arc radiotherapy using diode array. Were tested 90 patients with IMRT and VMAT Rapid Arc, comparing the planned dose to the dose administered, used the Map-Check-2 and Arc-Check of Sun Nuclear, they using the gamma factor for calculating and using comparison parameters 3% / 3m m. The statistic shows that the quality controls of the 90 patients analyzed, presented a percentage of diodes that pass the test between 96,7% and 100,0% of the irradiated diodes. Implemented in Clinical ALIADA Oncologia Integral, the method for quality control of IMRT and VMAT treatments Rapid Arc radiotherapy using diode array. (Author)

  15. Comparative study of four advanced 3d-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning techniques for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OARs, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OARs DVHs as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment. (author)

  16. Effect of patient setup errors on simultaneously integrated boost head and neck IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Keall, Paul J.; Wu Qiuwen; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from random and systematic setup errors for head-and-neck patients treated using the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients who participated in an intramural Phase I/II parotid-sparing IMRT dose-escalation protocol using the SIB treatment technique had their dose distributions reevaluated to assess the impact of random and systematic setup errors. The dosimetric effect of random setup error was simulated by convolving the two-dimensional fluence distribution of each beam with the random setup error probability density distribution. Random setup errors of σ = 1, 3, and 5 mm were simulated. Systematic setup errors were simulated by randomly shifting the patient isocenter along each of the three Cartesian axes, with each shift selected from a normal distribution. Systematic setup error distributions with Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis were simulated. Combined systematic and random setup errors were simulated for σ = Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis. For each dose calculation, the gross tumor volume (GTV) received by 98% of the volume (D 98 ), clinical target volume (CTV) D 90 , nodes D 90 , cord D 2 , and parotid D 50 and parotid mean dose were evaluated with respect to the plan used for treatment for the structure dose and for an effective planning target volume (PTV) with a 3-mm margin. Results: Simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT head-and-neck treatment plans were found to be less sensitive to random setup errors than to systematic setup errors. For random-only errors, errors exceeded 3% only when the random setup error σ exceeded 3 mm. Simulated systematic setup errors with Σ = 1.5 mm resulted in approximately 10% of plan having more than a 3% dose error, whereas a Σ = 3.0 mm resulted in half of the plans having more than a 3% dose error and 28% with a 5% dose error

  17. Prostate Dose Escalation by Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Lei

    2005-01-01

    .... Because of the tacit ignorance of intra-structural tradeoff, the IMRT plans generated by these systems for prostate treatment are, at best, sub-optimal and our endeavor of providing the best possible...

  18. GPU-Monte Carlo based fast IMRT plan optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbao Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT plan optimization needs pre-calculated beamlet dose distribution. Pencil-beam or superposition/convolution type algorithms are typically used because of high computation speed. However, inaccurate beamlet dose distributions, particularly in cases with high levels of inhomogeneity, may mislead optimization, hindering the resulting plan quality. It is desire to use Monte Carlo (MC methods for beamlet dose calculations. Yet, the long computational time from repeated dose calculations for a number of beamlets prevents this application. It is our objective to integrate a GPU-based MC dose engine in lung IMRT optimization using a novel two-steps workflow.Methods: A GPU-based MC code gDPM is used. Each particle is tagged with an index of a beamlet where the source particle is from. Deposit dose are stored separately for beamlets based on the index. Due to limited GPU memory size, a pyramid space is allocated for each beamlet, and dose outside the space is neglected. A two-steps optimization workflow is proposed for fast MC-based optimization. At first step, a rough dose calculation is conducted with only a few number of particle per beamlet. Plan optimization is followed to get an approximated fluence map. In the second step, more accurate beamlet doses are calculated, where sampled number of particles for a beamlet is proportional to the intensity determined previously. A second-round optimization is conducted, yielding the final result.Results: For a lung case with 5317 beamlets, 105 particles per beamlet in the first round, and 108 particles per beam in the second round are enough to get a good plan quality. The total simulation time is 96.4 sec.Conclusion: A fast GPU-based MC dose calculation method along with a novel two-step optimization workflow are developed. The high efficiency allows the use of MC for IMRT optimizations.--------------------------------Cite this article as: Li Y, Tian Z

  19. Experimental IMRT breast dosimetry in a thorax phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Elsa B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Lima, Andre C.S., E-mail: elsabpimenta@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: lucibn19@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Tratamento em Radioterapia, Betim, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential therapeutic method. RT is often used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. The dose-volume restrictions of the organs at risk limit the prescribed dose to the target volume and biological and clinical effects may influence the final treatment outcome. The breast RT provides large risks to the adjacent organs and consequently the recommended dosimetry to the prescribed dose volume (PTV) is 50 Gy, lower than the most prescribed dose in other treatments (70-85 Gy). Such values implies in less tumor control compared to other sites. The present research proposal aimed to measure absorbed dose in a thorax phantom with synthetic breasts provided by an Intensity-Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) protocol in a RT center. On the methodology, IMRT protocol was selected following recommendations from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiochromic films and a thorax simulator were prepared by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI). Dosimeters were calibrated on a selected linear accelerator (LINAC). The comparison of the dosimetry from treatment planning system (TPS), Xio (Elekta) and from experimental data was performed. The spatial distribution of the breast internal dose and in the adjacent organs was depicted by the experimental data. In the film's calibration, the quadratic polynomial fit presented a satisfactory coefficient. Two-dimensional dose profiles were obtained in the breast suggesting that films can supply details and information that TPS does not provide. At the phantom's dosimetry, the internal mean doses taken at the synthetic breast presented usual values above the prescribed dose, besides overall values were within the dosimetric MSKCC criterion. The non full reproduction of the build-up region in the films had occurred due to the asymmetrical positioning of the films in the inner breast, in addition to their non constant distance from the skin. The hot regions were present may

  20. SU-G-TeP4-02: A Method for Evaluating the Direct Impact of Failed IMRT QAs On Patient Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneser, S; Butkus, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We developed a method to calculate patient doses corresponding to IMRT QA measurements in order to determine and assess the actual dose delivered for plans with failed (or borderline) IMRT QA. This work demonstrates the feasibility of automatically computing delivered patient dose from portal dosimetry measurements in the Varian TPS system, which would provide a valuable and clinically viable IMRT QA tool for physicists and physicians. Methods: IMRT QA fluences were measured using portal dosimetry, processed using in-house matlab software, and imported back into Eclipse to calculate dose on the planning CT. To validate the proposed workflow, the Eclipse calculated portal dose for a 5-field sliding window prostate boost plan was processed as described above. The resulting dose was compared to the planned dose and found to be within 0.5 Gy. Two IMRT QA results for the prostate boost plan (one that failed and one that passed) were processed and the resulting patient doses were evaluated. Results: The max dose difference between IMRT QA #1 and the original planned and approved dose is 4.5 Gy, while the difference between the planned and IMRT QA #2 dose is 4.0 Gy. The inferior portion of the PTV is slightly underdosed in both plans, and the superior portion is slightly overdosed