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Sample records for interim safe storage

  1. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ison, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D and D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  2. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Ison

    2008-11-08

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D&D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  3. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  4. Project management plan for Reactor 105-C Interim Safe Storage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagge, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Reactor 105-C (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) will be placed into an interim safe storage condition such that (1) interim inspection can be limited to a 5-year frequency; (2) containment ensures that releases to the environmental are not credible under design basis conditions; and (3) final safe storage configuration shall not preclude or significantly increase the cost for any decommissioning alternatives for the reactor assembly.This project management plan establishes plans, organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for managing the execution of Reactor 105-C interim safe storage activities to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules

  5. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  6. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  7. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T.J.; Larson, A.R.; Dexheimer, D.

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes the inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials present in the 105-C Reactor Facility and the operations associated with the Interim Safe Storage Project which includes decontamination and demolition and interim safe storage of the remaining facility. This document also establishes a final hazard classification and verifies that appropriate and adequate safety functions and controls are in place to reduce or mitigate the risk associated with those operations

  8. Project management plan for the 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1942, the Hanford Site was commissioned by the US Government to produce plutonium. Between 1942 and 1955, eight water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors were constructed along the Columbia River at the Hanford Site to support the production of plutonium. The reactors were deactivated from 1964 to 1971 and declared surplus. The Surplus Production Reactor Decommissioning Project (BHI 1994b) will decommission these reactors and has selected the 105-C Reactor to be used as a demonstration project for interim safe storage at the present location and final disposition of the entire reactor core in the 200 West Area. This project will result in lower costs, accelerated schedules, reduced worker exposure, and provide direct benefit to the US Department of Energy for decommissioning projects complex wide. This project sets forth plans, organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures to manage the execution of the Project Management Plan for the 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project (Project Management Plan) activities to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules. The Project Management Plan is organized following the guidelines provided by US Department of Energy Order 4700.1, Project Management System and the Richland Environmental Restoration Project Plan (DOE-RL 1992b)

  9. Progress and future direction for the interim safe storage and disposal of Hanford high level waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the progress made at the largest environmental cleanup program in the United States. Substantial advances in methods to start interim safe storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes, waste characterization to support both safety- and disposal-related information needs, and proceeding with cost-effective disposal by the US DOE and its Hanford Site contractors, have been realized. Challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System Program, which is charged with the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the high-level tank waste stored at the Hanford Site, are described

  10. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ''Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,'' of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues

  11. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  12. Engineering and planning for reactor 105-C interim safe storage project subcontract no. 0100C-SC-G0001 conceptual design report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The 105-C Reactor, one of eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Operations Office to be the first large-scale technology demonstration project in the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) focus area as part of the project for dismantlement and interim safe storage. The 105-C Reactor will be placed in an interim safe storage condition, then undergo the decontamination and decommissioning phase. After D ampersand D, the reactor will be placed in long- term safe storage. This report provides the conceptual design for these activities

  13. Technical Competencies for the Safe Interim Storage and Management of 233U at U.S. Department of Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.O.; Krichinsky, A.M.; Laughlin, S.S.; Van Essen, D.C.; Yong, L.K.

    1999-02-17

    Uranium-233 (with concomitant {sup 232}U) is a man-made fissile isotope of uranium with unique nuclear characteristics which require high-integrity alpha containment biological shielding, and remote handling. The special handling considerations and the fact that much of the {sup 233}U processing and large-scale handling was performed over a decade ago underscore the importance of identifying the people within the DOE complex who are currently working with or have worked with {sup 233}U. The availability of these key personnel is important in ensuring safe interim storage, management and ultimate disposition of {sup 233}U at DOE facilities. Significant programs are ongoing at several DOE sites with actinides. The properties of these actinide materials require many of the same types of facilities and handling expertise as does {sup 233}U.

  14. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  15. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  16. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  17. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  18. Transuranic storage and assay facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    The Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) Interim Safety Basis document provides the authorization basis for the interim operation and restriction on interim operations for the TRUSAF. The TRUSAF ISB demonstrates that the TRUSAF can be operated safely, protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF Hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1987) is superseded by this document.

  19. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R.

    2004-01-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication

  20. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  1. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  2. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel: Emerging public issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    Failure to consummate plans for a permanent repository or above- ground interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel has spurred innovative efforts to ensure at-reactor storage in an environmentally safe and secure manner. This article examines the institutional and socioeconomic impacts of Dry Cask Storage Technology (DCST)-an approach to spent fuel management that is emerging as the preferred method of on-site interim spent fuel storage by utilities that exhaust existing storage capacity

  3. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  4. Criticality safety evaluation for long term storage of FFTF fuel in interim storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    It has been postulated that a degradation phenomenon, referred to as ''hot cell rot'', may affect irradiated FFTF mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel during dry interim storage. ''Hot cell rot'' refers to a variety of phenomena that degrade fuel pin cladding during exposure to air and inert gas environments. It is thought to be a form of caustic stress corrosion cracking or environmentally assisted cracking. Here, a criticality safety analysis was performed to address the effect of the ''hot cell rot'' phenomenon on the long term storage of irradiated FFTF fuel in core component containers. The results show that seven FFTF fuel assemblies or six Ident-69 pin containers stored in core component containers within interim storage casks will remain safely subcritical

  5. Expansion of storage capacity of interim spent fuel storage (MSVP) Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, P.; Fridrich, V.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes modifications of Interim spent fuel storage, performed with aim of storage capacity expansion, seismic stability enhancement, and overall increase of service life as well as assuring of MSVP safe operation. Uniqueness of adopted technical solutions is based upon the fact that mentioned innovations and modifications were performed without any changes, neither in ground plan nor architecture of MSVP structure. It also important to mention that all modifications were performed during continual operation of MSVP without any breaks of limits or operational regulations. Reconstruction and innovation of existing construction and technological systems of MSVP has assured required quality standard comparable with actual trends. (authors)

  6. Options for the interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    1995-01-01

    Different concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel arising from operation of a NPP are discussed. We considered at reactor as well as away from reactor storage options. Included are enhancements of existing storage capabilities and construction of a new wet or dry storage facility. (author)

  7. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  8. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D.R.

    1993-03-23

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  9. Used Fuel Logistics: Decades of Experience with transportation and Interim storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, G.; Shelton, C.

    2015-07-01

    Used fuel inventories are growing worldwide. While some countries have opted for a closed cycle with recycling, numerous countries must expand their interim storage solutions as implementation of permanent repositories is taking more time than foreseen. In both cases transportation capabilities will have to be developed. AREVA TN has an unparalleled expertise with transportation of used fuel. For more than 50 years AREVA TN has safely shipped more than 7,000 used fuel transport casks. The transportation model that was initially developed in the 1970s has been adapted and enhanced over the years to meet more restrictive regulatory requirements and evolving customer needs, and to address public concerns. The numerous “lessons learned” have offered data and guidance that have allowed for also efficient and consistent improvement over the decades. AREVA TN has also an extensive experience with interim dry storage solutions in many countries on-site but also is working with partners to developed consolidated interim storage facility. Both expertise with storage and transportation contribute to safe, secure and smooth continuity of the operations. This paper will describe decades of experience with a very successful transportation program as well as interim storage solutions. (Author)

  10. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  11. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  12. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  13. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel before Final Disposal in Germany - Regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Goetz, Ch.; Geupel, Sandra; Gmal, B.; Mester, W.

    2014-01-01

    For spent nuclear fuel management in Germany the concept of dry interim storage in dual purpose casks before direct disposal is applied. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is the competent authority for licensing of interim storage facilities. The competent authority for surveillance of operation is the responsible authority of the respective federal state (Land). Currently operation licenses for storage facilities have been granted for a storage time of 40 years and are based on safety demonstrations for all safety issues as safe enclosure, shielding, sub-criticality and decay heat removal under consideration of operation conditions. In addition, transportability of the casks for the whole storage period has to be provided. Due to current delay in site selection and exploration of a disposal site, an extension of the storage time beyond 40 years could be needed. This will cause appropriate actions by the licensee and the competent authorities as well. A brief description of the regulatory base of licensing and surveillance of interim storage is given from the regulators view. Furthermore the current planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste and its interconnections between storage and disposal concepts are shortly explained. Finally the relevant aspects for licensing of extended storage time beyond 40 years will be discussed. Current activities on this issue, which have been initiated by the Federal Government, will be addressed. On the regulatory side a review and amendment of the safety guideline for interim storage of spent fuel has been performed and the procedure of periodic safety review is being implemented. A guideline for implementing an ageing management programme is available in a draft version. Regarding safety of long term storage a study focussing on the identification and evaluation of long term effects as well as gaps of knowledge has been finished in 2010. A continuation and update is currently underway

  14. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Ealing, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility

  15. Will interim storage sites become ultimate storage sites?; Werden aus Zwischenlager Endlager?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.P. [ia GmbH - Wissensmanagement und Ingenieurleistungen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    According to a Prognos study, the maximum interim storage capacity required in Germany in 2008 will be 4 - 5 million cubic metres. Interim storage is necessary because there are not sufficient options for disposal. The stored waste will be combusted, so that German incinerators will be capable of running at full capacity until 2013. From mere disposal systems, incinerators are rapidly becoming waste-to-energy systems that will make a contribution to power supply. (orig.)

  16. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  17. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, L.S.; Rzyski, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  18. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives

  19. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  20. The Safety Assessment of Long term Interim Storage at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchan, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    The Sellafield site comprises a wide range of nuclear facilities, including operating facilities associated with the Magnox reprocessing programme, the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) and a range of waste treatment plants. The operational life of some of the site facilities currently extends to 2120, requiring the retrieval, treatment, consolidation and safe extended storage of a variety of radioactive materials. Sellafield has utilised its existing safety assessment processes to inform and prioritise studies into beyond design basis events and resilience evaluation required following Fukushima by UK regulators and industry bodies such as WANO. There are significant differences between NPPs, for which the ENSREG 'stress tests' were originally intended, and the Sellafield site which is instead centered around two reprocessing facilities (Magnox and THORP), with a supporting infrastructure of waste processing and storage facilities, coupled with a legacy of high hazard older facilities. In the former case the consequences of a catastrophic failure are promptly realised, leading to significant problems such as fuel failure / meltdown in AGRs and LWRs respectively in the event of complete loss of cooling. At Sellafield, the processes are carried out at comparatively low temperatures and pressures with relatively low rates of change following any loss of cooling. Instead the consequences of catastrophic failure at Sellafield are more directly related to the very large inventories of radioactive materials, including high level liquid wastes and unprocessed fuels, present in specific plants and to the condition of the ageing assets, holding legacy wastes. The paper will consider how a number of analysis techniques have been used to establish a safety case for fault and accident conditions, i.e. design basis analysis (DBA), probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) and severe accident analysis (SAA) DBA is focused on the key safety measures for those initiating faults

  1. Interim dry storage system technologies and innovations VARNA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, P.; Guenon, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The main concepts of the TN24 Family and NUHOMS System are explained in the paper. It is discussed how the NPPs specific requirements and economics trends contributes to the growing families of interim dry storage systems delivered under COGEMA LOGICTICS license. It is concluded that modular solutions are currently dominating because they are derived from main concepts evolved over time, benefited from both the transport aspects with internationally recognised stringent regulations, and various specific ISFSI requirements and economic trends

  2. International long-term interim storage for spent fuel. An independent storage service investor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, P.

    1999-01-01

    Thinking globally the obvious world-wide demands for large storage capacities for spent fuel within the next decades and the newly arising demands for long-term interim storage of spent fuel urges to respond by international interim storage facilities of high capacity. Low cost storage can be achieved only by arranging the storage facility underground in a suitable host rock formation and by selecting the geographical are by an international competition under those countries, who are willing to offer their land. The investor and operator of an international storage facility selected and realised by a competition on the free market as well as the country where the storage is built are both bound by two different kinds of contacts. The main contract is between the offering country/region and the independent operator. The independent operator has in addition a series of contracts with various utilities, which are interested to have their spent fuel stored for a longer period

  3. 40 Years of Experience of NIRAS / Belgoprocess on the Interim Storage of Low, Intermediate and High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Ghys, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • ONDRAF/NIRAS and Belgoprocess have gained over time an extended experience on the interim storage of Low-Intermediate and High level waste. • An systematic inspection strategy was developed in order the verify the conformity of the different waste-packages and corrective measures were taken to guarantee safe storage conditions. • From 2022 , ONDRAF/NIRAS will operate a surface disposal facility for LLW

  4. INTERIM STORAGE AND LONG TERM DISPOSAL OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D

    2006-08-22

    Aluminum clad research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is currently being consolidated in wet storage basins (pools). Approximately 20 metric tons (heavy metal) of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) is being consolidated for treatment, packaging, interim storage, and preparation for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The storage and disposal of Al-SNF are subject to requirements that provide for safety and acceptable radionuclide release. The options studied for interim storage of SNF include wet storage and dry storage. Two options have also been studied to develop the technical basis for the qualification and repository disposal of aluminum spent fuel. The two options studied include Direct Disposal and Melt-Dilute treatment. The implementation of these options present relative benefits and challenges. Both the Direct Disposal and the Melt-Dilute treatment options have been developed and their technical viability assessed. Adaptation of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of spent fuel offers the benefits of converting the spent fuel into a proliferation resistant form and/or significantly reducing the volume of the spent fuel. A Mobile Melt-Dilute system concept has emerged to realize these benefits and a prototype system developed. The application of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of legacy nuclear materials has been evaluated and also offers the promise for the safe disposal of these materials.

  5. Nuclear waste: Is there a need for federal interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Congress created the Monitored Retrievable Storage Review Commission to provide a report on the need for a Federal monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS) as part of the Nation's nuclear waste management system. The Commission concludes that the MRS as presently described in the law, which links the capacity and schedule of operation of the MRS to a permanent geologic repository, cannot be justified. The Commission finds, however, that while no single factor would favor an MRS over the No-MRS option, cumulatively the advantages of an MRS would justify the building of an MRS if: there were no linkages between the MRS and the repository; the MRS could be constructed at an early date; and the opening of the repository were delayed considerably beyond its presently scheduled date of operation. The Commission therefore recommends that the Congress take the following actions: Authorize construction of a Federal Emergency Storage facility with a capacity limit of 2,000 metric tons of uranium; Authorize construction of a User-Funded Interim Storage facility with a capacity limit of 5,000 metric tons of uranium; Reconsider the subject of interim storage by the year 2000

  6. Interim guidance on the safe transport of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is a radioactive material that has significant non-radiological hazardous properties. In conformity with international regulatory practice for dangerous goods transport, these properties are classed as ''subsidiary risks'', although they predominate in the cases of depleted and natural UF 6 . UF 6 is transported as a solid material below atmospheric pressure. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 Edition, Safety Series No. 6, make recommendations that aimed to provide an adequate level of safety against radiological and criticality hazards. The basis for these is that the stringency of package performance requirements, operational procedures and approval and administrative procedures is graded relative to the severity of the hazard. The cylinders used for transporting UF 6 are also used in the production, storage and use of the material and that the fraction of their life cycle in which transport is involved is small. Consideration must also be given to the large number of existing cylinders (estimated to be between 60,000 and 70,000). Specific recommendations provided for UF 6 transport, listed in Section II, are additional to the requirements of the Regulations. The intent of these additional recommendations is to restrict contamination and to provide protection to workers and to the general public against the chemical hazard possibly resulting from a severe accident involving the transport of UF 6 , and in addition against the consequences of explosive rupture of small bare cylinders of UF 6 . 20 refs, figs and tabs

  7. Modernization and refurbishment of the Central Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Interim Storage for radioactive waste in Brinje, being put into operation in 1986, needs refurbishment and modernization in order to meet the up-to-date operational and safety requirements and to ensure the normal and undisturbed acceptance of radioactive waste from small producers in the future. Because of the waste, being already stored in the storage, the lack of reprocessing capacities and the lack of auxiliary room, the refurbishment and modernization is a complex problem, which needs to be addressed with care. The plan of refurbishment and modernization requires an integral approach, covering all different aspects of renewal and reconstruction. The implementation plan, however, must be based on the actual state of the storage and real conditions for the implementations: from technical to financial. In this paper the project for refurbishment and modernization of the storage, and some activities that have already been implemented, are presented.(author)

  8. Concrete storage cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabemoto, Toyonobu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Shunji; Shionaga, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and analytical evaluation of the fabrication, non-destructive inspection and structural integrity of reinforced concrete body for storage casks were carried out to demonstrate the concrete storage cask for spent fuel generated from nuclear power plants. Analytical survey on the type of concrete material and fabrication method of the storage cask was performed and the most suitable fabrication method for the concrete body was identified to reduce concrete cracking. The structural integrity of the concrete body of the storage cask under load conditions during storage was confirmed and the long term integrity of concrete body against degradation dependent on environmental factors was evaluated. (author)

  9. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward

  10. Safety of Long-term Interim Storage Facilities - Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to discuss and review current national activities, plans and regulatory approaches for the safety of long term interim storage facilities dedicated to spent nuclear fuel (SF), high level waste (HLW) and other radioactive materials with prolonged storage regimes. It was also intended to discuss results of experiments and to identify necessary R and D to confirm safety of fuel and cask during the long-term storage. Safety authorities and their Technical Support Organisation (TSO), Fuel Cycle Facilities (FCF) operating organisations and international organisations were invited to share information on their approaches, practices and current developments. The workshop was organised in an opening session, three technical sessions, and a conclusion session. The technical sessions were focused on: - National approaches for long term interim storage facilities; - Safety requirements, regulatory framework and implementation issues; - Technical issues and operational experience, needs for R and D. Each session consisted of a number of presentations followed by a panel discussion moderated by the session Chairs. A summary of each session and subsequent discussion that ensued are provided as well as a summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  11. Interim storage of solidified fission products from fuel element reprocessing with utilization of obtaining post-decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelm, W.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that the out-lined interim store for HRW with industrial utilization of decay heat (production of saturated steam and hydrogen) does include a certain risk potential like any technical plant but that it does not represent a danger to the population living nearby. All internal and external impacts on the store result in safely triggering natural convection cooling. A further emergency cooling system is provided by the water irrigation facility so that obtaining after-heat can be safely removed under all circumstances. Therefore, there are no safety-technology arguments against any realization of the concept presented for interim storage of solidified high-level radio-active wastes. An interim store of this type may be built and operated even in densely populated regions and urban agglomerations. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Acceptance criteria for interim dry storage of aluminum-clad fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Direct repository disposal of foreign and domestic research reactor fuels owned by the United States Department of Energy is an alternative to reprocessing (together with vitrification of the high level waste and storage in an engineered barrier) for ultimate disposition. Neither the storage systems nor the requirements and specifications for acceptable forms for direct repository disposal have been developed; therefore, an interim storage strategy is needed to safely store these fuels. Dry storage (within identified limits) of the fuels received from wet-basin storage would avoid excessive degradation to assure post-storage handleability, a full range of ultimate disposal options, criticality safety, and provide for maintaining confinement by the fuel/clad system. Dry storage requirements and technologies for US commercial fuels, specifically zircaloy-clad fuels under inert cover gas, are well established. Dry storage requirements and technologies for a system with a design life of 40 years for dry storage of aluminum-clad foreign and domestic research reactor fuels are being developed by various groups within programs sponsored by the DOE

  13. Cost estimation of interim dry storage for Atucha I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Fuenzalida Troyano, Carlos S.

    2007-01-01

    A joint effort between NASA and CNEA has been performed in order to evaluate and fix the strategy of interim spent fuel storage for Atucha I nuclear power plant. In this work the cost estimation on the proposed system was performed in order to fix the parameter and design criteria for the next engineering step. The main results achieved show that both alternatives are all in the same range of costs per unit of mass to be stored, the impact on electricity cost is less than 1 US mills/KWh and the scaling factor achieved is 0.85. (author) [es

  14. Glass packages in interim storage; Les verres dans les stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO{sub 2}. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ``source term`` models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs.

  15. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  16. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  17. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  18. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel interim storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays safety and security of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) interim storage installations are very important, due to a great concentration of fission products, actinides and activation products. In this kind of storage it is necessary to consider the physical security. Nuclear installations have become more vulnerable. New types of accidents must be considered in the design of these installations, which in the early days were not considered like: fissile material stolen, terrorists' acts and war conflicts, and traditional accidents concerning the transport of the spent fuel from the reactor to the storage location, earthquakes occurrence, airplanes crash, etc. Studies related to airplane falling had showed that a collision of big commercials airplanes at velocity of 800 km/h against SNF storage and specially designed concrete casks, do not result in serious structural injury to the casks, and not even radionuclides liberation to the environment. However, it was demonstrated that attacks with modern military ammunitions, against metallic casks, are calamitous. The casks could not support a direct impact of this ammo and the released radioactive materials can expose the workers and public as well the local environment to harmful radiation. This paper deals about the main basic aspects of a dry SNF storage installation, that must be physically well protected, getting barriers that difficult the access of unauthorized persons or vehicles, as well as, must structurally resist to incidents or accidents caused by unauthorized intrusion. (author)

  19. Introducing Systematic Aging Management for Interim Storage Facilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieth-Achtnich, Angelika; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In Germany twelve at-reactor and three central (away from reactor) dry storage facilities are in operation, where the fuel is stored in combined transport-and-storage casks. The safety of the storage casks and facilities has been approved and is licensed for up to 40 years operating time. If the availability of a final disposal facility for the stored wastes (spent fuel and high-level wastes from reprocessing) will be further delayed the renewal of the licenses can become necessary in future. Since 2001 Germany had a regulatory guideline for at-reactor dry interim storage of spent fuel. In this guideline some elements of ageing were implemented, but no systematic approach was made for a state-of-the-art ageing management. Currently the guideline is updated to include all kind of storage facilities (central storages as well) and all kinds of high level waste (also waste from reprocessing). Draft versions of the update are under discussion. In these drafts a systematic ageing management is seen as an instrument to upgrade the available technical knowledge base for possible later regulatory decisions, should it be necessary to prolong storage periods to beyond the currently approved limits. It is further recognized as an instrument to prevent from possible and currently unrecognized ageing mechanisms. The generation of information on ageing can be an important basis for the necessary safety-relevant verifications for long term storage. For the first time, the demands for a systematic monitoring of ageing processes for all safety-related components of the storage system are described. In addition, for inaccessible container components such as the seal system, the neutron shielding, the baskets and the waste inventory, the development of a monitoring program is recommended. The working draft to the revised guideline also contains recommendations on non-technical ageing issues such as the long-term preservation of knowledge, long term personnel planning and long term

  20. COCON: Corrosion research programme for long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Mazaudier, F.; Gauvain, D.; Terlain, A.; Feron, D.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Two main corrosion phenomena are encountered in long term interim storage conditions: dry oxidation by the air when the temperature of high level nuclear wastes containers is high enough (roughly higher than 100 deg. C) and corrosion phenomena as those encountered in outdoor atmospheric corrosion when the temperature of the container wall is low enough and so condensation is possible on the container walls. Results obtained with dry oxidation in air lead to predict small damages (less than 1 μm on steels over 100 years at 100 deg. C) and no drastic changes with pollutants. For atmospheric corrosion, the first developments of a pragmatic method that gives assessments of the indoor atmospheric corrosivities are reported. (authors)

  1. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Abbas, A.; Terlain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of some nuclear waste package containers for long term interim storage. The containers are required to remain retrievable for centuries. One factor limiting their performance on this time scale is corrosion. The estimation of the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such long periods requires the construction of reliable models from short-time experimental data. In a first step, models based on simplified oxidation theories have been derived from experimental data on iron and a low-alloy steel oxidation. Their extrapolation to long oxidation periods confirms that the expected damage due to dry oxidation could be small. In order to improve the reliability of these predictions advanced models taking into account the elementary processes involved in the whole oxidation mechanism, are under development. (authors)

  2. Corrosion behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Feron, D.; Mazaudier, F.; Terlain, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two main corrosion phenomena are encountered in long term interim storage conditions: dry oxidation by the air when the temperature of high level nuclear wastes containers is high enough (roughly higher than 100 C) and corrosion phenomena as those encountered in outdoor atmospheric corrosion when the temperature of the container wall is low enough and so condensation is possible on the container walls. Results obtained with dry oxidation in air lead to predict small damages (less than 1μm on steels over 100 years at 100 C) and no drastic changes with pollutants. For atmospheric corrosion, first developments deal with a pragmatic method that gives assessments of the indoor atmospheric corrosivities. (author)

  3. The challenges facing the long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iracane, D.; Marvy, A.

    2001-01-01

    In France electricity generation by means of commercial nuclear power plants has come to a point where it contributes to the national demand at a level of 80%. The safety performance of the production system has also reached a high level of both maturity and reliability taking advantage of the cumulative effect of a 30 years long learning experience and ever more stringent safety requirements. The policy to reprocess spent fuel has been overriding but no final decision has yet been made regarding the ultimate disposition of the waste streams. Although studies on deep geological disposal are ongoing, France is also looking at whether and under which conditions a long-term interim storage may provide an effective flexibility to the fuel cycle back-end. We discuss thereafter the needs and the paramount objectives of this latter R and D program. Results are being framed as potential guiding criteria for decision makers and various stakeholders. In first part, we propose a general analysis which emphasises that a long term interim storage is more than a classical nuclear facility because it explicitly requires long-lasting control and creates a burden for Society during many generations. Then, in second part, we offer an overview of the technical results from the R and D program as they stand at the time of writing. As an answer to the Government request, a strong emphasis has been put on this research for three years. Conclusion is an attempt to outline the societal context in which future decisions will have to be made. (author)

  4. Conceptual design of interim storage facility for CNAI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenzalida Troyano, Carlos S.; Bergallo, Juan E.; Nassini, Horacio E.P.; Blanco, Anibal; Delmastro, Dario F.

    2007-01-01

    The reduced storage capacity available in the two spent fuel pools of argentine PHWR Atucha-1 power plant, the current plans for extending the reactor operation beyond its design lifetime, and the government decision on Atucha-2 NPP construction ending, have motivated the evaluation of a dry storage option for the interim management of spent fuel assemblies. Two different designs are presently being analyzed by an expert working group, from both technical and economical points of views. Authors are proposing a modular system consisting of an arrangement of reinforced concrete structures into which welded metallic canisters loaded with 37 spent fuel assemblies each stored in horizontal position. The reinforced concrete module is designed to provide the necessary physical protection and biological shielding to the loaded canisters during long-term storage, as well as passive means to remove the spent fuel decay heat by a combination of radiation, conduction and natural air convection. In this works are presented advances in the conceptual designs for a spent nuclear fuel system to Atucha I nuclear power plant. (author) [es

  5. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  6. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule

  7. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  8. Interim guidance for the safe transport of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Increasingly reprocessed uranium is being used for the fabrication of nuclear fuel elements. Different intermediate reprocessing steps are carried out at different locations. Therefore, transportation of uranium material is necessary. Due to the difference in isotope composition of reprocessed uranium then unirradiated uranium a doubt is casted on the presumption that packages used for the transport of unirradiated uranium are automatically suitable for reprocessed uranium compounds. The Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) recommended that the issue be reviewed by consultants and that a document be developed that would give guidance to users of the Regulations. This TECDOC is the result of the endeavors of the experts convened at two Consultants Services meetings. It contains guidance on the provisions in the current Regulations as well as proposals for changes to the new Revised Edition whose publication is planned for 1996. This document demonstrates that under the present Transport Regulations it is possible in most cases to ship reprocessed uranium compounds in the same packages as unirradiated uranium compounds. In few cases a more stringent package type is required. 8 refs, 22 figs, 19 tabs

  9. Spent Fuel Long Term Interim Storage: The Spanish Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    ENRESA is the Spanish organization responsible for long-term management of all categories of radioactive waste and nuclear spent fuel and for decommissioning nuclear installations. It is also in charge of the management of the funds collected from waste producers and electricity consumers. The national policy about radioactive waste management is established at the General Radioactive Waste Plan by the Government upon proposal of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. Now the Plan in force is the Sixth Plan approved in 2006. The policy on spent nuclear fuel, after description of the current available options, is set up as a long term interim storage at a Centralized Temporary Storage facility (CTS, or ATC in Spanish acronym) followed by geologic disposal, pending technological development on other options being eligible in the future. After a site selection process launched in 2009, the site for the ATC has been chosen at the end of 2011. The first steps for the implementation of the facility are described in the present paper. (authors)

  10. Acceptable TRU packaging for interim storage and/or terminal isolation: FY-1977 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, J.W.; Peterson, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted for the definition and demonstration of acceptable waste packages for defense transuranic waste for interim storage and terminal isolation. During FY-1977, a Contractor Questionnaire was used to gather pertinent data and to assess contractor concerns. This information was integrated into basic application data in the form of a checklist. Conceptual Container Design Specifications were developed by analyzing and evaluating the application data against Federal Regulations and interim/terminal storage constraints

  11. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage-system components in dry interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions

  12. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  13. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  14. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.

    1995-09-01

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document

  15. Household water treatment and safe storage-effectiveness and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Stefanie M L; Pelgrim-Adams, Alida; Szántó, Gabor L.; van Halem, D.

    2016-01-01

    Household Water Treatment and safe Storage (HWTS) systems aim to provide safe drinking water in an affordable manner to users where safe piped water supply is either not feasible or not reliable. In this study the effectiveness, economic parameters and costs of three selected HWTS systems were

  16. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  17. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage

  18. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  19. Long-term interim storage concepts with conditioning strategies ensuring compatibility with subsequent disposal or reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moitrier, C.; Tirel, I.; Villard, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the CEA studies carried out under research topic 3 (long-term interim storage) of the 1991 French radioactive waste management law is to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a comprehensive, flexible interim storage facility by thoroughly evaluating and comparing all the basic components of various interim storage concepts. In this context, the CEA is considering reference solutions or concepts based on three primary components (the package, the interim storage facility and the site) suitable for determining the specifications of a very long-term solution. Some aspects are examined in greater detail, such as the implementation of long-term technologies, conditioning processes ensuring the absence of water and contamination in the facility, or allowance for radioactive decay of the packages. The results obtained are continually compiled in reports substantiating the design options. These studies should also lead to an overall economic assessment in terms of the capital and operating cost requirements, thereby providing an additional basis for selecting the design options. The comparison with existing industrial facilities highlights the technical and economic progress represented by the new generation of interim storage units. (authors)

  20. Transitioning aluminum clad spent fuels from wet to interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns several hundred metric tons of aluminum clad, spent nuclear fuel and target assemblies. The vast majority of these irradiated assemblies are currently stored in water basins that were designed and operated for short term fuel cooling prior to fuel reprocessing. Recent DOE decisions to severely limit the reprocessing option have significantly lengthened the time of storage, thus increasing the tendency for corrosion induced degradation of the fuel cladding and the underlying core material. The portent of continued corrosion, coupled with the age of existing wet storage facilities and the cost of continuing basin operations, including necessary upgrades to meet current facility standards, may force the DOE to transition these wet stored, aluminum clad spent fuels to interim dry storage. The facilities for interim dry storage have not been developed, partially because fuel storage requirements and specifications for acceptable fuel forms are lacking. In spite of the lack of both facilities and specifications, current plans are to dry store fuels for approximately 40 to 60 years or until firm decisions are developed for final fuel disposition. The transition of the aluminum clad fuels from wet to interim dry storage will require a sequence of drying and canning operations which will include selected fuel preparations such as vacuum drying and conditioning of the storage atmosphere. Laboratory experiments and review of the available literature have demonstrated that successful interim dry storage may also require the use of fuel and canister cleaning or rinsing techniques that preclude, or at least minimize, the potential for the accumulation of chloride and other potentially deleterious ions in the dry storage environment. This paper summarizes an evaluation of the impact of fuel transitioning techniques on the potential for corrosion induced degradation of fuel forms during interim dry storage

  1. An allowable cladding peak temperature for spent nuclear fuels in interim dry storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Ki-Nam; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2018-01-01

    Allowable cladding peak temperatures for spent fuel cladding integrity in interim dry storage were investigated, considering hydride reorientation and mechanical property degradation behaviors of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Zr-Nb cladding tubes. Cladding tube specimens were heated up to various temperatures and then cooled down under tensile hoop stresses. Cool-down specimens indicate that higher heat-up temperature and larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride precipitation and smaller tensile strength and plastic hoop strain. Unirradiated specimens generated relatively larger radial hydride precipitation and plastic strain than did neutron irradiated specimens. Assuming a minimum plastic strain requirement of 5% for cladding integrity maintenance in interim dry storage, it is proposed that a cladding peak temperature during the interim dry storage is to keep below 250 °C if cladding tubes are cooled down to room temperature.

  2. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  3. 1988 Federal Interim Storage Fee study: A technical and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This document is the latest in a series of reports that are published annually by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The information in this report, which was prepared by E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc., under subcontract to PNL, will be used by the DOE to establish a payment schedule for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel under the Federal Interim Storage (FIS) Program. The FIS Program was mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The information will be used to establish the schedule of charges for FIS services for the year commencing January 1, 1989. 13 refs.

  4. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  5. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance

  6. Safe storage of pesticides in Sri Lanka - identifying important design features influencing community acceptance and use of safe storage devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pieris, Ravi; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-poisoning with pesticides is the cause of an estimated 300,000 deaths annually in rural Asia. The great majority of these deaths are from impulsive acts of self-harm using pesticides that are readily available in the home. The secure storage of pesticides under lock has been...... emphasized as a possible answer to the problem. This aspect, however, has been poorly researched. In this paper, we report on the design and use, in rural Sri Lanka, of a variety of different lockable storage devices. METHODS: Following a baseline survey of pesticide storage practices, randomly selected...... households received a pesticide safe storage device. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase a total of 200 households in two villages were provided with in-house safe storage devices and two follow-up surveys were conducted seven and 24 months after distribution. The results of the seven...

  7. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sype, T.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.

  8. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sype, T.T.; Fischer, S.R.; Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex

  9. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petersen, Gordon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  10. Repacking of Cobalt 60 spent sources in the central interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.

    2003-01-01

    After the transfer of the responsibility for the management of the Central interim storage for waste from small producers, located at the reactor centre in Brinje near Ljubljana, Slovenia, the national Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) started with most urgent activities to improve the utilization of the storage facility. One of the main tasks has also been the rearrangement of the already stored radioactive waste in order to reduce volume of the waste and to collect same radioisotopes in the containers. The latest campaign, performed in 2002/2003, was repacking of all Co-60 spent sealed sources in the storage facility and also at the producer's premises which were after conditioning put into two drums with concrete matrix and stored back to the Central interim storage. The preparation works together with the implementation are described in the paper. (author)

  11. Interim storage packagings for spent fuels : how to optimize an universal design to local needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirsch, O.; Kawabata, T.; Hunter, I.

    2003-01-01

    For the last ten years, the interim storage market for spent fuels issued from Nuclear Power Plants has significantly increased all over the world: there are presently many storage projects either in Asia, in North America and in Europe. Even if there is no international regulation on that field, there is a big concern from all the nuclear industry to try to harmonise the specification for the definition of the Interim Storage Systems. One example of this harmonisation is the common and general wish to develop systems, which allow to be easily transportable either to a final repository or to a reprocessing plant. As this destination is generally not yet known, the storage system should be able to be transported all over the world. On the other hand, the specific requirement for the storage facility and its associated equipment are subject to local and/or national regulation. COGEMA LOGISTICS Group has developed two different technologies which are compatible with this principle of harmonisation: dual purpose metallic cask represented by the TN24 family and the concrete storage system NUHOMS(R). For both technologies, basic designs can be adapted to the local needs in term of performance and of national regulation. To cover all the world, COGEMA LOGISTICS Group has its own subsidiaries, in Asia, in North America and in Europe with their own autonomous engineers teams for designing, licensing, manufacturing and delivering the transport/storage products. COGEMA LOGISTICS Group is presently the leader on the dry interim storage market. The purpose of the present paper is to show how it is possible to optimise a basic existing design of a dual purpose metallic cask for a local need of storage. Taking into account the national rules for storage and the international regulation for transport, the designer shall minimise the development cost for a completely new design and maximise the capacity of the packaging regarding the allowable limits in the Nuclear Power Plant, in

  12. Development of operational criteria for the interim spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. H.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, D. K.; Cho, D. K.; Bae, K. M.

    1997-03-01

    The final objective is to develop the technical criteria for the facility operation of the interim spent fuel storage facility. For this purpose, elementary technical issues are evaluated for the wet storage of spent fuels and status of operation in foreign counties are examined. Urgent objective of this study is to provide technical back data for the development of operational criteria. For the back data for the development of operational criteria, domestic technical data for the wet storages are collected as well as standards and criteria related to the spent fuel storage. Operational stutus of spent fuel storages in foreign countries CLAB in Sweden and MRS in the United States are studied. Dry storage concept is also studied in order to find the characteristics of wet storage concept. Also basic technical issues are defined and studied in order to build a draft of operational criteria

  13. The Time Needed to Implement the Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendation on Interim Storage - 13124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, Michael D.; Vieth, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future [1] makes a number of important recommendations to be considered if Congress elects to redirect U.S. high-level radioactive waste disposal policy. Setting aside for the purposes of this discussion any issues related to political forces leading to stopping progress on the Yucca Mountain project and driving the creation of the Commission, an important recommendation of the Commission was to institute prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. The Blue Ribbon Commission noted that this recommended strategy for future storage and disposal facilities and operations should be implemented regardless of what happens with Yucca Mountain. It is too easy, however, to focus on interim storage as an alternative to geologic disposal. The Blue Ribbon Commission report does not go far enough in addressing the magnitude of the contentious problems associated with reopening the issues of relative authorities of the states and federal government with which Congress wrestled in crafting the Nuclear Waste Policy Act [2]. The Blue Ribbon Commission recommendation for prompt adoption of an interim storage program does not appear to be fully informed about the actions that must be taken, the relative cost of the effort, or the realistic time line that would be involved. In essence, the recommendation leaves to others the details of the systems engineering analyses needed to understand the nature and details of all the operations required to reach an operational interim storage facility without derailing forever the true end goal of geologic disposal. The material presented identifies a number of impediments that must be overcome before the country could develop a centralized federal interim storage facility. In summary, and in the order presented, they are: 1. Change the law, HJR 87, PL 107-200, designating Yucca Mountain for the development of a repository. 2. Bring new nuclear waste

  14. Relative risk measure suitable for comparison of design alternatives of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjencik, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accessible reports on risk assessment of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facilities presume that only releases of radioactive substances represent undesired consequences. However, only certain part of the undesired consequences is represented by them. Many other events are connected with safety and are able to cause losses to the operating company. The following two presumptions are pronounced based on this. 1. Any event causing a disturbance of a safety function of the storage facility is an incident event. 2. Any disturbance of a safety function is an undesired consequence. If the facility safety functions are identified and if the severity of their disturbances is quantified, then it is possible to combine consequence severity quantifications and event frequencies into a risk measure. Construction and application of such a risk measure is described in this paper. The measure is shown to be a tool suitable for comparison of interim storage technology design alternatives. (author)

  15. Central processing and interim storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Within the ZWILAG project, the buildings for the temporary storage of all categories of radioactive wastes including the spent fuel elements are being readied at a central location. The intermediate storage installations are enhanced by a conditioning and burning plant for weak radioactive operating waste from the nuclear power plants and from the area of responsibility of the state. (author) 2 figs

  16. German Approach for the Transport of Spent Fuel Packages after Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Frank; Wolff, Dietmar; Droste, Bernhard; Voelzke, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In Germany the concept of dry interim storage of spent nuclear fuel in dual purpose metal casks is implemented, currently for periods of up to 40 years. The casks being used have an approved package design in accordance with the international transport regulations. The license for dry storage is granted on the German Atomic Energy Act with respect to the recently (in 2012) revised 'Guidelines for dry cask storage of spent nuclear fuel and heat-generating waste' by the German Waste management Commission (ESK) which are very similar to the former RSK (reactor safety commission) guidelines. For transport on public routes between or after long term interim storage periods, it has to be ensured that the transport and storage casks fulfil the specifications of the transport approval or other sufficient properties which satisfy the proofs for the compliance of the safety objectives at that time. In recent years the validation period of transport approval certificates for manufactured, loaded and stored packages were discussed among authorities and applicants. A case dependent system of 3, 5 and 10 years was established. There are consequences for the safety cases in the Package Design Safety Report including evaluation of long term behavior of components and specific operating procedures of the package. Present research and knowledge concerning the long term behavior of transport and storage cask components have to be consulted as well as experiences from interim cask storage operations. Challenges in the safety assessment are e.g. the behavior of aged metal and elastomeric seals under IAEA test conditions to ensure that the results of drop tests can be transferred to the compliance of the safety objectives at the time of transport after the interim storage period (aged package). Assessment methods for the material compatibility, the behavior of fuel assemblies and the aging behavior of shielding parts are issues as well. This paper describes the state

  17. Interim licensing criteria for physical protection of certain storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This document presents interim criteria to be used in the physical protection licensing of certain spent fuel storage installations. Installations that will be reviewed under this criteria are those that store power reactor spent fuel at decommissioned power reactor sites; independent spent fuel storage installations located outside of the owner controlled area of operating nuclear power reactors; monitored retrievable storage installations owned by the Department of Energy, designed and constructed specifically for the storage, of spent fuel; the proposed geologic repository operations area; or permanently shutdown power reactors still holding a Part 50 license. This criteria applies to both dry cask and pool storage. However, the criteria in this document does not apply to the storage of spent fuel within the owner-controlled area of operating nuclear power reactors

  18. Study on interim storage system to utilize waste heat from spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu

    1997-12-31

    Spent fuels amounting to about 30 tons a year are generated by a 1,000MWe-class light water reactor (LWR). However, the whole amount of spent fuels generated by LWRs cannot be reprocessed. From the viewpoint of energy resources, it is believed in Japan that fast breeder reactors will be introduced as commercial power reactors in the future. In that time, it admits of no doubt that the spent fuel will be a valuable energy resource. It is, therefore, an urgent problem in Japan to establish interim storage systems of spent fuels for LWRs to continue smoothly in operation. In this work, the spent fuel is treated not as unwanted waste but as a heat source. At first, various kinds of interim storage systems of spent fuel are examined from the viewpoint of the utilization of the waste heat, and a pool storage system is dealt with. Next, the possibility of the utilization of the waste heat are examined. Finally, a concept of the interim storage plant, which supplies the heat to a green house where flowers with high value added such as orchids are cultivated, is proposed as a demonstration plant. (author)

  19. Assessment of Hanford burial grounds and interim TRU storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, J.F.; Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-08-01

    A review and assessment is made of the Hanford low level solid radioactive waste management sites and facilities. Site factors considered favorable for waste storage and disposal are (1) limited precipitation, (2) a high deficiency of moisture in the underlying sediments (3) great depth to water table, all of which minimize radionuclide migration by water transport, and (4) high sorbtive capacity of the sediments. Facilities are in place for 20 year retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes and for disposal of nontransuranic radioactive wastes. Auxiliary facilities and services (utilities, roads, fire protection, shops, etc.) are considered adequate. Support staffs such as engineering, radiation monitoring, personnel services, etc., are available and are shared with other operational programs. The site and associated facilities are considered well suited for solid radioactive waste storage operations. However, recommendations are made for study programs to improve containment, waste package storage life, land use economy, retrievability and security of TRU wastes

  20. The experiences from interim spent fuel storage operation with CASTOR 440/84 CASKS in NPP Dukovany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture are presented: principles of the CASTOR 440/84 design; design development works; commissioning of interim spent fuel storage facility; international transports of spent fuel utilising CASTOR 440/84 casks

  1. Safety report for Central Interim Storage facility for radioactive waste from small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999 the Agency for Radwaste Management took over the management of the Central Interim Storage (CIS) in Brinje, intended only for radioactive waste from industrial, medical and research applications. With the transfer of the responsibilities for the storage operation, ARAO, the new operator of the facility, received also the request from the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration for refurbishment and reconstruction of the storage and for preparation of the safety report for the storage with the operational conditions and limitations. In order to fulfill these requirements ARAO first thoroughly reviewed the existing documentation on the facility, the facility itself and the stored inventory. Based on the findings of this review ARAO prepared several basic documents for improvement of the current conditions in the storage facility. In October 2000 the Plan for refurbishment and modernization of the CIS was prepared, providing an integral approach towards remediation and refurbishment of the facility, optimization of the inventory arrangement and modernization of the storage and storing utilization. In October 2001 project documentation for renewal of electric installations, water supply and sewage system, ventilation system, the improvements of the fire protection and remediation of minor defects discovered in building were completed according to the Act on Construction. In July 2003 the safety report was prepared, based on the facility status after the completion of the reconstruction works. It takes into account all improvements and changes introduced by the refurbishment and reconstruction of the facility according to project documentation. Besides the basic characteristics of the location and its surrounding, it also gives the technical description of the facility together with proposed solutions for the renewal of electric installations, renovation of water supply and sewage system, refurbishment of the ventilation system, the improvement of fire

  2. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations

  3. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  4. Probabilistic Assessment Method of Turbojet Engine Impact on an Interim Dry Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes an analytical method of structural analysis for an interim storage facility subjected to aircraft jet engine based on a probabilistic approach. This method will be employed in the process of aircraft risk model for the interim storage facilities. The analytical formulation of the engine impact and the perforation to find the required thickness of concrete to protect the equipment inside the structure is an enormously complex impact phenomenon. Therefore, all the available formulas describing perforation phenomena are empirical and based on experimental data. In this paper, a method with sample results to determine the local failure probability of the facility's wall and the probable residual velocities after passed through the target by applying a probabilistic approach was proposed. Normal engine impact on the wall shield using applicable empirical formulas provides a best estimation of perforation depth and residual velocity with intent of producing conservative outcomes.

  5. Criteria for designing an interim waste storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The long-lived radioactive wastes with activity above clearance levels generated by radioisotope users in Brazil are collected into centralized waste storage facilities under overview of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN). One of these centers is the Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), in Sao Paulo, which since 1978 also manages the wastes generated by IPEN itself. Present inventory of stored wastes includes about 160 tons of treated wastes, distributed in 1290 steel, 200-liters drums, and 52 steel, 1.6 m 3 -boxes, with an estimated total activity of 0.8 TBq. Radionuclides present in these wastes are fission and activation products, transuranium elements, and isotopes from the uranium and thorium decay series. The capacity and quality of the storage rooms at GRR evolved along the last decades to meet the requirements set forth by the Brazilian regulatory authorities.From a mere outdoor concrete platform over which drums were simply stacked and covered with canvas to the present day building, a great progress was made in the storage method. In this paper we present the results of a study in the criteria that were meant to guide the design of the storage building, many of which were eventually adopted in the final concept, and are now built-in features of the facility. We also present some landmarks in the GRR's activities related to waste management in general and waste storage in particular, until the treated wastes of IPEN found their way into the recently licensed new storage facility. (author)

  6. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    This OandM Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design

  7. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-08-30

    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  8. Implementation plan for deployment of Federal Interim Storage facilities for commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document is the second annual report on plans for providing Federal Interim Storage (FIS) capacity. References are made to the first annual report as necessary (DOE/RW-0003, 1984). Background factors and aspects that were considered in the development of this deployment plan and activities and interactions considered to be required to implement an FIS program are discussed. The generic approach that the Department plans to follow in deploying FIS facilities is also described

  9. Implementation plan for deployment of Federal Interim Storage facilities for commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third annual report on plans for providing Federal Interim Storage (FIS) capacity. References are made to the first and second annual reports, as necessary. Background factors and aspects that were considered in the development of this deployment plan and activities and interactions considered to be required to implement an FIS program are discussed. A generic description of the approach that the Department plans to follow in deploying FIS facilities is also described

  10. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell [MERIENCE Strategic Thinking, 08734 Olerdola, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  11. Meet the Challenges of Spent Fuel Interim Storage by Using Intensive Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.; Compere, S.; Jung, O.

    2015-01-01

    AREVA Logistics Business Unit, through its entities TN International in France, Transnuclear Inc. in the USA and Transnuclear Ltd. in Japan, has proposed for more than 2 decades the leading dry storage systems of spent fuel in use today. These systems have mainly been sold in Europe, in the US and in Japan. The PWR, BWR or VVER fuel characteristics may have various enrichment values up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burnups up to 65,000 MWd/tU. Facing the current international trend towards expanding Spent Fuel Interim Storage capabilities and the unpredictable market prices of steel large forged components, AREVA Logistics Business Unit has launched an extensive innovation process to create the new generation of dry interim storage systems: i) the TN®DUO cask is an innovative and cost effective dual purpose cask; and ii) the TN®NOVA system is an innovative canister system based on the NUHOMS® cask system, the US industry leading spent fuel storage solution. These two innovative solutions can naturally be transported to the storage facilities as well as other sites such as reprocessing facilities or geological repositories depending of the national strategy for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. In addition to these innovative dry interim storage systems and based on 40 years experience in design, licensing and fabrication of baskets for transportation cask, AREVA Logistics Business Unit has developed new innovative designs for Underwater Fuel Storage Racks which includes the use of Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material as a neutron absorbing material. This kind of material allows proposing a cost efficient solution with a reduced rack weight and a significant improvement of the criticality performance. Furthermore, AREVA Logistics Business Unit Rack Design remains flexible and evolutionary linked to fuel characteristics evolution and it can include other neutron absorbing materials commonly used in the nuclear industry as borated

  12. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal

  13. Dry Cask Storage Inspection and Monitoring. Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiari, Susan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elmer, Thomas W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Koehl, Eugene R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Ke [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Raptis, Apostolos C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kunerth, Dennis C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Birk, Sandra M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-04

    Recently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued the guidance on the aging management of dry storage facilities that indicates the necessity to monitor the conditions of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) over extended periods of time.1 Part of the justification of the aging management plans is the requirement for inspection and monitoring to verify whether continued monitoring, inspection or mitigation are necessary. To meet this challenge Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting scoping studies on current and emerging nondestructive evaluation/examination (NDE) and online monitoring (OLM) technologies for DCSS integrity assessments. The scope of work plan includes identification and verification of technologies for long-term online monitoring of DCSSs’ crucial physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, leakage and structural integrity in general. Modifications have been made to the current technologies to accommodate field inspections and monitoring. A summary of the scoping studies and experimental efforts conducted to date as well as plans for future activities is provided below.

  14. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at the Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1990-01-01

    There are 190,000 m 3 of contaminated soils, wastes, and residues stored at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS). The residues have a volume of 18,000 m 3 and contain about 1,930 Ci of 226 Ra, which accounts for most of the radioactivity. Since 1980, actions have been taken to minimize potential radiological risks and prevent radionuclide migration. Interim actions included capping vents, sealing pipes, relocating the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transferring and consolidating wastes, upgrading storage buildings, constructing a clay cutoff wall (to limit potential ground-water transport of contaminants), treating and releasing contaminated water, using a synthetic liner, and using an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. Environmental monitoring showed a decrease in radon concentrations and in external gamma radiation from 1982 to 1986; levels have been stable since 1986. Uranium and radium concentrations in surface water have decreased; very low concentrations have been detected in stream sediments, and concentrations in ground water have remained stable. Recent monitoring showed that NFSS is in compliance with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiation protection standards

  15. Graphite core stability during 'care and maintenance' and 'safe storage'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, A.J.; Marsden, B.J.; Sellers, R.M.; Pilkington, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current decommissioning strategy for the graphite-moderated reactors operated by Magnox Electric plc, Nuclear Electric Ltd and Scottish Nuclear Ltd is to delay dismantling and to initiate a monitored period of care and maintenance followed by a period of safe storage totaling up to 135 years. This philosophy has the considerable advantage of permitting the majority of radionuclides to decay, thereby minimising personnel dose during dismantling which itself will require far less complex remote-handling equipment. It also defers the disposal of the graphite and other components so that the provision of a deep land-based repository can be achieved. A comprehensive review of all relevant data on the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the graphite and its potential reactions, including radioactivity transport, has been undertaken in order to demonstrate that there are no potential mechanisms which might lead to degradation of the core during the storage period. It is concluded that no significant experimental work is necessary to support the safe storage philosophy although, since the ingress of rainwater over long periods of time cannot be assumed incredible, a number of anomalies in chemical leaching rates may be worthy of re-examination. No other potential chemical reactions, such as the radiolytic formation of nitric acid leading to corrosion problems, are considered significant. (author)

  16. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank's highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format

  17. Report on the long-term interim storage of spent fuels and vitrified wastes; Gutachten zur Langzeitzwischenlagerung abgebrannter Brennelemente und verglaster Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-03

    Long-term interim storage for several hundred years is an option on the management of high-level radioactive wastes. The decision on final disposal is postponed. Worldwide the long-term interim storage is not part of the disposal concept - a geologic final repository is the ultimate aim. Using today's technology the interim storage over several hundred years is supposed to be uncritical. Aging management is the most important challenge - the renewal of the facilities would have to be expected. Possible social change and their impact on the interim storage problem has not been considered.

  18. GNS Experience on the Long-Term Storage at Dry Interim Storage Facilities Especially in Ahaus and Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelschlaeger, Lutz; Heck, Matthias; Graf, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides a general overview on the operation experience of the dry interim storage facilities in Ahaus and Gorleben (later referred to as TBL-A and TBL-G). GNS is solely in charge of the operation and maintenance of both facilities licensed for a dry storage period of 40 years. The amount of different cask types stored to date which are loaded with spent fuel and reprocessing waste and the cask specific information such as heat capacity, heat flow and dose rate are shown. A presentation of the transport and storage operation experience (e. g. statistics of the monitoring system) follows as well as an outlook on future activities. The associated licensing procedures are outlined in view of pre-existing licenses together with present or future licensing activities. This includes cask approval procedures according to the international safety requirements for transport and licensing procedures as laid down in the German Atomic Act. Both facilities have been operated, to a large extent, independently of nuclear power plants. Different casks have been stored there for more than ten years. In terms of best practices the vast operational experience gathered at these interim storage facilities is shown on practical examples i.e. the 10-year cask inspection, the pilot process for the periodical safety review as well as the ageing management demonstrating the robustness of the dry cask storage concept. The key aspects of the GNS expertise and a summary of the GNS position as well as perspectives for the long-term dry storage complete the presentation. (authors)

  19. Cna 1 spent fuel element interim dry storage system thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilal, R. E; Garcia, J. C; Delmastro, D. F

    2006-01-01

    At the moment, the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (Cnea-I) located in the city of Lima, has enough room to store its spent fuel (Sf) in their two pools spent fuel until about 2015.In case of life extension a spend fuel element interim dry storage system is needed.Nucleolectrica Argentina S.A. (N A-S A) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea), have proposed different interim dry storage systems.These systems have to be evaluated in order to choose one of them.The present work's objective is the thermal analysis of one dry storage alternative for the Sf element of Cna 1.In this work a simple model was developed and used to perform the thermal calculations corresponding to the system proposed by Cnea.This system considers the store of sealed containers with 37 spent fuels in concrete modules.Each one of the containers is filled in the pool houses and transported to the module in a transference cask with lead walls.Fulfill the maximum cladding temperature requirement ( [es

  20. Uses of the waste heat from the interim fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrum, A.

    It was the objective of this study to investigate the possibilities of a convenient use of the waste heat from the designed interim fuel storage at Ahaus. In this sense the following possibilities have been investigated: district heating, heat for industrial processes, fish-production, green house-heating, production of methane from original waste, agrotherm (agricultur field heating). It has been shown, that an economical behaviour for nearly all variations is not given without the financial help of the government, because of the high costs for heat transport and out-put. The most economical project is the intensive fish production plant. (orig.) [de

  1. Technical study of a thermally dense long term interim storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, A.; Badie, M.; Duret, B.; Bricard, A.

    2001-01-01

    The COFRE concept is aimed at the surface and thermal densification of the interim storage facility for irradiated fuels. The facility provides the biological shielding. A conditioning cell is used to load and retrieve the fuel assemblies. The facility container is the second containment barrier. The high power levels are managed by an auxiliary cooling system whose original feature is the passive use of a water evaporation-condensation cycle in a sealed circuit. The removable evaporator abuts the container. The air cooled condenser is placed outside the facility. Contact resistance and heat pipe mode were successfully modelled and are undergoing experimental validation on the THERESE and REBECA loops. (author)

  2. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  3. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  4. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  5. Preparation for tritiated waste management of fusion facilities: Interim storage WAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decanis, C., E-mail: christelle.decanis@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Derasse, F. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pamela, J. [CEA, Agence ITER-France, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Fusion devices including ITER will generate tritiated waste. • Interim storage is the reference solution offering an answer for all types of tritiated radwaste. • Interim storage is a buffer function in the process management and definition of the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) is a key milestone in the facility development cycle. • Defining WAC is a relevant way to identify ahead of time the studies to be launched and the required actions to converge on a detailed design for example material specific studies, required treatment, interfaces management, modelling and monitoring studies. - Abstract: Considering the high mobility of tritium through the package in which it is contained, the new 50-year storage concepts proposed by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) currently provide a solution adapted to the management of waste with tritium concentrations higher than the accepted limits in the disposals. The 50-year intermediate storage corresponds to 4 tritium radioactive periods i.e., a tritium reduction by a factor 16. This paper details the approach implemented to define the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for an interim storage facility that not only takes into account the specificity of tritium provided by the reference scheme for the management of tritiated waste in France, but also the producers’ needs, the safety analysis of the facility and Andra’s disposal requirements. This will lead to define a set of waste specifications that describe the generic criteria such as acceptable waste forms, general principles and specific issues, e.g. conditioning, radioactive content, tritium content, waste tracking system, and quality control. This approach is also a way to check in advance, during the design phase of the waste treatment chain, how the future waste could be integrated into the overall waste management routes and identify possible key points that need further investigations (design changes, selection

  6. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, begun in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Wayne Township, New Jersey. The WISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive material remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The monitoring program at WISS measures radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium, radium, and thorium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) during calendar year 1989. 26 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Does the radiation from the interim storage in Gorleben affect the sex ratio of newborn children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.W.; Schulze, H.; Wede, S.; Mueller, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the professional world but especially in public, the question is discussed whether ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities has a significant impact on the secondary sex ratio of newborn children in the vicinity of the plants. This issue is of exceptional importance in the region around Gorleben, where the opposition to nuclear facilities and activities for decades is particularly strong. At the site borders of the interim storage facility (TBL-G) of GNS the effective individual dose is about 0.2 mSv per year, mainly caused by neutron irradiation from 108 casks with high-level radioactive waste from reprocessing. In the surrounding villages there is no radiation measurable. Statistical studies allegedly have shown evidence that in some villages in the area and during certain periods, proportionately fewer girls were born in comparison to the average for the Federal Republic of Germany. Based on these purely statistical results henceforward was also alleged that neutron-induced secondary effects such as activation or secondary gamma radiation would be responsible for it. Monte Carlo calculations and special measurements yielded values of the dose at the plant border for activation products less than E-04 mSv/a and for secondary gamma radiation of about E-03 mSv/a. These results indicate that the ionizing radiation from the Gorleben interim storage facility cannot be held accountable for shifts of the secondary sex ratio.

  8. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, D.J.

    1982-12-01

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or expected ranges of impacts where possible), suggested mitigation measures, and some key sources of information. The major topical areas covered are physical and biological impacts, radiological impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Some project-related issues were beyond the scope of this document, including dollar costs, specific accident scenarios, project funding and changes in Congressional mandates, and project management (contracts, labor relations, quality assurance, liability, emergency preparedness, etc.). These issues will be covered in other documents supporting the decision-making process. Although the scope of this document covers property-cleanup and interim-storage actions, it is applicable to other similar remedial actions. For example, the analyses discussed herein for cleanup activities are applicable to any FUSRAP action that includes site cleanup

  9. Allowable peak heat-up cladding temperature for spent fuel integrity during interim-dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate allowable peak cladding temperature and hoop stress for maintenance of cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport, zirconium alloy cladding tubes were hydrogen-charged to generate 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen contents, simulating spent nuclear fuel degradation. The hydrogen-charged specimens were heated to four peak temperatures of 250°C, 300°C, 350°C, and 400°C, and then cooled to room temperature at cooling rates of 0.3 °C/min under three tensile hoop stresses of 80 MPa, 100 MPa, and 120 MPa. The cool-down specimens showed that high peak heat-up temperature led to lower hydrogen content and that larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride fraction and consequently lower plastic elongation. Based on these out-of-pile cladding tube test results only, it may be said that peak cladding temperature should be limited to a level < 250°C, regardless of the cladding hoop stress, to ensure cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport.

  10. Radiation shielding at interim storage facility for CANDU-type nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, S.; Radu, M. Pantazi D.; Stanciu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Technical measures in radiological protection are taken in the interim storage facility design to ensure that, during normal operation, exposures of workers and members of public to ionizing radiation are limited to levels lower than regulatory limits. The spent fuel storage design provides for radiation exposure to be as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA principles). The evaluation of radiation shields includes the most conservative provisions: - all locations which may contain spent fuel are full; - the spent fuel has reached the maximum burnup; - the post irradiation cooling period should be the minimum reasonable; - equipment for handling contains the maximum amount of spent fuel. Radiation shields should ensure that external radiation fields do not exceed limits accepted by the Regulatory Body Module. The evaluation has been performed with two computer codes, QAD-5K and MICROSHIELD-4. (authors)

  11. Interim dry cask storage of irradiated Fast Flux Test Facility fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.L.

    1994-09-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located at the US Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site, is the largest, most modern, liquid metal-cooled test reactor in the world. This paper will give an overview of the FFTF Spent Fuel Off load project. Major discussion areas will address the status of the fuel off load project, including an overview of the fuel off load system and detailed discussion on the individual components that make up the dry cask storage portion of this system. These components consist of the Interim Storage Cask (ISC) and Core Component Container (CCC). This paper will also discuss the challenges that have been addressed in the evolution of this project

  12. FY17 Status Report: Research on Stress Corrosion Cracking of SNF Interim Storage Canisters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alexander, Christopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This progress report describes work done in FY17 at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. Work in FY17 refined our understanding of the chemical and physical environment on canister surfaces, and evaluated the relationship between chemical and physical environment and the form and extent of corrosion that occurs. The SNL corrosion work focused predominantly on pitting corrosion, a necessary precursor for SCC, and process of pit-to-crack transition; it has been carried out in collaboration with university partners. SNL is collaborating with several university partners to investigate SCC crack growth experimentally, providing guidance for design and interpretation of experiments.

  13. Concept study for interim storage of research reactor fuel elements in transport and storage casks. Transport and storage licensing procedure for the CASTOR MTR 2 cask. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of the project, a concept was to be developed for managing spent fuel elements from research reactors on the basis of the interim storage technology existing in Germany, in order to make the transition to direct disposal possible in the long term. This final report describes the studies for the spent fuel management concept as well as the development of a transport and storage cask for spent fuel elements from research reactors. The concept analyses were based on data of the fuel to be disposed of, as well as the handling conditions for casks at the German research reactors. Due to the quite different conditions for handling of casks at the individual reactors, it was necessary to examine different cask concepts as well as special solutions for loading the casks outside of the spent fuel pools. As a result of these analyses, a concept was elaborated on the basis of a newly developed transport and storage cask as well as a mobile fuel transfer system for the reactor stations, at which a direct loading of the cask is not possible, as the optimal variant. The cask necessary for this concept with the designation CASTOR trademark MTR 2 follows in ist design the tried and tested principles of the CASTOR trademark casks for transport and interim storage of spent LWR fuel. With the CASTOR trademark MTR 2, it is possible to transport and to place into long term interim storage various fuel element types, which have been and are currently used in German research reactors. The technical development of the cask has been completed, the documents for the transport license as type B(U)F package design and for obtaining the storage license at the interim storage facility of Ahaus have been prepared, submitted to the licensing authorities and to a large degree already evaluated positively. The transport license of the CASTOR trademark MTR 2 has been issued for the shipment of VKTA-contents and FRM II compact fuel elements. (orig.)

  14. 1984 Federal Interim Storage fee study: a technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    JAI examined alternative methods for structuring charges for Federal Interim Storage (FIS) services were examined and the conclusion reached that the combined interests of the Department and the users would be best served, and costs most appropriately recovered, by a two-part fee involving an Initial Payment upon execution of a contract for FIS services followed by a Final Payment upon delivery of the spent fuel to the Department. The Initial Payment would be an advance payment covering the pro rata share of preoperational costs, including (1) the capital costs of the required transfer facilities and storage area, (2) development costs, (3) government administrative costs including storage fund management, and (4) impact aid payments made in accordance with section 136(e) of the Act. The Final Payment would be made at the time of delivery of the spent fuel to the Department and would be calculated to cover the sum of the following: (1) any under-or over-estimation in the costs used to calculate the Initial Payment of the fee including savings due to rod consolidation), (2) module costs (i.e., storage casks, drywells, or silos), and (3) the total estimated cost of operation and decommissioning of the FIS facilities (including government administrative costs, storage fund management and impact aid). Charges for the transport of spent fuel from the reactor site to FIS facilities would be separately assessed at cost since these will be specific to each reactor site and destination

  15. Periodic Safety Review in Interim Storage Facilities - Current Regulation and Experiences in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neles, Julia Mareike; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Periodic safety reviews in nuclear power plants in Germany have been performed since the end of the 1980's as an indirect follow-up of the accident in Chernobyl and, in the meantime, are formally required by law. During this process the guidelines governing this review were developed in stages and reached their final form in 1996. Interim storage facilities and other nuclear facilities at that time were not included, so the guidelines were solely focused on the specific safety issues of nuclear power plants. Following IAEA's recommendations, the Western European Nuclear Regulator Association (WENRA) introduced PSRs in its safety reference levels for storage facilities (current version in WGWD report 2.1 as of Feb 2011: SRLs 59 - 61). Based on these formulations, Germany improved its regulation in 2010 with a recommendation of the Nuclear Waste Management Commission (Entsorgungskommission, ESK), an expert advisory commission for the federal regulatory body BMU. The ESK formulated these detailed requirements in the 'ESK recommendation for guides to the performance of periodic safety reviews for interim storage facilities for irradiated fuel elements and heat-generating radioactive waste'. Before finalization of the guideline a test phase was introduced, aimed to test the new regulation in practice and to later include the lessons learned in the final formulation of the guideline. The two-year test phase started in October 2011 in which the performance of a PSR will be tested at two selected interim storage facilities. Currently these recommendations are discussed with interested/concerned institutions. The results of the test phase shall be considered for improvements of the draft and during the final preparation of guidelines. Currently the PSR for the first ISF is in an advanced stage, the second facility just started the process. Preliminary conclusions from the test phase show that the implementation of the draft guideline requires interpretation. The aim of a

  16. Radiation shielding and dose rate evaluation at the interim storage facility for spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, Marcela; Mateescu, Silvia; Pantazi, Doina; Penescu, Maria

    2000-01-01

    At present studies necessary to license the Interim Storage Facility for the Spent Fuel (CANDU type) from Cernavoda NPP are developed in our country.The spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP is discharged into Spent Fuel Bay in Service Building of the plant, where it remains several years for cooling. After this period, the bundles of spent fuel are to be transferred to the Interim Storage Facility.The dry interim storage solution seems to be the most appropriate variant for Cernavoda NPP.The design of the Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility must meet the applicable safety requirements in order to ensure radiological protection of the personnel, public and environment during all phases of the facility achievement. In this paper we intend to present the calculation of radiation shielding at the spent fuel interim storage facility for two technical solutions: - Concrete Monolithic Module and Concrete Storage Cask. In order to quantify the fuel composition after irradiation, the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2.1 has been used, taking into account a cooling time of 7 years and 9 years, respectively, for these two variants. The shielding calculations have been performed using the computer codes QAD-5K and MICROSHIELD-4. The evaluations refer only to gamma radiation because the resulting neutron source (from (α,n) reactions and spontaneous fission) is insignificant as compared to the gamma source. The final results consist in the minimum thickness of the shielding and the corresponding external dose rates, ensuring a design average dose rate based on national and international regulations. (authors)

  17. Safe storage time for reprocessed flexible endoscopes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Marilee; Daniels, Glenda; Hough, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Flexible endoscopes are used to diagnose and treat gastrointestinal and pulmonary diseases. They have narrow, internal channels which are used to insert instruments, air and water into hollow organs and to remove tissues and secretions. Since endoscopes are contaminated during use and have heat sensitive components that cannot be sterilized, they are reprocessed with cleaning and high-level disinfection to destroy microorganisms. Knowing how long reprocessed endoscopes can be safely stored is essential for preventing infection and decreasing unnecessary costs. The objective was to systematically review the best available evidence related to safe storage time (in days) of flexible endoscopes that have undergone reprocessing in order to determine when they can be safely used again without posing any risk of contamination from pathogens. The types of equipment were flexible endoscopes that had been reprocessed according to recommended guidelines, stored for a specified period of time, and tested for microorganisms.The intervention was the length of time (in days) that reprocessed endoscopes were appropriately stored before use.This review included non-randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.This review considered studies that included the outcome measure: microbial growth on endoscopes which was measured with microbiological cultures. The search strategy aimed to find studies in English and Spanish and included published and unpublished studies from 1990 to 2014. An initial search of CINAHL, MEDLINE/PUBMed and EMBASE was conducted followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract and index terms used to describe the articles. Next, a search using all identified keywords and index terms was undertaken across all included databases. Then, the reference lists of all identified reports and articles were searched for additional studies. A citation search was performed in order to find additional studies that cited those

  18. Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Consolidated Interim Storage of Spent Fuel: Evaluating the Effect of Economic Environment Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumberland, Riley M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Kent Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates how the economic environment (i.e., discount rate, inflation rate, escalation rate) can impact previously estimated differences in lifecycle costs between an integrated waste management system with an interim storage facility (ISF) and a similar system without an ISF.

  19. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  20. Wayne Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) (a National Priorities List site) and surrounding area began in 1984. WISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Sediment samples were also analyzed for thorium-230, and several nonradiological parameters were measured in groundwater. 16 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs

  1. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project

  2. Dry oxidation behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Terlain, A.; Bertrand, N.; Gauvain, D.

    2004-01-01

    Low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for the fabrication of some nuclear waste package containers for long term interim storage. The containers are required to remain retrievable for centuries. One factor limiting their performance on this time scale is corrosion. The estimation of the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such long periods requires the construction of reliable models from short-time experimental data. Two complementary approaches for modelling dry oxidation have been considered. First, basic models following simple analytical laws from classical oxidation theories have been adjusted on the apparent activation energy of oxidation deduced from experimental data. Their extrapolation to long oxidation periods confirms that the expected damage due to dry oxidation could be small. Second, a numerical model able to take in consideration several mechanisms controlling the oxide scale growth is under development. Several preliminary results are presented. (authors)

  3. Verification of maximum impact force for interim storage cask for the Fast Flux Testing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.W.; Chang, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform an impact analysis of the Interim Storage Cask (ISC) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for a 4-ft end drop. The ISC is a concrete cask used to store spent nuclear fuels. The analysis is to justify the impact force calculated by General Atomics (General Atomics, 1994) using the ILMOD computer code. ILMOD determines the maximum force developed by the concrete crushing which occurs when the drop energy has been absorbed. The maximum force, multiplied by the dynamic load factor (DLF), was used to determine the maximum g-level on the cask during a 4-ft end drop accident onto the heavily reinforced FFTF Reactor Service Building's concrete surface. For the analysis, this surface was assumed to be unyielding and the cask absorbed all the drop energy. This conservative assumption simplified the modeling used to qualify the cask's structural integrity for this accident condition

  4. Analysis of removal of residual decay heat from interim storage facilities by means of the CFD program FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratmann, W.; Hages, P.

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of nuclear licensing procedures of on-site interim storage facilities for dual purpose casks it is necessary, among other things, to provide proof of sufficient removal of the residual decay heat emitted by the casks. The results of the analyses performed for this purpose define e.g. the boundary conditions for further thermal analyses regarding the permissible cask component temperatures or the maximum permissible temperatures of the fuel cladding tubes of the fuel elements stored in the casks. Up to now, for the centralized interim storage facilities in Germany such analyses were performed on the basis of experimental investigations using scaled-down storage geometries. In the engineering phase of the Lingen on-site interim storage facility, proof was furnished for the first time using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) program FLUENT. The program FLUENT is an internationally recognized and comprehensively verified program for the calculation of flow and heat transport processes. Starting from a brief discussion of modeling and the different boundary conditions of the computation, this contribution presents various results regarding the temperatures of air, cask surfaces and storage facility components, the mass flows through the storage facility and the heat transfer at the cask surface. The interface point to the cask-specific analyses is defined to be the cask surface

  5. Improving of spent fuel monitoring in condition of Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklos, M.; Krsjak, V.; Bozik, M.; Vasina, D.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of WWER fuel assemblies condition in Slovakia is presented in the paper. The leak tightness results of fuel assemblies used in Slovak WWER units in last 20 years are analyzed. Good experiences with the 'Sipping system' are described. The Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice was build and put in operation in 1986. Since 1999, leak tests of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by special leak tightness detection system 'Sipping in Pool' delivered by Framatome-ANP facility with external heating for the precise detection of active specimens. Another system for monitoring of fuel assemblies condition was implemented in December 2006 under the name 'SVYPP-440'. First non-active tests started at February 2007 and are described in the paper. Although those systems seems to be very effective, the detection time of all fuel assemblies in one storage pool is too long (several months). Therefore, a new 'on-line' detection system, based on new sorbent KNiFC-PAN for effective 134 Cs and 137 Cs activity was developed. This sorbent was compared with another type of sorbent NIFSIL and results are presented. The design of this detection system and its possible application in the Slovak wet spent fuel storage facility is discussed. For completeness, the initial results of the new system are also presented. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior of Pile Foundations for Interim Storage Facilities Through Geotechnical Centrifuge Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuo Tsurumaki; Hiroyuki Watanabe; Akira Tateishi; Kenichi Horikoshi; Shunichi Suzuki

    2002-01-01

    In Japan, there is a possibility that interim storage facilities for recycled nuclear fuel resources may be constructed on quaternary layers, rather than on hard rock. In such a case, the storage facilities need to be supported by pile foundations or spread foundations to meet the required safety level. The authors have conducted a series of experimental studies on the dynamic behavior of storage facilities supported by pile foundations. A centrifuge modeling technique was used to satisfy the required similitude between the reduced size model and the prototype. The centrifuge allows a high confining stress level equivalent to prototype deep soils to be generated (which is considered necessary for examining complex pile-soil interactions) as the soil strength and the deformation are highly dependent on the confining stress. The soil conditions were set at as experimental variables, and the results are compared. Since 2000, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has been conducting these research tests under the auspices on the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. (authors)

  7. Taking burnup credit for interim storage and transportation system for BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, K.I.

    2000-01-01

    In the back-end issues of nuclear fuel cycle, selection of reprocessing or one-through is a big issue. For both of the cases, a reasonable interim storage and transportation system is required. This study proposes an advanced practical monitoring and evaluation system. The system features the followings: (l) Storage racks and transportation casks taking credit for burnup. (2) A burnup estimation system using a compact monitor with Cd- Te detectors and fission chambers. (3) A neutron emission-rate evaluation methodology, especially important for high burnup MOX fuels. (4) A nuclear materials management system for safeguards. Current storage system and transport casks are designed on the basis of a fresh fuel assumption. The assumption is too conservative. Taking burnup credit gives a reasonable design while keeping conservatism. In order to establish a reasonable burnup credit design system, a calculation system has been developed for determining isotope compositions, burnup, and criticality. The calculation system consists of some modules such as TGBLA, ORIGEN, CITATION, MCNP and KENO. The TGBLA code is a fuel design code for LWR fuels developed in TOSHIBA Corporation. The code takes operational history such as, power density, void fraction into account. This code is applied to the back-end issues for a more accurate design of a storage and a transportation system. The ORIGEN code is well-known one-point isotope depletion code. In the calculation system, the code calculates isotope compositions using libraries generated from the TGBLA code. The CITATION code, the MCNP code, and the KENO code are three dimensional diffusion code, continuous energy Monte Carlo code, discrete energy Monte Carlo code, respectively. Those codes calculate k- effective of the storage and transportation systems using isotope compositions generated from the ORIGEN code. The CITATION code and the KENO code are usually used for practical designs. The MCNP code is used for reference

  8. 1986 Federal Interim Storage fee study: a technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    JAI examined alternative methods for structuring charges for federal interim storage (FIS) services and concluded that the combined interests of the Department and the users would be best served, and costs most appropriately recovered, by a two-part fee involving an Initial Payment upon execution of a contract for FIS services followed by a Final Payment upon delivery of the spent fuel to the Department. The Initial Payment would be an advance payment covering the pro rata share of preoperational costs, including (1) the capital costs of the required transfer facilities and storage area, (2) development costs, (3) government administrative costs including storage fund management, (4) impact aid payments made in accordance with Section 136(e) of the Act, and (5) module costs (i.e., storage casks, drywells or silos). The Final Payment would be made at the time of delivery of the spent fuel to the Department and would be calculated to cover the sum of the following: (1) any under- or over-estimation in the costs used to calculate the Initial Payment of the fee (including savings due to rod consolidation), and (2) the total estimated cost of operation and decommissioning of the FIS facilities (including government administrative costs, storage fund management and impact aid). The module costs were included in the Initial Payment to preclude the possible need to obtain appropriations for federal funds to support the purchase of the modules in advance of receipt of the Final Payment. Charges for the transport of spent fuel from the reactor site to FIS facilities would be separately assessed at actual cost since these will be specific to each reactor site and destination

  9. Monitoring and Leak testig of wwer-440 fuel assemblies in Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Božik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated monitoring system designed for the Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovské Bohunice bases on the newly designed “cesium detectors” is presented in the paper. Since 1999, leak tests of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by a special leak tightness detection system “Sipping in Pool” delivered by the Framatome-anp with external heating for the precise defects determination. Although this system seems to be very effective, the detection time of all fuel assemblies in one storage pool is too long. Therefore, a new “on-line” detection system, based on the new sorbent NIFSIL for an effective 134Cs and 137Cs activity was developed. The design of this detection system and its application possibility in Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility as well as preliminary results are presented.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic experiment and analysis for interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung Hun

    2011-02-01

    The experimental and numerical studies of interim storages for nuclear spent fuels have been performed to investigate thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the dry storage systems and to propose new methodologies for the analysis and the design. Three separate researches have been performed in the present study: (a) Development of a scaling methodology and thermal-hydraulic experiment of a single spent fuel assembly simulating a dry storage cask: (b) Full-scope simulation of a dry storage cask by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code: (c) Thermal-hydraulic design of a tunnel-type interim storage facility. In the first study, a scaling methodology has been developed to design a scaled-down canister. The scaling was performed in two steps. For the first step, the height of a spent fuel assembly was reduced from full height to half height. In order to consider the effect of height reduction on the natural convection, the scaling law of Ishii and Kataoka (1984) was employed. For the second step, the quantity of spent fuel assemblies was reduced from multiple assemblies to a single assembly. The scaling methodology was validated through the comparison with the experiment of the TN24P cask. The Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT), temperature gradients, and the axial and radial temperature distribution in the nondimensional forms were in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the developed methodology, we have performed a single assembly experiment which was designed to simulate the full scale of the TN24P cask. The experimental data was compared with the CFD calculations. It turns out that their PCTs were less than the maximum allowable temperature for the fuel cladding and that the differences of their PCTs were agreed within 3 .deg. C, which was less than measurement uncertainty. In the second study, the full-scope simulations of the TN24P cask were performed by FLUENT. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the numerical and physical

  11. Scientific basis for storage criteria for interim dry storage of aluminum-clad fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Lam, P.S.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Murphy, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    An engineered system for dry storage of aluminum-clad foreign and domestic research reactor spent fuel owned by the US Department of Energy is being considered to store the fuel up to a nominal period of 40 years prior to ultimate disposition. Scientifically-based criteria for environmental limits to drying and storing the fuels for this system are being developed to avoid excessive degradation in sealed and non-sealed (open to air) dry storage systems. These limits are based on consideration of degradation modes that can cause loss of net section of the cladding, embrittlement of the cladding, distortion of the fuel, or release of fuel and fission products from the fuel/clad system. Potential degradation mechanisms include corrosion mechanisms from exposure to air and/or sources of humidity, hydrogen blistering of the aluminum cladding, distortion of the fuel due to creep, and interdiffusion of the fuel and fission products with the cladding. The aluminum-clad research reactor fuels are predominantly highly-enriched aluminum uranium alloy fuel which is clad with aluminum alloys similar to 1100, 5052, and 6061 aluminum. In the absence of corrodant species, degradation due to creep and diffusion mechanisms limit the maximum fuel storage temperature to 200 C. The results of laboratory scale corrosion tests indicate that this fuel could be stored under air up to 200 C at low relative humidity levels (< 20%) to limit corrosion of the cladding and fuel (exposed to the storage environment through assumed pre-existing pits in the cladding). Excessive degradation of fuels with uranium metal up to 200 C can be avoided if the fuel is sufficiently dried and contained in a sealed system; open storage can be achieved if the temperature is controlled to avoid excessive corrosion even in dry air.

  12. Scale economies in a series of generic interim SNF storage facilities - 15104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a micro-economic, cost-engineering model of a centralized (Generic Interim Storage Facility - GISF) facility to monitor LWR irradiated fuel with particular attention to scale economies (e.g., to compare the likely costs at a power plant site or at regional, national and international facilities). This paper is based on the cost estimates of the Private Fuel Services Facility (PFSF) on the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians' Reservation in Utah, licensed by the US NRC in 2006 to centralize storage of 40.000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) for 20 to 40 years. Assuming movement of the 40.000 MTHM every 40 years to a new facility, the levelized costs are 144 dollars/kg without high security and physical protection, and 208 dollars/kg with high security through 2111 (assuming disposal within a century), or about 0.50 dollars/MWh to 0.75 dollars/MWh depending on the burnup and thermal efficiency of the nuclear power plant. This cost estimate is generalized to explore scale economies for facilities with and without high security and physical protection. There are declining levelized costs with increasing size to 120.000 MTHM without high security, and to 500.000 MTHM with high security, i.e., the higher the level of security, the stronger the economies of scale. (author)

  13. Korean interim storage issues and R and D activities on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Sup Yoon; Seung-Gy Ro; Hyun-Soo Park

    1999-01-01

    Korea has witnessed over a decade of vicissitudes in the issue of radioactive waste management due mainly to the problem of site acquisition. As the major mission of the nation at radioactive waste management programme was to provide a center for disposal of low-level radwaste and for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants, the question of site securing has had a big impact on the implement action of overall programme. The site problem has resulted in, as an aftermath, restructuring of the overall programme for radioactive waste management. Missions of NEMAC (Nuclear Environment Management Center), originally established as a subsidiary of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), for the national programme was dissolved as of the end of last year. Beginning of this year, a new entity NETEC (Nuclear Environment Technology Center) as a subsidiary of KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Co.) has taken over major tasks of the past NEMAC, while the R and D work associated with the past task of NEMAC is transferred back to KAERI. This paper gives a review on the past background which has driven the radioactive waste management in Korea to the current state of the affairs, with special emphasis on R and D activities associated with spent nuclear fuel transportation, handling, and storage. (author)

  14. The determination of the cesium distribution coefficient of the interim storage soil from Abadia de Goias, Go, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficient for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis, etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author) [pt

  15. Safe Use, Storage, and Disposal of Opioid Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a second, unmarked container, then place in the trash. If you are not sure about how to ... by phone or email. Citations Food and Drug Administration. Safe Disposal of Medicines. Accessed 02/13/13 ...

  16. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Hazelwood Interim storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, provides the results for 1992, and discusses applicable environmental standards and requirements with which the results were compared. HISS is located in eastern Missouri in the City of Hazelwood (St. Louis County) and occupies approximately 2.2 ha (5.5 acres). Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), which was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or unplanned contaminant releases as defined in DOE requirements and in the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III of CERCLA.

  17. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for monitoring for radioactive and non-radioactive parameters, summaries of environmental program at HISS, a summary of the results, and the calculated hypothetical radiation dose to the offsite population. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. The US Department of Energy (DOE) began environmental monitoring of HISS in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and subsequent to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP). Contamination at HISS originated from uranium processing work conducted at Mallinckrodt Chemical Works at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) from 1942 through 1957

  18. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Hazelwood, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at HISS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, thorium-230, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards and DCGs are established to protect public health and the environment

  19. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Hazelwood Interim storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, provides the results for 1992, and discusses applicable environmental standards and requirements with which the results were compared. HISS is located in eastern Missouri in the City of Hazelwood (St. Louis County) and occupies approximately 2.2 ha (5.5 acres). Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), which was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or unplanned contaminant releases as defined in DOE requirements and in the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III of CERCLA

  20. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements

  1. Wayne Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the envirormental monitoring program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of WISS and surrounding area began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. WISS is a National Priorities List site. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment

  2. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for radiological and nonradiological monitoring, dose to the offsite population, and summaries of environmental programs at CISS. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Appendix A contains a discussion of the nature of radiation, the way it is measured, and common sources of it. The primary environmental guidelines and limits applicable to CISS are given in US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and mandated by six federal acts: the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Toxic Substances Control Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). DOE began environmental monitoring of CISS in 1984 when DOE was authorized by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to conduct a decontamination research and development program at the site. The site was subsequently assigned to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.S.; Murray, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.

    1998-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final radiological status. The objective of this plan is to describe the methods for obtaining sufficient and valid measurements and analytical data to supplement and verify a radiological profile already established by the Project Remediation Management Contractor (PMC). The plan describes the procedure for obtaining sufficient and valid analytical data on soil samples following remediation of the first layer of the subpile. Samples will be taken from an area of the subpile measuring approximately 30 m by 80 m from which soil has been excavated to a depth of approximately 20 feet to confirm that the soil beneath the excavated area does not exceed radiological guidelines established for the site or chemical regulatory limits for inorganic metals. After the WISS has been fully remediated, the Department of Energy will release it for industrial/commercial land use in accordance with the Record of Decision. This plan provides supplemental instructions to guidelines and procedures established for sampling and analysis activities. Procedures will be referenced throughout this plan as applicable, and are available for review if necessary

  4. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site: Annual site environment report, Calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    The Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) is presently used for the storage of low-level radioactively contaminated soils. Monitoring results show that the HISS is in compliance with DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) and radiation protection standards. During 1985, annual average radon concentrations ranged from 10 to 23% of the DCG. The highest external dose rate at the HISS was 287 mrem/yr. The measured background dose rate for the HISS area is 99 mrem/yr. The highest average annual concentration of uranium in surface water monitored in the vicinity of the HISS was 0.7% of the DOE DCG; for 226 Ra it was 0.3% of the applicable DCG, and for 230 Th it was 1.7%. In groundwater, the highest annual average concentration of uranium was 12% of the DCG; for 226 Ra it was 3.6% of the applicable DCG, and for 230 Th it was 1.8%. While there are no concentration guides for stream sediments, the highest concentration of total uranium was 19 pCi/g, the highest concentration of 226 Ra was 4 pCi/g, and the highest concentration of 230 Th was 300 pCi/g. Radon concentrations, external gamma dose rates, and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater at the site were lower than those measured in 1984; radionuclide concentrations in surface water were roughly equivalent to 1984 levels. For sediments, a meaningful comparison with 1984 concentrations cannot be made since samples were obtained at only two locations and were only analyzed for 230 Th. The calculated radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual at the HISS, considering several exposure pathways, was 5.4 mrem, which is 5% of the radiation protection standard

  5. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the 105-C Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, T. E.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides a plan for implementing surveillance and maintenance activities to ensure that the 105-C Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure is maintained in a safe, environmentally secure, and cost-effective manner until subsequent closure during the final disposition phase of decommissioning

  6. Safe operation of a batch reactor: Safe storage of organic peroxides in supply vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Steensma, Metske; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the limits of safe operation for a cooled reactor, operated batchwise. As an example of a single-phase reaction, we studied the decomposition of t-butyl peroxypivalate, a well-known organic peroxide, undergoing self-heating at relatively low temperatures. If

  7. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at CISS began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CISS property and surrounding areas were radioactively contaminated by operations conducted by National Lead Industries, which manufactured various components from uranium and thorium from 1958 to 1984. The environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. In 1992 the program will also include sampling networks for radioactive and chemical contaminants in stormwater to meet permit application requirements under the Clean Water Act. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE.orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that average concentrations of radioactive contaminants of concern were well below applicable standards and DCGS. Concentrations of some chemical contaminants in groundwater were above-the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (Class GA) and EPA guidelines for drinking water. The potential annual radiation exposure (excluding background) calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual is 0.23 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man), which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters (39,000 feet) for one hour

  8. [How to construct a safe storage environment for hospital informations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Zhou, Qing-li

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the methods of building a safe environment for the hospital information system, and protecting data in three levels. Firstly it is recommended to build a highly efficient and redundant hot spare system for program applications and the database, secondly to make a copy of log file from the current database to the emergent server used for the whole hospital is suggested,finally another emergent server should be provided for the outpatient department. And thus, once there are some problems with the whole network, it would undertake the urgent services of the hospital as an outpatient network.

  9. Nuclear cost studies for decontamination and dismantling. The interim storage for spent fuels at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Sjoeoe, Cecilia; Lindskog, Staffan; Cato, Anna

    2005-05-01

    The interim store for spent fuel (FA) at Studsvik was designed and constructed in 1962-64. It has been used for wet storage of fuel from the Aagesta Nuclear Power Plant as well as the R2 reactor at Studsvik. FA comprises three cylindrical pools for fuel storage as well as equipment for handling and decontamination. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology for calculation of future costs for decontamination and dismantling of nuclear research facilities. The analysis is based on information from Studsvik as well as results from information searches. The requirements on precision of cost calculations is high, also at early stages. The reason for this is that the funds are to be collected now but are to be used some time in the future. At the same time they should neither be insufficient nor superfluous. It is apparent from the compilation and analysis that when methodology that has been developed for the purpose of cost calculations for power reactors is applied to research facilities certain drawbacks become apparent, e.g. difficulties to carry out variation analyses. Generally, feedback of data on incurred costs for the purpose of cost calculations can be achieved by using one or more scaling factors together with weighing factors which are established based on e g expert judgement. For development and utilisation of such tools it is necessary to have access to estimated costs together with incurred ones. In the report, the following combination of aspects is identified as being of primary significance for achieving a high precision: Calculations with the possibility to 'calibrate' against incurred costs; Radiological surveying tailored to the needs for calculations; Technical planning including selection of techniques to be used; Identification of potential sources for systematic deviations. In the case of FA, some of the sources of uncertainty are as follows: Damaged surface layers in the pools; Maintenance status for the drains; Radiological

  10. Construction of an interim storage field using recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Field performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Kolisoja, Pauli

    2017-06-01

    The leaching of hazardous substances from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) has been studied in many different scales for several years. Less attention has been given to the mechanical performance of MSWI BA in actual civil engineering structures. The durability of structures built with this waste derived material can have major influence on the functional properties of such structures and also the potential leaching of hazardous substances in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to properly evaluate in which type of structures MSWI BA can be safely used in a similar way as natural and crushed rock aggregates. In the current study, MSWI BA treated with ADR (Advance Dry Recovery) technology was used in the structural layers of an interim storage field built within a waste treatment centre. During and half a year after the construction, the development of technical and mechanical properties of BA materials and the built structures were investigated. The aim was to compare these results with the findings of laboratory studies in which the same material was previously investigated. The field results showed that the mechanical performance of recovered BA corresponds to the performance of natural aggregates in the lower structural layers of field structures. Conversely, the recovered MSWI BA cannot be recommended to be used in the base layers as such, even though its stiffness properties increased over time due to material aging and changes in moisture content. The main reason for this is that BA particles are prone for crushing and therefore inadequate to resist the higher stresses occurring in the upper parts of road and field structures. These results were in accordance with the previous laboratory findings. It can thus be concluded that the recovered MSWI BA is durable to be used as a replacement of natural aggregates especially in the lower structural layers of road and field structures, whereas if used in the base layers, an additional base

  11. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is located in the 200 East Area adjacent to B Plant on the Hanford Site north of Richland, Washington. The current WESF mission is to receive and store the cesium and strontium capsules that were manufactured at WESF in a safe manner and in compliance with all applicable rules and regulations. The scope of WESF operations is currently limited to receipt, inspection, decontamination, storage, and surveillance of capsules in addition to facility maintenance activities. The capsules are expected to be stored at WESF until the year 2017, at which time they will have been transferred for ultimate disposition. The WESF facility was designed and constructed to process, encapsulate, and store the extracted long-lived radionuclides, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, from wastes generated during the chemical processing of defense fuel on the Hanford Site thus ensuring isolation of hazardous radioisotopes from the environment. The construction of WESF started in 1971 and was completed in 1973. Some of the 137 Cs capsules were leased by private irradiators or transferred to other programs. All leased capsules have been returned to WESF. Capsules transferred to other programs will not be returned except for the seven powder and pellet Type W overpacks already stored at WESF

  12. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is located in the 200 East Area adjacent to B Plant on the Hanford Site north of Richland, Washington. The current WESF mission is to receive and store the cesium and strontium capsules that were manufactured at WESF in a safe manner and in compliance with all applicable rules and regulations. The scope of WESF operations is currently limited to receipt, inspection, decontamination, storage, and surveillance of capsules in addition to facility maintenance activities. The capsules are expected to be stored at WESF until the year 2017, at which time they will have been transferred for ultimate disposition. The WESF facility was designed and constructed to process, encapsulate, and store the extracted long-lived radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, from wastes generated during the chemical processing of defense fuel on the Hanford Site thus ensuring isolation of hazardous radioisotopes from the environment. The construction of WESF started in 1971 and was completed in 1973. Some of the {sup 137}Cs capsules were leased by private irradiators or transferred to other programs. All leased capsules have been returned to WESF. Capsules transferred to other programs will not be returned except for the seven powder and pellet Type W overpacks already stored at WESF.

  13. Lessons learned from commercial experience with nuclear plant decontamination to safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.R.; Partain, W.L.; Sype, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has successfully performed decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) on many production reactors it. DOE now has the challenge of performing D ampersand D on a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe-storage status before conducting D ampersand D-for perhaps as much as 20 yr. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and transition to D ampersand D. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this paper are directly applicable to transitioning the DOE Weapons Complex

  14. Model environmental assessment for a property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action at a formerly utilized site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1982-07-01

    This document has been prepared as a model for the preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) for a property-cleanup/interim-storage type of remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). For major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) must be prepared to aid DOE in making its decision. However, when it is not clear that an action is major and the impacts are significant, an EA may be prepared to determine whether to prepare an EIS or a finding of no significant impact (FONSI). If it is likely that an action may be major and the impacts significant, it is usually more cost-effective and timely to directly prepare an EIS. If it is likely that a FONSI can be reached after some environmental assessment, as DOE believes may be the case for most property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial actions, preparation of site-specific EAs is an effective means of compliance with NEPA

  15. Calculation of radiation exposure of the environment of interim storage facilities for the dry storage of spent fuel in dual-purpose casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wortmann, B.; Stratmann, W.

    2004-01-01

    Acceptance problems in the public concerning the transport of spent nuclear fuel elements and a new political objective of the Federal Government have forced the German utilities to embark on on-site interim storage projects for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel elements. STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen, Germany, was awarded contracts for the conceptual planning including necessary shielding calculations for the majority of the 13 nuclear sites which opted for the dry storage concept. The capacity of the storage facilities ranges from 80 to 100 casks, according to the storage needs of the plants. The average dose rate at the surface of each cask was limited to 0.5 mSv/h, independent of the type of radiation. These new buildings should not significantly increase the exposure of the public to radiation already originating from the existing nuclear power plant. The layout of the storage building therefore has to ensure that additional target values of 10-20 Sv/y are not exceeded. These very low target values as well as the requirement to avoid high mechanical impacts to the casks in case of external events led to a thickness of walls and ceilings of between 1.2 m and 1.3 m. To remove the decay heat from the casks by natural convection sufficient cross sections of the air inlet and outlet ducts are required

  16. The probabilistic risk analysis of external hazards of an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukka, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Due to natural disasters occurred in the world and the experiences perceived of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the particular knowledge of the role and influence of external hazards in the safety of interim storage of spent nuclear fuel has been emphasized. For that reason it is substantial that they are included in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the interim storage facility. This is also required by the Regulatory Guides issued by The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. To enhance safety culture and nuclear safety in Olkiluoto, The Finnish utility Teollisuuden Voima Oyj has recently completed an analysis of external natural (seismic events are studied as a separate analysis) and unintentional human-induced risks associated with the spent fuel pool cooling and decay heat removal systems as part of the full-scope PRA study for the interim storage of spent fuel (KPA store). The analysis had four goals to achieve: (1) to determine the definition of an initiating event in the context of the KPA store, (2) to identify all potential external hazards and hazard combinations, (3) to perform a qualitative screening analysis based on frequency-strength analysis and detailed plant responses analysis and (4) to model the hazards passed the screening analysis so that model can be used as a risk analysis tool in the risk informed decision making and operating procedures. The assessment carried out included the analysis of operation procedures of decay heat removal, the study of external hazards related initiating events included in the PRA of the OL1 and OL2 nuclear power plants and their dependencies on the initiating events of the KPA store. All external hazards related initiating events were modeled using fault tree linking method. The main result and conclusion of this study was that using the screening analysis, initiating events caused by external hazards that could lead to leakage of the spent fuel pools or that could pose a threat to the

  17. Gamma dose rate calculations for conceptual design of a shield system for spent fuel interim dry storage in CNA 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, A; Gomez S

    2012-01-01

    After completing the rearrangement of the Spent Fuel Elements (SFE) into a compact arrangement in the two storage water pools, Atucha Nuclear Reactor 1 (ANR 1) will leave free position for the wet storage of the SFE discharged until December 2014. Even, in two possible scenarios, such as extending operation from 2015 or the cessation of operation after that date, it will be necessary to empty the interim storage water pools transferring the SFE to a temporary dry storage system. Because the law 25.018 'Management of Radioactive Wastes' implies for the first scenario - operation beyond 2015 - that Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. will still be in charge of the dry storage system and for the second - the cessation of operation after 2015 - the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) will be in charge by the National Management Program of Radioactive Wastes, the interim dry storage system of SNF is an issue of common interest which justifies go forward together. For that purpose and in accordance with the criticality and shielding calculations relevant to the project, in this paper we present the dose rate calculations for shielding conceptual design of a system for dry interim storage of the SFE of ANR 1. The specifications includes that the designed system must be suitable without modification for the SFE of the ANR 2. The results for the calculation of the photon dose rate, in touch and at one meter far, for the Transport Module and the Container of the SFE, are presented, which are required and controlled by the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It was used the SAS4 module of SCALE5.1 system and MCNP5. As a design tool for the photon shielding in order to meet current standards for allowable dose rates, a radial and axial parametric analysis were developed based on the thickness of lead of the Transport Module. The results were compared and verified between the two computing systems. Before this

  18. Payment charges for federal interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from civilian nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the study conducted by the Department of Energy (the Department) regarding payment charges for the federal interim storage (FIS) of spent fuel and presents the study results. It describes the methodology proposed for calculating the FIS fee schedule, provides a range of estimates for the fee, and describes a proposed method of payment. The fee is structured for a range of spent fuel capacities because of uncertainties regarding the schedule of availability and amount of spent fuel that may require and qualify for FIS. The Department is currently determining how best to provide FIS for commercial spent fuel, and it expects to publish in the Federal Register a fee schedule to be effective on or before January 1, 1984. An additional report to Congress describing specific plans for deploying FIS facilities will be provided by January 7, 1984, in accordance with the requirements of the Act. 3 references, 3 tables

  19. Criticality and shielding calculations of an interim dry storage system for the spent fuel from Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M

    2006-01-01

    The Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (CNA-I) has enough room to store its spent fuel (SF) in damp in its two pool houses until the middle of 2015.Before that date there is the need to have an interim dry storage system for spent fuel that would make possible to empty at least one of the pools, whether to keep the plant operating if its useful life is extended, or to be able to empty the reactor core in case of decommissioning.Nucleolectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), due to their joint responsibility in the management of the SF, have proposed interim dry storage systems.These systems have to be evaluated in order to choose one of them by the end of 2006.In this work the Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to make the criticality and shielding calculations corresponding to the model proposed by CNEA.This model suggests the store of sealed containers with 36 or 37 SF in concrete modules.Each one of the containers is filled in the pool houses and transported to the module in a transference cask with lead walls.The results of the criticality calculations indicates that the solutions of SF proposed have widely fulfilled the requirements of subcriticality, even in supposed extreme accidental situations.Regarding the transference cask, the SF dose rate estimations allow us to make a feedback for the design aiming to the geometry and shielding improvements.Regarding the store modules, thicknesses ranges of concrete walls are suggested in order to fulfill the dose requirements stated by the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Argentina [es

  20. Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne, Daniele; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards. The acute emergency survey (442 households) was conducted within 8 weeks of emergency onset; the recovery survey (218 households) was conducted 10 months after onset. Effective use varied by HWTS product (from 8% to 63% of recipients in the acute phase and from 0% to 46% of recipients in the recovery phase). Higher rates of effective use were associated with programs that were underway in Haiti before the emergency, had a plan at initial distribution for program continuation, and distributed products with community health worker support and a safe storage container.

  1. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  2. Inherently safe aircooling for the storage of self-heating configurations of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hame, W.; Klein, D.; Pirk, H.

    1980-01-01

    NUKEM developed a technical concept of a radionuclide storage facility based on aircooling, which provides that - the radionuclides, i.e. spent fuel elements, are tightly canned in steel canisters - the canned elements are put into individual cooling channels, which form the storage rack within the storage cell - the produced heat is removed from the surface of the canisters through free convection. This cooling concept shows the following advantages: - The cooling is inherently safe, as the driving force of the coolant is reliably supplied by the heat production of the system to be cooled. - The system is self-controlled and self-regulated because of the physically based correlation of heat production, heat transfer coefficients and air flow resistances. (orig.) 891 RB/orig. 892 MKO [de

  3. Environmental permits and approvals plan for high-level waste interim storage, Project W-464

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report discusses the Permitting Plan regarding NEPA, SEPA, RCRA, and other regulatory standards and alternatives, for planning the environmental permitting of the Canister Storage Building, Project W-464

  4. Environmental permits and approvals plan for high-level waste interim storage, Project W-464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1998-05-28

    This report discusses the Permitting Plan regarding NEPA, SEPA, RCRA, and other regulatory standards and alternatives, for planning the environmental permitting of the Canister Storage Building, Project W-464.

  5. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an In-Service Interim Storage System at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2016-10-01

    In July, 2016, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners performed a field test at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site, located near Wiscasset, Maine. The primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of an in-service interim storage canister within an overpack; however, as part of the demonstration, dust and soluble salt samples were collected from horizontal surfaces within the interim storage system. The storage system is a vertical system made by NAC International, consisting of a steel-lined concrete overpack containing a 304 stainless steel (SS) welded storage canister. The canister did not contain spent fuel but rather greater-than-class-C waste, which did not generate significant heat, limiting airflow through the storage system. The surfaces that were sampled for deposits included the top of the shield plug, the side of the canister, and a shelf at the bottom of the overpack, just below the level of the pillar on which the canister sits. The samples were sent to Sandia National Laboratories for analysis. This report summarizes the results of those analyses. Because the primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of the canister within the overpack, collection of dust samples was carried out in a qualitative fashion, using paper filters and sponges as the sampling media. The sampling focused mostly on determining the composition of soluble salts present in the dust. It was anticipated that a wet substrate would more effectively extract soluble salts from the surface that was sampled, so both the sponges and the filter paper were wetted prior to being applied to the surface of the metal. Sampling was accomplished by simply pressing the damp substrate against the metal surface for two minutes, and then removing it. It is unlikely that the sampling method quantitatively collected dust or salts from the metal surface; however, both substrates did extract a

  6. Interim nuclear spent fuel storage facility - From complete refusal to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacena, Michal

    1998-01-01

    Full text: As usual in P.R., there was a complicated, politically sensitive situation we had to face at the beginning and it wasn't easy to create the right P.R. programme with the right targets: CEZ needed a new storage facility for the nuclear spent fuel from its two NPPs - Dukovany and Temelin. Firstly, CEZ preferred to build an on-site facility for the Dukovany NPP to last until the year 2004; secondly, a facility for the Temelin NPP several years later. But the Czech Government decided to limit Dukovany's storage capacity during a public discussion in 1992. Therefore, at the end of 1993, CEZ started the site selection process for a central storage facility targeted at ten regions in the country. In P.R. we decided on two main goals: 1. To gain public acceptance of a central storage facility at least at one site, and hopefully at more. 2. To change public opinion (especially around the Dukovany NPP) in order to create the proper atmosphere for changing the government's decision to limit storage capacity. We wanted to prove that we could choose the fight technical and economical solution without political limits. This obviously presented a challenge as it would be problematic for CEZ to be very visible in the campaign: We wanted people to know that the government had made a bad decision, but we also had to make it clear that our objections were based not on questions of momentary corporate advantage but instead on solid technical grounds. Most would only see self interest. We wanted to show them the facts. Of course, some times it wasn't easy to hit both targets at the same time. There was a lot of hard work in the middle. We gained new experience and we learned a lot trying to get public confidence in nuclear safety, in our company's reliability and in some local profits for a storage site: Firstly none of those regions was excited by the idea o a storage facility in its backyard. Most of them were very strongly and actively against it and did not want to

  7. On the pathway towards disposal. The need for long-term interim storage of high-level nuclear waste; Auf dem Weg in die Endlagerung. Die Notwendigkeit der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung hoch radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budelmann, Harald; Koehnke, Dennis; Reichardt, Manuel [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Baustoffe, Massivbau und Brandschutz; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (FFU)

    2017-09-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a still unsolved problem with social, ethical, economical, ecological and political dimensions. The stagnating decision process on the final repository concept in several countries has the consequence of the inclusion of long-term interim storage into the disposal concept. The contribution discusses several approaches. This opens the question whether the long-term interim storage is a matter of delaying tactic or a pragmatic solution on the way to a final repository.

  8. Assessment of the Electrical Power Requirements for Continued Safe Storage and Waste Feed Delivery Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-04-07

    This study evaluated the ability of the electrical distribution system to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the electrical system. The ability to assure adequate Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) to the Privatization Contractor's vitrification facility is a key element in the overall Hanford cleanup schedule. An important aspect of this WFD is the availability of sufficient and appropriate electrical power in the single- and double-shell tank farms. The methodology for performing this review and the results are described.

  9. Access: A Study of Information Storage and Retrieval with Emphasis on Library Information Systems. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnikoff, H. L.; Dolby, J. L.

    Chapter I: "Introduction and Summary of Results," stresses the view that the problem of insufficient access is primarily a problem of the great size of the archives to which access is desired. Chapter II: "Levels of Information Storage and Access," is directed toward the problems of library archives and in this context it is access to the content…

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Interim Status Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located within the 234-52 Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based upon Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit manages transuranic mixed (TRUM) waste, there are many controls placed on management of the waste. Based on the many controls placed on management of TRUM waste, releases of TRUM waste are not anticipated to occur in the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will be operated to immobilize and/or repackage plutonium-bearing waste in a glovebox process. The waste to be processed is in a solid physical state (chunks and coarse powder) and will be sealed into and out of the glovebox in closed containers. The containers of immobilized waste will be stored in the glovebox and in additional permitted storage locations at PFP. The waste will be managed to minimize the potential for spills outside the glovebox, and to preclude spills from reaching soil. Containment surfaces will be maintained to ensure

  11. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 868 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and provides the results for 1992. The fenced, site, 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Newark, New Jersey, was used between 1948 and 1971 for commercial processing of monazite sand to separate natural radioisotopes - predominantly thorium. Environmental surveillance of WISS began in 1984 in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 when Congress added the site to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The environmental surveillance program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, total uranium, and several chemicals in surface water and sediment; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and organic and inorganic chemicals in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. This monitoring program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results for environmental surveillance in 1992 show that the concentrations of all radioactive and most chemical contaminants were below applicable standards

  12. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

  13. Report on the performance monitoring system for the interim waste containment at the Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) is an interim storage site for low-level radioactive waste, established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Lewiston, New York. The waste containment structure for encapsulating low-level radioactive waste at the NFSS has been designed to minimize infiltration of rainfall, prevent pollution of groundwater, preclude formation of leachate, and prevent radon emanation. Accurately determining the performance of the main engineered elements of the containment structure will be important in establishing confidence in the ability of the structure to retain the wastes. For this purpose, a waste containment performance monitoring system has been developed to verify that these elements are functioning as intended. The key objective of the performance monitoring system is the early detection of trends that could be indicative of weaknesses developing in the containment structure so that corrective action can be taken before the integrity of the structure is compromised. Consequently, subsurface as well as surface monitoring techniques will be used. After evaluating several types of subsurface instrumentation, it was determined that vibrating wire pressure transducers, in combination with surface monitoring techniques, would satisfactorily monitor the parameters of concern, such as water accumulation inside the containment facility, waste settlement, and shrinkage of the clay cover. Surface monitoring will consist of topographic surveys based on predetermined gridlines, walkover surveys, and aerial photography to detect vegetative stress or other changes not evident at ground level. This report details the objectives of the performance monitoring system, identifies the elements of the containment design whose performance will be monitored, describes the monitoring system recommended, and outlines the costs associated with the monitoring system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Report on the performance monitoring system for the interim waste containment at the Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) is an interim storage site for low-level radioactive waste, established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Lewiston, New York. The waste containment structure for encapsulating low-level radioactive waste at the NFSS has been designed to minimize infiltration of rainfall, prevent pollution of groundwater, preclude formation of leachate, and prevent radon emanation. Accurately determining the performance of the main engineered elements of the containment structure will be important in establishing confidence in the ability of the structure to retain the wastes. For this purpose, a waste containment performance monitoring system has been developed to verify that these elements are functioning as intended. The key objective of the performance monitoring system is the early detection of trends that could be indicative of weaknesses developing in the containment structure so that corrective action can be taken before the integrity of the structure is compromised. Consequently, subsurface as well as surface monitoring techniques will be used. After evaluating several types of subsurface instrumentation, it was determined that vibrating wire pressure transducers, in combination with surface monitoring techniques, would satisfactorily monitor the parameters of concern, such as water accumulation inside the containment facility, waste settlement, and shrinkage of the clay cover. Surface monitoring will consist of topographic surveys based on predetermined gridlines, walkover surveys, and aerial photography to detect vegetative stress or other changes not evident at ground level. This report details the objectives of the performance monitoring system, identifies the elements of the containment design whose performance will be monitored, describes the monitoring system recommended, and outlines the costs associated with the monitoring system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Safe storage of methadone in the home - an audit of the effectiveness of safety information giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuley Rosanna

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental poisoning by methadone occurs, particularly as a result of children ingesting a parent's methadone. Health care professionals have a responsibility to provide information and guidance to methadone users on safe storage of methadone. The objective of the study was to audit the effectiveness of information giving on the safety of methadone consumption, dose measurement and storage, and the effectiveness of sources of advice available for patients. Methods The study was undertaken prior to the introduction of a scheme for the supervised consumption of methadone, in the setting of an NHS Methadone clinic serving a district population of 490,000 in the UK. 185 consecutive patients attending a methadone clinic to collect a methadone prescription were the subject of an anonymous survey. Issues of safety of methadone consumption, storage and safety information provisions were assessed. A telephone survey of the community pharmacists dispensing the methadone covered the availability of measuring devices and provision of advice on safety was undertaken. Results Methadone was stored in a variety of locations, a cupboard being most frequent. 95 patients (60.1% had children either living in or visiting their home. All stored their methadone in a bottle with a child resistant lid; the majority measured doses using either the container supplied by the pharmacist or a plastic measure. 126 patients (78% confirmed that a pharmacist provided a measuring container on their first visit, 24 (15% were given a measure on every visit to the pharmacist. Advice on safe storage was recalled by 30% of the patients, and advice on measuring methadone by 28%. Methadone was seen as potentially dangerous by 82% of the patients. Conclusion The risks resulting from unsafe storage of methadone may be reduced by daily instalment prescribing and provision of measuring containers on request. Recall of provision of information on safety issues is poor and

  16. Calculation of axial hydrogen redistribution on the spent fuels during interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    One of the phenomena that will affect fuel integrity during a spent fuel dry storage is a hydrogen axial migration in cladding. If there is a hydrogen pickup in cladding in reactor operation, hydrogen will move from hotter to colder cladding region in the axial direction under fuel temperature gradient during dry storage. Then hydrogen beyond solubility limit in colder region will be precipitated as hydride, and consequently hydride embrittlement may take place in the cladding. In this study, hydrogen redistribution experiments were carried out to obtain the data related to hydrogen axial migration by using actually twenty years dry (air) stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods of which burn-ups were 31 and 58 MWd/kg HM. From the hydrogen redistribution experiments, the heat of transport of hydrogen of zircaloy-4 cladding from twenty years dry stored spent PWR-UO 2 fuel rods were from 10.1 to 18.6 kcal/mol and they were significantly larger than that of unirradiated zircaloy-4 cladding. This means that hydrogen in irradiated cladding can move easier than that in unirradiated cladding. In the hydrogen redistribution experiments, hydrogen diffusion coefficients and solubility limit were also obtained. There are few differences in the diffusion coefficients and solubility limits between the irradiated cladding and unirradiated cladding. The hydrogen redistribution in the cladding after dry storage for forty years was evaluated by one-dimensional diffusion calculation using the measured values. The maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the irradiated cladding and various spent fuel temperature profiles reported were used in the calculation. The axial hydrogen migration was not significant after dry storage for forty years in helium atmosphere and the maximum values as the heat of transports, diffusion coefficients and solubility limits of the unirradiated cladding gave conservative evaluation for hydrogen redistribution

  17. 1985 Federal Interim Storage Fee Study: a technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    JAI examined alternative methods for structuring charges for FIS services and concluded that the combined interests of the Deaprtment and the users would be best served, and costs most appropriately recovered, by a two-part fee involving an Initial Payment upon execution of a contract for FIS services followed by a Final Payment upon delivery of the spent fuel to the Department. The Initial Payment would be an advance payment covering the pro rata share of preoperational costs, including (1) the capital costs of the required transfer facilities and storage area, (2) development costs, (3) government administrative costs including storage fund management, (4) impact aid payments made in accordance with section 136(e) of the Act, and (5) module costs (i.e., storage casks, drywells or silos). The Final Payment would be made at the time of delivery of the spent fuel to the Department and would be calculated to cover the sum of the following: (1) any under-or over-estimation in the costs used to calculate the Initial Payment of the fee (including savings due to rod consolidation), and (2) the total estimated cost of operation and decommissioning of the FIS facilities (including government administrative costs, storage fund management and impact aid). The module costs were included in the Initial Payment to preclude the possible need to obtain appropriations for federal funds to support the purchase of the modules in advance of receipt of the Final Payment. Charges for the transport of spent fuel from the reactor site to FIS facilities would be separately assessed at actual cost since these will be specific to each reactor site and destination

  18. State gun safe storage laws and child mortality due to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, P; Grossman, D C; Rivara, F P; Koepsell, T D

    1997-10-01

    Since 1989, several states have passed laws that make gun owners criminally liable if someone is injured because a child gains unsupervised access to a gun. These laws are controversial, and their effect on firearm-related injuries is unknown. To determine if state laws that require safe storage of firearms are associated with a reduction in child mortality due to firearms. An ecological study of firearm mortality from 1979 through 1994. All 50 states and the District of Columbia. All children younger than 15 years. Unintentional deaths, suicides, and homicides due to firearms. Laws that make gun owners responsible for storing firearms in a manner that makes them inaccessible to children were in effect for at least 1 year in 12 states from 1990 through 1994. Among children younger than 15 years, unintentional shooting deaths were reduced by 23% (95% confidence interval, 6%-37%) during the years covered by these laws. This estimate was based on within-state comparisons adjusted for national trends in unintentional firearm-related mortality. Gun-related homicide and suicide showed modest declines, but these were not statistically significant. State safe storage laws intended to make firearms less accessible to children appear to prevent unintentional shooting deaths among children younger than 15 years.

  19. An information management system for a spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, Robert J.; Chiu, Hsien-Lang (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei, 10016 Taiwan); Giles, Todd; Horak, Karl Emanuel; Jow, Hong-Nian (Jow International, Kirkland, WA)

    2010-12-01

    We describe an integrated information management system for an independent spent fuel dry-storage installation (ISFSI) that can provide for (1) secure and authenticated data collection, (2) data analysis, (3) dissemination of information to appropriate stakeholders via a secure network, and (4) increased public confidence and support of the facility licensing and operation through increased transparency. This information management system is part of a collaborative project between Sandia National Laboratories, Taiwan Power Co., and the Fuel Cycle Materials Administration of Taiwan's Atomic Energy Council, which is investigating how to implement this concept.

  20. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI

  1. A regulatory view of the long term passively safe storage of radioactive waste in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.; Mason, D.; Blakeway, S.; Snaith, C.

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate's (NII) regulation of radioactive waste management, and in particular the arrangements for long term safe storage, on nuclear licensed sites in the United Kingdom (UK). The refusal of planning permission for an underground rock characterisation facility near Sellafield has effectively delayed the availability of a future disposal facility for intermediate level waste (ILW) in the UK. At the same time it has become increasingly clear that the public favours the alternative concept of long term storage of radioactive waste rather than underground disposal. While these circumstances do not cause any immediate safety problems, nuclear operators in the UK must now plan to store radioactive waste for many decades in the future pending the development of a long term solution. In response to this developing situation, NII has been considering the factors it will take into account in examining the adequacy of nuclear operators' arrangements for the future long term storage of radioactive waste, and reference is made to guidance in the field of radioactive waste management which NII is currently developing for use by it's inspectors and assessors and for the information of other interested organisations or individuals. NII's fundamental requirements are for the production of radioactive wastes to be minimised and either disposed of or, if this is not practicable, stored in conditions of passive safety. A set of engineering principles that describe how passive safety may be achieved in practice is presented. (author)

  2. Radioprotection considerations on the expansion project of an interim storage facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Suzuki, Fabio F.; Dellamano, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management (GRR) of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) receives, treats, packs, characterizes and stores institutional radioactive wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP and also those received from several radiological facilities in the country. The current storage areas have been used to store the treated radioactive waste since the early 1980's and their occupation is close to their full capacity, so a storage area expansion is needed. The expansion project includes the rebuilding of two sheds and the enlargement of the third one in the area currently occupied by the GRR and in a small adjacent area. The civil works will be in controlled area, where the waste management operations will be maintained, so all the steps of this project should be planned and optimized, from the radioprotection point of view. The civil construction will be made in steps. During the project implementation there will be transfer operations of radioactive waste packages to the rebuilt area. After these transfer operations, the civil works will proceed in the vacant areas. This project implies on radiological monitoring, dose control of the involved workers, decontamination and clearance of areas and it is also envisaged the need for repacking of some radioactive waste. The objective this paper is to describe the radioprotection study developed to this expansion project, taking into account the national radioprotection and civil construction regulations. (author)

  3. Project B-589, 300 Area transuranic waste interim storage project engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to look at various alternatives of taking newly generated, remote-handled transuranic waste (caisson waste) in the 300 Area, performing necessary transloading operations and preparing the waste for storage. The prepared waste would then be retrieved when the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant becomes operational and transshipped to the repository in New Mexico with a minimum of inspection and packaging. The scope of this study consisted of evaluating options for the transloading of the TRU wastes for shipment to a 200 Area storage site. Preconceptual design information furnished as part of the engineering study is listed below: produce a design for a clean, sealed waste canister; hot cell loadout system for the waste; in-cell loading or handling equipment; determine transshipment cask options; determine assay system requirements (optional); design or specify transport equipment required; provide a SARP cost estimate; determine operator training requirements; determine waste compaction equipment needs if desirable; develop a cost estimate and approximate schedule for a workable system option; and update the results presented in WHC Document TC-2025

  4. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: Boxes with a lock, to be used for the in-house safe storage of pesticides, were distributed to 200......BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning by agricultural pesticides is a well established global public health problem. Keeping pesticides under safe storage is now promoted as a potential way to reduce the number of severe poisoning cases. However, there have been no published studies documenting...... randomly selected farming households in two agricultural communities. A baseline survey determined pesticide storage practices and household characteristics prior to distribution. The selected households were encouraged to make use of the box at community meetings and during a single visit to each...

  5. EdF speaks about economic advantages of fuel reprocessing as compared with interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The French company Electricite de France (EdF) will prefer nuclear fuel reprocessing and plutonium recycling to spent fuel storage also in the years after 2000. This option is economically advantageous if the proportional cost of reprocessing does not exceed 1900 FRF/kg heavy metal. Economic analysis shows that this is feasible. EdF will soon have to reprocess annually about 1000 Mt spent fuel to supply enough plutonium for MOX fuel fabrication to feed as many as 28 PWR units and the Superphenix reactor. Spent fuel reprocessing is seen as promising as long as the efficiency of the MOX fuel approaches that of natural uranium based fuel. The French national industrial, political and legal context of EdF operations is also considered. (P.A.)

  6. BE (fuel element)/ZL (interim storage facility) module. Constituents of the fuel BE data base for BE documentation with respect to the disposal planning and the support of the BE container storage administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, V.; Deutsch, S.; Busch, V.; Braun, A.

    2012-01-01

    The securing of spent fuel element disposal from German nuclear power plants is the main task of GNS. This includes the container supply and the disposal analysis and planning. Therefore GNS operates a data base comprising all in Germany implemented fuel elements and all fuel element containers in interim storage facilities. With specific program modules the data base serves an optimized repository planning for all spent fuel elements from German NPPS and the supply of required data for future final disposal. The data base has two functional models: the BE (fuel element) and the ZL (interim storage) module. The contribution presents the data structure of the modules and details of the data base operation.

  7. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program: Wayne Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Wayne, New Jersey, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Township of Wayne, New Jersey. The WISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive material remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy. As part of the decontamination research and development decontamination program authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action is being conducted at the site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National, Inc., Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the WISS measures radon and thoron gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium, radium, and thorium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/y) and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, this individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1% of the DOE radiation protection standard. By comparison, the average American receives a dose of 1 mrem/y from watching color television. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km radius of the WISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the WISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 22 refs., 8 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  9. Water Quality Analysis Study Pond and Interim Storage for Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyah Sulistyani R; Husen Zamroni; Sudiyati

    2007-01-01

    Purification system of Storage facility of spent fuel which there is in Indonesia is integrated purification system. Reservoir pond of fuel contains approximately 995 m 3 demin water and in pond equipped with some of reservoir racks of spent fuel which must always avoid from factor-factor causing corrosion. In process of this purification system, water impurity which has been activation and also which is not is activation before will filtered and catch by passing of ion exchange so that will reduce conductivity and fuel coolant water activity. Water quality pond and canals links must fulfill specifications, among other: degree of acidity (pH) primary cooling water ranges from 5.5 and 6.5 ; its conductivity 1 - 8 μ S/cm, content analysis CI 0.03 - 0.06 ppm and NO 3 0.1 - 0.2 ppm, radionuclide activity Cs 137 742 Bq/l and Co 60 657 Bq/l and the temperature be kept of less than 40℃ to avoid from corrosion speed. (author)

  10. Gun control and suicide: possible impact of Canadian legislation to ensure safe storage of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Canadian Firearms Act aimed at ensuring safe storage of firearms was promulgated. This study compares suicide methods 6 years prior to the enactment of the law and 5 years after its enactment. The study encompassed 426 suicide cases from Abitibi-Témiscamingue (Northern Quebec), the region with the highest suicide rate and the highest firearm suicide rate in Quebec. Suicide by firearms decreased in the male and female population. Suicide by hanging increased among youths of both sexes, and suicide by poisoning doubled in the female population. A decrease in firearm suicides was most noticeable in the under-25 age group, although it was in this same age group that the general suicide rate increased the most. The reduction of firearm suicides was not accompanied by a decrease in overall suicide rates.

  11. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised of boron trioxide and sassolite (H3BO3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.

  12. Word protocol of the public hearing concerning the projected interim storage facility at Ahaus, June 21-29, 1983. Pt. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    According to the procedural regulations under atomic law (Sect. 9, Atomic Energy Act; Sect. 3, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Federal Construction Act), a public hearing concerning the projected interim storage facility at Ahaus was not mandatory. It was held, however, for political reasons in order to assure public acceptance of the project. The word protocol of the controversial discussions is presented in three volumes. The discussions covered the whole spectrum of the 15-year-old nuclear controversy in West Germany including the effects of low radiation doses and nuclear waste management. (HP) [de

  13. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF); Analisis termico de la celda de desarga del almacen temporal centralizado (ATC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.

    2016-08-01

    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  14. The Safe Removal of Frozen Air from the Annulus of an LH2 Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-01-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modeling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  15. Safe storage of deactivated radiological chemical processing plants in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes the surveillance and preventive maintenance actions that are implemented in the retired chemical processing plants (S Plant and U Plant) for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland (RL). These actions are intended to keep the facilities in a safe storage configuration until final decommissioning, scheduled to begin in 2007, can be accomplished. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Removal Action Workplan for the 105-DR and 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Projects and Ancillary Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the removal action workplan (RAW) for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings and ancillary facilities. These buildings and facilities are located in the 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas of the Hanford Site in Benton County, Washington, which is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 100 Areas (including 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas) of the Hanford Site were placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). DOE has determined that hazardous substances in the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings and four ancillary facilities present a potential threat to human health or the environment DOE has also determined that a non-time critical removal action is warranted at these facilities

  17. A study on oxidation treatment of uranium metal chip under controlling atmosphere for safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Ji, Chul Goo; Bae, Sang Oh; Woo, Yoon Myeoung; Kim, Jong Goo; Ha, Yeong Keong

    2011-01-01

    The U metal chips generated in developing nuclear fuel and a gamma radioisotope shield have been stored under immersion of water in KAERI. When the water of the storing vessels vaporizes or drains due to unexpected leaking, the U metal chips are able to open to air. A new oxidation treatment process was raised for a long time safe storage with concepts of drying under vacuum, evaporating the containing water and organic material with elevating temperature, and oxidizing the uranium metal chips at an appropriate high temperature under conditions of controlling the feeding rate of oxygen gas. In order to optimize the oxidation process the uranium metal chips were completely dried at higher temperature than 300 .deg. C and tested for oxidation at various temperatures, which are 300 .deg. C, 400 .deg. C, and 500 .deg. C. When the oxidation temperature was 400 .deg. C, the oxidized sample for 7 hours showed a temperature rise of 60 .deg. C in the self-ignition test. But the oxidized sample for 14 hours revealed a slight temperature rise of 7 .deg. C representing a stable behavior in the self-ignition test. When the temperature was 500 .deg. C, the shorter oxidation for 7 hours appeared to be enough because the self-ignition test represented no temperature rise. By using several chemical analyses such as carbon content determination, X-ray deflection (XRD), Infrared spectra (IR) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) on the oxidation treated samples, the results of self-ignition test of new oxidation treatment process for U metal chip were interpreted and supported

  18. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of the passage of decontaminated salt solution from the ITP filters into tank 50H for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Davis, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report assesses the nuclear criticality safety associated with the decontaminated salt solution after passing through the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) filters, through the stripper columns and into Tank 50H for interim storage until transfer to the Saltstone facility. The criticality safety basis for the ITP process is documented. Criticality safety in the ITP filtrate has been analyzed under normal and process upset conditions. This report evaluates the potential for criticality due to the precipitation or crystallization of fissionable material from solution and an ITP process filter failure in which insoluble material carryover from salt dissolution is present. It is concluded that no single inadvertent error will cause criticality and that the process will remain subcritical under normal and credible abnormal conditions

  19. Seal performance of thermal aged metal gasket of dual purpose metal cask for interim spent fuel storage after external impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Yokoyama; Masami Kato; Satoshi Itooka

    2005-01-01

    As for interim storage for spent nuclear fuels using dual purpose dry metal cask in Japan, we recognize one of the important technical issues that there is a possibility for the cask with degraded metal gasket during storage to apply to transportation. In our study until 2003 focused on degradation of important components for the cask safety performance during storage and application to transportation, for metal gasket, we conducted property tests for degradation and influence of lid movement on seal performance, and furthermore verification tests. From the results, we developed the method to evaluate leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket at accidents during transportation and in addition, we found as follows: Lid would hardly move and leak rate would not increase seriously during fire event. Leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket could be evaluated by using results of leak rate trend depending on horizontal displacement of lid by external impact load. So, with regard to influence of lid movement on seal performance, we conducted additional test for extending horizontal displacement in lid moving in 2004. In addition, seal performance was discussed from the results, both previous and latest test. (authors)

  20. Moving the largest capacity PWR dual-purpose cask in the world from Goesgen NPP to the Zwilag interim storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delannay, M.; Dudragne, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Swiss Goesgen nuclear power plant (NPP) has decided to use two different methods for the disposal of its spent fuel. (1) To reprocess some of its spent fuel in dedicated facilities. Some of the vitrified waste from the reprocessing will be shipped back to Switzerland using the new COGEMA Logistics, TN81 cask. (2) To ship the other part of its spent fuel to the central interim storage facility of Zwilag (Switzerland) using a COGEMA Logistics dual-purpose TN24G cask. The TN24G is the heaviest and largest dual-purpose cask manufactured so far by COGEMA Logistics in Europe. It is intended for the transport and storage of 37 pressurised water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies. Four casks were delivered by COGEMA Logistics to Goesgen NPP. Three transports of loaded TN24G casks between Goesgen and Zwilag were successfully performed at the beginning of 2002 with the new COGEMA Logistics Q76 wagon specifically designed to transport heavy casks. This article describes the procedure of operations and shipments for the first TN24G casks up to storage at Zwilag. The fourth transport of loaded TN24G was due to happen in October 2002. The TN24G cask, as part of the TN24 casks family, proved to be a very efficient solution for the KKG spent fuel management. (author)

  1. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  2. Development of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment Framework for an Interim Dry Storage Facility Subjected to an Aircraft Crash Using Best-Estimate Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Almomani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a probabilistic safety assessment, a risk evaluation framework for an aircraft crash into an interim spent fuel storage facility is presented. Damage evaluation of a detailed generic cask model in a simplified building structure under an aircraft impact is discussed through a numerical structural analysis and an analytical fragility assessment. Sequences of the impact scenario are shown in a developed event tree, with uncertainties considered in the impact analysis and failure probabilities calculated. To evaluate the influence of parameters relevant to design safety, risks are estimated for three specification levels of cask and storage facility structures. The proposed assessment procedure includes the determination of the loading parameters, reference impact scenario, structural response analyses of facility walls, cask containment, and fuel assemblies, and a radiological consequence analysis with dose–risk estimation. The risk results for the proposed scenario in this study are expected to be small relative to those of design basis accidents for best-estimated conservative values. The importance of this framework is seen in its flexibility to evaluate the capability of the facility to withstand an aircraft impact and in its ability to anticipate potential realistic risks; the framework also provides insight into epistemic uncertainty in the available data and into the sensitivity of the design parameters for future research.

  3. Development of a probabilistic safety assessment framework for an interim dry storage facility subjected to an aircraft crash using best-estimate structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almomani, Belal; Jang, Dong Chan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    Using a probabilistic safety assessment, a risk evaluation framework for an aircraft crash into an interim spent fuel storage facility is presented. Damage evaluation of a detailed generic cask model in a simplified building structure under an aircraft impact is discussed through a numerical structural analysis and an analytical fragility assessment. Sequences of the impact scenario are shown in a developed event tree, with uncertainties considered in the impact analysis and failure probabilities calculated. To evaluate the influence of parameters relevant to design safety, risks are estimated for three specification levels of cask and storage facility structures. The proposed assessment procedure includes the determination of the loading parameters, reference impact scenario, structural response analyses of facility walls, cask containment, and fuel assemblies, and a radiological consequence analysis with dose–risk estimation. The risk results for the proposed scenario in this study are expected to be small relative to those of design basis accidents for best-estimated conservative values. The importance of this framework is seen in its flexibility to evaluate the capability of the facility to withstand an aircraft impact and in its ability to anticipate potential realistic risks; the framework also provides insight into epistemic uncertainty in the available data and into the sensitivity of the design parameters for future research

  4. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF 6 and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF 6 management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF 6 transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF 6 are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF 6 is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF 6 handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF 6 operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs

  5. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  6. European Model Code of safe practice in the storage and handling of petroleum products. Part I. Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    This safe practice code was prepared by a working group consisting of experts from 10 Western European countries. It consists of short guidelines and technical advice on general precautions, injuries and medical services, permits to work, fire prevention and fighting, jetties, pipework, storage tanks, static electricity, electrical equipment, road vehicles, tank cars, handling of bitumen products, liquefied petroleum gases, packed products and training of personnel. The code is supplemented by 10 appendices, including a suggested syllabus for a 2-day course on fire prevention and emergency action for managers of oil installations.

  7. Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies by PDET: Principle and Field Testing in Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Y.S.; Kerr, P.; Sitaraman, S.; Swan, R. [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rossa, R. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Liljenfeldt, H. [SKB in Oskarshamn (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    The need for the development of a credible method and instrument for partial defect verification of spent fuel has been emphasized over a few decades in the safeguards communities as the diverted spent fuel pins can be the source of nuclear terrorism or devices. The need is increasingly more important and even urgent as many countries have started to transfer spent fuel to so called 'difficult-to-access' areas such as dry storage casks, reprocessing or geological repositories. Partial defect verification is required by IAEA before spent fuel is placed into 'difficult-to-access' areas. Earlier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has reported the successful development of a new, credible partial defect verification method for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies without use of operator data, and further reported the validation experiments using commercial spent fuel assemblies with some missing fuel pins. The method was found to be robust as the method is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up. Since then, the PDET system has been designed and prototyped for 17x17 PWR spent fuel assemblies, complete with data acquisition software and acquisition electronics. In this paper, a summary description of the PDET development followed by results of the first successful field testing using the integrated PDET system and actual spent fuel assemblies performed in a commercial spent fuel storage site, known as Central Interim Spent fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden will be presented. In addition to partial defect detection initial studies have determined that the tool can be used to verify the operator declared average burnup of the assembly as well as intra-assembly burnup levels. (authors)

  8. Chemical and ceramic methods for the safe storage of actinides using monazite. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    'Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Rockwell Science Center of Thousand Oaks, California, are carrying out a joint investigation of the chemical, physical, thermal, and radiation-resistance properties of the lanthanide orthophosphates (monazites) in both ceramic and single-crystal form with the objective of developing the scientific and technical base required for the application of these materials to the storage or disposal of actinide elements, including plutonium. An additional major objective of the research effort is to investigate the technical and scientific problems associated with the formation of both phase-pure monazite ceramics and multiphase monazite-ceramic composites for waste disposal or waste storage applications. These latter investigations encompass the development of low-temperature chemical synthesis routes for the formation of monoclinic monazite phases and the study of the densification properties of lanthanide orthophosphate powders to produce stable, high-density ceramics. Research Statement This research effort addresses several basic issues associated with the characteristics of lanthanide orthophosphates that make this class of materials extremely attractive candidates for application to the storage of actinide elements in general and plutonium in particular. Additionally, these materials are potentially important refractory ceramics in their own right, and many of the scientific issues addressed in this project are applicable to the development of what will constitute a new, highly stable family of ceramics for applications in a number of energy-related areas.'

  9. Field efficacy evaluation and post-treatment contamination risk assessment of an ultraviolet disinfection and safe storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygadas, Fermin; Gruber, Joshua S; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-11-15

    Inconsistent use of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems reduces their potential health benefits. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is more convenient than some existing HWTS systems, but it does not provide post-treatment residual disinfectant, which could leave drinking water vulnerable to recontamination. In this paper, using as-treated analyses, we report on the field efficacy of a UV disinfection system at improving household drinking water quality in rural Mexico. We further assess the risk of post-treatment contamination from the UV system, and develop a process-based model to better understand household risk factors for recontamination. This study was part of a larger cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial, and the results complement previously published population-level results of the intervention on diarrheal prevalence and water quality. Based on the presence of Escherichia coli (proportion of households with ≥ 1 E. coli/100 mL), we estimated a risk difference of -28.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33.9%, -22.1%) when comparing intervention to control households; -38.6% (CI: -48.9%, -28.2%) when comparing post- and pre-intervention results; and -37.1% (CI: -45.2%, -28.9%) when comparing UV disinfected water to alternatives within the household. We found substantial increases in post-treatment E. coli contamination when comparing samples from the UV system effluent (5.0%) to samples taken from the storage container (21.1%) and drinking glasses (26.0%). We found that improved household infrastructure, additional extractions from the storage container, additional time from when the storage container was filled, and increased experience of the UV system operator were associated with reductions in post-treatment contamination. Our results suggest that the UV system is efficacious at improving household water quality when used as intended. Promoting safe storage habits is essential for an effective UV system dissemination. The drinking

  10. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E. [MET-1: ACTINIDE PROCESSING SUPPORT; Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  11. The medicines refrigerator and the importance of the cold chain in the safe storage of medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Richard

    2017-10-04

    The medicines refrigerator is a common piece of equipment found in clinical areas. It is used to ensure specific medicines are safely stored within a narrow temperature range in line with manufacturers' instructions; this is usually between +2˚C and +8˚C, and ideally +5˚C. Drugs stored in the medicines refrigerator include: vaccines; insulin; chemotherapy drugs; topical preparations, such as some types of eye drops; and other treatments such as glucagon, which is used to manage severe hypoglycaemia. This article reviews the function of the medicines refrigerator and the checks required by healthcare practitioners to ensure that medicines remain safely stored and their effectiveness is maintained. It also outlines the medicines refrigeration procedure known as the 'cold chain', which includes the use of cold boxes or vaccine carriers to maintain the required temperature of medicines during transport from the manufacturer to user, or between healthcare departments. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  12. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  14. Fracture mechanics aspects in the safe design of ductile iron shipping and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappok, M.; Bounin, D.

    1996-01-01

    Containers made of ductile cast iron provide a safe method for transport of radioactive material. Contrary to widespread opinion ductile cast iron is a very tough material and can be manufactured in heavy sections. The containers are designed to withstand the very high impact loads of accidents like free drops onto unyielding targets. The design is based on postulated undetected crack-like flaws at the highest stressed location. Design must show that applied stress intensities are smaller than fracture toughness and no crack initiation and therefore also no crack propagation can occur. The design procedure followed in this paper is given in a new guideline still being drafted by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  15. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at a radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past eight years, several interim remedial actions have been taken at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), primarily to reduce radon and gamma radiation exposures and to consolidate radioactive waste into a waste containment facility. Interim remedial actions have included capping of vents, sealing of pipes, relocation of the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transfer and consolidation of waste, upgrading of storage buildings, construction of a clay cutoff wall (to limit the potential groundwater transport of contaminants), treatment and release of contaminated water, interim use of a synthetic liner, and emplacement of an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  17. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for BNL accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1996-10-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its UHV components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which had to be environmentally and personnel safe, was needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which was still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel and oxygen free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 ev. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories

  18. Analysis of Samples Collected from the Surface of Interim Storage Canisters at Calvert Cliffs in June 2017: Revision 01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In June 2017, dust and salt samples were collected from the surface of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) dry storage canisters at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The samples were delivered to Sandia National laboratories for analysis. Two types of samples were collected: filter-backed Scotch-Brite TM pads were used to collect dry dust samples for characterization of salt and dust morphologies and distributions; and Saltsmart TM test strips were used to collect soluble salts for determining salt surface loadings per unit area. After collection, the samples were sealed into plastic sleeves for shipping. Condensation within the sleeves containing the Scotch-Brite TM samples remobilized the salts, rendering them ineffective for the intended purpose, and also led to mold growth, further compromising the samples; for these reasons, the samples were not analyzed. The SaltSmart TM samples were unaffected and were analyzed by ion chromatography for major anions and cations. The results of those analyses are presented here.

  19. METHODS FOR THE SAFE STORAGE, HANDLING, AND DISPOSAL OF PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS IN THE LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F.; Kuntamukkula, M.; Alnajjar, M.; Quigley, D.; Freshwater, D.; Bigger, S.

    2010-02-02

    Pyrophoric reagents represent an important class of reactants because they can participate in many different types of reactions. They are very useful in organic synthesis and in industrial applications. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) define Pyrophorics as substances that will self-ignite in air at temperatures of 130 F (54.4 C) or less. However, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) uses criteria different from the auto-ignition temperature criterion. The DOT defines a pyrophoric material as a liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within five minutes after coming in contact with air when tested according to the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria. The Environmental Protection Agency has adopted the DOT definition. Regardless of which definition is used, oxidation of the pyrophoric reagents by oxygen or exothermic reactions with moisture in the air (resulting in the generation of a flammable gas such as hydrogen) is so rapid that ignition occurs spontaneously. Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel. Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior

  20. Experiments for evaluation of corrosion to develop storage criteria for interim dry storage of aluminum-alloy clad spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.; Murphy, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The technical bases for specification of limits to environmental exposure conditions to avoid excessive degradation are being developed for storage criteria for dry storage of highly-enriched, aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels owned by the US Department of Energy. Corrosion of the aluminum cladding is a limiting degradation mechanism (occurs at lowest temperature) for aluminum exposed to an environment containing water vapor. Attendant radiation fields of the fuels can lead to production of nitric acid in the presence of air and water vapor and would exacerbate the corrosion of aluminum by lowering the pH of the water solution. Laboratory-scale specimens are being exposed to various conditions inside an autoclave facility to measure the corrosion of the fuel matrix and cladding materials through weight change measurements and metallurgical analysis. In addition, electrochemical corrosion tests are being performed to supplement the autoclave testing by measuring differences in the general corrosion and pitting corrosion behavior of the aluminum cladding alloys and the aluminum-uranium fuel materials in water solutions

  1. Experiments for evaluation of corrosion to develop storage criteria for interim dry storage of aluminum-alloy clad spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, H.B.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.; Murphy, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    The technical bases for specification of limits to environmental exposure conditions to avoid excessive degradation are being developed for storage criteria for dry storage of highly-enriched, aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels owned by the US Department of Energy. Corrosion of the aluminum cladding is a limiting degradation mechanism (occurs at lowest temperature) for aluminum exposed to an environment containing water vapor. Attendant radiation fields of the fuels can lead to production of nitric acid in the presence of air and water vapor and would exacerbate the corrosion of aluminum by lowering the pH of the water solution. Laboratory-scale specimens are being exposed to various conditions inside an autoclave facility to measure the corrosion of the fuel matrix and cladding materials through weight change measurements and metallurgical analysis. In addition, electrochemical corrosion tests are being performed to supplement the autoclave testing by measuring differences in the general corrosion and pitting corrosion behavior of the aluminum cladding alloys and the aluminum-uranium fuel materials in water solutions.

  2. Nuclear cost studies for decontamination and dismantling. The interim storage for spent fuels at Studsvik.; Kaerntekniska kostnadsstudier avseende dekontaminering och nedlaeggning. Mellanfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle (FA) i Studsvik.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Sjoeoe, Cecilia [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Lindskog, Staffan; Cato, Anna [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The interim store for spent fuel (FA) at Studsvik was designed and constructed in 1962-64. It has been used for wet storage of fuel from the Aagesta Nuclear Power Plant as well as the R2 reactor at Studsvik. FA comprises three cylindrical pools for fuel storage as well as equipment for handling and decontamination. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology for calculation of future costs for decontamination and dismantling of nuclear research facilities. The analysis is based on information from Studsvik as well as results from information searches. The requirements on precision of cost calculations is high, also at early stages. The reason for this is that the funds are to be collected now but are to be used some time in the future. At the same time they should neither be insufficient nor superfluous. It is apparent from the compilation and analysis that when methodology that has been developed for the purpose of cost calculations for power reactors is applied to research facilities certain drawbacks become apparent, e.g. difficulties to carry out variation analyses. Generally, feedback of data on incurred costs for the purpose of cost calculations can be achieved by using one or more scaling factors together with weighing factors which are established based on e g expert judgement. For development and utilisation of such tools it is necessary to have access to estimated costs together with incurred ones. In the report, the following combination of aspects is identified as being of primary significance for achieving a high precision: Calculations with the possibility to 'calibrate' against incurred costs; Radiological surveying tailored to the needs for calculations; Technical planning including selection of techniques to be used; Identification of potential sources for systematic deviations. In the case of FA, some of the sources of uncertainty are as follows: Damaged surface layers in the pools; Maintenance status for the drains

  3. Conditioning of spent fuel for interim and final storage in the pilot conditioning plant (PKA) at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahr, H.; Willax, H.O.; Spilker, H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, due to the change of the nuclear law in Germany, the concept of direct final disposal for spent fuel was developed as an equivalent alternative to the waste management with reprocessing. Since 1979, tests for the direct final disposal of spent fuel have been conducted in Germany. In 1985, the State and the utilities came to an agreement to develop this concept of waste management to technical maturity. Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS) was commissioned by the utilities with the following tasks: to develop and test components with regard to conditioning technology, to construct and operate the pilot conditioning plant (PKA), and to develop casks suitable for final disposal. Since 1990, the construction of the PKA has taken place at the Brennelementlager Gorleben site. The PKA has been designed as a multipurpose facility and can thus fulfil various tasks within the framework of the conditioning and management of spent fuel assemblies and radioactive waste. The pilot character of the plant allows for development and testing in the field of spent fuel assembly conditioning. The objectives of the PKA may be summarized as follows: to condition spent fuel assemblies, to reload spent fuel assemblies and waste packages, to condition radioactive waste, and to do maintenance work on transport and storage casks as well as on waste packages. Currently, the buildings of the PKA are constructed and the technical facilities are installed. The plant will be ready for service in the middle of 1999. It is the first plant of its kind in the world. (author)

  4. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  5. Changes in Suicide Methods in Quebec between 1987 and 2000: The Possible Impact of Bill C-17 Requiring Safe Storage of Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean; Julien, Marie; Huang, Jean Hua

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the changes in the overall and firearm suicide rates for Quebec (Canada) before and after Bill C-17, which was implemented to secure safe storage of firearms. It covers 20,009 suicide cases reported to the coroner's office. Interrupted time series analysis is used to compare suicide rates in the two periods. Firearm suicide…

  6. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  7. BE (fuel element)/ZL (interim storage facility) module. Constituents of the fuel BE data base for BE documentation with respect to the disposal planning and the support of the BE container storage administration; BE/ZL-Modul. Bestandteile der BE-Datenbank zur BE-Dokumentation fuer die Entsorgungsplanung sowie zur Unterstuetzung der BE-Behaelterlagerverwaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, V.; Deutsch, S.; Busch, V. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Braun, A. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The securing of spent fuel element disposal from German nuclear power plants is the main task of GNS. This includes the container supply and the disposal analysis and planning. Therefore GNS operates a data base comprising all in Germany implemented fuel elements and all fuel element containers in interim storage facilities. With specific program modules the data base serves an optimized repository planning for all spent fuel elements from German NPPS and the supply of required data for future final disposal. The data base has two functional models: the BE (fuel element) and the ZL (interim storage) module. The contribution presents the data structure of the modules and details of the data base operation.

  8. Safety of laboratories, plants, facilities being dismantled, waste processing, interim storage and disposal facilities. Lessons learned from events reported in 2009 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the cross-disciplinary analysis performed by IRSN relating to significant events reported to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) during 2009 - 2010 for LUDD-type facilities (laboratories, plants, facilities being dismantled, and waste processing, interim storage and disposal facilities). It constitutes a follow-up to DSU Report 215 published in December 2009, relating to events reported to ASN during 2005 to 2008. The main developments observed since the analysis presented in that report have been underlined here, in order to highlight improvements, opportunities for progress and the main areas requiring careful attention. The present report is a continuation of DSU Report 215. Without claiming to be exhaustive, it presents lessons from IRSN's cross-disciplinary analysis of events reported to ASN during 2009 and 2010 at LUDD facilities while highlighting major changes from the previous analysis in order to underline improvements, areas where progress has been made, and main points for monitoring. The report has four sections: - the first gives a brief introduction to the various kinds of LUDD facilities and highlights changes with DSU Report 215; - the second provides a summary of major trends involving events reported to ASN during 2007-2010 as well as overall results of consequences of events reported during 2009 and 2010 for workers, the general public and the environment; - the third section gives a cross-disciplinary analysis of significant events reported during 2009 and 2010, performed from two complementary angles (analysis of main types of events grouped by type of risk and analysis of generic causes). Main changes from the analysis given in DSU Report 215 are considered in detail; - the last section describes selected significant events that occurred in 2009 and 2010 in order to illustrate the cross-disciplinary analysis with concrete examples. IRSN will publish this type of report periodically in coming years in order to

  9. Safe Youth. Safe Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Safe Youth, Safe Schools Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... returning to school after a concussion. Get to School Safely Walk to School Safely Children face an ...

  10. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Centralia, Kansas : pilot test and remedy implementation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-09

    This document presents an Interim Measure Work Plan/Design for the short-term, field-scale pilot testing and subsequent implementation of a non-emergency Interim Measure (IM) at the site of the former grain storage facility operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Centralia, Kansas. The IM is recommended to mitigate both (1) localized carbon tetrachloride contamination in the vadose zone soils beneath the former facility and (2) present (and potentially future) carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the shallow groundwater beneath and in the immediate vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory have demonstrated that groundwater at the Centralia site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at levels that exceed the Kansas Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. Groundwater sampling and analyses conducted by Argonne under a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) indicated that the carbon tetrachloride levels at several locations in the groundwater plume have increased since twice yearly monitoring of the site began in September 2005. The identified groundwater contamination currently poses no unacceptable health risks, in view of the absence of potential human receptors in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride contamination has also been identified at Centralia in subsurface soils at concentrations on the order of the Kansas Tier 2 RBSL of 200 {micro}g/kg in soil for the soil-to-groundwater protection pathway. Soils contaminated at this level might pose some risk as a potential source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to groundwater. To mitigate the existing contaminant levels and decrease the potential future concentrations of

  11. Design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes the general safety requirements applicable to the design of both wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Section 3 deals with the design requirements specific to either wet or dry storage. Recommendations for the auxiliary systems of any storage facility are contained in Section 4; these are necessary to ensure the safety of the system and its safe operation. Section 5 provides recommendations for establishing the quality assurance system for a storage facility. Section 6 discusses the requirements for inspection and maintenance that must be considered during the design. Finally, Section 7 provides guidance on design features to be considered to facilitate eventual decommissioning. 18 refs

  12. Safe handling, transport and storage of plutonium. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 18-21 October 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Plutonium inventories and utilization rates worldwide are growing. It is important for nuclear power programmes everywhere that no incidents or accidents with plutonium occur. It is therefore important that all who deal with plutonium, do so safely. All those who deal with plutonium should have available the best information on safety handling and storage. Several countries have mature plutonium programmes. However, information exchange on plutonium has been limited. This has precluded the development until now of consensus documentation on safe handling and storage of plutonium. The Technical Committee has been established to address these problems and this Technical Document is the first product in this process. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together experts with significant experience in handling, transporting and storing plutonium; to exchange information and experiences dealing with plutonium at their facilities; to describe their practices (guidelines, procedures, regulations, etc.) for safely dealing with plutonium; to assess the need to develop and publish a consensus plutonium safety practices document(s), and to recommend possible future IAEA activities in this technical area. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  14. Towards Safe Food Free From Pesticides Residues: Biochemical Changes of Selected Vitamins, Trace Elements and Genotoxicity of Irradiated Dates During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; Elsawy, KH.M.; Elgammal, M.H.; Hammoud, G.M.; Youssef, M.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing quality of semi-dry dates due to infestation during storage is recorded by many researchers. Low gamma irradiation doses could be considered safe alternative of human toxic chemicals and pesticides. In the present study, semi-dry dates irradiated with different doses of 1, 3, 5 kGy beside non-irradiated samples were stored at 20 degree C and at -18 degree C for nine months. Vitamins E, A and trace elements were determined to check the genotoxicity effect of irradiation at high doses (1, 3, 5, 20 and 30 kGy). Results of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) proved that semi-dry dates contain vitamins A (β-carotene) and E (α-tocopherol) in amounts of 98.78 μg/100 g and 1.818 mg/100 g, respectively, in raw non-irradiated fruits. Degradation of vitamins either naturally during storage or by irradiation was manifested. However, the lowest losses of vitamins were detected at low doses of irradiation (1-3 kGy). Also, trace elements and metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique. Six trace elements; selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), cupper (Cu), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni), which are responsible for immunity system were detected in dates with considerable concentrations. Two contaminants heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), were detected. All the trace elements were in safe levels and have negligible changes under stress of irradiation and during long storage conditions. The genotoxicity test proved that the increased toxicity of irradiated dates was dose dependant, therefore, the irradiated samples at 1 kGy were safe (near control samples). Consequently, the irradiation at 1 kGy was preferable to be used as an alternative of pesticides in spite of some losses in some bioactive content.

  15. Computerization of material test data reporting system : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-01

    This study was initiated to provide an integrated system of reporting, storing, and retrieving of construction and material test data using computerized (storage-retrieval) and quality control techniques. The findings reported in this interim report ...

  16. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport and including storage delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V. [IRSN, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Mennerdahl, D. [EMS, TABY (Sweden); Dean, C. [SERCO, Winfrith Technology Center, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Barton, N. [Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom); Jean, F. [APTUS, Versailles (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the DGTREN/participants decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL and SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, etc.). The parameters of interest (such as k-infinite, critical masses) were determined. This article presents the work achieved and the questions raised, e.g. related to the effect of the radioactive decay of the isotopes on the criticality risks. It also points out the need for an evolution of the regulation of the safe transport of radioactive materials and gives a proposition of modification for the IAEA requirements related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials.

  17. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport and including storage delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the DGTREN/participants decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL and SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, etc.). The parameters of interest (such as k-infinite, critical masses) were determined. This article presents the work achieved and the questions raised, e.g. related to the effect of the radioactive decay of the isotopes on the criticality risks. It also points out the need for an evolution of the regulation of the safe transport of radioactive materials and gives a proposition of modification for the IAEA requirements related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials

  18. Well selection in depleted oil and gas fields for a safe CO2 storage practice: A case study from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and sequestration technology is recognized as a successful approach taken to mitigate the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. However, having a successful storage practice requires wise selection of suitable wells in depleted oil or gas fields to reduce the risk of leakage and contamination of subsurface resources. The aim of this paper is to present a guideline which can be followed to provide a better understanding of sophisticated wells chosen for injection and storage practices. Reviewing recent studies carried out on different aspects of geosequestration indicated that the fracture pressure of seals and borehole conditions such as cement-sheath integrity, distance from faults and fractures together with the depth of wells are important parameters, which should be part of the analysis for well selection in depleted reservoirs. A workflow was then designed covering these aspects and it was applied to a depleted gas field in Malaysia. The results obtained indicated that Well B in the field may have the potential of being a suitable conduit for injection. Although more studies are required to consider other aspects of well selections, it is recommended to employ the formation integrity analysis as part of the caprock assessment before making any decisions.

  19. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  20. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  1. Specific provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of low and medium level bituminized wastes resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule sets forth the specific provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of the wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR and coated in bitumen

  2. Particular provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of wastes immobilized in cement, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule is intended to stipulate the specific provisions applicable to the production, inspection, treatment, packaging and interim storage of the wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR and immobilized in cement

  3. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1997-01-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which has to be environmentally and personnel safe, is needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which is still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and oxygen-free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 eV. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils, and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories. After modification, the new UHV cleaning process was accepted by BNL

  4. Used fuel extended storage security and safeguards by design roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, Eric Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); England, Jeffrey [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Scherer, Carolynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Michael. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rauch, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is safely and securely stored in spent fuel pools and dry storage casks. The available capacity in spent fuel pools across the nuclear fleet has nearly reached a steady state value. The excess SNF continues to be loaded in dry storage casks. Fuel is expected to remain in dry storage for periods beyond the initial dry cask certification period of 20 years. Recent licensing renewals have approved an additional 40 years. This report identifies the current requirements and evaluation techniques associated with the safeguards and security of SNF dry cask storage. A set of knowledge gaps is identified in the current approaches. Finally, this roadmap identifies known knowledge gaps and provides a research path to deliver the tools and models needed to close the gaps and allow the optimization of the security and safeguards approaches for an interim spent fuel facility over the lifetime of the storage site.

  5. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  6. Calculation of radiation dose rate above water layer of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Jaslovske Bohunice by the point Kernels (VISIPLAN) and Monte Carlo (MCNP4C) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Kucharova, D.; Listjak, M.; Fueloep, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate maximal dose rate (DR) of gamma radiation above different configurations of reservoirs with spent nuclear fuel with cooling period 1.8 year and to compare by buildup factor method (Visiplan) and Monte Carlo simulations and to appreciate influence of scattered photons in the case of calculation of fully filled fuel transfer storage (FTS). On the ground of performed accounts it was shown, that relative contributions of photons from adjacent reservoirs are in the case buildup factor method (Visiplan) similar to Monte Carlo simulations. It means, that Visiplan can be used also for valuation of contributions of of dose rates from neighbouring reservoirs. It was shown, that calculations of DR by Visiplan are conservatively overestimated for this source of radiation and thickness of shielding approximately 2.6 - 3 times. Also following these calculations resulted, that by storage of reservoirs with cooling period 1.8 years in FTS is not needed any additional protection measures for workers against primal safety report. Calculated DR also above fully filled FTS by these reservoirs in Jaslovske Bohunice is very low on the level 0.03 μSv/h. (authors)

  7. Calculation of radiation dose rate above water layer of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Jaslovske Bohunice by the point Kernels (VISIPLAN) and Monte Carlo (MCNP4C) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Kucharova, D.; Listjak, M.; Fueloep, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate maximal dose rate (DR) of gamma radiation above different configurations of reservoirs with spent nuclear fuel with cooling period 1.8 year and to compare by buildup factor method (Visiplan) and Monte Carlo simulations and to appreciate influence of scattered photons in the case of calculation of fully filled fuel transfer storage (FTS). On the ground of performed accounts it was shown, that relative contributions of photons from adjacent reservoirs are in the case buildup factor method (Visiplan) similar to Monte Carlo simulations. It means, that Visiplan can be used also for valuation of contributions of of dose rates from neighbouring reservoirs. It was shown, that calculations of DR by Visiplan are conservatively overestimated for this source of radiation and thickness of shielding approximately 2.6 - 3 times. Also following these calculations resulted, that by storage of reservoirs with cooling period 1.8 years in FTS is not needed any additional protection measures for workers against primal safety report. Calculated DR also above fully filled FTS by these reservoirs in Jaslovske Bohunice is very low on the level 0.03 μSv/h. (authors)

  8. Studies of transuranic waste storage under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Interim summary report, October 1, 1977-June 15, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Barraclough, B.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1980-01-01

    The major focus of the program has been on the gas generation potential of organic wastes produced by radiolytic and thermal degradation under simulated WIPP storage conditions. The effects of TRU contamination level, temperature, waste type, pressure, and exposure time on radiolysis are presented. In addition, results from preliminary experiments on processed sludge dewatering are discussed. A summary is presented here of the results of a detailed study of all retrievably stored TRU wastes present at LASL before January 1, 1978. The data indicate a gross volume for the LASL inventory of 1610 m 3 with a total weight of nearly 1.24 x 10 6 kg (1240 metric tonnes). The dominant radionuclide contents of the waste are plutonium (primarily 238 Pu) and americium

  9. Development of dual-purpose metal cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (3). A new type of durable neutron shielding resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoshida, Mamoru; Nishi, Takashi; Iga, Kiminori; Shimizu, Masashi; Kashiwakura, Jun; Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. has been developing a new neutron shielding resin for the dual-purpose metal cask. The newly developed resin is composed of a thermo setting epoxy and magnesium hydroxide. Highly durable resin can be obtained by combining base polymer having dense cross linkage and fire retardant with high dehydration temperature. Estimated weight loss of the resin during storage period is less than 1%. Fabrication process of shielding unit suitable for the new material is also developed. In the new process, a resin block constituted of cured resin and heat transfer fin is manufactured and fitted to the cask. This process was verified by fabricating about 200 resin blocks for real size mock-up of Hitachi's metal cask. (author)

  10. Safe society safe mobility

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtmann, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available expected, it is a part of celebration, grief, congratulation, entertainment, enjoyment of sport, dealing with disappointment or tiredness. We live with the very expensive consequences. We need to reduce the availability and efficacy of firearms... socialises and interacts. Young middle class people in South Africa for instance are often dependent on parents for mobility where in most developed countries, public transport is a rational and safe choice as young people meet and entertain themselves...

  11. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  12. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning reference independent spent fuel storage installations. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwick, J D; Moore, E B

    1984-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of five different types of reference independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), each of which is being given consideration for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. These include one water basin-type ISFSI (wet) and four dry ISFSIs (drywell, silo, vault, and cask). The reference ISFSIs include all component parts necessary for the receipt, handling and storage of spent fuel in a safe and efficient manner. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, and potential radiation doses to the public. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment followed by long-term surveillance).

  13. Safe cycling!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  14. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  15. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  16. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  17. Overview of symposium on storage of spent fuel from power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    An International Symposium on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was held in Vienna from 9-13 November 1998. The Symposium was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Of the one hundred sixty participants registered, one hundred twenty-five (including 3 observers) representing 35 countries and 4 international organizations, attended the Symposium. 20 participants from developing countries received Agency's grants. During 4 main Sessions, 44 oral presentations of papers were made and subsequent discussions held. At a poster session 13 papers were presented. This paper will give an overview of the Symposium. The Symposium gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. It was obvious from the papers presented and the discussions that the handling and storage of spent fuel is continuously taking place safely. Dominant messages retrieved from the Symposium are that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage, the duration time of interim storage becomes longer than earlier anticipated and the storage facilities will have to be designed for receiving also spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made interim storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. (author)

  18. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  19. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  20. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  1. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, J.R.; Deobald, T.L.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings

  2. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  3. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  4. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  5. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  6. Issues on safe radioactive waste management at ChNPP site in International Shelter Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.; Kilochytska, T.; Gromyko, S.; Kadkin, Y.; Kondratiev, S.; Pavlenko, A.; Bogorinski, P.

    2003-01-01

    The International Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) [1], is aimed to convert the ChNPP unit 4, destroyed by a beyond-design accident in 1986, into an environmentally safe facility by means of large-scale projects such as stabilization of the existing Sarcophagus (Shelter), construction of a New Safe Confinement (NSC), and installation of engineering and monitoring systems. This report presents some important safety issues concerning radioactive waste (RAW) management at the Shelter. One of the main problems of RAW management is to dispose of large volumes of RAW generated during ground preparation work. It is necessary that RAW be sorted carefully to separate low-active radioactive waste (LLW), which will be the majority, from high-level waste. Considering the fact that the Shelter is in the exclusion zone, the interim storage of LLW in this zone is possible, but a set of safety measures is required, e.g. prevention of dust generation or spreading of radioactivity with water. Another problem is high level RAW management. Highly radioactive fragments of the core, including fuel were ejected during the accident and are now buried under the man-made layer around the Shelter. Unanticipated disclosure of such fragments may happen during any ground preparation work as well as during clearing of premises inside the damaged buildings. Therefore, permanent radiation monitoring is required to prevent any intolerable exposure of workers. Unanticipated disclosure of high-active radioactive waste (HLW) could lead to considerable delay of any work. Since it is particularly difficult to remove HLW from those locations, which can not be easily accessed with removal equipment, such waste needs to be confined and properly shielded at in situ. Due to absence of a permanent HLW storage, an interim storage needs to be provided for in the territory of the Sarcophagus. (author)

  7. Co-operation in the development of a policy and strategy for the management of spent nuclear fuel (including provisions for its safe interim storage) and radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Molina, M.; Barcena, J.; Salas, E.; Sanchez, M.; Codee, H.; Deckers, J.

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission decided in 2010 to finance a project for providing technical support for the definition and establishment of a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management in Mexico. the Project was in the framework of the Nuclear Safety Co-operation Instrument (NSCI), a European mechanism which finances measures to support a higher level of nuclear safety, radiation protection and the application of efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear materials in third countries. Eventually, the Project was a awarded to a Consortium made up by four Spanish companies, ENRESA, Empresarios Agrupados International SA, Iberdrola Ingenieria SAU, Westinghouse Spain SAU, and two foreign ones, COVRA NV and Belgoprocess NV. Both ENRESA and COVRA are waste management agencies, the first responsible of these activities in Spain, the second one in the Netherlands. ENRESA acts as the leader of the Consortium. The project started early in 2013 and will last until March 2015. All along this period, the Mexican system for spent fuel and radioactive waste management will be scrutinized and proposals made for its upgrading according to the best international and European standards of safety and performance. A Policy and Strategy document will be proposed, as well as significant improvements for the different institutional layers, practices and elements of the Mexican system. A total of 40 specialists are involved in the project of which 30 are Spaniards. (Author)

  8. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HORNER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. [CHG 2000a]. Support Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings. [CHG 2000a

  9. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings

  10. Interim geotechnical data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This issue, the Interim Geotechnical Field Data Report, presents information obtained from the geotechnical activities at the WIPP site underground facilities since the last quarterly report. It also includes cumulative plots which contain all previous data. Finally, it continues the geotechnical analyses and interpretations of the data. The GFDR is organized into two principal parts. The first part, Geotechnical Field Data, presents in graphical form all the data collected since April 1982 from the geomechanical instruments. Presented in the second part, Evaluation and Analyses, are preliminary interpretations and analyses of the data. In this report, continuing geotechnical assessment of all the facility features is presented. Also included in the second part are separate sections on evaluation and interpretation of the instrumentation measurements, and an updated description and evaluation of observed behavior of the underground openings

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  13. Experimental study of heat removal performance of a concrete storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, K.S.; Yu, S.H.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.C.; Seo, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel generated at nuclear power plants must be safely stored during interim storage periods. A concrete storage cask to safely store spent nuclear fuel should be able to adequately emit the decay heat from the spent nuclear fuel. The concrete storage cask must ensure that the temperatures of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies are maintained within the allowable values for normal, off-normal, and accident conditions. Therefore, a concrete storage cask must be designed including heat removal capabilities with an appropriate reliability. However, the thermal conductivity of concrete is not good and the allowable temperature of concrete is lower than that of steel. Therefore, thermal test was performed to evaluate the heat removal performance of the concrete storage cask under normal conditions. In addition, a thermal test was performed to evaluate the thermal integrity of the concrete under accident conditions. The heat transfer rate to the ambient atmosphere by convective air through a passive heat removal system under normal conditions reached 93.5 %. Accordingly, the passive heat removal system was well designed and worked adequately. The maximum temperature of the over-pack inner surface under accident condition was measured at 103 deg. C. Therefore, the thermal integrity of the concrete is safe enough under accident conditions. (authors)

  14. Preventive maintenance study : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This interim report details the performance of 69 test sites treated with various preventive maintenance treatments. The maintenance treatments applied included crack sealing, full lane chip sealing, wheel path chip sealing, dig outs (mill and fill),...

  15. Interim report of the task force on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Task Force was established by the Premier of British Columbia in August 2001 to draft an energy policy framework for the province. Based on best practices worldwide, and keeping in mind the specific energy needs of British Columbia, this framework aims at fostering energy development in British Columbia, in accordance with exemplary environmental practices. This interim report comprises the preliminary findings of the Task Force, and public input is sought before the final report is finalized and presented to government. The energy sector of British Columbia comprises hydroelectric power, oil, gas and coal resources. In addition, green energy and alternative energy technologies are being developed, such as wind, solar, and wave power, and hydrogen fuel cells. Industry and individual consumers are well served by the highly developed transmission and distribution systems for energy. Several strategic directions were identified by the Task Force for inclusion in the energy policy of British Columbia, to meet its full potential. They are: growth to ensure safe, reliable energy and take advantage of economic opportunities; diversification; competitiveness; industry restructuring and expansion; environmental imperative; government leadership; and community and First Nations' involvement. Some changes are also required for the continuing success of the energy sector in British Columbia: a move to fully competitive markets in the electricity system, the development of natural gas storage capacity in the Lower Mainland, additional considerations for coal use, and the development of alternative energy sources. It is expected that private capital and more energy supply will result from a fully competitive energy market, which in turn would lower energy costs. Jobs and income would increase as a result of the growth in the sector. Diversification makes good economic and environmental sense. tabs., figs

  16. Spent Fuel Test - Climax: technical measurements. Interim report, fiscal year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1983-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is located 420 m below surface in the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site. The test is being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the technical direction of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized April to May 1980, thus initiating a test with a planned 3- to 5-year fuel storage phase. The SFT-C operational objective of demonstrating the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner has been met. Three exchanges of spent fuel between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility furthered this demonstration. Technical objectives of the test led to development of a technical measurements program, which is the subject of this and two previous interim reports. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data have been recorded on a continuing basis for the first 2-1/2 years of the test on more than 900 channels. Data continue to be acquired from the test. Some data are now available for analysis and are presented here. Highlights of activities this year include analysis of fracture data obtained during site characterization, laboratory studies of radiation effects and drilling damage in Climax granite, improved calculations of near-field heat transfer and thermomechanical response, a ventilation effects study, and further development of the data acquisition and management systems

  17. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  18. Spent fuel test - Climax: technical measurements. Interim report, Fiscal Year 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.; Butkovich, T.R.; Carlson, R.C.; Durham, W.B.; Ganow, H.C.; Hage, G.L.; Majer, E.L.; Montan, D.N.; Nyholm, R.A.; Rector, N.L.

    1984-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is located 420 m below surface in the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site. The test is being conducted as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized April-May 1980. The spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized in March-April 1983 when test data indicated that test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase. The SFT-C operational objective of demonstrating the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner has been met. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. Technical objectives of the test led to development of a technical measurements program, which is the subject of this and three previous interim reports. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data have been recorded on a continuing basis for the 3-1/2 year duration of the test on more than 900 channels. Data acquisition from the test is now limited to instrumentation calibration and evaluation activities. Data now available for analysis are presented here. Highlights of activities this year include a campaign of in situ stress measurements, mineralogical and petrological studies of pretest core samples, microfracture analyses of laboratory irradiated cores, improved calculations of near-field heat transfer and thermomechanical response during the final months of heating as well as during a six-month cool-down period, metallurgical analyses of selected test components, and further development of the data acquisition and data management systems. 27 references, 68 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Amorphous TiO2 Shells: A Vital Elastic Buffering Layer on Silicon Nanoparticles for High-Performance and Safe Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianping; Wang, Yunxiao; Li, Wei; Wang, Lianjun; Fan, Yuchi; Jiang, Wan; Luo, Wei; Wang, Yang; Kong, Biao; Selomulya, Cordelia; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2017-12-01

    Smart surface coatings of silicon (Si) nanoparticles are shown to be good examples for dramatically improving the cyclability of lithium-ion batteries. Most coating materials, however, face significant challenges, including a low initial Coulombic efficiency, tedious processing, and safety assessment. In this study, a facile sol-gel strategy is demonstrated to synthesize commercial Si nanoparticles encapsulated by amorphous titanium oxide (TiO 2 ), with core-shell structures, which show greatly superior electrochemical performance and high-safety lithium storage. The amorphous TiO 2 shell (≈3 nm) shows elastic behavior during lithium discharging and charging processes, maintaining high structural integrity. Interestingly, it is found that the amorphous TiO 2 shells offer superior buffering properties compared to crystalline TiO 2 layers for unprecedented cycling stability. Moreover, accelerating rate calorimetry testing reveals that the TiO 2 -encapsulated Si nanoparticles are safer than conventional carbon-coated Si-based anodes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. New York State interim waste management cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.S.; Watts, R.J.; Jorgensen, J.R.; Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and quantify the comparative costs associated with including or excluding Class A utility wastes at a centralized interim waste management facility in New York State. The objective of the study is to assess the unit costs and total statewide costs associated with two distinct scenarios: (1) the case where non-utility Class A LLRW is received, incinerated and stored at the centralized interim facility, and utility Class A wastes are held without incineration at respective nuclear power plant interim onsite facilities without incineration; and (2) the alternative case where both utility and non-utility Class A wastes are accepted, incinerated and stored at the centralized facility. Unit costs to waste generators are estimated for each of the two cases described. This is followed by an estimation of the statewide cost impact to the public. The cost impact represents the cost differential resulting from the exclusion of utility Class A waste from the centralized NYS interim waste management facility. The principal factors comprising the cost differential include (1) higher unit disposal fees charged to non-utility waste generators, which are passed along in the costs of products and services; and (2) costs to utilities due to construction of additional onsite storage capacity, which in turn are charged to electric rate payers

  1. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Benedetto, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Martini, M.; Prior, G.; Ballett, P.; Pascoli, S.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kopp, J.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Neuffer, D.; Parke, S.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Blondel, A.; Dufour, F.; Laing, A.; Soler, F.J.P; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Dornan, P.; Eccleston, R.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Bogacz, A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumdar, D.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Zisman, M.; Cline, D.; Stratakis, D.; Ding, X.; Coloma, P.; Donini, A.; Gavela, B.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Maltoni, M.; Bromberg, C.; Bonesini, M.; Hart, T.; Kudenko, Y.; Mondal, N.; Antusch, S.; Blennow, M.; Ota, T.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Beard, K.B.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; de Gouvea, A.; Graves, V.B.; Kuno, Y.; Peltoniemi, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Witte, H.; Mezzetto, M.; Rigolin, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Snopok, P.; Tortora, L.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, R.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Thomason, J.W.G.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Samulyak, R.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Dracos, M.; Yasuda, O.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Li, T.; Martin-Albo, J.; Huber, P.; Back, J.; Barker, G.; Harrison, P.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  2. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  3. Choosing or becoming an interim administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Filling an administrative position on an interim basis requires careful deliberation even when the decision has to be made quickly. A poor fit, even for a short-term position, can lead to problems for the interim administrator, the subsequent permanent administrator, faculty, staff, students, and the nursing program. This article poses questions for decision makers who are contemplating filling a position with an interim appointee. These decision makers must determine the need for an interim administrator, his or her role, the anticipated length of an interim appointment, and whether the interim appointee can apply for the permanent position. In addition, relevant questions are presented for those persons who are considering accepting an interim position, including questions about the position itself and their preparation and personal goals and considerations for leaving the temporary position.

  4. Primer for the Interim Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Being successful in the role of an Interim Chair requires an approach to transitional leadership that is different from that of individuals filling the Chair role permanently. This article reviews pertinent literature on the topic. Method: The author reviewed the literature, cited pertinent articles, and supplemented with personal…

  5. The long term storage of advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The approach being taken by BNFL in managing the AGR lifetime spent fuel arisings from British Energy reactors is given. Interim storage for up to 80 years is envisaged for fuel delivered beyond the life of the Thorp reprocessing plant. Adopting a policy of using existing facilities, to comply with the principles of waste minimisation, has defined the development requirements to demonstrate that this approach can be undertaken safely and business issues can be addressed. The major safety issues are the long term integrity of both the fuel being stored and structure it is being stored in. Business related issues reflect long term interactions with the rest of the Sellafield site and storage optimisation. Examples of the development programme in each of these areas is given. (author)

  6. How safe is ''Too'' safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Niehaus, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper suggests that total risk cannot be reduced beyond any given limit. At a certain point the occupational and public risk of producing safety equipment becomes higher than the reduction achieved in an existing risk. Based on data from the Federal Republic of Germany it has been estimated that 1 equivalent death or 6000 equivalent lost man-days are caused during the construction and installation of safety equipment costing about $ 33 million. Thus, expenditures on safety at marginal costs of risk reduction higher than $ 33 million per equivalent life saved would actually lead to an increase in risk. One might conclude that it had been made ''too'' safe. Furthermore, this expenditure implies that 1400 man-years of effort per equivalent life have been used for no net gain in safety. The advantage of the method explained herein is that it describes the effectiveness of risk reduction in physical terms, i.e., occupational and public risks and labour requirements of production of safety equipment, thereby avoiding a trade-off between money and human life

  7. CO{sub 2} capture and storage - only an interim solution. Possible impacts, potential and requirements; Technische Abscheidung und Speicherung von CO{sub 2} - nur eine Uebergangsloesung. Positionspapier des Umweltbundesamtes zu moeglichen Auswirkungen, Potenzialen und Anforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohm, Michael; Erdmenger, Christoph; Ginzky, Harald (and others)

    2006-08-15

    Climate change constitutes a huge challenge for humankind. Greenhouse gas emissions are still continuing to increase on a global scale. In order to limit the risks of global climate change, global average temperature must not rise more than 2 C above pre-industrial levels by the end of this century. If this target is to be achieved globally, Germany - like the other industrialised countries - must reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases by 40% by 2020 and by 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, in short ''UBA'') banks on a sustainable climate protection policy through emission prevention and is therefore demanding that, as a priority, the change initiated in German energy policy - away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources and a marked increase in energy efficiency - should be consistently implemented and intensified, i.e. that emissions be addressed before they occur. For a limited time, there may also be a need to take end-of-pipe measures to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. This may include certain forms of capture and storage of the most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, often referred to as CO{sub 2} ''sequestration''. Although CO{sub 2} capture and storage does not prevent continued generation of greenhouse gases, it does promise to prevent their escaping into the atmosphere and, thus, their climate impact for extended periods of time. The Federal Environment Agency takes the view that for the use of such methods it is essential to also take into account their impact on other spheres of the environment and health issues. The Agency has developed a detailed opinion on these issues in a comprehensive position paper, which is available from October 2006 in German on the internet website of the German Federal Environment Agency www.umweltbundesamt.de/energie. This summary outlines the major conclusions. Both national and international aspects need to

  8. The Next Nuclear Gamble. Transportation and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnikoff, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Next Nuclear Gamble examines risks, costs, and alternatives in handling irradiated nuclear fuel. The debate over nuclear power and the disposal of its high-level radioactive waste is now nearly four decades old. Ever larger quantities of commercial radioactive fuel continue to accumulate in reactor storage pools throughout the country and no permanent storage solution has yet been designated. As an interim solution, the government and utilities prefer that radioactive wastes be transported to temporary storage facilities and subsequently to a permanent depository. If this temporary and centralized storage system is implemented, however, the number of nuclear waste shipments on the highway will increase one hundredfold over the next fifteen years. The question directly addressed is whether nuclear transport is safe or represents the American public's domestic nuclear gamble. This Council on Economic Priorities study, directed by Marvin Resnikoff, shows on the basis of hundreds of government and industry reports, interviews and surveys, and original research, that transportation of nuclear materials as currently practiced is unsafe

  9. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 1: Rocky Flats working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Plutonium Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Vulnerability Assessment Project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the ES ampersand H vulnerabilities arising from the Department of Energy (DOE) storage and handling of its current plutonium holdings. The purpose of this assessment was to identify and prioritize ES ampersand H vulnerabilities that could lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public. The results will serve as an information base for identifying interim corrective actions and options for the safe management of fissile materials

  10. Eighteen Years of Safe Storage and Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Richard J. [Mission Support Alliance; Morton, M. [Polestar Technical Services, INC

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to share the status and condition of the six reactor buildings at the Hanford Site in Washington State that are in this SAFSTOR condition (for between 4 and 18 years as of summer of 2016).

  11. Safety Tips: Hazardous Chemical Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses storage of hazardous chemicals and provides a list of eight basic safety rules to use in developing a safe storage system. Suggestions include not storing materials alphabetically, storing nonreactive chemicals together, and not storing oxidizers and fuels together. (JN)

  12. Advanced Energy Storage Systems (AESS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and demonstrate advanced Energy Storage System (AESS) technologies that meet NASA's space exploration needs for safe, abundant, reliable, and lightweight...

  13. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  14. Baseline descriptions for LWR spent fuel storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, J.W.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1978-04-01

    Baseline descriptions for the storage, handling, and transportation of reactor spent fuel are provided. The storage modes described include light water reactor (LWR) pools, away-from-reactor basins, dry surface storage, reprocessing-facility interim storage pools, and deep geologic storage. Land and water transportation are also discussed. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the Sandia Laboratories Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program. 45 figs, 4 tables

  15. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  16. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  17. Interim Bayesian Persuasion: First Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes a first attempt at building a theory of interim Bayesian persuasion. I work in a minimalist model where a low or high type sender seeks validation from a receiver who is willing to validate high types exclusively. After learning her type, the sender chooses a complete conditional information structure for the receiver from a possibly restricted feasible set. I suggest a solution to this game that takes into account the signaling potential of the sender's choice.

  18. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety regulation

  19. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  20. Urgent recommendation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Investigation Committee for Critical Accident at Uranium Processing Plant was founded immediately after the accident to investigate the cause of the accident and to establish measures to prevent the similar accident. On September 30, 1999 around 10:35, the Japan's first criticality accident occurred at JCO Co. Ltd. Uranium processing plant (auxiliary conversion plant) located at Tokai-mura Ibaraki-ken. The criticality continued on and off for approximately 20 hours after the first instantaneous criticality. The accident led the recommendation of tentative evacuation and sheltering indoors for residents living in the neighborhood. The serious exposure to neutrons happened to three workers. The dominant effect is dose due to neutrons and gamma rays from the precipitation tank. When the accident took place, three workers dissolved sequentially about 2.4 kg uranium powder with 18.8 % enrichment in the 10-litter bucket with nitric acid. The procedure of homogenization of uranium nitrate was supposed to be controlled using the shape-limited narrow storage column. Actually, however, the thick and large precipitation tank was used. As a result, about 16.6 kg of uranium was fed into the tank, which presumably caused criticality. The first notification by JCO was delayed and the following communication was not smooth. This led to the delay of correct understanding of the situation and made the initial proper response difficult, then followed by insufficient communication between the nation, prefecture, and local authority. Urgent recommendations were made on the following items; (1) Safety measures to be taken at the accident site, (2) health cares for residents and others, (3) Comprehensive safety securing at nuclear operators such as Establishment of the effective audit system, Safety education for employees and Qualification and licensing system, Safety related documents, etc. (4) Reconstruction of the government's safety regulations such as How safety

  1. Locating Interim Assessments within Teachers' Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggan, Matthew; Olah, Leslie Nabors

    2011-01-01

    Promising research on the teaching and learning impact of classroom-embedded formative assessment has spawned interest in a broader array of assessment tools and practices, including interim assessment. Although researchers have begun to explore the impact of interim assessments in the classroom, like other assessment tools and practices, they…

  2. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of 'IFMIF-CDA Interim Report' were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the 'Interim Report'. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  3. Guidelines for Preparing Interim Technical Reports

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    The interim technical report explains what was achieved with the money and time spent on a project during a specific reporting period. The interim report specifically .... o knowledge creation (new knowledge embodied in forms other than publications or reports: new technologies, new methodologies, new curricula, new ...

  4. Risks attached to container- and bunker-storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, D. de

    1987-12-01

    The results are presented of a literature study into the risks attached to the two dry-storage options selected by the Dutch Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA): the container- and the bunker-storage for irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and nuclear waste. Since the COVRA does not make it clear how these concepts should have to be realized, the experiences abroad with dry interim-storage are considered. In particular the Castor-container-storage and the bunker storage proposed in the committee MINSK (Possibilities of Interim-storage in the Netherlands of Irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and Nuclear waste) are studied further in depth. The committee MINSK has performed a study into the technical realizability of various interim-storage facilities, among which a storage in bunkers. (author). 75 refs.; 14 figs.; 16 tabs

  5. CANDU spent fuel shielding analysis during intermediate dry storage by using Monte Carlo methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, Cristina Alice; Ilie, Petre

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the countries that operate or construct nuclear power plants have r and d programs for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management. In these programs, optimal solutions for nuclear fuel cycle management are to be identified, geological disposal being one of the main goals here. Romania did not yet adopt a decision for final disposal. Nevertheless, researches and studies are in progress in order to select and characterize the geological formation for spent fuel final disposal. Currently, although there is no comprehensive EU policy in the field of safe spent fuel and radioactive waste management it is desirable to bring and keep the safety of radioactive waste management on a uniform high level among the Member States and the accession countries. The Romanian Cernavoda NPP, of CANDU type, has the following spent fuel management facilities: a spent fuel bay (for spent fuel wet storage) and a spent fuel interim dry storage facility. The dry storage technology is based on MACSTOR system consisting of storage modules located outdoors in the storage site, and equipment operated at the spent fuel storage bay for preparing the spent fuel for dry storage. The spent fuel is transferred from the preparation area to the storage site in a transfer flask. The concrete storage modules have two sealed barriers for storing the spent fuel: a seal welded stainless steel basket containing 60 spent fuel bundles and a seal welded cylinder containing 10 baskets. Twenty storage cylinders are in one storage module for a total capacity of 12,000 bundles per module. In 2003, the first storage module has become operational. The paper has the following contents: Introduction; The paper objectives; Theoretical model Set-Up; Results; Conclusions. In conclusions one notifies that SEU fuel leads to higher burnup degrees associated both with spent fuel and actinides mass reduction for 1 MWh generated electric power (from 7100 MWD/tU for UNAT to 20000 MWD/tU for SEU43

  6. Plutonium storage: Requirements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Haschke, J.M.; Martz, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The retirement of large numbers of nuclear weapons will necessitate management of unprecedented quantities of excess plutonium. In addition, surplus material and residues from previous weapon production activities comprise a substantial quantity of concentrated plutonium that exists in a variety of chemical forms. Storage of plutonium for an indefinite period will be necessary until a decision regarding ultimate disposition is made. Selection of the most suitable storage option(s) for this interim period is complicated by technical issues, nuclear proliferation concerns, contingency planning, political factors, and uncertainty regarding the length of the interim period. Options for excess plutonium include storage as intact weapon components and storage as extracted nuclear material. Specific advantages for storage of excess material in a variety of chemical forms have been presented. In this paper, technical issues associated with various storage options are examined with emphasis on relevant physical and chemical properties of candidate materials. Technology and facility requirements for preparing and certifying storage forms are considered and recommendations, based on our assessment of options, are presented

  7. Vet Centers. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This interim final rule amends regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  8. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  9. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  10. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  11. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). ... Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety Seats (Car Seats) Choosing Safe Baby Products: Playpens Choosing Safe ...

  12. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health professionals to make the best medicine choices, buy safely, and use medicine so it's as safe ... Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Buying Medicines Over the Internet BeSafeRx: Know Your Online Pharmacy Buying Medicine from ...

  13. Analysis of long-term terrestrial water storage variations in the Yangtze River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Ying; Salama, M.S.; Krol, Martinus S.; van der Velde, R.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Zhou, Y.; Su, Zhongbo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze 32 yr of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data obtained from the Interim Reanalysis Data (ERA-Interim) and Noah model from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-Noah) for the period 1979 to 2010. The accuracy of these datasets is validated using 26 yr (1979–2004)

  14. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations

  16. Evaluation of storage/transportation options to support criteria development for the Phase I MRS [Monitored Retrievable Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.; Brown, N.N.; Bennett, P.C.; Lake, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) plans to develop an interim storage facility to enable acceptance of spent fuel in 1998. It is estimated that this interim storage facility would be needed for about two years. A Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility is anticipated in 2000 and a repository in 2010. Acceptance and transport of spent fuel by DOE/OCRWM in 1998 will require an operating transportation system. Because this interim storage facility is not yet defined, development of an optimally compatible transportation system is not a certainty. In order to assure a transport capability for 1998 acceptance of spent fuel, it was decided that the OCRWM transportation program had to identify likely options for an interim storage facility, including identification of the components needed for compatibility between likely interim storage facility options and transportation. Primary attention was given to existing hardware, although conceptual designs were also considered. A systems-based probabilistic decision model was suggested by Sandia National Laboratories and accepted by DOE/OCRWM's transportation program. Performance of the evaluation task involved several elements of the transportation program. This paper describes the decision model developed to accomplish this task, along with some of the results and conclusions. 1 ref., 4 figs

  17. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded

  18. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-05

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded. (DMC)

  19. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  20. Storage container for radioactive fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The interim storage cask for spent fuel elements or the glass moulds for high-level radioactive waste are made up of heat-resistant, reinforced concrete with chambers and highgrade steel lining. Cooling systems with natural air circulation are connected with the chambers. (HP) [de

  1. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  2. Management and storage of nuclear fuel from Belgian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    1996-01-01

    Experiences and problems with the storage of irradiated fuel at research reactors in Belgium are described. In particular, interim storage problems exist for spent fuel elements at the BR2 and the shut down BR3 reactors in Mol. (author). 1 ref

  3. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  4. Retrieval of wastes from interim storage silos at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempsell, Ian; Lilley, Simon John

    1998-01-01

    BNFL have several large stores of intermediate level waste (ILW). Some of the waste is stored dry, and some of the waste is stored under water. Retrieval of ILW from these stores is in progress and when empty, the stores will be decommissioned. This paper outlines some of the issues and lessons learnt when providing a safety case for such facilities, both for the current operational stage and for future operations and decommissioning. Examples are given of where issues have arisen (structural performance, inventory characteristics, hydrogen release, temperature monitoring, fire) and of how they have been, or are being, resolved. To address the issues involved where significant modifications are being made to a plant (e.g. decommissioning operations) a 'live safety case' approach has been adopted. This consists of an overview that refers out to the other safety cases or documents, providing a live summary of what comprises the safety case, listing any operating rules or safety mechanisms and providing details of the risk presented by current operations. This paper concludes that following this approach it has been possible to maintain a Safety Case that addresses current live safety issues appropriately at all stages of the project

  5. Interim waste storage for the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, R.W.; Phipps, R.D.; Condiff, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), which Argonne National Laboratory is developing, is an innovative liquid metal breeder reactor that uses metallic fuel and has a close coupled fuel recovery process. A pyrochemical process is used to separate the fission products from the actinide elements. These actinides are used to make new fuel for the reactor. As part of the overall IFR development program, Argonne has refurbished an existing Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West and is installing new equipment to demonstrate the remote reprocessing and fabrication of fuel for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). During this demonstration the wastes that are produced will be treated and packaged to produce waste forms that would be typical of future commercial operations. These future waste forms would, assuming Argonne development goals are fulfilled, be essentially free of long half-life transuranic isotopes. Promising early results indicate that actinide extraction processes can be developed to strip these isotopes from waste stream and return them to the IFR type reactors for fissioning. 1 fig

  6. Performance of CASTORR HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR R HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR R HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR R HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR R HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out as well. GNS long-term CASTOR R

  7. Resource conversation and recovery act (RCRA) Contingency Plan for interim status or permitted units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The official mission of the Y-12 Plant is to serve as a manufacturing technology center for key processes such that capabilities are maintained for safe, secure, reliable, and survivable nuclear weapons systems and other applications of national importance. The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be reviewed and revised if necessary if the facility RCRA operating permits are revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures herein can be improved, the facility's operations change in a manner that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent's Office and the Emergency Preparedness Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste interim status or permitted treatment, storage, or disposal facilities. The 90-day storage areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement

  8. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  9. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... MAKE A COMMITTMENT TO SAFETY Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  10. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer project will demonstrate the capability to safely and efficiently store, transfer and measure cryogenic propellants,...

  11. Choosing Safe Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Baby Products: Toys Choosing Safe Toys for School-Age Kids Choosing Safe Baby Products Learning, Play, and Your 4- to 7-Month-Old How Media Use Affects Your Child Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month- ...

  12. Comparison of concepts for independent spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Ch.; Hintermayer, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The design and the construction costs of independent spent fuel storage facilities show significant differences, reflecting the fuel receiving rate (during the lifetime of the power plant or within a very short period), the individual national policies and the design requirements in those countries. Major incremental construction expenditures for storage facilities originate from the capacity and the type of the facilities (casks or buildings), the method of fuel cooling (water or air), from the different design of buildings, the redundancy of equipment, an elaborate quality assurance program, and a single or multipurpose design (i.e. interim or long-term storage of spent fuel, interim storage of high level waste after fuel storage). The specific costs of different designs vary by a factor of 30 to 60 which might in the high case increase the nuclear generating costs remarkably. The paper also discusses the effect of spent fuel storage on fuel cycle alternatives with reprocessing or disposal of spent fuel. (author)

  13. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-07-02

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.

  14. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  15. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  16. Trustworthy Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Augier, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud trend is an attempt to leverage economics of scale in the domain of computing resources. Unfortunately, this often means losing control of the lower levels of a computer system, and exposing users to new threat vectors. These threats may be significant enough to forbid the use of clouds, and force giving up on their economical advantages. Chapter 1 introduces some issues with current cloud storage systems, that should be fixed before a cloud storage system can be considered as safe ...

  17. The long and short of dry vault storage [for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; O'Tallamhain, C.; Grine, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The case has been made for purchasing Magnox reactors outside the UK without any prior commitment to reprocessing, the fuel being stored for an interim period. Two alternative storage concepts using natural draught air-cooled vaults have been presented, one based upon experience of 'buffer' storage at gas-cooled reactors in Britain, and te second based on the long term 'interim' storage developed to a detailed design stage for British AGRs. Although storage scenarios for new Magnox stations are discussed, they may also be of interest in relation to other types of reactor. (U.K.)

  18. National Waste Terminal Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boch, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    The plans of the Energy Research and Development Administration for the safe and rational terminal storage in deep geologic formations of radioactive wastes from the commercial light-water reactor nuclear fuel cycle are presented briefly

  19. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  20. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  1. Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Marie Thielke; Neubrander, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the roles and experiences of interim administrators in higher education. A survey was given to current and recent interim administrators in four-year public universities and colleges across the United States. The goals were to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using and serving as interims, and to solicit…

  2. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120.890 Section 120.890 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may...

  3. An Approach for Evaluating the Technical Quality of Interim Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Marion, Scott; Perie, Marianne; Gong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of schools and districts have expressed interest in interim assessment systems to prepare for summative assessments and to improve teaching and learning. However, with so many commercial interim assessments available, schools and districts are struggling to determine which interim assessment is most appropriate to their needs.…

  4. Interim financial reporting in function of proper decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the attributes of interim financial reporting, as well as performs overview and interpretation of International Accounting Standard 34 which deals with this issue. The paper emphasizes risk and effects of interim financial statements implementation in decision making process. Time and cost limitations significantly influence the level of reliability on interim reports since those reports were not audited.

  5. Interim financial reporting in function of proper decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Kaćanski Slobodan; Tomašević Stevan; Vlaović-Begović Sanja

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the attributes of interim financial reporting, as well as performs overview and interpretation of International Accounting Standard 34 which deals with this issue. The paper emphasizes risk and effects of interim financial statements implementation in decision making process. Time and cost limitations significantly influence the level of reliability on interim reports since those reports were not audited.

  6. Performance of CASTOR{sup R} HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hollestrasse 7A, D-45127 Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR{sup R} HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out

  7. Status of US storage efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasburg, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Tasks involved in the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. The need for speedy action on applications to deal with spent fuel storage problems is stressed. The problems faced by the Virginia Electric and Power Company, where full core discharge capability at the 1600-megawatt Surry power station is expected to be reached in early 1986, are reviewed. It is pointed out that although the Nuclear Waste Policy Act does not apply in this case, the problems illustrate the situation that may be faced after the Act is implemented. Problems involved in intro-utility transhipments and dry cask storage of spent fuel from Surry, including transportation ordinances at state and local levels and approval for the use of dry casks for storage, are reported. The suggestion that dry casks be used for interim storage and eventual transport to monitored retrievable storage facilities or permanent storage sites is considered. It is pointed out that data from a proposed 3-utility demonstration program of dry cask storage of consolidated fuels and the storage of fuels in air should give information applicable to the timely implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

  8. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  9. Study on increasing spent fuel storage capacity at Juragua NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, R.; Lopez Aldama, D.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Garcia Yip, F.

    1999-01-01

    The delay in decision about the final disposal of the spent fuel, led to longer interim storage. The reracking og the storage pools was an economical and feasible option to increase the storage capacity on the site. Reracking of the storage facility led to the analysis of the new conditions for criticality, shielding, residual heat removal and mechanical loads over the structures. This paper includes a summary of the studies on criticality and dose rate changes in the vicinity of the storage pool of Juragua NPP

  10. Safety Consideration for a Wet Interim Spent Fuel Store at Conceptual Design Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astoux, Marion

    2014-01-01

    EDF Energy plans to build and operate two UK EPRs at the Hinkley Point C (HPC) site in Somerset, England. Spent fuel from the UK EPRs will need to be managed from the time it is discharged from the reactor until it is ultimately disposed of and this will involve storing the spent fuel for a period in the fuel building and thereafter in a dedicated interim facility until it can be emplaced within the UK Geological Disposal Facility. EDF Energy has proposed that this interim store should be located on the Hinkley Point site which is consistent with UK policy. This Interim Spent Fuel Store (ISFS) will have the capability to store for at least one hundred years the spent fuel arising from the operation of the two EPR units (sixty years operation). Therefore, specificities regarding the lifetime of the facility have to be accounted for its design. The choice of interim storage technology was considered in some depth for the HPC project and wet storage (pool) was selected. The facility is currently at conceptual design stage, although its construction will be part of main site construction phase. Safety functions and safety requirements for this storage facility have been defined, in compliance with WENRA 'Waste and Spent Fuel Storage - Safety Reference Level Report' and IAEA Specific Safety Guide no. 15 'Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel'. EDF technical know-how, operational feedback on existing storage pools, UK regulatory context and Fukushima experience feedback have also been accounted for. Achievement of the safety functions as passively as reasonably practicable is a key issue for the design, especially in accident situations. Regarding lifetime aspects, ageing management of equipments, optimisation of the refurbishment, climate change, passivity of the facility, and long-term achievement of the safety functions are among the subjects to consider. Adequate Operational Limits and Conditions will also have to be defined, to enable the long-term achievement of the safety

  11. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides results of a review of recently completed safety analyses related to hazards associated with Interim Stabilization of Single analyses related to hazards included oh the Hanford Site Waste Tank-Watch Shell Tanks (SSTs) that are included on the Hanford List. The purpose of the review was to identify and summarize conclusions regarding the safety of interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs, and to highlight applicable limitations, restrictions, and controls. The scope of this review was restricted to SSTs identified List in the categories of flammable gas ferrocyanide, and organic salts. High heat tanks were not included in the scope. A Watch List tank is defined as an underground storage tank containing waste that requires special safety precautions because it may have a serious potential for release of high level radioactive waste because of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Special restrictions have been placed on these tanks

  12. Reinforcement of a PMMA resin for fixed interim prostheses with nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapa, Popi; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Bikiaris, Dimitrios; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reinforcement of Nanodiamonds (ND) in a PMMA resin for fixed interim restorations. The fracture toughness (K(Ic)), impact strength and the dynamic thermomechanical properties (T(g), E´, E´´, tanδ) of a series of PMMA-ND nanocomposites with different amounts of ND were evaluated. The fracture toughness increased as the ND percentage increased up to 0.38% wt but a greater amount of ND induced a decrease in K(Ic). Impact strength and Young's modulus were also increased by increasing nanoparticles content, indicating the reinforcing effect of ND. Dynamic mechanical properties were also affected. By increasing the ND content an increase of storage modulus was recorded, while glass transition was shifted at higher temperatures. Under the limitations of this study, it can be suggested that reinforcing PMMA with ND nanoparticles -especially at low concentrations- may increase the overall performance of fixed interim prostheses.

  13. Functions and requirements document for interim store solidified high-level and transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Fewell, M.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-17

    The functions, requirements, interfaces, and architectures contained within the Functions and Requirements (F{ampersand}R) Document are based on the information currently contained within the TWRS Functions and Requirements database. The database also documents the set of technically defensible functions and requirements associated with the solidified waste interim storage mission.The F{ampersand}R Document provides a snapshot in time of the technical baseline for the project. The F{ampersand}R document is the product of functional analysis, requirements allocation and architectural structure definition. The technical baseline described in this document is traceable to the TWRS function 4.2.4.1, Interim Store Solidified Waste, and its related requirements, architecture, and interfaces.

  14. Financial compensation for municipalities hosting interim or final disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Alex; Vicente, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Brazilian Law No. 10308 issued November 20, 2001, establishes in its 34th article that 'those municipalities hosting interim or final disposal facilities for radioactive waste are eligible to receive a monthly payment as compensation'. The values of due payments depend on parameters such as volume of wastes and activity and half-lives of the radionuclides. The method to calculating those values was established by the National Commission on Nuclear Energy, the Brazilian regulatory authority, by Resolution No. 10, issued in the August 18, 2003. In this paper we report the application of that method to a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste interim storage facility at the Nuclear Energy Research Institute. (author)

  15. Properties of light water reactor spent fuel cladding. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwick, D.G.; Moen, R.A.

    1979-08-01

    The Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program will provide containment packages for the safe storage or disposal of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Maintaining containment of radionuclides during transportation, handling, processing and storage is essential, so the best understanding of the properties of the materials to be stored is necessary. This report provides data collection, assessment and recommendations for spent LWR fuel cladding materials properties. Major emphasis is placed on mechanical properties of the zircaloys and austenitic stainless steels. Limited information on elastic constants, physical properties, and anticipated corrosion behavior is also provided. Work is in progress to revise these evaluations as the program proceeds

  16. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  17. Remaining gaps for "safe" CO2 storage: the INGV CO2GAPS vision of "learning by doing" monitoring geogas leakage, reservoirs contamination/mixing and induced/triggered seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Vinciguerra, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Boschi, E.; Anselmi, M.; Burrato, P.; Buttinelli, M.; Cantucci, B.; Cinti, D.; Galli, G.; Improta, L.; Nazzari, M.; Pischiutta, M.; Pizzino, L.; Procesi, M.; Rovelli, A.; Sciarra, A.; Voltattorni, N.

    2012-12-01

    The CO2GAPS project proposed by INGV is intended to build up an European Proposal for a new kind of research strategy in the field of the geogas storage. Aim of the project would be to fill such key GAPS concerning the main risks associated to CO2 storage and their implications on the entire Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process, which are: i) the geogas leakage both in soils and shallow aquifers, up to indoor seepage; ii) the reservoirs contamination/mixing by hydrocarbons and heavy metals; iii) induced or triggered seismicity and microseismicity, especially for seismogenic blind faults. In order to consider such risks and make the CCS public acceptance easier, a new kind of research approach should be performed by: i) a better multi-disciplinary and "site specific" risk assessment; ii) the development of more reliable multi-disciplinary monitoring protocols. In this view robust pre-injection base-lines (seismicity and degassing) as well as identification and discrimination criteria for potential anomalies are mandatory. CO2 injection dynamic modelling presently not consider reservoirs geomechanical properties during reactive mass-transport large scale simulations. Complex simulations of the contemporaneous physic-chemical processes involving CO2-rich plumes which move, react and help to crack the reservoir rocks are not totally performed. These activities should not be accomplished only by the oil-gas/electric companies, since the experienced know-how should be shared among the CCS industrial operators and research institutions, with the governments support and overview, also flanked by a transparent and "peer reviewed" scientific popularization process. In this context, a preliminary and reliable 3D modelling of the entire "storage complex" as defined by the European Directive 31/2009 is strictly necessary, taking into account the above mentioned geological, geochemical and geophysical risks. New scientific results could also highlighting such opportunities

  18. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage

  19. Recommended Practices for the Safe Design and Operation of Flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Donald Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems are in use globally in increasing numbers . No codes pertaining specifically to flywheel energy storage exist. A number of industrial incidents have occurred. This protocol recommends a technical basis for safe flywheel de sign and operation for consideration by flywheel developers, users of flywheel systems and standards setting organizations.

  20. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  1. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  2. 76 FR 58790 - Notice of Interim Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... customers, and the O&M Committee to ensure that operation and maintenance is properly funded and charged.... Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) is including three rate alternatives. All of the rate alternatives have a revenue requirement of $59,600,000. Rate Scenario 1--Interim Operating Plan The final...

  3. 45 CFR 86.71 - Interim procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures [Interim... Music classes, [43]; 86.34(f) Physical education, [43, 56, 58]; Sex education, [43, 57]; 86.34(e.... 901, 902, Education Amendments of 1972, 86 Stat. 373, 374; 20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682) Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  4. ITER interim design report package documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-8), the ITER Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis, ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions and the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-9). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  5. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  6. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  7. 40 CFR 180.319 - Interim tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim tolerances. 180.319 Section 180.319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Raw agricultural commodity Coordination product of zinc ion and maneb Fungicide 1.0 (Calculated as...

  8. Interim Prosthesis Options for Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh

    2017-06-01

    Dental implants have become a popular treatment modality for replacing missing teeth. In this regard, the importance of restoring patients with function during the implant healing period has grown in recent decades. Esthetic concerns, especially in the anterior region of the maxilla, should also be considered until the definitive restoration is delivered. Another indication for such restorations is maintenance of the space required for esthetic and functional definitive restorations in cases where the implant site is surrounded by natural teeth. Numerous articles have described different types of interim prostheses and their fabrication techniques. This article aims to briefly discuss all types of implant-related interim prostheses by different classification including provisional timing (before implant placement, after implant placement in unloading and loading periods), materials, and techniques used for making the restorations, the type of interim prosthesis retention, and definitive restoration. Furthermore, the abutment torque for such restorations and methods for transferring the soft tissue from interim to definitive prostheses are addressed. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. CarbonSAFE Illinois - Macon County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Steve [University of Illinois; Illinois State Geological Survey

    2017-08-03

    CarbonSAFE Illinois is a a Feasibility study to develop an established geologic storage complex in Macon County, Illinois, for commercial-scale storage of industrially sourced CO2. Feasibility activities are focused on the Mt. Simon Storage Complex; a step-out well will be drilled near existing storage sites (i.e., the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium’s Illinois Basin – Decatur Project and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project) to further establish commercial viability of this complex and to evaluate EOR potential in a co-located oil-field trend. The Archer Daniels Midland facility (ethanol plant), City Water, Light, and Power in Springfield, Illinois (coal-fired power station), and other regional industries are potential sources of anthropogenic CO2 for storage at this complex. Site feasibility will be evaluated through drilling results, static and dynamic modeling, and quantitative risk assessment. Both studies will entail stakeholder engagement, consideration of infrastructure requirements, existing policy, and business models. Project data will help calibrate the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Toolkit to better understand the risks of commercial-scale carbon storage.

  10. Stay Safe at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Stay Safe at Work Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Injuries ... need to take steps to prevent injuries at work? All types of jobs – even desk jobs – can ...

  11. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  12. Taking multiple medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  13. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  14. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  15. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  16. Safety assessment for spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Practice has been prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on the safety assessment of interim spent fuel storage facilities which are not an integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. This report provides general guidance on the safety assessment process, discussing both deterministic and probabilistic assessment methods. It describes the safety assessment process for normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and also related to accident conditions. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Interim criteria for Organic Watch List tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babad, S.; Turner, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document establishes interim criteria for identifying single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that contain organic chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salts in potentially hazardous concentrations. These tanks are designated as ``organic Watch List tanks.`` Watch List tanks are radioactive waste storage tanks that have the potential for release of high-level waste as a result of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Organic Watch List tanks are those Watch List tanks that contain relatively high concentrations of organic chemicals. Because of the potential for release of high-level waste resulting from uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure, the organic Watch List tanks (collectively) constitute a Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank ``safety issue.``

  18. Interim criteria for Organic Watch List tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, S.; Turner, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document establishes interim criteria for identifying single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that contain organic chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salts in potentially hazardous concentrations. These tanks are designated as ''organic Watch List tanks.'' Watch List tanks are radioactive waste storage tanks that have the potential for release of high-level waste as a result of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Organic Watch List tanks are those Watch List tanks that contain relatively high concentrations of organic chemicals. Because of the potential for release of high-level waste resulting from uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure, the organic Watch List tanks (collectively) constitute a Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank ''safety issue.''

  19. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste as glass in canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A review of the use of waste glass for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste glass is presented. Typical properties of the canisters used to contain the glass, and the waste glass, are described. Those properties are used to project the stability of canisterized waste glass through interim storage, transportation, and geologic disposal

  20. Report by the committee assessing fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.W.

    1977-11-01

    Various concepts for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel have been considered. Preliminary design studies and cost estimates have been prepared for the following concepts: two with water cooling - prolonged pool storage at a generating station and pool storage at a central site - , three with air cooling at a central site - ''canister'', ''convection vault'', and ''conduction vault'' - and one underground storage scheme in rock salt. Costs (1972 dollars) were estimated including transportation and a perpetual care fund for maintenance and periodical renewal of the storage facility. Part 2 provides details of the concepts and costing methods. All concepts gave moderate costs providing a contribution of about 0.1 m$/kWh to the total unit energy cost. Advantages and disadvantages of the respective schemes are compared. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 58.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and data. 58.190 Section 58.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., protocols, specimens, and interim and final reports. Conditions of storage shall minimize deterioration of...

  2. First interim examination of defected BWR and PWR rods tested in unlimited air at 2290C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.; Cook, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A five-year whole rod test was initiated to investigate the long-term stability of spent fuel rods under a variety of possible dry storage conditions. Both PWR and BWR rods were included in the test. The first interim examination was conducted after three months of testing to determine if there was any degradation in those defected rods stored in an unlimited air atmosphere. Visual observations, diametral measurements and radiographic smears were used to assess the degree of cladding deformation and particulate dispersal. The PWR rod showed no measurable change from the pre-test condition. The two original artificial defects had not changed in appearance and there was no diametral growth of the cladding. One of the defects in BWR rod showed significant deformation. There was approximately 10% cladding strain at the defect site and a small axial crack had formed. The fuel in the defect did not appear to be friable. The second defect showed no visible change and no cladding strain. Following examination, the test was continued at 230 0 C. Another interim examination is planned during the summer of 1983. This paper discusses the details and meaning of the data from the first interim examination

  3. Pathways to deep decarbonization - Interim 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The interim 2014 report by the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP), coordinated and published by IDDRI and the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), presents preliminary findings of the pathways developed by the DDPP Country Research Teams with the objective of achieving emission reductions consistent with limiting global warming to less than 2 deg. C. The DDPP is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations who develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. Each DDPP Country Research Team has developed an illustrative road-map for the transition to a low-carbon economy, with the intent of taking into account national socio-economic conditions, development aspirations, infrastructure stocks, resource endowments, and other relevant factors. The interim 2014 report focuses on technically feasible pathways to deep decarbonization

  4. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  6. The Interim Financial Statements: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rogdaki, E.I.; Kazantzis, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The following paper refers to the accounting and auditing issues which emerge in the preparation of the interim financial statements of the companies: Firstly, the interim financial statements are defined as being the financial statements that provide useful information about the financial position and the financial results of a company which are realized and accrued during the fiscal year. The interim financial statements can be prepared on a monthly basis, on a quarterly basis or covering a...

  7. The role and meaning of interim housing in housing first programs for people experiencing homelessness and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Suzanne; Francombe Pridham, Katherine; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Connelly, Jolynn; Hwang, Stephen; O'Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-07-01

    The housing first (HF) model for individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness differs by design from traditional models that require consumers to achieve "housing readiness" by meeting program or treatment prerequisites in transitional housing settings prior to permanent housing placement. Given a growing body of evidence for its favorable outcomes and cost effectiveness, HF is increasingly seen as an alternative to and argument against these traditional programs. As such, it is important that the elements and implementation challenges of the HF model be clearly understood and articulated. This qualitative study explored a largely unexamined aspect of the HF model-the need for and meaning of temporary residential settings (interim housing), a place to stay while waiting to secure permanent housing-using interviews and focus groups with service providers and consumers who experienced interim housing during implementation of HF in a large urban center. Although interim housing may not be necessary for all programs implementing the model, our study revealed numerous reasons and demands for safe, flexible interim housing options, and illustrated how they influence the effectiveness of consumer recovery, continuous service engagement, and housing stability.

  8. Safe Halloween Thrills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Two PTAs sponsored events that capitalized on Halloween themes, engaged their communities in fall celebrations, and were safe, wholesome, and fun. With help from local volunteers, one school turned its gymnasium into a 19th-century British town with a fall/Halloween theme. Another PTA hosted a carnival, Spooktacular, that involved community…

  9. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  10. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  11. The regulatory approach for spent nuclear storage and conditioning facility: The Hanford example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, E.D.; Mooers, G.C. III; Daschke, K.D.; Driggers, S.A.; Timmins, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Hearings held before the House Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources in March 1994, requested that officials of federal agencies and other experts explore options for providing regulatory oversight of the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and operations. On January, 25, 1995, the DOE, supported by the White House Office of Environmental Quality and the Office of Management and Budget, formally initiated an Advisory Committee on External Regulation of DOE Nuclear Safety. In concert with this initiative and public opinion, the DOE Richland Operations Office has initiated the K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project -- Regulatory Policy. The DOE has established a program to move the spent nuclear fuel presently stored in the K Basins to a new storage facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. New facilities will be designed and constructed for safe conditioning and interim storage of the fuel. In implementing this Policy, DOE endeavors to achieve in these new facilities ''nuclear safety equivalency'' to comparable US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. The DOE has established this Policy to take a proactive approach to better align its facilities to the requirements of the NRC, anticipating the future possibility of external regulation. The Policy, supplemented by other DOE rules and directives, form the foundation of an enhanced regulatory, program that will be implemented through the DOE K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (the Project)

  12. Design criteria for the 200-ZP-1 interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, J.F.; Olson, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Interim Remedial Measure Proposed Plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit recommended a pump and treat action to contain contaminated groundwater and limit further degradation of groundwater due to elevated concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. This design criteria document defines the Project. The Project encompasses: site preparation; development of groundwater wells for monitoring, extraction, and injection; extraction and injection equipment; construction of a treatment system with support buildings/utilities; management; engineering design, analysis, and reporting; and operation and maintenance. A groundwater pump and treat system, hereafter the System, will be composed of extraction wells, a piping network, treatment equipment, water storage, and injection wells. Based upon engineering judgment, the selected technology in the proposed plan (DOE-RL 1994a) is air stripping of the organic contaminants followed by vapor-phase adsorption onto granulated activated carbon (GAC); liquid-phase GAC may be required as a polishing step. The Treatment Equipment refers to air stripping towers, adsorption vessels, water pumps, air blowers, instrumentation, and control devices which will be procured as a turn-key system

  13. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  14. SWSA 6 interim corrective measures environmental monitoring: FY 1990 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the results and conclusions from a multifaceted monitoring effort associated with the high-density polyethylene caps installed in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as an interim corrective measure (ICM). The caps were installed between November 1988 and June 1989 to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for closure of those areas of SWSA 6 that had received RCRA-regulated wastes after November 1980. Three separate activities were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the caps: (1) wells were installed in trenches to be covered by the caps, and water levels in these intratrench wells were monitored periodically; (2) samples were taken of the leachate in the intratrench wells and were analyzed for a broad range of radiological and chemical contaminants; and (3) water levels in wells outside the trenches were monitored periodically. With the exception of the trench leachate sampling, each of these activities spanned the preconstruction, construction, and postconstruction periods. Findings of this study have important implications for the ongoing remedial investigation in SWSA 6 and for the design of other ICMs. 51 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  16. Retrieval of fluidizable radioactive wastes from storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This report provides guidance for strategic planning and implementation of resuspension and retrieval of stored fluid or fluidizable radioactive wastes. The potential risks associated with preparation and realization of these processes are included in the report, and lessons learned from previous applications are highlighted. Technological procedures and equipment used in various countries for resuspension and remobilization of stored fluidizable radioactive wastes are described in the attached annexes as potential options. Waste retrieval is a maturing technology of major importance now that Member States are moving forward in the responsible management of wastes by removal to safe interim storage or disposal. Retrieval of fluidizable wastes is a four-phase operation: (1) access to the waste, (2) mobilize the waste, (3) remove the waste; and (4) transfer the waste.This report divides successful retrieval of radioactive waste into two areas. The first area applies the concept of the waste retrieval as being the final component of a systematic process of old waste management. It also encompasses characterization as it applies to waste retrieval and downstream processes, including acceptance of wastes for treatment, conditioning, storage or disposal. It should be in conformity with national policy, as well as complying with international safety standards and environmental agreements. The second area of the report focuses on implementation of waste retrieval in a wide range of scenarios and using a wide range of retrieval approaches, equipment and technologies. Technical processes are further explained as part of the experience gained in advanced countries on the subject. A set of detailed retrieval technology descriptions by country is included as Annexes to this report. Thirteen experts from seven Member States that previously implemented, or have planned for the near future, significant resuspension and remobilization operations were involved in the preparation of

  17. Basis for Interim Operation for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    This document establishes the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility (FSS) as managed by the 300 Area Deactivation Project (300 ADP) organization in accordance with the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract procedure (PHMC) HNF-PRO-700, ''Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements''. A hazard classification (Benecke 2003a) has been prepared for the facility in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92 resulting in the assignment of Hazard Category 3 for FSS Facility buildings that store N Reactor fuel materials (303-B, 3712, and 3716). All others are designated Industrial buildings. It is concluded that the risks associated with the current and planned operational mode of the FSS Facility (uranium storage, uranium repackaging and shipment, cleanup, and transition activities, etc.) are acceptable. The potential radiological dose and toxicological consequences for a range of credible uranium storage building have been analyzed using Hanford accepted methods. Risk Class designations are summarized for representative events in Table 1.6-1. Mitigation was not considered for any event except the random fire event that exceeds predicted consequences based on existing source and combustible loading because of an inadvertent increase in combustible loading. For that event, a housekeeping program to manage transient combustibles is credited to reduce the probability. An additional administrative control is established to protect assumptions regarding source term by limiting inventories of fuel and combustible materials. Another is established to maintain the criticality safety program. Additional defense-in-depth controls are established to perform fire protection system testing, inspection, and maintenance to ensure predicted availability of those systems, and to maintain the radiological control program. It is also concluded that because an accidental nuclear criticality is not credible based on the low uranium enrichment

  18. Interim results from UO2 fuel oxidation tests in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, T.K.; Gilbert, E.R.; Thornhill, C.K.; White, G.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Griffin, C.W.j.

    1987-08-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to extend the characterization of spent fuel oxidation in air. To characterize oxidation behavior of irradiated UO 2 , fuel oxidation tests were performed on declad light-water reactor spent fuel and nonirradited UO 2 pellets in the temperature range of 135 to 250 0 C. These tests were designed to determine the important independent variables that might affect spent fuel oxidation behavior. The data from this program, when combined with the test results from other programs, will be used to develop recommended spent fuel dry-storage temperature limits in air. This report describes interim test results. The initial PNL investigations of nonirradiated and spent fuels identified the important testing variables as temperature, fuel burnup, radiolysis of the air, fuel microstructure, and moisture in the air. Based on these initial results, a more extensive statistically designed test matrix was developed to study the effects of temperature, burnup, and moisture on the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Oxidation tests were initiated using both boiling-water reactor and pressurized-water reactor fuels from several different reactors with burnups from 8 to 34 GWd/MTU. A 10 5 R/h gamma field was applied to the test ovens to simulate dry storage cask conditions. Nonirradiated fuel was included as a control. This report describes experimental results from the initial tests on both the spent and nonirradiated fuels and results to date on the tests in a 10 5 R/h gamma field. 33 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs

  19. High density fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is described for the safe and compact storage of nuclear fuel assemblies in an array of discrete open-ended neutron absorbing shields for which the theoretical minimum safe separation distance and cell pitch are known. Open-ended stainless steel end fittings are welded to each end of each shield and the end fittings are welded to each other in side-by-side relation, thereby reducing the cell pitch tolerance due to fabrication uncertainties. In addition, a multiplicity of ridges on the sides of each shield having a height equal to one half the theoretical minimum safe separation distance further reduce shield bowing tolerances. The net tolerance reduction permits a significant increase in the number of fuel assemblies that can be safely contained in a storage area of fixed size

  20. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  1. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  2. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  4. Fuel performance in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

  5. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables

  6. 78 FR 70244 - Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0104] RIN 0960-AH45 Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We reimburse States that provide interim assistance to Supplemental...

  7. Decision on performing interim analysis for comparative clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Kyongsun; Jacobus, Susanna; Uno, Hajime

    2017-09-01

    In randomized-controlled trials, interim analyses are often planned for possible early trial termination to claim superiority or futility of a new therapy. While unblinding is necessary to conduct the formal interim analysis in blinded studies, blinded data also have information about the potential treatment difference between the groups. We developed a blinded data monitoring tool that enables investigators to predict whether they observe such an unblinded interim analysis results that supports early termination of the trial. Investigators may skip some of the planned interim analyses if an early termination is unlikely. We specifically focused on blinded, randomized-controlled studies to compare binary endpoints of a new treatment with a control. Assuming one interim analysis is planned for early termination for superiority or futility, we conducted extensive simulation studies to assess the impact of the implementation of our tool on the size, power, expected number of interim analyses, and bias in the treatment effect. The numerical study showed the proposed monitoring tool does not affect size or power, but dramatically reduces the expected number of interim analyses when the effect of the treatment difference is small. The tool serves as a useful reference when interpreting the summary of the blinded data throughout the course of the trial, without losing integrity of the study. This tool could potentially save the study resources and budget by avoiding unnecessary interim analyses.

  8. 28 CFR 94.41 - Interim emergency payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim emergency payment. 94.41 Section 94.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Payment of Claims § 94.41 Interim emergency payment...

  9. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  10. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…

  11. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707...

  12. Nuclear hydrogen production and its safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Lee, Minsoo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen related research presently undertaken at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. These encompass nuclear hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the safe handling of hydrogen, High temperature gas-cooled reactors can play a significant role, with respect to large-scale hydrogen production, if used as the provider of high temperature heat in fossil fuel conversion or thermochemical cycles. A variety of potential hydrogen production methods for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed. They are steam reforming of natural gas, thermochemical cycles, etc. The produced hydrogen should be stored safely. Titanium metal was tested primarily because its hydride has very low dissociation pressures at normal storage temperatures and a high capacity for hydrogen, it is easy to prepare and is non-reactive with air in the expected storage conditions. There could be a number of potential sources of hydrogen evolution risk in a nuclear hydrogen production facility. In order to reduce the deflagration detonation it is necessary to develop hydrogen control methods that are capable of dealing with the hydrogen release rate. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the catalytic recombination characteristics of hydrogen in an air stream using palladium catalysts. (author)

  13. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-12-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  14. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  15. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  16. 50 CFR 259.30 - Application for Interim Capital Construction Fund Agreement (“Interim CCF Agreement”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Date of construction, acquisition, or reconstruction, (vii) Fishery of operation (which in this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Interim Capital Construction Fund Agreement (âInterim CCF Agreementâ). 259.30 Section 259.30 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  17. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  18. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  19. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  20. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  1. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  2. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state-of-the art...

  3. Safe Haven CDS Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    Credit Default Swaps can be used to lower capital requirements of dealer banks who enter into uncollateralized derivatives positions with sovereigns. We show in a model that the regulatory incentive to obtain capital relief makes CDS contracts valuable to dealer banks and empirically that......, consistent with the use of CDS for regulatory purposes, there is a disconnect between changes in bond yield spreads and in CDS premiums especially for safe sovereigns. Additional empirical tests related to volumes of contracts outstanding, effects of regulatory proxies, and the corporate bond and CDS markets...

  4. Evaluation of closure alternatives for the Building 3001 Storage Canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The Bldg. 3001 Storage Canal at ORNL is leaking approximately 400 gal of water per day. This report presents the Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) Team's evaluation of plans and presents recommendations for interim closure alternatives to stop the release of radionuclides and potential release of heavy metals into the environment. This is a conceptual evaluation and does not include detailed engineering of physical mitigation methods. The alternatives address only interim closure measures and not final decommissioning of the canal.

  5. Design, construction and commissioning of an interim spent fuel store for the decommissioning of Ignalina NPP, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Goehring; Martin Beverungen; Phil Smith

    2006-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning (turn-key) of an interim spent fuel store facility (ISFSF) has been awarded to a Consortium of GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Service and RWE NUKEM GmbH under the lead of RWE NUKEM. The contract was signed on the 12.01.2005. The Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) is financed by the Ignalina Decommissioning Support Fund which is managed by EBRD. All spent fuel assemblies, currently stored in the spent fuel pits at the reactors plus future arising (about 18000 in total) will be loaded in the CONSTOR R RBMK1500/M2 containers, which are stored in the new facility. The initial contract has been awarded for 3500 spent fuel assemblies. (authors)

  6. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  7. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  9. Compact Fuel Cell Power Supplies with Safe Fuel Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, M. R; Chellappa, A. S; Vencill, T. R

    2004-01-01

    .... Despite its energy-density advantage, this ammonia-based power supply will not likely be deployed in military or commercial markets unless safety concerns related to the possible rapid release of ammonia are resolved...

  10. Chemical and Ceramic Methods Toward Safe Storage of Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.E.D. Morgan; R.M. Housley; J.B. Davis; M.L. DeHaan

    2005-01-01

    A very important, extremely-long-term, use for monazite as a radwaste encapsulant has been proposed. The use of ceramic La-monazite for sequestering actinides (isolating them from the environment), especially plutonium and some other radioactive elements (e.g., fission-product rare earths), had been especially championed by Lynn Boatner of ORNL. Monazite may be used alone or, copying its compatibility with many other minerals in nature, may be used in diverse composite combinations

  11. Chemical and Ceramic Methods Toward Safe Storage of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E.D. Morgan; R.M. Housley; J.B. Davis; M.L. DeHaan

    2005-08-19

    A very import, extremely-long-term, use for monazite as a radwaste encapsulant has been proposed. THe use of ceramic La-monazite for sequestering actinides (isolating them from the environment), especially plutonium and some other radioactive elements )e.g., fission-product rare earths), had been especially championed by Lynn Boatner of ORNL. Monazite may be used alone or, copying its compatibility with many other minerals in nature, may be used in diverse composite combinations.

  12. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  13. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2007-07-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented. (c) 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  15. Technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    A particular challenge facing countries with small nuclear programmes is the preparation for extended interim storage and then disposal of their spent nuclear fuel. The costs and complications of providing for away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or geological repositories for relatively small amounts of spent fuel may be prohibitively high, motivating interest in regional solutions. This publication addresses the technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities (RSFSF) and is based on the results of a series of meetings on this topic with participants from IAEA Member States. Topics discussed include safety criteria and standards, safeguards and physical protection, fuel acceptance criteria, long term stability of systems and stored fuel, selection of site, infrastructure aspects, storage technology, licensing, operations, transport, decommissioning, as well as research and development. Furthermore the publication comprises economic, financial and institutional considerations including organizations and legal aspects followed by political and public acceptance and ethical considerations. Approaches and processes for implementation are discussed, as well as the overall benefits and risks of implementing a regional facility. It is illustrated that implementing a RSFSF facility would involve simultaneously addressing a wide range of diverse challenges. The appendix to this report tabulates the numerous issues that have been touched upon in the study. It appears, however, from the discussions that the challenges can in principle be met; the RSFSF concept is technically feasible and potentially economically viable. The technical committees producing this report did not identify any obvious institutional deficiencies that would prevent completion of such a project. Storing spent fuel in a few safe, reliable, secure facilities could enhance safeguards, physical protection and non-proliferation benefits. The committee also

  16. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  17. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  18. Storage Practices of US Gun Owners in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crifasi, Cassandra K; Doucette, Mitchell L; McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2018-04-01

    To examine gun storage practices and factors influencing those practices among gun owners. We conducted a nationally representative online survey of US gun owners (n = 1444) in 2016 to assess gun storage practices and attitudes, factors influencing storage practices, and groups that might effectively communicate regarding safe storage. We generated descriptive statistics by using cross-tabulations and used logistic regression to estimate characteristics that influenced safe storage practices. Forty-six percent of gun owners reported safely storing all of their guns. Factors associated with higher odds of reporting safe storage were having a child in the home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.03), only owning handguns (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.24, 2.73), and reporting that storage decisions were influenced by a gun safety course (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54, 2.74) or discussions with family members (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.86). Gun owners ranked law enforcement, hunting or outdoors groups, active-duty military, and the National Rifle Association as most effective in communicating safe storage practices. Public health campaigns to promote safe gun storage should consider partnering with groups that garner respect among gun owners for their experience with safe use of guns.

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  20. Structural Health Monitoring of Nuclear Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingyu

    2018-04-10

    Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites has gained additional importance and urgency for resolving waste-management-related technical issues. To ensure that nuclear power remains clean energy, monitoring has been identified by DOE as a high priority cross-cutting need, necessary to determine and predict the degradation state of the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) important to safety (ITS). Therefore, nondestructive structural condition monitoring becomes a need to be installed on existing or to be integrated into future storage system to quantify the state of health or to guarantee the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their extended life span. In this project, the lead university and the collaborating national laboratory teamed to develop a nuclear structural health monitoring (n-SHM) system based on in-situ piezoelectric sensing technologies that can monitor structural degradation and aging for nuclear spent fuel DCSS and similar structures. We also aimed to identify and quantify possible influences of nuclear spent fuel environment (temperature and radiation) to the piezoelectric sensor system and come up with adequate solutions and guidelines therefore. We have therefore developed analytical model for piezoelectric based n-SHM methods, with considerations of temperature and irradiation influence on the model of sensing and algorithms in acoustic emission (AE), guided ultrasonic waves (GUW), and electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS). On the other side, experimentally the temperature and irradiation influence on the piezoelectric sensors and sensing capabilities were investigated. Both short-term and long-term irradiation investigation with our collaborating national laboratory were performed. Moreover, we developed multi-modal sensing, validated in laboratory setup, and conducted the testing on the We performed multi-modal sensing development, verification and validation tests on very complex structures

  1. Interim report and accounts 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    An interim set of accounts and reports is presented here for 1993/1994 for the health science company Amersham International. The company's research programs focus on developments in life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance, with particular expertise in the application of radioactivity to labelling and detection at the molecular level. This report which covers the half-year to 30 September 1993 shows promising financial results, with turnover, operating profits and earnings per share all having risen. All life science markets report growth although difficult trading conditions are being reported in Europe. Two products in the Healthcare business have achieved progress, a pain palliation agent for bone metastases has been launched in the United States, and European approval has been gained for a new technetium based heart imaging agent. Further growth is expected for the company. (UK)

  2. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  3. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  4. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  5. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  6. Thermal analysis of dry concrete canister storage system for CANDU spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yong Ho

    1992-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a thermal analysis of the concrete canisters for interim dry storage of spent, irradiated Canadian Deuterium Uranium(CANDU) fuel. The canisters are designed to contain 6-year-old fuel safely for periods of 50 years in stainless steel baskets sealed inside a steel-lined concrete shield. In order to assure fuel integrity during the storage, fuel rod temperature shall not exceed the temperature limit. The contents of thermal analysis include the following : 1) Steady state temperature distributions under the conservative ambient temperature and insolation load. 2) Transient temperature distributions under the changes in ambient temperature and insolation load. Accounting for the coupled heat transfer modes of conduction, convection, and radiation, the computer code HEATING5 was used to predict the thermal response of the canister storage system. As HEATING5 does not have the modeling capability to compute radiation heat transfer on a rod-to-rod basis, a separate calculating routine was developed and applied to predict temperature distribution in a fuel bundle. Thermal behavior of the canister is characterized by the large thermal mass of the concrete and radiative heat transfer within the basket. The calculated results for the worst case (steady state with maximum ambient temperature and design insolation load) indicated that the maximum temperature of the 6 year cooled fuel reached to 182.4 .deg. C, slightly above the temperature limit of 180 .deg. C. However,the thermal inertia of the thick concrete wall moderates the internal changes and prevents a rise in fuel temperature in response to ambient changes. The maximum extent of the transient zone was less than 75% of the concrete wall thickness for cyclic insolation changes. When transient nature of ambient temperature and insolation load are considered, the fuel temperature will be a function of the long term ambient temperature as opposed to daily extremes. The worst design

  7. Evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment'; Utvaerdering av miljoekvalitetsmaalet 'Saeker straalmiljoe'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asp, Helene; Brewitz, Erica; Halvarsson, Andreas; Ljungberg, Sophie; Mjoenes, Lars; Wallberg, Petra

    2007-11-15

    The evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment' is a contribution to the Environmental Objective Council's assessment of progress towards the national environmental quality objectives. The report describes and evaluates the radiation environment in Sweden, the regulatory instruments, measures carried out and the monitoring programmes. Furthermore, the possibility of achieving the objective and its interim targets is evaluated. New measures and means of control are proposed. The proposals are directed to the government and Parliament, national authorities and other stakeholders in society. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) considers it possible to achieve the objective, but additional efforts are required to ensure success. Environmental monitoring, research on health effects of radiation and supervision are still important areas. Intensified efforts will be needed to change attitudes towards suntanning. Changes in the formulation of the objective and its interim targets are suggested. Today only protection against radiation in the external environment is covered by the objective. Radiation protection work has to consider all. SSI therefore suggests that the objective should extend to include workplaces and indoor environment. For the three interim targets included in 'A Safe Radiation Environment', changes are suggested for the interim targets for radioactive substances and electromagnetic fields. No change is suggested for the interim target for skin cancer

  8. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  9. 14 CFR 136.41 - Interim operating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tribal lands. (2) ATMP limitation. The Administrator may grant interim operating authority under this paragraph (c) only if the ATMP for the park or tribal lands to which the application relates has not been...

  10. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  11. Interim research assessment 2003-2005 - Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.

  12. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  13. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  14. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  15. Revised RCRA closure plan for the Interim Drum Yard (S-030) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Interim Drum Yard (IDY) facility is a containerized waste storage area located in the Y-12 exclusion area. It was used to store waste materials which are regulated by RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act); uranyl nitrate solutions were also stored there. The closure plan outlines the actions required to achieve closure of IDY and is being submitted in accordance with TN Rule 1200-1-11.05(7) and 40 CFR 265.110

  16. Guidelines for safe design of shipping packages against brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    In 1992, the ninth meeting of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials recommended the publication of this TECDOC in an effort to promote the widest debate on the criteria for the brittle fracture safe design of transport packages. The published IAEA advice on the influence of brittle fracture on material integrity is contained in Appendix IX of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safety Transport of Radioactive Material (1985 Edition, as amended 1990), Safety Series No. 37. This guidance is limited in scope, dealing only with ferritic steels in general terms. It is becoming more common for designers to specify materials other than austenitic stainless steel for packaging components. The data on ferritic steels cannot be assumed to apply to other metals, hence the need for further guidance on the development of relationships describing material properties at low temperatures. The methods described in this TECDOC will be considered by the Revision Panel for inclusion in the 1996 Edition of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and the supporting documents. If accepted by the Revision Panel, this advice will be a candidate for upgrading to a Safety Practice. In the interim period, this TECDOC offers provisional advice on brittle fracture evaluation. It is acknowledged that, at this stage, the views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of Member States or organizations under whose auspices this manuscript was produced. Refs and figs

  17. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  18. Interim Report by Asia International Grid Connection Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omatsu, Ryo

    2018-01-01

    The Asia International Grid Connection Study Group Interim Report examines the feasibility of developing an international grid connection in Japan. The Group has investigated different cases of grid connections in Europe and conducted research on electricity markets in Northeast Asia, and identifies the barriers and challenges for developing an international grid network including Japan. This presentation introduces basic contents of the interim report by the Study Group.

  19. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines

  20. ITER interim design report package and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication documents the technical basis which underlay the Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis submitted to the ITER Councils (IC-8 and IC-9) Records of decisions and the ''ITER Interim Design Report Package''. This publication contains ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions, TAC-8 Report, SRG Report, CP's Report on Tentative Sequence of Events and Parties' Views on the IDR Package and Parties' Technical Comments on the IDR Package. Figs, tabs

  1. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  2. The information content of SFAS No 131 interim segment reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Joong-Seok Cho

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the effect of implementation of SFAS No.131 on companies' information environments by assessing the effect of interim period financial reports. Especially, using Beaver's information content measures, it investigates the market's reaction to interim period financial reporting under SFAS No.131. The empirical results of the information content test show that the adoption of SFAS No.131 does not affect the market's reaction. For the volume reaction test, no d...

  3. Results of ultrasonic testing evaluations on UF6 storage cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykins, M.L.

    1997-02-01

    The three site cylinder management program is responsible for the safe storage of the DOE owned UF 6 storage cylinders at PORTS, PGDP and at the K-25 site. To ensure the safe storage of the UF 6 in the cylinders, the structural integrity of the cylinders must be evaluated. This report represents the latest cylinder integrity investigation that utilized wall thickness evaluations to identify thinning due to atmospheric exposure

  4. Storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Gerald K.

    1963-04-15

    The development of storage rings is discussed. Advantages of such devices are pointed out as well as their limits, requirements, and design and fabrication problems. Information gained by the operation of small electron storage rings is included, and three experiments are proposed for colliding-beam facilities. (D.C.W.)

  5. Reinforcement of a PMMA resin for interim fixed prostheses with silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzi, Marianthi; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Bikiaris, Dimitrios; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2017-05-01

    Fractures in long span provisional/interim restorations are a common complication. Adequate fracture toughness is necessary to resist occlusal forces and crack propagation, so these restorations should be constructed with materials of improved mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reinforcement of neat silica nanoparticles and trietoxyvinylsilane-modified silica nanoparticles in a PMMA resin for fixed interim restorations. Composite PMMA-Silica nanoparticles powders were mixed with PMMA liquid and compact bar shaped specimens were fabricated according to the British standard BS EN ISO 127337:2005. The single-edge notched method was used to evaluate fracture toughness (three-point bending test), while the dynamic thermomechanical properties (Storage Modulus, Loss Modulus, tanδ) of a series of nanocomposites with different amounts of nanoparticles (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% w.t.) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed and the statistically significant level was set to pPMMA resins used in fixed provisional restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Postconstruction report for the mercury tanks interim action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    Three underground concrete settling tanks (tanks 2101-U, 2104-U, and 2100-U) at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained contaminated sludges contributing mercury to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). These tanks were cleaned out as an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent subproject. Cleaning out these tanks prevented the sludge that had settled in the bottom from resuspending and carrying mercury into UEFPC. Tanks 2104-U and 2100-U were returned to service and will continue to receive effluent from buildings 9201-4 and 9201-5. Tank 2101-U had been abandoned and its effluent redirected to Tank 2100-U during previous activities. This interim action permanently sealed Tank 2101-U from the storm sewer system. Upon removal of materials and completion of cleanup, inspections determined that the project's cleanup criteria had been met. The structural integrity of the tanks was also inspected, and minor cracks identified in tanks 2101-U and 2104-U were repaired. This project is considered to have been completed successfully because it met its performance objectives as addressed in the Interim Record of Decision and the work plan: to remove the waste from the three storage tanks; to ensure that the tanks were cleaned to the levels specified; to return tanks 2100-U and 2104-U to service; to isolate Tank 2101-U permanently; and to manage the wastes in an appropriate fashion

  7. Protecting the Investment: Guidance on the Storage of Packaged Wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naish, Chris; Skelton, Paul; Wisbey, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will cover: • Introduction to the UK guidance on interim storage; • Waste stores in the UK and the Store Operations Forum; • Example Approach 1 – Operational limits and conditions; • Example Approach 2 – Monitoring the evolution of package performance; • IAEA Independent peer review

  8. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage

  9. A Safe Ride to School; A Safe Ride Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Text and illustrations are used to teach safe school bus riding practices. The guide begins with instructions to parents or guardians to set a good example of safe behavior, and to help children learn safety rules and be on time. Instructions to children concern obeying the bus driver, boarding the bus, riding the bus, crossing the road, and using…

  10. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and storage of TRIGA reg-sign reactor fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    In order to allow the shutdown of the Hanford 308 Building in the 300 Area, it is proposed to relocate fuel assemblies (101 irradiated, three unirradiated) from the Mark I TRIGA Reactor storage pool. The irradiated fuel assemblies would be stored in casks in the Interim Storage Area in the Hanford 400 Area; the three unirradiated ones would be transferred to another TRIGA reactor. The relocation is not expected to change the offsite exposure from all Hanford Site 300 and 400 Area operations

  11. Current status on the spent fuel dry storage management in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.T.; Liu, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: One of the high priority issues for the continuous operation of nuclear power plants is how to manage and store spent fuel. In recent years, interim dry storage of spent fuel has become a significant solution in extending the storage capacity at a nuclear reactor site that lacks sufficient spent fuel pool storage capacity as in the world, and also in Taiwan. Although the re-racking project for the spent fuel pools has been undertaken, the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) Chinshan nuclear power plant still will lose its full core reserve by the year 2010. TPC has declared to build an on-site interim dry storage facility, this followed by geological disposal represents the most suitable option at this time. TPC is expected to submit the application for construction permit in 2006; preoperational test and storage should be put into operation by the end of 2008. Interim dry storage is a passive system. Materials used play a crucial role in the safety function of cask. The competent authority of spent fuel management in Taiwan, FCMA/AEC, will carry out a confirmatory evaluation regarding heat dissipation, structural seismic analysis, and radiation shielding to assure available safety function for casks after reviewing safety analysis report submitted by TPC. Third party inspection has been required to enhance quality assurance program and foreign technical consultation will be arranged. Although the security level for such facility will be kept to the same level as an NPP, a comprehensive analysis against a commercial airplane attack on cask should be made and addressed in the supplement of SAR. Licensing hearing is also required before issuing the construction permit. The paper presents the review plan and regulatory requirements for the licensing of an interim dry storage of spent fuel, the licensing procedure, and the development of dry storage cask for spent fuel in Taiwan

  12. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because you can buy a pet from the pet store doesn't mean it's safe for homes with kids. Animals that may not be child-safe include: reptiles (turtles, snakes, lizards, iguanas) rodents (hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, chinchillas, hedgehogs, prairie ...

  13. How long can donor sclera be safely stored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, K G; Nair, P; Grahn, B

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether after prolonged storage of sclera in glycerin, there is any bacteriologic contamination that will reactivate, whether reconstituted sclera retains its tensile strength, and whether sclera retains its microstructural integrity. Sixty-six scleral shells stored in glycerin for 9 to 19 years, as well as 11 controls stored for 6 months to 4 years, were studied by cutting a small wedge of tissue from the anterior margin of each and directly inoculating into thioglycolate broth, cutting an equatorial ring and determining its break strength using a tensiometer, and cutting a small piece from the remaining posterior portion and examining by scanning electron microscopy. After such prolonged storage, bacteriologic contamination was not detected, tensile strength generally increased with increasing duration of storage, and ultrastructural integrity was maintained on scanning electron microscopy. This study suggests that storage of scleral shells can be safely prolonged; we hope this can facilitate an increased supply of donated sclera to patients and surgeons.

  14. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  15. The EMEFS model evaluation. An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dennis, R.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Seilkop, S.K. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Banic, C.M.; Davies, D.; Hoff, R.M.; Macdonald, A.M.; Mickle, R.E.; Padro, J.; Puckett, K. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, ON (Canada); Byun, D.; McHenry, J.N. [Computer Sciences Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Karamchandani, P.; Venkatram, A. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Camarillo, CA (United States); Fung, C.; Misra, P.K. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hansen, D.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chang, J.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1991-12-01

    The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities

  17. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  18. Cost studies concerning decontamination and dismantling. The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Sjoeoe, Cecilia; Lindskog, Staffan; Cato, Anna

    2006-04-01

    The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik was designed and constructed in 1962-64. It has been used for wet storage of fuel from the Aagesta Nuclear Power Plant as well as the R2 reactor at Studsvik. The interim store comprises three cylindrical pools for fuel storage as well as equipment for handling and decontamination. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology for calculation of future costs for decontamination and dismantling of nuclear research facilities. The analysis is based on information from Studsvik as well as results from information searches. The requirements on precision of cost calculations is high, also at early stages. The reason for this is that the funds are to be collected now but are to be used some time in the future. At the same time they should neither be insufficient nor superfluous. It is apparent from the compilation and analysis that when methodology that has been developed for the purpose of cost calculations for power reactors is applied to research facilities certain drawbacks become apparent, e.g. difficulties to carry out variation analyses. Generally, feedback of data on incurred costs for the purpose of cost calculations can be achieved by using one or more scaling factors together with weighing factors which are established based on e.g. expert judgement. For development and utilisation of such tools it is necessary to have access to estimated costs together with incurred ones. In the report, the following combination of aspects is identified as being of primary significance for achieving a high precision: Calculations with the possibility to calibrate against incurred costs; Radiological surveying tailored to the needs for calculations; Technical planning including selection of techniques to be used; Identification of potential sources for systematic deviations. In the case of the interim store, some of the sources of uncertainty are as follows: Damaged surface layers in the pools; Maintenance status for the

  19. Perry Nuclear Plant's Plans for on-site storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratchen, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Because of current radwaste disposal legislation and the eventual denial of access to the Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty burial sites, it was imperative for the Perry nuclear power plant to develop alternative means for handling its generated radioactive waste. The previous radwaste facilities at Perry were developed for processing, packaging, short-term storage, and shipment for burial. In order to meet the changing needs, new facilities have been constructed to handle the processing, packaging, and 5-yr interim storage of both dry active waste (DAW) and dewatered or solidified resin, filter media, etc

  20. Status and current spent fuel storage practices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Brief discussions are presented on the history and state of spent fuel generation by utilities that comprise the United States commercial nuclear power industry, the current situation regarding the Federal government's nuclear waste policy, and evolving spent fuel storage practices. These evolving spent fuel storage practices are the result of private sector initiatives, but appear to be influenced by various external factors. The paper is not intended to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the storage initiatives being conducted by the private sector. The focus, instead, is on the Federal government's role and activities related to spent fuel management. Although the Federal government has adopted a policy calling for deep geological disposal of spent fuel, the US Congress has recently begun to consider expanding that policy to include a centralized interim storage facility. In the absence of such an expanded policy, the Department of Energy has performed some preliminary activities that would expedite development of a centralized interim storage facility, if Congress were to enact such a policy. The Department's current activities with regard to developing a centralized interim storage facility, which are consistent with the current policy, are described in the paper. The paper also describes two important technical development activities that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to support improved efficiency in spent fuel management. The Department's activities regarding development of a burnup credit methodology, and a dry transfer system are summarized. (author)