WorldWideScience

Sample records for intergroup exemestane study

  1. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Intergroup Exemestane Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, James P; Alvarez, Isabel; Bertelli, Gianfilippo; Coates, Alan S; Coleman, Robert; Fallowfield, Lesley; Jassem, Jacek; Jones, Stephen; Kilburn, Lucy; Lønning, Per E; Ortmann, Olaf; Snowdon, Claire; van de Velde, Cornelis; Andersen, Jørn; Del Mastro, Lucia; Dodwell, David; Holmberg, Stig; Nicholas, Hanna; Paridaens, Robert; Bliss, Judith M; Coombes, R Charles

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The Intergroup Exemestane Study, an investigator-led study of 4,724 postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer (clinical trial information: ISRCTN11883920), has previously demonstrated that a switch from adjuvant endocrine therapy after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen to exemestane was associated with clinically relevant improvements in efficacy. Here, we report the final efficacy analyses of this cohort. Patients and Methods Patients who remained disease free after 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen were randomly assigned to continue tamoxifen or switch to exemestane to complete a total of 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Given the large number of non-breast cancer-related deaths now reported, breast cancer-free survival (BCFS), with censorship of intercurrent deaths, was the primary survival end point of interest. Analyses focus on patients with estrogen receptor-positive or unknown tumors (n = 4,599). Results At the time of the data snapshot, median follow-up was 120 months. In the population that was estrogen receptor positive or had unknown estrogen receptor status, 1,111 BCFS events were observed with 508 (22.1%) of 2,294 patients in the exemestane group and 603 (26.2%) of 2,305 patients in the tamoxifen group. The data corresponded to an absolute difference (between exemestane and tamoxifen) at 10 years of 4.0% (95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7%), and the hazard ratio (HR) of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.92) favored exemestane. This difference remained in multivariable analysis that was adjusted for nodal status, prior use of hormone replacement therapy, and prior chemotherapy (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.90; P < .001). A modest improvement in overall survival was seen with exemestane; the absolute difference (between exemestane and tamoxifen) at 10 years in the population that was estrogen receptor positive or had unknown estrogen receptor status was 2.1% (95% CI, -0.5% to 4.6%), and the HR was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.01; P = .08). For the intention

  2. Long-term endometrial effects in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer participating in the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES)--a randomised controlled trial of exemestane versus continued tamoxifen after 2-3 years tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, G; Hall, E; Ireland, E; Snowdon, C F; Jassem, J; Drosik, K; Karnicka-Mlodkowska, H; Coombes, R C; Bliss, J M

    2010-03-01

    The antiestrogen tamoxifen may have partial estrogen-like effects on the postmenopausal uterus. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are increasingly used after initial tamoxifen in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal early breast cancer due to their mechanism of action: a potential benefit being a reduction of uterine abnormalities caused by tamoxifen. Sonographic uterine effects of the steroidal AI exemestane were studied in 219 women participating in the Intergroup Exemestane Study: a large trial in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (or unknown) early breast cancer, disease free after 2-3 years of tamoxifen, randomly assigned to continue tamoxifen or switch to exemestane to complete 5 years adjuvant treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with abnormal (> or =5 mm) endometrial thickness (ET) on transvaginal ultrasound 24 months after randomisation. The analysis included 183 patients. Two years after randomisation, the proportion of patients with abnormal ET was significantly lower in the exemestane compared with tamoxifen arm (36% versus 62%, respectively; P = 0.004). This difference emerged within 6 months of switching treatment (43.5% versus 65.2%, respectively; P = 0.01) and disappeared within 12 months of treatment completion (30.8% versus 34.7%, respectively; P = 0.67). Switching from tamoxifen to exemestane significantly reverses endometrial thickening associated with continued tamoxifen.

  3. Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2-3 years' tamoxifen treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, R C; Kilburn, L S; Snowdon, C F; Paridaens, R; Coleman, R E; Jones, S E; Jassem, J; Van de Velde, C J H; Delozier, T; Alvarez, I; Del Mastro, L; Ortmann, O; Diedrich, K; Coates, A S; Bajetta, E; Holmberg, S B; Dodwell, D; Mickiewicz, E; Andersen, J; Lønning, P E; Cocconi, G; Forbes, J; Castiglione, M; Stuart, N; Stewart, A; Fallowfield, L J; Bertelli, G; Hall, E; Bogle, R G; Carpentieri, M; Colajori, E; Subar, M; Ireland, E; Bliss, J M

    2007-02-17

    Early improvements in disease-free survival have been noted when an aromatase inhibitor is given either instead of or sequentially after tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive early breast cancer. However, little information exists on the long-term effects of aromatase inhibitors after treatment, and whether these early improvements lead to real gains in survival. 4724 postmenopausal patients with unilateral invasive, oestrogen-receptor-positive or oestrogen-receptor-unknown breast cancer who were disease-free on 2-3 years of tamoxifen, were randomly assigned to switch to exemestane (n=2352) or to continue tamoxifen (n=2372) for the remainder of a 5-year endocrine treatment period. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival; overall survival was a secondary endpoint. Efficacy analyses were intention-to-treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN11883920. After a median follow-up of 55.7 months (range 0-89.7), 809 events contributing to the analysis of disease-free survival had been reported (354 exemestane, 455 tamoxifen); unadjusted hazard ratio 0.76 (95% CI 0.66-0.88, p=0.0001) in favour of exemestane, absolute benefit 3.3% (95% CI 1.6-4.9) by end of treatment (ie, 2.5 years after randomisation). 222 deaths occurred in the exemestane group compared with 261 deaths in the tamoxifen group; unadjusted hazard ratio 0.85 (95% CI 0.71-1.02, p=0.08), 0.83 (0.69-1.00, p=0.05) when 122 patients with oestrogen-receptor-negative disease were excluded. Our results suggest that early improvements in disease-free survival noted in patients who switch to exemestane after 2-3 years on tamoxifen persist after treatment, and translate into a modest improvement in overall survival.

  4. Quality of life in the intergroup exemestane study: a randomized trial of exemestane versus continued tamoxifen after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Lesley J; Bliss, Judith M; Porter, Lucy S; Price, Miranda H; Snowdon, Claire F; Jones, Stephen E; Coombes, R Charles; Hall, Emma

    2006-02-20

    To compare and describe the quality of life (QOL) of women allocated to tamoxifen or exemestane within the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES). Postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer who were disease free after 2 to 3 years were randomly assigned to switch from tamoxifen to exemestane or continue with tamoxifen until 5 years of treatment were completed. A subset of IES centers participated in a QOL substudy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) and endocrine subscale (ES) were administered before random assignment and at predefined follow-up times. The primary end point was the FACT-B composite Trial Outcome Index (TOI). Secondary end points included total FACT-B+ES score, total ES score, and severity of individual endocrine symptoms. This analysis reports QOL up to 24 months. Five hundred eighty-two patients from eight countries were enrolled onto the substudy. Completion and return of questionnaires was excellent, with 85% available for analysis. QOL was generally good and stable over 2 years, with no clinically meaningful differences found between groups in TOI or ES. Prevalence of severe endocrine symptoms at trial entry was high for vasomotor complaints and sexual problems, which persisted for both groups during the study. No significant differences between groups were seen for any endocrine symptoms apart from vaginal discharge, which was more pronounced with tamoxifen (P < .001). The switch from tamoxifen to exemestane neither increased nor decreased endocrine symptoms present after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen; the switch also did not initiate significant reports of new symptoms. Results indicate that the clinical benefits of exemestane over tamoxifen are achieved without significant detrimental effect on QOL.

  5. Carpal tunnel syndrome and musculoskeletal symptoms in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer treated with exemestane or tamoxifen after 2-3 years of tamoxifen: a retrospective analysis of the Intergroup Exemestane Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieog, J. Sven D.; Morden, James P.; Bliss, Judith M.; Coombes, R. Charles; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Delozier, T.; Veronesi, A.; Vrdoljak, E.; Monnier, A.; Coombes, C.; Nagykalnai, T.; Roumen, R. M. H.; Utracka-Hutka, B.; Pluzanska, A.; Porpiglia, M.; Genta, F.; Benedetto, C.; Sozzani, P.; Steiner, M.; Rubinov, R.; Leviov, M.; Semiglazov, V.; Fox, J.; Mayordomo, J. I.; Cervek, J.; Sleeboom, H. P.; Jassem, J.; Hinton, C. P.; Paulsen, T. H.; Guleng, R. J.; Fein, L.; Gutulescu, N.; Florián, J.; Rosso, R.; Rutgers, E. J.; Krzakowski, M.; Pienkowski, T.; Krajina, Z.; Siffnerova, H.; Pawlicki, M.; Drosik, K.; Wagnerowa, M.; Brunt, M.; Vukelja, S.; Mitrowic, L.; Cataliotti, L.; Karnicka-Mlodkowska, H.; Bonnefoi, H.; Tilch, G.; Chollet, P.; Patel, A.; Kamby, C.; Giustini, L.; Acito, L.; Mouridsen, H.; Roche, H.; de Lafontan, B.; Tomczak, P.; Petruzelka, L.; Lortholary, A.; Pacquola, M. G.; Skene, A.; Rici, S.; Michelotti, A.; Ghilezan, N.; Stewart, A.; Beauduin, M.; Andersen, J.; Vassilaros, S.; Celio, Luigi; Bajetta, E.; Bastús, R.; Marsland, T.; Paridaens, R.; Tzekova, V.; Lichtenegger, W.; Piersma, H.; Jones, S.; Holmberg, S.; Verhoeven, D.; Hill, A.; Porcile, G.; Bruno, M. F.; Chernozemski, I.; Coleman, R.; Jadeja, J.; Cohn, A.; Merlano, M.; Perroni, D.; Di Costanzo, F.; van Bochove, A.; Gerrits, M. A. N.; Malec, V.; Balil, A.; Mendiola, C.; Dodwell, D.; Knox, R.; Horgan, K.; Joannides, T.; Leonard, R. C. F.; Cawthorn, S. J.; Ghosh, C.; Cantrell, J.; Campos, D.; Orti, R.; Diedrich, K.; Aas, H.; Barnadas, A.; Vila, M. M.; Makris, A.; Anderson, T.; Chittor, S.; Michel, J.; Philip, P.; Redmond, P.; Mastboom, W. J. B.; Nordenskjöld, B.; Simmonds, P.; Grieve, R. J.; Tomova, A.; Piot, G.; Borea, G.; Ucci, G.; Einarsson, E.; Nicholson, S.; Gardiol, E. A.; Kerger, J.; Schlosser, J.; Namer, M.; Pinotti, G.; Rutten, H. T. J.; Iversen, T.; Nejim, A.; Dudov, A.; Grundtvig, P.; Lang, I.; Massidda, B.; van de Velde, C. H. J.; Gervasio, M. H.; Tengrup, I.; Tennvall, L.; Goodman, S.; Modgill, V. K.; Vorobiof, D. A.; Mickiewicz, E.; Chirgwin, J.; Focan, C.; Albin, N.; Contu, A. A.; Svensson, J. H.; Borghede, G.; Källström, A.-C.; Forbes, J. F.; Hurtz, H. J.; Tubiana-Hulin, M.; Viens, P.; Scanni, A.; Arnoldi, E.; Nastasi, G.; Bottini, A.; Alquati, P.; Muscat, V.; Brincat, S.; Holmen, K.; Amaral, N.; Moreno, I.; Trask, C.; Robinson, A.; Mcintyre, K.; Otsuka, A.; Hohaus, B.; Hoefig, G.; Georgoulias, V.; Salvagni, S.; Bidin, L.; Artioli, F.; Engan, T.; Benedikstsson, K. P.; Campbell, I.; Harvey, V.; Zimbler, H.; Mrsic-Krmpotic, Z.; Canon, J. L.; Tchilingirov, P. V.; Buser, K.; Bolanca, A.; Reztke, U.; Rhein, U.; Jouve, M.; Mullins, G.; Vesentini, L.; Gallo, L.; Merlini, L.; Decensi, A.; Carreca, I.; van Tienhoven, G.; Börjesson, B.; Hansen, J.; Koza, I.; Arcusa, A.; Inoriza, A.; Pelegri, A.; Eremin, O.; Modiano, M. R.; Anthony, S.; Donat, D.; Richardet, E.; Kochli, O.; Zeißig, P.; Gauch, G.; Aabo, K.; Fumoleau, P.; Erdkamp, F. L. G.; Lovén, L.; Jönsson, P.-E.; Perren, T.; Stuart, N.; Galindo, E.; Marek, B. J.; Salmon, J. P.; Dohollou, N.; Thompson, R.; Folco, U.; Rosa, A.; Tonato, M.; Heijmans, G. J.; Koralewski, P.; Bång, H.; Lescure, A. R.; Carrato, A.; Martin, M.; Neave, F.; Howell, T.; Savin, M.; Loesch, D.; Hannois, A.; Mohr, A.; Laube, T.; Omar, S.; Bonneterre, J.; Servent, V.; Danese, S.; Sertoli, M. R.; Butzelaar, R. M. J. M.; Steller, E. Ph; Gomez, H.; Skoog, P.; Alvarez, I.; Aguilar, E. Aranda; Giner, J. Lizón; Yosef, H. M. A.; Barrett- Lee, P.; Buzdar, A. U.; George, T.; Olivaires, J.; Vsianska, M.; Köhler, U.; Lindeløv, B.; Toftdahl, D. B.; Nielsen, E. B.; Veyret, C.; Castera, D.; Kerbrat, P.; Vassilaros, P.; Yeo, W.; Boni, C.; Aitini, E.; Luporini, G.; Herben, M. G.; Espelid, H.; Dahl, S.; Ingvar, C.; Meana, A.; Pico, C.; Garcia, A. M.; Agrawal, R. K.; Gruenberg, D.; Nunez de Pierro, A.; Gill, G.; Nogaret, J. M.; Honhon, B.; Wassenaar, H.; Nielander, Rik; Warnier, Ph; Sessa, C.; Padrik, P.; Guastalla, J. P.; Serin, D.; Jaubert, D.; Dank, M.; Given, F. H.; Mascia, V.; de Fraia, E.; Silingardi, V.; Conte, P. F.; Labianca, R.; Tondini, C.; Bagnulo, A.; Gardani, G.; Wils, J.; Liem, G. S.; Nuytinck, J. K. S.; Formoe, E.; Ambré, T.; Alés, J.; Aramburo, P.; Mansi, J.; Graham, J.; Joffe, J.; Sainsbury, J.; Stone, J.; Good, R. H.; Cartwright, T.; Werner, I. D.; Murray, E.; Beith, J.; Tigges, F. J.; Bojko, P.; Sandberg, E.; Jensen, B.; Lotz, J. P.; Carney, D.; Shapira, J.; Neumann, A.; Goldhirsch, A.; Dicato, M.; de Graaf, H.; Maartense, E.; Burghouts, J.; Cassinello, J.; Jones, A.; Gaffney, C.; Blum, R.; Abdi, E.; Becquart, D.; Dirix, L.; Janssens, J.; NMarschner, N.; Blaska-Jaulerry, B.; Prevot, G.; Mirah Lev, L.; Shani, A.; Baruch, N. B.; Peretz, T.; Gips, M.; Cognetti, F.; Carlini, P.; Nortier, J. W. R.; ten B Huinink, D.; Roussel, J. G. J.; Unneberg, K.; Kylberg, F.; Hovind, H.; Nestvold, T.; Fogelkvist, R.; Due, J.; Muller, S.; Gilligan, D.; Russel, S.; Mcaleer, J.; Yiangou, C.; Foote, L.; Schottstaedt, M.; Holmes, F. A.; Wainstein, R.; Contreras, O.; Martinez, J.; Della-Fiorentina, S.; Beslija, S.; Vermorken, J. B.; Thirion, M.; Fraikin, J.; Castiglione, M.; Jäger, W.; Fasching, P.; Fabriz, H.; Neis, K.; Kirschbaum, M.; Labat, J. P.; Dupuis, O.; Bernard, Jean; Datchary, J.; Provencal, J.; Allain, P.; Clerico, M.; Lopez, M.; Nalli, G.; Aspevik, R.; Fràguas, A.; Curescu, S.; Cuevas, J. M.; Oltra, A.; Bradley, C.; Kapoor, R.; Akbain, S.; Croghan, M. K.; Modiano, M.; Taetle, R.; Beale, P.; Gobert, P.; Bondue, H.; Böhm, R.; Møller, K. A.; Brettes, J. P.; Netter, G.; Grogan, L.; Klein, B.; Botta, M.; Barni, S.; van Meerwijk, I.; Kåresen, R.; Godes, J.; Aramburo, A.; Jara, C.; Zanger, B.; Fleagle, J. T.; Greenspan, A.; Marschke, R.; Medgyesy, D. C.; Garbo, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are more effective than is tamoxifen in prevention of breast-cancer recurrence, but at the expense of increased musculoskeletal side-effects, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors and the prognostic value of musculoskeletal symptoms

  6. Studying Intergroup Relations in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-10

    Psychology and Intergroup Relations. London; Academic Press, 1976. Bion , Wilfred R.: Experiences in Groups. New York; Basic Books, 1961. Blake... Bion , 1961; Bradford, Gibb and Benne, 1964; Rice, 1965; Gibhard, Hartman, and Mann, 1974; Cooper and Alderfer, 1978; Alderfer and Cooper, 1980

  7. Quality of life in relation to tamoxifen or exemestane treatment in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: a Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) Trial side study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, J. G. H.; Fontein, D. B. Y.; Hille, E. T. M.; Voskuil, D. W.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Putter, H.; Seynaeve, C.; Nortier, J. W. R.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors are associated with side effects which can significantly impact quality of life (QoL). We assessed QoL in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) Trial and compared these data with reported adverse events in the main database. 2,754 Dutch

  8. Quality of life in relation to tamoxifen or exemestane treatment in postmenopausal breast cancer patients : a Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) Trial side study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, J. G. H.; Fontein, D. B. Y.; Hille, E. T. M.; Voskuil, D. W.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Putter, H.; Seynaeve, C.; Nortier, J. W. R.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors are associated with side effects which can significantly impact quality of life (QoL). We assessed QoL in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) Trial and compared these data with reported adverse events in the main database. 2,754 Dutch

  9. Everolimus Plus Exemestane in Advanced Breast Cancer: Safety Results of the BALLET Study on Patients Previously Treated Without and with Chemotherapy in the Metastatic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Mafodda, Antonino; Romito, Sante; Michelotti, Andrea; Piovano, Pierluigi; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Bighin, Claudia; Sartori, Donata; Frassoldati, Antonio; Cazzaniga, Marina Elena; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Testore, Franco; Vici, Patrizia; Barone, Carlo Antonio; Schirone, Alessio; Piacentini, Federico; Nolè, Franco; Molino, Annamaria; Latini, Luciano; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Roila, Fausto; Cognetti, Francesco; Nuzzo, Francesco; Foglietta, Jennifer; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Goffredo, Francesca; Portera, Giuseppe; Ascione, Gilda; Mariani, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%). One thousand one hundred and fifty-one Italian patients were included in the present post hoc analysis, which focused on two sets of patients: patients who never received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (36.1%) and patients who received at least one chemotherapy treatment in the metastatic setting (63.9%). One thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (97.0%) prematurely discontinued the study drug, and the main reasons reported were disease progression (39.1%), local reimbursement of everolimus (31.1%), and adverse events (AEs) (16.1%). The median duration of study treatment exposure was 139.5 days for exemestane and 135.0 days for everolimus. At least one AE was experienced by 92.5% of patients. The incidence of everolimus-related AEs was higher (83.9%) when compared with those that occurred with exemestane (29.1%), and the most commonly reported everolimus-related AE was stomatitis (51.3%). However, no significant difference in terms of safety related to the combination occurred between patients without and with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Real-life data of the Italian patients BALLET-related cohort were an adequate setting to state that previous chemotherapy did not affect the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane. With the advent of new targeted agents for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multiple lines of therapy may be possible, and components of the combined regimens can overlap from

  10. Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2-3 years' tamoxifen treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coombes, R C; Kilburn, L S; Snowdon, C F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early improvements in disease-free survival have been noted when an aromatase inhibitor is given either instead of or sequentially after tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive early breast cancer. However, little information exists on the long-term effects ...

  11. INTERGROUP RELATIONS IN SOCIAL-STUDIES TEXTBOOKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARRIS, JUDAH J.

    RESULTS OF SURVEYS OF SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS USED IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED. IN SECONDARY TEXTBOOKS, FOCUS WAS ON THE ATTENTION GIVEN TO THE TREATMENT OF JOBS, OF AMERICAN NEGROES, OF IMMIGRANTS, AND OF MINORITIES UNDER NAZISM. IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) ANCIENT HEBREW HISTORY, TO THE EXCLUSION OF…

  12. Exemestane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early breast cancer in women who have experienced menopause ('change of life'; end of monthly menstrual periods) and who have already been treated with a medication called tamoxifen (Nolvadex) ... experienced menopause whose breast cancer has worsened while they were ...

  13. Beyond the two-group paradigm in studies of intergroup conflict and inequality: Third parties and intergroup alliances in xenophobic violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Philippa; Durrheim, Kevin; Dixon, John

    2017-03-01

    Social psychologists typically conceptualize intergroup processes in terms of unequal pairs of social categories, such as an advantaged majority (e.g., 'Whites') and a disadvantaged minority (e.g., 'Blacks'). We argue that this two-group paradigm may obscure the workings of intergroup power by overlooking: (1) the unique dynamics of intergroup relations involving three or more groups, and (2) the way some two-group relationships function as strategic alliances that derive meaning from their location within a wider relational context. We develop this argument through a field study conducted in a grape-farming town in South Africa in 2009, focusing on an episode of xenophobic violence in which a Zimbabwean farm worker community was forcibly evicted from their homes by their South African neighbours. Discursive analysis of interview accounts of the nature and origins of this violence shows how an ostensibly binary 'xenophobic' conflict between foreign and South African farm labourers was partially constituted through both groups' relationship with a third party who were neither victims nor perpetrators of the actual violence, namely White farmers. We highlight some potential political consequences of defaulting to a two-group paradigm in intergroup conflict studies. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  15. Reducing aggressive intergroup action tendencies: effects of intergroup contact via perceived intergroup threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Küpper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Tausch, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Two studies tested the prediction that more positive intergroup contact would be associated with reduced aggressive intergroup action tendencies, an effect predicted to occur indirectly via reduced intergroup threat perceptions, and over and above well-established effects of contact on intergroup attitudes. Study 1, using data based on a cross-section of the general population of eight European countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and the UK; N = 7,042), examined this hypothesis in the context of aggressive action tendencies towards immigrants. Study 2, using longitudinal data obtained from a general population sample in Northern Ireland, considered effects on aggressive action tendencies between ethno-religious groups in conflict. Both studies confirmed our predictions, showing that while perceived threat was associated with greater intergroup aggressive tendencies, positive intergroup contact was indirectly associated with reduced aggressive action tendencies, via reduced intergroup threat. Findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical contributions of this research for understanding the relationship between intergroup contact and intergroup aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  17. Development and evaluation of exemestane-loaded lyotropic liquid crystalline gel formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Muhammad Nuh; David, Sheba Rani; Zulkipli, Ihsan Nazurah; Mahadi, Abdul Hanif; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rajabalaya, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of liquid crystalline (LC) gel formulations for drug delivery has considerably improved the current delivery methods in terms of bioavailability and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate LC gel formulations to deliver the anti-cancer drug exemestane through transdermal route. Methods: Two LC gel formulations were prepared by phase separation coacervation method using glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween 80 and Pluronic® F127 (F127). The formulations...

  18. Development and evaluation of exemestane-loaded lyotropic liquid crystalline gel formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Muhammad Nuh; David, Sheba Rani; Zulkipli, Ihsan Nazurah; Mahadi, Abdul Hanif; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rajabalaya, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of liquid crystalline (LC) gel formulations for drug delivery has considerably improved the current delivery methods in terms of bioavailability and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate LC gel formulations to deliver the anti-cancer drug exemestane through transdermal route. Methods: Two LC gel formulations were prepared by phase separation coacervation method using glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween 80 and Pluronic® F127 (F127). The formulations were characterized with regard to encapsulation efficiency (EE), vesicle size, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface morphology (using light and fluorescence microscopy), in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, in vitro effectiveness test on MDA-MB231 cancer cell lines and histopathological analysis. Results: Results exhibited that the EE was 85%-92%, vesicle size was 119.9-466.2 nm while morphology showed spherical vesicles after hydration. An FTIR result also revealed that there was no significant shift in peaks corresponding to Exemestane and excipients. LC formulations release the drug from cellulose acetate and Strat-MTM membrane from 15%-88.95%, whereas ex vivo permeation ranges from 37.09-63%. The in vitro effectiveness study indicated that even at low exemestane concentrations (12.5 and 25 μg/mL) the formulations were able to induce cancer cell death, regardless of the surfactant used. Histopathological analysis thinning of the epidermis as the formulations penetrate into the intercellular regions of squamous cells. Conclusion: The results conjectured that exemestane could be incorporated into LC gels for the transdermal delivery system and further preclinical studies such as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies will be carried out with suitable animal models.

  19. Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe radiotherapeutic practice in the treatment of vulvar cancer in member study groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to representatives of the member study groups of the GCIG, targeting the use...... of radiotherapy (RT) in vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-two surveys were returned from 12 different cooperative groups. The most common indications for neoadjuvant RT include unresectable disease or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage >/=III. For the neoadjuvant treatment of vulvar cancer...... of a broadly accepted standard. This underscores the importance of international cooperation as in GCIG to gather more reliable data for uncommon tumors in gynecologic oncology....

  20. How intergroup friendship works: a longitudinal study of friendship effects on outgroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.N.; Feddes, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that frequency of self-disclosure to outgroup members mediates the positive relationship between intergroup friendship and outgroup attitudes. The current research investigated the relationship between self-disclosure and attitudes in more depth. New undergraduate

  1. The anatomy of Intergroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2014-01-01

    Intergroups are key components in the European Parliament's modus operandi, allowing members from different political groups to focus on specific political topics. Hitherto, the defining characteristics of Intergroups have not received much attention in academic literature. This article remedies ...

  2. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-11-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  3. Intergroup differentiation in computer-mediated communication : Effects of depersonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    Two studies examined intergroup discussions via computer-mediated communication systems. It was hypothesized that depersonalization, in comparison with individuated interaction, would increase the tendency for intergroup differentiation in attitudes and stereotypes, In Study 1, 24 groups

  4. Adjuvant exemestane with ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Olivia; Regan, Meredith M; Walley, Barbara A; Fleming, Gini F; Colleoni, Marco; Láng, István; Gomez, Henry L; Tondini, Carlo; Burstein, Harold J; Perez, Edith A; Ciruelos, Eva; Stearns, Vered; Bonnefoi, Hervé R; Martino, Silvana; Geyer, Charles E; Pinotti, Graziella; Puglisi, Fabio; Crivellari, Diana; Ruhstaller, Thomas; Winer, Eric P; Rabaglio-Poretti, Manuela; Maibach, Rudolf; Ruepp, Barbara; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Bernhard, Jürg; Luo, Weixiu; Ribi, Karin; Viale, Giuseppe; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Goldhirsch, Aron; Francis, Prudence A

    2014-07-10

    Adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor improves outcomes, as compared with tamoxifen, in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. In two phase 3 trials, we randomly assigned premenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer to the aromatase inhibitor exemestane plus ovarian suppression or tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression for a period of 5 years. Suppression of ovarian estrogen production was achieved with the use of the gonadotropin-releasing-hormone agonist triptorelin, oophorectomy, or ovarian irradiation. The primary analysis combined data from 4690 patients in the two trials. After a median follow-up of 68 months, disease-free survival at 5 years was 91.1% in the exemestane-ovarian suppression group and 87.3% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group (hazard ratio for disease recurrence, second invasive cancer, or death, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.85; P<0.001). The rate of freedom from breast cancer at 5 years was 92.8% in the exemestane-ovarian suppression group, as compared with 88.8% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group (hazard ratio for recurrence, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.80; P<0.001). With 194 deaths (4.1% of the patients), overall survival did not differ significantly between the two groups (hazard ratio for death in the exemestane-ovarian suppression group, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.51; P=0.37). Selected adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were reported for 30.6% of the patients in the exemestane-ovarian suppression group and 29.4% of those in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group, with profiles similar to those for postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer, adjuvant treatment with exemestane plus ovarian suppression, as compared with tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression, significantly reduced recurrence. (Funded by Pfizer and others; TEXT and SOFT ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00066703 and NCT00066690, respectively.).

  5. Effects of adjuvant exemestane versus anastrozole on bone mineral density for women with early breast cancer (MA.27B): a companion analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Paul E; Hershman, Dawn L; Cheung, Angela M; Ingle, James N; Khosla, Sundeep; Stearns, Vered; Chalchal, Haji; Rowland, Kendrith; Muss, Hyman B; Linden, Hannah M; Scher, Judite; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Elliott, Catherine R; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; St Louis, Jessica; Chapman, Judith-Anne W; Shepherd, Lois E

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors is associated with damage to bones. NCIC CTG MA.27 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial in which women with breast cancer were assigned to one of two adjuvant oral aromatase inhibitors-exemestane or anastrozole. We postulated that exemestane-a mildly androgenic steroid-might have a less detrimental effect on bone than non-steroidal anastrozole. In this companion study to MA.27, we compared changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and total hip between patients treated with exemestane and patients treated with anastrozole. In MA.27, postmenopausal women with early stage hormone (oestrogen) receptor-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg, daily. MA.27B recruited two groups of women from MA.27: those with BMD T-scores of -2·0 or more (up to 2 SDs below sex-matched, young adult mean) and those with at least one T-score (hip or spine) less than -2·0. Both groups received vitamin D and calcium; those with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 also received bisphosphonates. The primary endpoints were percent change of BMD at 2 years in lumbar spine and total hip for both groups. We analysed patients according to which aromatase inhibitor and T-score groups they were allocated to but BMD assessments ceased if patients deviated from protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00354302. Between April 24, 2006, and May 30, 2008, 300 patients with baseline T-scores of -2·0 or more were accrued (147 allocated exemestane, 153 anastrozole); and 197 patients with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 (101 exemestane, 96 anastrozole). For patients with T-scores greater than -2·0 at baseline, mean change of bone mineral density in the spine at 2 years did not differ significantly between patients taking exemestane and patients taking anastrozole (-0·92%, 95% CI -2·35 to 0·50 vs -2·39%, 95% CI -3·77 to -1·01; p

  6. Developmental Dynamics of Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Attitudes: Long-Term Effects in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölfer, R.; van Zalk, M.H.W.; Schmid, K.; Hewstone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup contact represents a powerful way to improve intergroup attitudes and to overcome prejudice and discrimination. However, long-term effects of intergroup contact that consider social network dynamics have rarely been studied at a young age. Study 1 validated an optimized social network

  7. Minority group members' theories of intergroup contact: a case study of British Muslims' conceptualizations of 'Islamophobia' and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2006-06-01

    Much research in intergroup relations concerns the potential for interventions (e.g. intergroup contact) to reduce majorities' discrimination against minorities. In this paper we focus on how minority group members construe such interventions, especially as they affect their abilities to act in terms of their collective identity to realize social change. In addressing this issue, we focus on a minority's beliefs and theories concerning the intergroup dynamics lying behind their marginalization. Our data are qualitative and concern British Muslims' analyses of the dynamics of Islamophobia. Specifically, we explore two theorizations of Muslims' marginalization. Both share a concern with improving Muslims' collective position in Britain. However, they construe the dynamics to Islamophobia in very different ways, and this shapes their approach to intergroup contact and dialogue. Our analysis is informed by, and seeks to complement, social psychological theorizing on social change and intergroup contact.

  8. (Bad) Feelings about Meeting Them? Episodic and Chronic Intergroup Emotions Associated with Positive and Negative Intergroup Contact As Predictors of Intergroup Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Asbrock, Frank; Wagner, Ulrich; Pettigrew, Thomas F; Hewstone, Miles; Schäfer, Sarina J; Christ, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Based on two cross-sectional probability samples (Study 1: N = 1,382, Study 2: N = 1,587), we studied the interplay between positive and negative intergroup contact, different types of intergroup emotions (i.e., episodic intergroup emotions encountered during contact and more general chronic intergroup emotions), and outgroup behavior in the context of intergroup relations between non-immigrant Germans and foreigners living in Germany. In Study 1, we showed that positive and negative contact are related to specific episodic intergroup emotions (i.e., anger, fear and happiness). Results of Study 2 indicate an indirect effect of episodic intergroup emotions encountered during contact experiences on specific behavioral tendencies directed at outgroup members via more chronic situation-independent intergroup emotions. As expected, anger predicted approaching (discriminatory) behavioral tendencies (i.e., aggression) while fear predicted avoidance. The results extend the existing literature on intergroup contact and emotions by addressing positive and negative contact simultaneously and differentiating between situation-specific episodic and chronic intergroup emotions in predicting discriminatory behavioral tendencies.

  9. Radiographic appearance of Ewing sarcoma of the hands and feet: report from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinus, W.R.; Gilula, L.A.; Shirley, S.K.; Askin, F.B.; Siegal, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Review of current data from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study (IESS) shows that Ewing sarcoma is rare in bones of the hands and feet. The 12 patients from the IESS protocols with hand or foot Ewing sarcoma are comparable to those already reported in the literature. With the exception of lesions in the calcaneus, the prognosis for disease-free survival is excellent. The radiographic features of hand and foot Ewing sarcoma are generally those of classic Ewing sarcoma: permeation, soft-tissue mass, and often, associated sclerotic reaction. However, with the exception of sclerosis, features suggesting bone reaction and slow tumor growth in these patients were distinctly uncommon compared with Ewing sarcoma in general. Apparently location of the lesion is important, since in the reported cases in the literature and in this series, lesions of the calcaneus fared poorly. The importance of this set of patients therefore relates to awareness and early recognition of an unusual appearance and location of Ewing sarcoma

  10. Neighborhood Effects of Intergroup Contact on Change in Youth Intergroup Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Christine E; Taylor, Laura K; Baird, Rachel; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E Mark

    2018-01-01

    Intergroup contact plays a critical role in the reduction of prejudice; however, there is limited research examining the multiple ways through which contact can impact trajectories of development for adolescents in divided societies. Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine individual- and context-level effects of intergroup contact on change in intergroup bias through adolescence. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze five waves of data from 933 youth (M age  = 15.5, SD = 4.03; range: 10-20 years old; 52% female) living in 38 neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The results suggest that youth increase in bias with age. Adolescents with more frequent intergroup contact increase more quickly, and those who report higher quality of contact increase more slowly. Both frequency and quality of contact at the neighborhood level predicted slower increases in bias across adolescence. The results add to a growing literature that combines social and developmental approaches to understanding how intergroup processes and intergroup divide impact youth development of intergroup attitudes and behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of both individual experiences and the context of intergroup contact for youth development in divided contexts.

  11. Evaluating the management styles of intergroup conflicts in the ivory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined intergroup conflicts in selected universities in Southwestern Nigeria. This was with a view to evaluate management strategies adopted by university administration in resolving intergroup conflicts using ownership of institution as a critical variable in exploring these management styles.The study utilized ...

  12. Categorical differentiation and intergroup relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, D; Volpato, C

    1990-03-01

    In this study we attempted to replicate the well-known Doise & Sinclair (1973) procedure for manipulating category salience, in a different social context. We considered the relationship between two groups of professionals: doctors and nurses, as perceived by 40 members of the superior group. The results did not confirm those obtained by Doise & Sinclair since they showed reduced categorical differentiation when the out-group was evoked in advance of the intergroup evaluations. The implications of these findings for theories of social categorization and social identity are discussed.

  13. [The role of collective victimhood in intergroup aggression: Japan-China relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression.

  14. Social Norms and Self-Presentation: Children's Implicit and Explicit Intergroup Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Milne, Alan; McGeorge, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social norms and children's concern for self-presentation affect their intergroup attitudes. Study 1 examined racial intergroup attitudes and normative beliefs among children aged 6 to 16 years (n=155). Accountability (i.e., public self-focus) was experimentally manipulated, and intergroup attitudes were assessed using…

  15. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  16. Intergroup forgiveness of race-related offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Hook, Joshua N; Burnette, Jeni; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Rice, Kenneth G; Worthington, Everett L

    2015-07-01

    We developed a new intergroup forgiveness measure in the context of identity-related offenses, with a focus on racial conflicts. In Study 1 (N = 384), we adapted a widely used measure of interpersonal forgiveness to develop the Group Forgiveness Scale (GFS) within the context of an identity-related offense. In Study 2, we replicated the 3-factor structure of the GFS (i.e., Avoidance, Revenge, Decision to Forgive) and examined evidence for its construct validity in a sample of African American/Black university students (N = 225). As evidence of convergent validity, intergroup forgiveness correlated with appraising greater relationship value as well as appraising lower likelihood of being exploited in the future. As evidence of discriminant validity, the newly developed intergroup forgiveness scale (i.e., the GFS) correlated only moderately with interpersonal forgiveness and perceived microaggressions. In Study 3, in another sample of racial/ethnic minority individuals (N = 352), we examined the predictive validity of the scale. More specifically, we examined relations of the GFS subscales with religious commitment and racial/ethnic identity. The Decision to Forgive subscale uniquely correlated with religious commitment controlling for the Avoidance and Revenge subscales. Lower revenge correlated with stronger racial/ethnic identity. We conclude with implications of the current findings for the development of intergroup forgiveness measurement and for understanding the nature of forgiveness within marginalized groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Affective dimensions of intergroup humiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leidner

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame, and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger. Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

  18. A randomized trial of exemestane after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, R Charles; Hall, Emma; Gibson, Lorna J; Paridaens, Robert; Jassem, Jacek; Delozier, Thierry; Jones, Stephen E; Alvarez, Isabel; Bertelli, Gianfilippo; Ortmann, Olaf; Coates, Alan S; Bajetta, Emilio; Dodwell, David; Coleman, Robert E; Fallowfield, Lesley J; Mickiewicz, Elizabeth; Andersen, Jorn; Lønning, Per E; Cocconi, Giorgio; Stewart, Alan; Stuart, Nick; Snowdon, Claire F; Carpentieri, Marina; Massimini, Giorgio; Bliss, Judith M; van de Velde, Cornelius

    2004-03-11

    Tamoxifen, taken for five years, is the standard adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal women with primary, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Despite this treatment, however, some patients have a relapse. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to test whether, after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy, switching to exemestane was more effective than continuing tamoxifen therapy for the remainder of the five years of treatment. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Of the 4742 patients enrolled, 2362 were randomly assigned to switch to exemestane, and 2380 to continue to receive tamoxifen. After a median follow-up of 30.6 months, 449 first events (local or metastatic recurrence, contralateral breast cancer, or death) were reported--183 in the exemestane group and 266 in the tamoxifen group. The unadjusted hazard ratio in the exemestane group as compared with the tamoxifen group was 0.68 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.82; P<0.001 by the log-rank test), representing a 32 percent reduction in risk and corresponding to an absolute benefit in terms of disease-free survival of 4.7 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 2.6 to 6.8) at three years after randomization. Overall survival was not significantly different in the two groups, with 93 deaths occurring in the exemestane group and 106 in the tamoxifen group. Severe toxic effects of exemestane were rare. Contralateral breast cancer occurred in 20 patients in the tamoxifen group and 9 in the exemestane group (P=0.04). Exemestane therapy after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy significantly improved disease-free survival as compared with the standard five years of tamoxifen treatment. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society

  19. The Joint Effect of Bias Awareness and Self-Reported Prejudice on Intergroup Anxiety and Intentions for Intergroup Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Sylvia P.; Dovidio, John F.; Murphy, Mary C.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of Bias Awareness—a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites’ awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased—and prejudice on Whites’ intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in Bias Awareness. Study 2 investigated poten...

  20. Intergroup time bias and racialized social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of intergroup relations, the authors analyzed the time people spent evaluating ingroup and outgroup members. They hypothesized that White participants take longer to evaluate White targets than Black targets. In four experiments, White participants were slower to form impressions of White than of Black people; that is, they showed an intergroup time bias (ITB). In Study 1 (N = 60), the ITB correlated with implicit prejudice and homogeneity. Study 2 (N = 60) showed that the ITB was independent of the type of trait in question (nonstereotypical vs. stereotypical). Study 3 (N = 100) demonstrated that ITB correlates with racism measured 3 months beforehand, is independent of motivation to control prejudice, and is not an epiphenomenon of homogeneity. In Study 4 (N = 40) participants not only showed the ITB in a racialized social context but also displayed it following a minimal group manipulation.

  1. Micro-ecological behavior and intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Shelley; Cairns, Ed; Stringer, Maurice; Rae, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Research evaluating intergroup contact has tended to rely on self-report measures. Drawing on recent micro-ecological research, the two studies reported here used a multi-method approach to examine contact in a more holistic fashion. This involved the measurement of observable behavior at the micro-level, intergroup attitudes via infrahumanization and focus groups. Participants were taking part in a community intervention program in Northern Ireland. We conclude that micro-ecological behavior is not necessarily indicative of outgroup attitudes. Although behavior and attitudes changed in line with one another in Study 1 (less aggregation and significantly less infrahumanization), there were no infrahumanization differences between those who sat beside an outgroup member and those who did not. Importantly, the work presented here illustrates a unique method that allows micro-ecological behavioral observations to be made for the first time in non-racial settings.

  2. The dynamics of acculturation: an intergroup perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rupert; Zagefka, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The growing global trend of migration gives social psychological enquiry into acculturation processes particular contemporary relevance. Inspired by one of the earliest definitions of acculturation [Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskovits, M. (1936). Memorandum on the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist,38, 149152.], we present a case for considering acculturation as a dynamic intergroup process. We first review research stimulated by the dominant perspective in the field, Berry's ...

  3. Minimal impact of adjuvant exemestane or tamoxifen treatment on mammographic breast density in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: A Dutch TEAM trial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.H. van Nes; L.V. Beex (Louk); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); H. Putter (Hein); A. Sramek (Alexandr); S. Lardenoije (Susanne); M.D.-D.E. Carpentier (Marjolijn Duijm-D.E.); I. Van Rongen (Inge); J.W.R. Nortier (Johan W. R.); H.M. Zonderland (Harmine); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for developing breast cancer. We examined the effect of exemestane and tamoxifen on breast density in Dutch postmenopausal early breast cancer patients participating in the Tamoxifen Exemestane

  4. Intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation: lesbian, gay and bisexual student experiences and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Warren, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a method of social justice education. Most intergroup dialogue research explores race and gender identities. Sexual orientation dialogues are uncommon and not yet examined empirically. This qualitative study explores sexual orientation dialogue courses from the perspective of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) student participants. Understanding target, or marginalized, group perspective of planned intergroup experiences is important given concerns raised in the literature. We document student motivations for participating in dialogues, core outcomes, and main challenges that arose in dialogue. Core outcomes include learning about and accepting one's sexual identity and empowerment. Challenges include those stemming from invisibility of sexual orientation identity. Recommendations are made for intergroup dialogue practice and research.

  5. Relevance of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of exemestane and synergism with sulforaphane for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Exemestane (6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) is a synthetic steroidal inhibitor of the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the terminal and rate-limiting step of the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is active clinically in preventing, delaying progression of, and treating mammary cancers, many of which are estrogen receptor-positive. A striking feature of the structure of exemestane is an extended system of conjugated Michael reaction functions, which is also characteristic of inducers of a broad network of chemoprotective genes regulated by the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECA-associated protein)/Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling system. These genes are largely involved in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection, as well as the synthesis and reduction of glutathione. We show here that exemestane transcriptionally activates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), typical chemoprotective gene products, in a wide variety of mouse, rat, and human cells. It protects several cell lines against oxidative toxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal, against free radical damage arising from hypoxia–reoxygenation, and against UVA radiation damage. Exemestane also inhibits the inflammatory increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mouse macrophages exposed to LPS (lipopolysaccharide), thereby resembling the isothiocyanate sulforaphane derived from broccoli. Remarkably, combinations of exemestane and sulforaphane act highly synergistically, and this property is also displayed by several other phytochemicals. Thus, exemestane has a wide range of previously unrecognized protective activities, probably unrelated to aromatase inhibition. Its potential for reducing the risk, not only of breast cancer, but also of other chronic diseases that arise from inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA-damaging electrophiles, requires exploration

  6. Freeze dried solid dispersion of exemestane: A way to negate an aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Shamandeep; Jena, Sunil K; Samal, Sanjaya K; Saini, Vaishali; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2017-09-30

    This study was envisaged to demonstrate the potential of exemestane loaded phospholipid/sodium deoxycholate solid dispersions (EXE-PL/SDC-SDs) on the solubility and oral bioavailability of EXE. Initial studies were performed to screen the best suitable phospholipid among lysophosphatidylcholine, Phospholipon® P80H and Lipoid® E80S for solid dispersion preparation. Further studies were carried out to optimize the molar concentration of phospholipid and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) for EXE-PL/SDC-SDs preparation. Optimized EXE-PL/SDC-SDs was prepared using Lipoid® E80S and SDC in 1:4M concentration, respectively and lyophilized using 10% w/w 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPCD). The physical state of EXE in lyophilized formulation was confirmed by DSC and PXRD. Lyophilized formulation exhibits a significant increase in solubility and dissolution rate as compared to free drug EXE. Apparent permeability study was performed on Caco-2 cell line for 2h. The lyophilized EXE-PL/SDC-SDs exhibits 4.6-fold increase in absorptive transport as compared to EXE. Pharmacokinetic study in fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats revealed a 2.3-fold increase in AUC 0-72h . Thus, the results suggest that PL/SDC-SDs is a promising carrier for EXE delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  8. Hope, quality of life, and benefit from treatment in women having chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent ovarian cancer: the gynecologic cancer intergroup symptom benefit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoquist, Katrin M; Friedlander, Michael L; O'Connell, Rachel L; Voysey, Merryn; King, Madeleine T; Stockler, Martin R; Oza, Amit M; Gillies, Kim; Martyn, Julie K; Butow, Phyllis N

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer is motivated by the hope of benefit. We sought to determine the relationships between: (a) trait hope, expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy, and anxiety and depression; (b) hope and perceived efficacy of chemotherapy; and (c) unfulfilled hope (where expectations for benefit are not fulfilled) and depression. Methods. Adult patients enrolled within stage 1 of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Symptom Benefit Study were included. Patient. Reported outcomes were collected from 126 women with predominantly platinum-resistant ovarian cancer at baseline, prior to the first four treatment cycles (12-16 weeks), and four weeks after completing chemotherapy or at disease progression, whichever came first. Associations were assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio. Results. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy were weakly correlated with each other (r = 0.25). Trait hope, but not expectation of symptom benefit, was negatively correlated with anxiety (r = -0.43) and depression (r = -0.50). The smaller the discrepancy between perceived and expected symptom benefit, the less likely the patient was to have scores indicative of depression (odds ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.96; p = .026). Conclusion. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy appear to be distinct and independent of the aspects of quality of life and scores for depression. Hope did not appear to affect perceived efficacy of chemotherapy in alleviating symptoms, but women whose expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy was not fulfilled were more likely to have scores indicative of depression. It may be preferable to encourage hope toward achievable goals rather than toward benefits from chemotherapy.

  9. Gene × environment interaction on intergroup bias: the role of 5-HTTLPR and perceived outgroup threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Livingston, Robert W; Hong, Ying-Yi; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-09-01

    Perceived threat from outgroups is a consistent social-environmental antecedent of intergroup bias (i.e. prejudice, ingroup favoritism). The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with individual variations in sensitivity to context, particularly stressful and threatening situations. Here, we examined how 5-HTTLPR and environmental factors signaling potential outgroup threat dynamically interact to shape intergroup bias. Across two studies, we provide novel evidence for a gene-environment interaction on the acquisition of intergroup bias and prejudice. Greater exposure to signals of outgroup threat, such as negative prior contact with outgroups and perceived danger from the social environment, were more predictive of intergroup bias among participants possessing at least one short allele (vs two long alleles) of 5-HTTLPR. Furthermore, this gene x environment interaction was observed for biases directed at diverse ethnic and arbitrarily-defined outgroups across measures reflecting intergroup biases in evaluation and discriminatory behavior. These findings reveal a candidate genetic mechanism for the acquisition of intergroup bias, and suggest that intergroup bias is dually inherited and transmitted through the interplay of social (i.e. contextual cues of outgroup threat) and biological mechanisms (i.e. genetic sensitivity toward threatening contexts) that regulate perceived intergroup threats. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Steeling Ourselves : Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The

  11. Intergroup leadership in organizations: Leading across group and organizational boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hogg (Michael); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); D.E. Rast III (David)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntergroup leadership-leadership of collaborative performance of different organizational groups or organizations-is associated with unique intergroup challenges that are not addressed by traditional leadership theories. To address this lacuna, we describe a theory of intergroup

  12. Intrinsic religiosity reduces intergroup hostility under mortality salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Orehek, Edward; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein

    Results of three studies indicate that intrinsic religiosity and mortality salience interact to predict intergroup hostility. Study 1, conducted among 200 American Christians and Jews, reveals that under mortality salience, intrinsic (but not extrinsic or quest) religiosity is related to decreased

  13. To know you is to love you: Effects of intergroup contact and knowledge on intergroup anxiety and prejudice among indigenous Chileans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert; Lay, Siugmin; Manzi, Jorge; Didier, Nicolás

    2017-08-01

    Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which would then lead to less intergroup anxiety. The two studies yielded converging support for these predictions. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  15. Social Integration in Employment Settings: Application of Intergroup Contact Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jeanne A.; Rogan, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    This study used a survey of 106 employment specialists to test the ability of intergroup contact theory to explain social integration outcomes of employees with disabilities. Contact theory suggests that coworkers are more accepting of employees with disabilities if they have sufficient opportunities to interact with them, equal status and…

  16. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  17. The rules of engagement: physician engagement strategies in intergroup contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, Sara A; Larson, Bridget K; Wu, Frances M; Gbemudu, Josette N; Carluzzo, Kathleen L; Struthers, Ashley; Van Citters, Aricca D; Shortell, Stephen M; Nelson, Eugene C; Fisher, Elliott S

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance and difficulty of engaging physicians in organisational change has sparked an explosion of literature. The social identity approach, by considering engagement in terms of underlying group identifications and intergroup dynamics, may provide a framework for choosing among the plethora of proposed engagement techniques. This paper seeks to address this issue. The authors examined how four disparate organisations engaged physicians in change. Qualitative methods included interviews (109 managers and physicians), observation, and document review. Beyond a universal focus on relationship-building, sites differed radically in their preferred strategies. Each emphasised or downplayed professional and/or organisational identity as befit the existing level of inter-group closeness between physicians and managers: an independent practice association sought to enhance members' identity as independent physicians; a hospital, engaging community physicians suspicious of integration, stressed collaboration among separate, equal partners; a developing integrated-delivery system promoted alignment among diverse groups by balancing "systemness" with subgroup uniqueness; a medical group established a strong common identity among employed physicians, but practised pragmatic co-operation with its affiliates. The authors cannot confirm the accuracy of managers perceptions of the inter-group context or the efficacy of particular strategies. Nonetheless, the findings suggested the fruitfulness of social identity thinking in approaching physician engagement. Attention to inter-group dynamics may help organisations engage physicians more effectively. This study illuminates and explains variation in the way different organisations engage physicians, and offers a theoretical basis for selecting engagement strategies.

  18. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  19. Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The group discussions of stigmatized group members who anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact revolved more around intergroup hostility. This boosted ingroup identification and increased social creativity but also led to steeling (a hardening of perceived intergroup relations). In Experiment 2, new participants listened to the taped group discussions. The discussions of groups anticipating face-to-face intergroup contact evoked more intergroup anxiety-related discomfort than discussions of groups not anticipating face-to-face intergroup encounters. Together, these results support the idea that steeling is a defensive reaction to prepare for an anxiety-arousing intergroup confrontation. Although steeling is also associated with positive consequences such as increased ingroup solidarity and social creativity, this hardened stance may be an obstacle to conflict de-escalation.

  20. The Social Psychology of Intergroup Toleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Yogeeswaran, Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The global increase in cultural and religious diversity has led to calls for toleration of group differences to achieve intergroup harmony. Although much social-psychological research has examined the nature of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and its impact on targets of these biases, little research has examined the nature and impact of toleration for intergroup relations. Toleration does not require that people give up their objections to out-group norms and practices but rather mutual accommodation. Integrating research from various social sciences, we explore the nature of intergroup tolerance including its three components-objection, acceptance, and rejection-while drawing out its implications for future social-psychological research. We then explore some psychological consequences to social groups that are the object of toleration. By doing so, we consider the complex ways in which intergroup tolerance impacts both majority and minority groups and the dynamic interplay of both in pluralistic societies.

  1. Humiliation and the Inertia Effect: Implications for Understanding Violence and Compromise in Intractable Intergroup Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the influence of humiliation on inter-group conflict in three studies of Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza. We demonstrate that experienced humiliation produces an inertia effect; a tendency towards inaction that suppresses rebellious or violent action but which paradoxically also suppresses support for acts of inter-group compromise. In Study 1, Palestinians who felt more humiliated by the Israeli occupation were less likely to support suicide attacks against Isra...

  2. An analysis of intergroup rivalry using Ising model and reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Fei; Qin, Zheng; Shao, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of intergroup rivalry can help us better understand economic competitions, political elections and other similar activities. The result of intergroup rivalry depends on the co-evolution of individual behavior within one group and the impact from the rival group. In this paper, we model the rivalry behavior using Ising model. Different from other simulation studies using Ising model, the evolution rules of each individual in our model are not static, but have the ability to learn from historical experience using reinforcement learning technique, which makes the simulation more close to real human behavior. We studied the phase transition in intergroup rivalry and focused on the impact of the degree of social freedom, the personality of group members and the social experience of individuals. The results of computer simulation show that a society with a low degree of social freedom and highly educated, experienced individuals is more likely to be one-sided in intergroup rivalry.

  3. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  4. Intergroup contact and prejudice against people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.

  5. Proximity under Threat: The Role of Physical Distance in Intergroup Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J. A.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, social groups have invested immense amounts of wealth and time to keep threatening out-groups at a distance. In the current research, we explored the relationship between intergroup threat, physical distance, and discrimination. Specifically, we examined how intergroup threat alters estimates of physical distance to out-groups and how physical proximity affects intergroup relations. Previous research has found that people judge threatening out-groups as physically close. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined ways to attenuate this bias. In Study 1 a secure (vs. permeable) US-Mexico border reduced the estimated proximity to Mexico City among Americans who felt threatened by Mexican immigration. In Study 2, intergroup apologies reduced estimates of physical proximity to a threatening cross-town rival university, but only among participants with cross-group friendships. In Study 3, New York Yankees fans who received an experimental induction of physical proximity to a threatening out-group (Boston Red Sox) had a stronger relationship between their collective identification with the New York Yankees and support for discriminatory policies toward members of the out-group (Red Sox fans) as well as how far they chose to sit from out-group members (Red Sox fans). Together, these studies suggest that intergroup threat alters judgment of physical properties, which has important implications for intergroup relations. PMID:27467267

  6. Examining the role of positive and negative intergroup contact and anti-immigrant prejudice in Brexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Seger, Charles R; Vermue, Marieke

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the interplay of anti-immigrant prejudice and intergroup contact experience on voting intentions within Britain's 2016 referendum on its membership in the European Union. In the days before the referendum, we asked more than 400 British people how they planned to vote. We measured a number of demographic factors expected to predict voting intentions as well as individuals' prejudice towards and intergroup contact experience (positive and negative) with EU immigrants. Anti-immigrant prejudice was a strong correlate of support for Brexit. Negative intergroup contact experience was associated with higher anti-immigrant prejudice and, in turn, increased support for 'Leave'. Positive intergroup contact, on the other hand, seemed to play a reparative role, predicting lower prejudice and increasing support for 'Remain'. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. In Pursuit of Three Theories: Authoritarianism, Relative Deprivation, and Intergroup Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have pursued three theories related to intergroup prejudice--each with a different mentor. Each theory and its supporting research help us to understand prejudice and ways to ameliorate the problem. This autobiographical review article summarizes some of the advances in these three areas during the past six decades. For authoritarianism, the article advocates removing political content from its measurement, linking it with threat and dismissive-avoidant attachment, and studying how authoritarians avoid intergroup contact. Increased work on relative deprivation made possible an extensive meta-analysis that shows the theory, when appropriately measured, has far broader effects than previously thought. Increased research attention to intergroup contact similarly made possible a meta-analysis that established the pervasive effectiveness of intergroup contact to reduce prejudice under a wide range of conditions. The article closes by demonstrating how the three theories relate to each other and contribute to our understanding of prejudice and its reduction.

  8. Can music bring people together? Effects of shared musical preference on intergroup bias in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakagiannis, Sotirios; Tarrant, Mark

    2006-04-01

    Recent research has successfully applied social identity theory to demonstrate how individuals use music as a basis for intergroup differentiation. The current study investigated how music might also be used to encourage the development of positive intergroup attitudes. Participants (N = 97) were allocated to one of two experimentally created social groups and then led to believe that the groups had similar or different musical preferences. They then evaluated each group and reported their perceptions concerning how they expected their own group to be evaluated by the other group. Participants who believed the groups had similar musical preferences reported more positive intergroup attitudes relative to a control group; they also expected to be evaluated more positively by members of the other group. However, positive intergroup perceptions were also reported by those who believed the two groups had different musical preferences. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. Intergroup contact and team functioning among nursing students: the mediation role of intergroup anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletta, Giuseppe; Sarli, Leopoldo; Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana

    2017-07-18

    The improvement of team effectivity is one of the main concerns for healthcare organizations. Moreover, healthcare organizations must cope with increasing multicultural composition of both workforce and patients. The intergroup contact theory suggests that frequent and positive face-to-face contact among professionals or students with different cultural heritage can help to reach both increasing team effectiveness and adequate care in a multicultural setting. The aim was then to verify whether intergroup contact during practical training would decrease intergroup anxiety and then increase team functioning. A cross-sectional design was used in which a questionnaire was delivered to 83 nursing students. According to the intergroup contact theory, frequent and positive contact with non-native professionals decreased the intergroup anxiety which, in turn, increased prejudice and, more importantly, decreased team functioning. Moreover, intergroup anxiety showed a complete mediation effect on the relations between intergroup contact during practical training and both negative attitude toward immigrants and team functioning. Intergroup contact with non-native professionals or students during practical training is able to indirectly decrease prejudice and improve team functioning by lowering the anxiety that is aroused by encounter with non-native individuals.

  10. The joint effect of bias awareness and self-reported prejudice on intergroup anxiety and intentions for intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sylvia P; Dovidio, John F; Murphy, Mary C; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of bias awareness-a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites' awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased-and prejudice on Whites' intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in bias awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students' intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students' intentions to work with minority populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lebiere

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics (IPD^2 is a new game paradigm for studying human behavior in conflict situations. IPD^2 adds the concept of intragroup power to an intergroup version of the standard Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We conducted a laboratory study in which individual human participants played the game against computer strategies of various complexities. The results show that participants tend to cooperate more when they have greater power status within their groups. IPD^2 yields increasing levels of mutual cooperation and decreasing levels of mutual defection, in contrast to a variant of Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma without intragroup power dynamics where mutual cooperation and mutual defection are equally likely. We developed a cognitive model of human decision making in this game inspired by the Instance-Based Learning Theory (IBLT and implemented within the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This model was run in place of a human participant using the same paradigm as the human study. The results from the model show a pattern of behavior similar to that of human data. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the IPD^2 paradigm can be applied to studying human behavior in conflict situations. In particular, we present the current study as a possible contribution to corroborating the conjecture that democracy reduces the risk of wars.

  12. The Student Police Unity League and Intergroup Contact Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Student Police Unity League as an effective program at fostering more positive views of the police from black citizens operating by the core tenants provided by Intergroup Contact Theory. It was expected that black students who participated in the Student Police Unity League would report higher levels of trust, legitimacy, willingness to work with the police, outcome justice, and lower level of perceived racial profiling. While the majority of the ...

  13. Reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Daniel A; Rothmund, Tobias; Twardawski, Mathias; Thalla, Natasha; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-11-01

    Humans show a rare tendency to punish norm-violators who have not harmed them directly-a behavior known as third-party punishment. Research has found that third-party punishment is subject to intergroup bias, whereby people punish members of the out-group more severely than the in-group. Although the prevalence of this behavior is well-documented, the psychological processes underlying it remain largely unexplored. Some work suggests that it stems from people's inherent predisposition to form alliances with in-group members and aggress against out-group members. This implies that people will show reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment, favoring in-group over out-group members especially when their capacity for deliberation is impaired. Here we test this hypothesis directly, examining whether intergroup bias in third-party punishment emerges from reflexive, as opposed to deliberative, components of moral cognition. In 3 experiments, utilizing a simulated economic game, we varied participants' group relationship to a transgressor, measured or manipulated the extent to which they relied on reflexive or deliberative judgment, and observed people's punishment decisions. Across group-membership manipulations (American football teams, nationalities, and baseball teams) and 2 assessments of reflexive judgment (response time and cognitive load), reflexive judgment heightened intergroup bias, suggesting that such bias in punishment is inherent to human moral cognition. We discuss the implications of these studies for theories of punishment, cooperation, social behavior, and legal practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  15. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  16. Intergroup Conflicts and Customary Mediation: Experiences from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leading to the exacerbation of intergroup conflicts and the inadequacy of customary mediation to solve them. The article explores both ..... besides the collection of taxes, the primary function of native administrators was to maintain law and order within and between tribes .... Sources: (1) Mukhtar 1998. (2) Bureau of Federal ...

  17. Intergroup Bias in Parliamentary Rule Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Political actors are often assigned roles requiring them to enforce rules without giving in-groups special treatment. But are such institutional roles likely to be successful? Here, I exploit a special case of exogenously assigned intergroup relations: debates in the Danish Parliament, in which...

  18. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement in a sample of employees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito

    2009-12-01

    The possible associations of intragroup and intergroup conflict at work with psychological distress and work engagement were investigated in a cross-sectional study in a manufacturing factory in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all employees, and 255 responses were returned (a response rate of 84%). Data from 247 workers (187 males and 60 females) with no missing values were analyzed. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement were measured by the NIOSH-GJSQ, K6, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), respectively. An ANCOVA was conducted to compare K6 and UWES-9 scores among the tertiles on intragroup conflict or intergroup conflict scores, adjusting for demographic and occupational variables as well as worksite social support, separately for males and females. Intragroup conflict was associated with greater psychological distress for males (p for trend=0.009). Intergroup conflict was marginally significantly associated with psychological distress for both males and females (p for trend=0.050 and 0.051, respectively). Contrary to expectation, intergroup conflict was significantly associated with greater work engagement for females (p for trend=0.024). For males, intragroup and intergroup conflict at work may increase psychological distress; for females, intergroup conflict may increase both psychological distress and work engagement.

  19. Misperceptions in intergroup conflict. Disagreeing about what we disagree about.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John R; Baron, Robert S; Inman, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined misperceptions of disagreement in partisan social conflicts, namely, in the debates over abortion (Study 1) and politics (Study 2). We observed that partisans tend to exaggerate differences of opinion with their adversaries. Further, we found that perceptions of disagreement were more pronounced for values that were central to the perceiver's own ideology than for values that were central to the ideology of the perceiver's adversaries. To the extent that partisans assumed disagreement concerning personally important values, they were also inaccurate in perceiving their adversaries' actual opinions. Discussion focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying misperceptions of disagreement and strategies for reducing intergroup conflict.

  20. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Randomized Phase II Study of Azacitidine Alone or in Combination With Lenalidomide or With Vorinostat in Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia: North American Intergroup Study SWOG S1117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Mikkael A; Othus, Megan; List, Alan F; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Stone, Richard M; Gore, Steven D; Litzow, Mark R; Buckstein, Rena; Fang, Min; Roulston, Diane; Bloomfield, Clara D; Moseley, Anna; Nazha, Aziz; Zhang, Yanming; Velasco, Mario R; Gaur, Rakesh; Atallah, Ehab; Attar, Eyal C; Cook, Elina K; Cull, Alyssa H; Rauh, Michael J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Erba, Harry P

    2017-08-20

    Purpose Azacitidine is standard, first-line therapy in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Whether azacitidine-based combinations with lenalidomide or vorinostat produce superior overall response rates (ORRs) to azacitidine is not known. Patients and Methods North American Intergroup Study S1117 is a phase II/III trial that randomly assigned patients with higher-risk MDS and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) 1:1:1 to azacitidine (75 mg/m 2 /day on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle); azacitidine plus lenalidomide (10 mg/day on days 1 to 21); or azacitidine plus vorinostat (300 mg twice daily on days 3 to 9). The primary phase II end point was improved ORR. Results Of 277 patients from 90 centers, 92 received azacitidine, 93 received azacitidine plus lenalidomide, and 92 received azacitidine plus vorinostat. Median age was 70 years (range, 28 to 93 years), 85 patients (31%) were female, and 53 patients (19%) had CMML. Serious adverse events were similar across arms, although combination-arm patients were more likely to undergo nonprotocol-defined dose modifications ( P vorinostat ( P = .16 v azacitidine). For patients with CMML, ORR was higher for azacitidine plus lenalidomide versus azacitidine (68% v 28%, P = .02) but similar for all arms across cytogenetic subgroups, as was remission duration and overall survival. ORR was higher with mutations in DNMT3A and lower for SRSF2, whereas ORR duration improved with fewer mutations. Lenalidomide dose reduction was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.30; P = .05). Conclusion Patients with higher-risk MDS treated with azacitidine-based combinations had similar ORR to azacitidine monotherapy, although patients with CMML benefitted from azacitidine plus lenalidomide. The efficacy of combination regimens may have been affected by dose modifications.

  2. Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals: an interpersonal circle model of goals for interactions between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Kenneth D

    2014-04-01

    Six studies (N = 1,682) used the Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals (CSIG)--an inventory based on the interpersonal circle-to assess individuals' agentic and communal goals for interactions between groups (nations in Studies 1-4, organizations in Study 5, political parties in Study 6). Noteworthy findings included the following: People with stronger unagentic-and-uncommunal goals perceived other groups as dangers, were wary of intergroup negotiations, and sanctioned authoritarianism and inequality. People with stronger agentic-and-uncommunal goals proudly identified with their country and compatriots, disapproved of nations unlike their own, and preferred the conservative candidate in a national election. People with stronger communal-and-unagentic goals identified with people beyond their ingroup, and wanted their group to resolve intergroup conflicts by behaving cooperatively rather than competitively or aggressively. By providing an encompassing framework capable of organizing and integrating these types of diverse findings, the circumplex model can facilitate cumulative scientific progress.

  3. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    York: Free Press, 1960. Billig, M. Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations, London: Academic Press, 1976. Bion , Wilfred J. Experiences in Groups. New...relationships existed among themselves or between them and the group leader ( Bion , 1961). The term to conceptualize the prevailing state of a group’s "as if...appear as conflicting t°j 2 - 25 elements of individual identities (Erikson, 1959), as subgroups within small groups ( Bion , 1959), or as clearly

  4. Extracurricular Activities in Multiethnic Middle Schools: Ideal Context for Positive Intergroup Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A; Juvonen, Jaana

    2017-06-01

    This study examined processes by which extracurricular participation is linked with positive ethnic intergroup attitudes in multiethnic middle schools in California. Specifically, the mediating roles of activity-related cross-ethnic friendships and social identities including alliances with multiple groups were examined in a sample including African American or Black, East or South-East Asian, White, and Latino youth (N = 1,446; M age  = 11.60 in sixth grade). Results of multilevel modeling suggested that in addition to activity-related cross-ethnic friendships, complex social identities mediated the association between availability of cross-ethnic peers in activities and ethnic intergroup attitudes. Results are discussed in terms of how activities can be structured to promote cross-ethnic relationships and complex social identities, as well as positive ethnic intergroup attitudes. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  5. Ethnic Diversity, Inter-group Attitudes and Countervailing Pathways of Positive and Negative Inter-group Contact: An Analysis Across Workplaces and Neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2018-01-01

    This study advances the current literature investigating the relationship between contextual out-group exposure, inter-group attitudes and the role of inter-group contact. Firstly, it introduces the concept of contact-valence into this relationship; that is, whether contact is experienced positively or negatively. Secondly, it presents a comparative analysis of how processes of out-group exposure and frequency of (valenced) contact affect prejudice across both neighbourhoods and workplaces. Applying path analysis modelling to a nationally-representative sample of white British individuals in England, we demonstrate, across both contexts, that increasing out-group exposure is associated with higher rates of both positively- and negatively-valenced contact. This results in exposure exhibiting both positive and negative indirect associations with prejudice via more frequent inter-group mixing. These countervailing contact-pathways help explain how out-group exposure is associated with inter-group attitudes. In neighbourhoods, increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive-contact suppress an otherwise negative effect of neighbourhood diversity (driven partly by increasing numbers of individuals reporting negative contact). Across workplaces the effect differs such that increasing numbers of individuals experiencing negative-contact suppress an otherwise positive effect of workplace diversity (driven largely by increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive contact).

  6. Development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence: The role of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklikowska, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers' anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents' anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background. It also examined whether the effects of parents or peers would depend on adolescents' intergroup friendships. In addition, it explored whether the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships would be mediated or moderated by adolescents' empathy. Results showed significant effects of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and socioeconomic background on changes in youth attitudes, highlighting the role of parental prejudice. They also showed adolescents with immigrant friends to be less affected by parents and peers' prejudice than youth without immigrant friends. In addition, results showed the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships to be mediated by adolescents' empathic concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  7. Trade and inter-group relations in the lower Niger 1830-1960 | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on trade and intergroup relations in the Lower Niger in the period 1830-1960. Trade constitutes an integral aspect of communal relationship in the Lower Niger region from 1830 to 1960. The objective of the study is to show how the people of the Lower Niger related with each other in trade and other ...

  8. Children's intergroup helping: The role of empathy and peer group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined children's (8- to 13-year-olds) intergroup helping intentions. In Study 1, 856 children indicated their intention to help national in-group or out-group peers in a high need situation and in either a public or private context. Results showed that children's empathic tendencies

  9. Examining the hostile media effect as an intergroup phenomenon: The role of ingroup identification and status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Tanis, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This approach conceptualizes the hostile media effect (HME) as an intergroup phenomenon. Two empirical studies, one quasi-experimental and one experimental, examine the HME in the context of the abortion debate. Both studies show that ingroup identification and group status qualify the HME.

  10. Intergroup biases and eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, T; Christianson, S A

    1998-12-01

    The study examined how the in-group/out-group status of a perpetrator of a distinctly violent crime might influence an eyewitness's evaluation of his behavior and a witness's performance in an identification task. Immigrant and Swedish students saw a film showing a simulated robbery, with an immigrant or a Swede as the perpetrator. Results showed that both groups evaluated an ethnically dissimilar perpetrator as more culpable than an ethnically similar perpetrator. In a line-up task, both immigrant and Swedish participants mistakenly identified an innocent immigrant more often than an innocent Swede. Participants' biased evaluations of the perpetrator are discussed in terms of cognitive and motivational mechanisms. Expectations regarding the typical ethnicity of a perpetrator of this type of crime are suggested to account for the findings of the line-up task.

  11. Effects of Minority Status in the Classroom on Children's Intergroup Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies examined effects of relative group size on the development of children's intergroup attitudes during a summer school program in which elementary school children were assigned to majority or minority novel groups denoted by tee-shirt color. Results showed a complex effect of relative group size, varying as a function of the relative…

  12. Children's Intergroup Empathic Processing: The Roles of Novel Ingroup Identification, Situational Distress, and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age = 8.74 years, SD = 1.76) assigned to novel…

  13. Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…

  14. Intra-group interaction and the development of norms which promote inter-group hostility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    Research suggests there is more inter-group discrimination when rewards rather than punishments are distributed between groups (the positive-negative asymmetry effect). This study investigated whether intra-group interaction and the obstruction of in-group advancement moderate this finding.

  15. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  16. Nouns cut slices: Effects of linguistic forms on intergroup bias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Bilewicz, M.; Finell, E.; Geschke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-61 ISSN 0261-927X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : nouns * adjectives * intergroup bias * intergroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2013

  17. Social Exclusion in Childhood: A Developmental Intergroup Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    "Interpersonal" rejection and "intergroup" exclusion in childhood reflect different, but complementary, aspects of child development. Interpersonal rejection focuses on individual differences in personality traits, such as wariness and being fearful, to explain bully-victim relationships. In contrast, intergroup exclusion focuses on how in-group…

  18. Using Intergroup Dialogue to Promote Social Justice and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E.; Garlington, Sarah B.

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other…

  19. Intergroup Differences and Their Impact on African American Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Madsen, Jean A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how intergroup differences within suburban schools affected African American teachers' experiences. Organizational culture strongly influenced how whites treated their minority counterparts. Because the majority established norms, minorities were expected to comply with uniform sets of rules and regulations. Intergroup conflict arose…

  20. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  1. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  2. And What About Siblings? A Longitudinal Analysis of Sibling Effects on Youth's Intergroup Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Katharina; Šerek, Jan; Noack, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Within the process of political socialization, the family is of particular importance. Apart from parents, however, little is known about the role of other close family members. The present study examined if siblings affect each other's intergroup attitudes (i.e., intolerance towards immigrants, social dominance orientation). Drawing on a sample of 362 sibling dyads (older siblings: M age  = 17.77, 53.6% female; younger siblings: M age  = 13.61, 61.3% female), the results showed that older siblings' intergroup attitudes predicted younger siblings' attitudes, but this effect was moderated by gender. Specifically, older siblings' intolerance and social dominance orientation were only found to affect their younger sisters, yet not their younger brothers. Although younger siblings' intergroup attitudes had no main effect on older siblings, a significant moderation by age indicated that younger siblings affected older siblings' social dominance orientation with increasing age. These moderation effects of age and gender were not mediated by the quality of family relationships. The findings also remained the same when parental intergroup attitudes were taken into account. While siblings were generally identified as an important agent of political socialization in youth, the results also highlight the necessity to further examine the mechanism that either facilitate or hinder sibling effects.

  3. Linking social identities to intergroup behavior in diverse teams: the role of intergroup emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Prieto Sol, Patricia; Tran, Véronique; Stewart, Marcus M.; Mackie, Diane

    2009-01-01

    We apply Intergroup Emotion Theory – a theory that considers emotion as a group-based phenomenon - to argue that the way diverse team members cognitively appraise a situation (concerning relationships or the task at hand) and react emotionally about it, and the extent to which they intend to act on it or not, will be a function of their identification with a salient categorization. The proposed extension by applying IET offers the advantage of being able to predict more specifically when and ...

  4. Improvement of treatment outcomes after implementation of comprehensive pharmaceutical care in breast cancer patients receiving everolimus and exemestane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, M; Ueda, S; Osaki, S; Sugitani, I; Takahashi, T; Takahashi, M; Makabe, H; Saeki, T; Itoh, Y

    2018-02-01

    Combination therapy with everolimus and an aromatase inhibitor such as exemestane is an effective treatment option for advanced or recurrent breast cancer. However, the therapy is often limited because of the occurrence of severe adverse events (AEs), including oral mucositis, interstitial lung disease, diarrhea, and rash. Therefore, early management of AEs is extremely important to obtain maximum treatment outcome. We investigated here the effects of comprehensive pharmaceutical care for prevention of severe AEs on patient's quality-of-life (QOL) and continuation of therapy. QOL was assessed every month based on the five-level version of EuroQol-5-Dimension (EQ-5D-5L). AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (ver 4.0). Implementation of comprehensive pharmaceutical care remarkably reduced the incidence of severe oral mucositis as compared with those without such interventions. EQ-5D-5L health states were almost constant during 6 months after intervention, ranging from 0.850 to 0.889. Median time to treatment failure (TTF) was significantly longer after intervention than before [224.0 days, 95% confidence interval (CI): 117-331 days versus 34 days, 21-47 days, hazard ratio (HR): 0.027, 95% CI: 0.005 - 0.154, p<0.001]. These findings suggest that our comprehensive pharmaceutical care is highly effective for enhancing treatment outcome by maintaining patient's QOL.

  5. Ideology and intergroup inequality : Emerging directions and trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, Aaron; Brandt, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose that two guiding frameworks characterize psychological research on the relation between ideology and inequality. The first, called the product approach, focuses on ideologies directly concerned with intergroup relations, in which beliefs about inequality can be considered a

  6. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  7. Dehumanization, retributive and restorative justice, and aggressive versus diplomatic intergroup conflict resolution strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    The desire for justice can escalate or facilitate resolution of intergroup conflicts. Two studies investigated retributive and restorative notions of justice as the mediating factor of the effect of perceived outgroup sentience-an aspect of (mechanistic) dehumanization referring to the emotional depth attributed to others-on intergroup conflict resolution. Study 1 showed that for Palestinians, who see themselves as victims, perceived sentience of Israelis decreased retributive but increased restorative notions of justice, which, ultimately, increased support for conflict resolution by negotiation rather than political violence. Study 2 partially replicated Study 1's findings with Jewish Israelis. The role of perceived sentience and its relationship to retributive and restorative notions of justice in protracted and nonprotracted conflicts and their resolution is discussed.

  8. Differentiating in-group favoritism from shared reality in intergroup perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimdins, Girts; Montgomery, Henry

    2004-11-01

    Two basic factors influence mutual ratings of social groups: in-group favoritism (related to the evaluative aspects of a rating) and the perception of shared reality (related to the descriptive aspects). In two studies, we examine the usefulness of Peabody's (1968) method of separating evaluative and descriptive aspects of rating in intergroup judgments. In Study 1, Latvian and Russian students made different evaluations of both groups, but the same groups agreed on the descriptive ratings. In Study 2, male and female psychology students rated each other from own, in-group, and out-group perspectives. The participants did not show any in-group favoritism in their own ratings, but they expected their fellow students to be in-group biased. The participants agreed on the descriptive ratings of both groups. The results demonstrate that shared reality influences intergroup ratings, despite differences in evaluations.

  9. The downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilali, Rezarta

    2014-03-01

    The current study considered the downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies. This study examined how, in the Turkish national context, the national and ethnic identifications of ethnic Turks (N = 103) and ethnic Kurds (N = 58) predict construals (i.e., conflict frames, attributions of responsibility, and severity of harm) of Turkish-Kurdish conflict. The results indicated that, across groups, a shared national identification was associated with similar conflict construals in line with the official Turkish narrative, whereas ethnic identification was associated with opposing conflict construals that might help maintain the conflict. However, the conflict narrative related to national identification might produce a shared understanding of the conflict (i.e., more intergroup harmony) at the cost of neglecting the minority group's grievances in the conflict and legitimizing the status-quo, thus hindering efforts to enhance the minority group's disadvantaged status. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Fertility and intergroup bias in racial and minimal-group contexts: evidence for shared architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Melissa M; Asher, Benjamin D; Kerr, Norbert L; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that White women's bias against Black men increases with elevated fertility across the menstrual cycle. We demonstrate that the association between fertility and intergroup bias is not limited to groups defined by race, but extends to group categories that are minimally defined, and may depend on the extent to which women associate out-group men with physical formidability. In Study 1, Black and White women with strong associations between the racial out-group and physical formidability displayed greater bias against out-group men as conception risk increased. Study 2 replicated these results in a minimal-group paradigm. These findings are consistent with the notion that women may be endowed with a psychological system that generates intergroup bias via mechanisms that rely on categorization heuristics and perceptions of the physical formidability of out-group men, particularly when the costs of sexual coercion are high.

  11. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Melissa M; Navarrete, Carlos David; Van Vugt, Mark

    2012-03-05

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism-the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by 'warrior males' in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the 'male warrior' hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of our research for studying intergroup relations both in humans and non-humans and discuss some practical implications.

  12. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Melissa M.; Navarrete, Carlos David; Van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism—the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by ‘warrior males’ in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the ‘male warrior’ hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of our research for studying intergroup relations both in humans and non-humans and discuss some practical implications. PMID:22271783

  13. A Case of Disease Improvement after Treatment with Everolimus plus Exemestane in a Patient with Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer with Bone Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thaddeus Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of death in women worldwide. Despite significant advances in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, tumor metastasis occurs frequently and is associated with poor long-term prognosis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway plays a central role in cancer cell growth, proliferation, and resistance to endocrine therapies. Therefore, mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus in combination with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors might reverse endocrine resistance and improve clinical outcomes in patients. Here, we report on a case of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast with metastases to the bone. Histopathologic analysis showed that the patient was estrogen and progesterone receptor positive and human epidermal growth factor-2 negative. This case represents the clinical spectrum of complications caused by metastasis: the patient experienced a considerable amount of skeletal-related complications, had previously received chemotherapy, and experienced disease progression while taking nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. After treatment with oral everolimus 10 mg daily plus oral exemestane 25 mg daily, the patient's disease was ameliorated. Combination therapy was well tolerated, with minimal adverse effects that were manageable with concomitant medications. Although further analyses in larger populations are necessary, the addition of everolimus to exemestane might provide an effective new treatment option for patients with bone metastasis.

  14. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  15. Comparing intergroup contact effects on blatant and subtle prejudice in adolescents: a multivariate multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Olaizola, Juan; Rodríguez Díaz, Francisco Javier; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The literature has rarely paid attention to the differential influence of intergroup contact on subtle and blatant prejudice. In this study, we hypothesized that the influence of intergroup contact on subtle prejudice will be smaller than its influence on blatant prejudice. This hypothesis was tested with data from a cross-sectional design on 1,655 school-aged native Spanish adolescents. Prejudice was measured with a shortened version of the Meertens and Pettigrew scale of blatant and subtle prejudice adapted to Spanish adolescent population. Results from multivariate multilevel analyses for correlated outcome variables supported the hypothesis. Students tended to score higher on the subtle prejudice scale; contact with the outgroup was statistically related both to levels of blatant and subtle prejudice; and, the negative relationship of contact with the outgroup and prejudice is greater for blatant prejudice as compared to subtle prejudice. Overall, results provide statistical evidence supporting the greater resistance to change of subtle forms of prejudice.

  16. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  17. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  18. Shared reality in intergroup communication: Increasing the epistemic authority of an out-group audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Kopietz, René; Higgins, E Tory

    2017-06-01

    Communicators typically tune messages to their audience's attitude. Such audience tuning biases communicators' memory for the topic toward the audience's attitude to the extent that they create a shared reality with the audience. To investigate shared reality in intergroup communication, we first established that a reduced memory bias after tuning messages to an out-group (vs. in-group) audience is a subtle index of communicators' denial of shared reality to that out-group audience (Experiments 1a and 1b). We then examined whether the audience-tuning memory bias might emerge when the out-group audience's epistemic authority is enhanced, either by increasing epistemic expertise concerning the communication topic or by creating epistemic consensus among members of a multiperson out-group audience. In Experiment 2, when Germans communicated to a Turkish audience with an attitude about a Turkish (vs. German) target, the audience-tuning memory bias appeared. In Experiment 3, when the audience of German communicators consisted of 3 Turks who all held the same attitude toward the target, the memory bias again appeared. The association between message valence and memory valence was consistently higher when the audience's epistemic authority was high (vs. low). An integrative analysis across all studies also suggested that the memory bias increases with increasing strength of epistemic inputs (epistemic expertise, epistemic consensus, and audience-tuned message production). The findings suggest novel ways of overcoming intergroup biases in intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The Construction and Performance of a Novel Intergroup Complementary Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Wenzhun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analyses for intergroup complementary (IGC code and zero correlation zone complementary code, a novel IGC code has been proposed to adapt M-ary orthogonal code spreading spectrum system or quasi-synchronous CDMA system. The definition and construction methods of the new IGC codes are presented and an applied example is given in this paper. Theoretical research and simulation results show that the main advantages of the novel IGC code are as following: The code sets of the novel IGC code is more than IGC code under the same code length. The zero correlation zone length is longer than the intergroup IGC code, but shorter than the intergroup IGC code. Under the same code length, the auto-correlation performance of the novel IGC code is better than that of the IGC code, and both are of similar cross-correlation performance.

  20. Variability in the Inter-Group Attitudes of White Children: What We Can Learn from Their Ethnic Identity Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Tobin, Mollie

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the ethnic identity of White (N = 120), Latino (N = 87), and African-American (N = 65) children and early adolescents (aged = 9-14 years), with an emphasis on whether the specific ethnic label White children used to describe themselves might reflect differences in their inter-group attitudes and whether those differences…

  1. Inferring Identity From Language: Linguistic Intergroup Bias Informs Social Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Shanette C; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined whether a communicator's verbal, implicit message regarding a target is used as a cue for inferring that communicator's social identity. Previous research has found linguistic intergroup bias (LIB) in individuals' speech: They use abstract language to describe in-group targets' desirable behaviors and concrete language to describe their undesirable behaviors (favorable LIB), but use concrete language for out-group targets' desirable behaviors and abstract language for their undesirable behaviors (unfavorable LIB). Consequently, one can infer the type of language a communicator is likely to use to describe in-group and out-group targets. We hypothesized and found evidence for the reverse inference. Across four studies, individuals inferred a communicator's social identity on the basis of the communicator's use of an LIB. Specifically, participants more strongly believed that a communicator and target shared a social identity when the communicator used the favorable, rather than the unfavorable, LIB in describing that target. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Gender and Intergroup Contact: the Case of Arab Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BENITTO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of various ethnic groups within the American and British societies made newspaper headlines following the events of 9/11 in the United States and of July 7 in Great Britain. This article based on survey research and focus group interviews aims to address intergroup contact. In a heterogeneous society, two major tendencies with regard to relation of the Arab community with the mainstream society surface. On the one hand, we notice a tendency to forge a new identity that is deep-rooted in the Arab culture, but with a declared belonging to the host society. On the other hand, there is a tendency of restraint and isolation. This choice of restraint and isolation is sometimes allotted to the ambivalent feelings generated by cultural disparity and stubborn attachment to certain values and traditions. In this context, our study targets the exploration of relationship of Arab women with the mainstream society with the stress laying on the reasons governing ups and downs of their integration within a new cultural environment

  3. Outcomes in women with invasive ductal or invasive lobular early stage breast cancer treated with anastrozole or exemestane in CCTG (NCIC CTG) MA.27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser-Weippl, K; Sudan, G; Ramjeesingh, R; Shepherd, L E; O'Shaughnessy, J; Parulekar, W R; Liedke, P E R; Chen, B E; Goss, P E

    2018-02-01

    Histological subtype, (invasive ductal breast cancer (IDBC)/invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC)), might be a marker for differential response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Clinical trial MA.27 compared 5 years of adjuvant anastrozole or exemestane in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer. We evaluated IDBC versus ILBC (based on original pathology reports) as predictor for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 5709 patients (5021 with IDBC and 688 with ILBC) were included (1876 were excluded because of missing or other histological subtype). Median follow-up was 4.1 years. Overall, histological subtype did not influence OS or EFS (HR (hazard ratio) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.79-1.63], P = 0.49 and HR 1.04, 95% CI [0.77-1.41], P = 0.81, respectively). There was no significant difference in OS between treatment with exemestane versus treatment with anastrozole in the IDBC group (HR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.73-1.16], P = 0.46). In the ILBC group, a marginally significant difference in favour of treatment with anastrozole was seen (HR = 1.79, 95% CI [0.98-3.27], P = 0.055). In multivariable analysis a prognostic effect of the interaction between treatment and histological subtype on OS (but not on EFS) was noted, suggesting a better outcome for patients with ILBC on anastrozole (HR 2.1, 95% CI [0.99-4.29], P = 0.05). After stepwise selection in the multivariable model, a marginally significant prognostic effect for the interaction variable (treatment with histological subtype) on OS (but not on EFS) was noted (Ratio of HR 2.1, 95% CI [1.00-4.31], P = 0.05). Our data suggest an interaction effect between treatment and histology (P = 0.05) on OS. Here, patients with ILBC cancers had a better OS when treated with anastrozole versus exemestane, whereas no difference was noted for patients with IDBC. NCT00066573. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Intergroup Reconciliation between Flemings and Walloons: The Predictive Value of Cognitive Style, Authoritarian Ideology, and Intergroup Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Van Assche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium. By incorporating both important predictors of negative outgroup attitudes (i.e., individual differences in rigid cognitive styles and authoritarian ideologies, and important predictors of reconciliation (i.e., intergroup emotions, we aimed to contribute to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of intergroup relations. We recruited one Flemish ('N' = 310 and one Walloon ('N' = 365 undergraduate students sample to test the proposed model. Structural equation analyses with maximum likelihood estimation were conducted using the Lavaan package. In both samples, similar patterns were found. More in particular, the need for cognitive closure appeared to be the basic predictor of right-wing attitudes (i.e., right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation and essentialist thinking, which were then associated with less outgroup empathy and trust, and more outgroup anger. Furthermore, outgroup trust and empathy were positively related to reconciliation. Interestingly, some differences between the Flemish and Walloon sample were found, such as the direct effects of need for closure and social dominance orientation in the first sample, and the non-significant effects of essentialism in the latter sample. Considering the ongoing public and political debate about the linguistic conflict in Belgium, these findings shed a new light on how individual differences relate to specific outgroup emotions, and how these are associated with important intergroup outcomes in the face of intergroup conflict.

  5. War and Peace: Possible Approaches to Reducing Intergroup Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Insko, Chester A

    2008-03-01

    We discuss four potential ways to reduce conflict between groups: consideration of future consequences, independent leadership, outgroup empathy, and coordination. We review relevant empirical findings for each method and discuss how each can be used to promote intergroup cooperation. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  6. Colonial Administrative Reorganizations and Inter-Group Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper documents the administrative changes since Nupe times with emphasis on the British colonial administrative reorganization in O'kunland, a politically segmentry society. Its context is the implications of the administrative restructuring on inter-group relations in the area. The objective of creating a larger polity out ...

  7. The Language and Communication of Emotion: Universal, Interpersonal, or Intergroup?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Presents a selective review of the research and theory on the experience, expression, and communication of emotion. Suggests that the research is affected by cultural context and cultural differences. Maintains that contradictions can be resolved by considering the intrapersonal, interpersonal, social, and intergroup aspects of emotions. (CFR)

  8. An investigation of the social identity model of collective action and the 'sedative' effect of intergroup contact among Black and White students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakal, Huseyin; Hewstone, Miles; Schwär, Gerhard; Heath, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated the role of intergroup contact in predicting collective action tendencies along with three key predictors proposed by the social identity model of collective action (SIMCA; Van Zomeren, Postmes, & Spears, 2008). Study 1 (N= 488 Black South African students) tested whether social identity would positively, whereas intergroup contact would negatively predict collective action and support for policies benefiting the ingroup. Study 2 (N= 244 White South African students) predicted whether social identity would positively predict collective action benefiting the ingroup, and intergroup contact would positively predict support for policies to benefit the Black outgroup. Both studies yielded evidence in support of the predictive power of social identity and contact on collective action and policy support. Additionally, Study 1 confirmed that intergroup contact moderated the effects of social identity on relative deprivation, and relative deprivation on collective action. Overall findings support an integration of SIMCA and intergroup contact theory, and provide a fuller understanding of the social psychological processes leading to collective action. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  10. The evolution of intergroup bias: perceptions and attitudes in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha; Martinez, Margaret A; Gutierrez, Natashya L; Diesendruck, Gil; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Santos, Laurie R

    2011-03-01

    Social psychologists have learned a great deal about the nature of intergroup conflict and the attitudinal and cognitive processes that enable it. Less is known about where these processes come from in the first place. In particular, do our strategies for dealing with other groups emerge in the absence of human-specific experiences? One profitable way to answer this question has involved administering tests that are conceptual equivalents of those used with adult humans in other species, thereby exploring the continuity or discontinuity of psychological processes. We examined intergroup preferences in a nonhuman species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). We found the first evidence that a nonhuman species automatically distinguishes the faces of members of its own social group from those in other groups and displays greater vigilance toward outgroup members (Experiments 1-3). In addition, we observed that macaques spontaneously associate novel objects with specific social groups and display greater vigilance to objects associated with outgroup members (Experiments 4-5). Finally, we developed a looking time procedure-the Looking Time Implicit Association Test, which resembles the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995)-and we discovered that macaques, like humans, automatically evaluate ingroup members positively and outgroup members negatively (Experiments 6-7). These field studies represent the first controlled experiments to examine the presence of intergroup attitudes in a nonhuman species. As such, these studies suggest that the architecture of the mind that enables the formation of these biases may be rooted in phylogenetically ancient mechanisms. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings.

  12. Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general.

  13. Sources of implicit and explicit intergroup race bias among African-American children and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Philippe; Tone, Erin B.; Baron, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe). Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans) reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias. Understanding the environmental factors that contribute to the absence of an implicit ingroup bias among people from culturally lower status groups is critical for advancing theories of implicit intergroup cognition. The present study aimed to elucidate the factors that shape racial group bias among African-American children and young adults by examining their relationship with age, school composition (predominantly Black schools or racially mixed schools), parental racial attitudes and socialization messages among African-American children (N = 86) and young adults (N = 130). Age, school-type and parents’ racial socialization messages were all found to be related to the strength of pro-Black (ingroup) bias. We also found that relationships between implicit and explicit bias and frequency of parents' racial socialization messages depended on the type of school participants attended. Our results highlight the importance of considering environmental factors in shaping the magnitude and direction of implicit and explicit race bias among African-Americans rather than treating them as a monolithic group. PMID:28957353

  14. Silence in Official Representations of History: Implications for National Identity and Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Kurtiş

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominant representations of history evolve through differential exercise of power to enable memory of collective triumphs and silence memory of collective misdeeds. We examined silence regarding minorities in official constructions of history and the implications of this silence for national identity and intergroup relations in Turkey. A content analysis of official constructions of history inscribed in Turkish national university admissions exams (Study 1 revealed an emphasis on celebratory events, silence about ethnic and religious minorities, and a construction of national identity in ethno-cultural (e.g., as “Turk” and “Muslim” rather than civic terms (e.g., in terms of citizenship. An investigation with Turkish participants (Study 2 revealed that denial of historical information regarding minority populations documented in sources outside the national curriculum was associated with greater endorsement of ethno-cultural constructions of identity and less support for minority rights and freedom of expression. We discuss the liberatory potential of alternative forms of historical knowledge to promote more inclusive models of identification and improve intergroup relations.

  15. Ethnic Self-Esteem and Intergroup Attitudes Among the Estonian Majority and the non-Estonian Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaris Raudsepp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focussed on the relationships between ethnic self-esteem and various indicators of intergroup attitudes in a representative sample of adult population of Estonia (N=1142. Attitudinal variables that discriminated most between persons with high and low ethnic self-esteem were identified. Among Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to positive ingroup bias, readiness for outgroup contact, perceived threat from the outgroup, attitudes to non-Estonian minority, and attitudes toward minority integration. Among non-Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to readiness for outgroup contact, ethnic sterotypes, and various attitudes towards minority integration. An attempt was made to reconstruct the system of intergroup attidues of prototypical persons with high and low ethnic selfesteem and to describe psychological implications of high and low ethnic self-esteem for members of majority and minority groups. Various theoretical models (social identity theory, integrated threat theory, social dominane theory were used for interpretation of the results.

  16. Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; Isakov, Alexander; Wrangham, Richard W; McDermott, Rose; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2016-10-25

    Intergroup violence is common among humans worldwide. To assess how within-group social dynamics contribute to risky, between-group conflict, we conducted a 3-y longitudinal study of the formation of raiding parties among the Nyangatom, a group of East African nomadic pastoralists currently engaged in small-scale warfare. We also mapped the social network structure of potential male raiders. Here, we show that the initiation of raids depends on the presence of specific leaders who tend to participate in many raids, to have more friends, and to occupy more central positions in the network. However, despite the different structural position of raid leaders, raid participants are recruited from the whole population, not just from the direct friends of leaders. An individual's decision to participate in a raid is strongly associated with the individual's social network position in relation to other participants. Moreover, nonleaders have a larger total impact on raid participation than leaders, despite leaders' greater connectivity. Thus, we find that leaders matter more for raid initiation than participant mobilization. Social networks may play a role in supporting risky collective action, amplify the emergence of raiding parties, and hence facilitate intergroup violence in small-scale societies.

  17. Negotiating power: agenda ordering and the willingness to negotiate in asymmetric intergroup conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Saguy, Tamar; Sidanius, James; Taylor, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    In this research, we investigated how group power influences the way members of groups in asymmetrical conflict approach intergroup negotiations. Drawing on theories of negotiations and of intergroup power, we predicted that group power would interact with features of the proposed negotiating agenda to influence willingness to come to the table. Based on the negotiation literature, we focused on 2 types of sequential negotiation agendas: 1 beginning with the discussion of consequential issues before less consequential issues (consequential first) and 1 leaving the discussion of consequential issues until after less consequential issues are discussed (consequential later). Because they are motivated to advance changes to their disadvantaged status quo, we expected low-power group members to favor consequential first over consequential later invitations to negotiate. High-power group members, motivated to protect their advantage, were expected to show the reverse preference. Converging evidence from 5 experiments involving real-world and experimental groups supported these predictions. Across studies, participants received an invitation to negotiate from the other group involving either a consequential first or consequential later agenda. Low-power group members preferred consequential first invitations because these implied less stalling of change to the status quo, and high-power group members preferred consequential later invitations because these invitations seemed to pose less threat to their position. Theoretical and practical implications for negotiations research and conflict resolution are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Compensation in intergroup relations: an investigation of its structural and strategic foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Laurent; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Yakimova, Sonya

    2015-03-01

    Recent work in intergroup relations stresses the role of two fundamental dimensions, competence and warmth, which organize the perception of social groups. A pattern often encountered in people's ratings is one of compensation in that a group that is evaluated higher than another group on one of the two fundamental dimensions is also judged lower on the other fundamental dimension. Based on Social Identity Theory, the present work extends previous research on compensation by examining boundary conditions as well as underlying psychological processes. Two studies involving experimental and correlational evidence, minimal and real groups, and different kinds of conflict, reveal that compensation is more likely when the groups are in asymmetrical relation and share a cooperative view of the intergroup setting. Our data also suggest that, among members of low status groups, compensation is associated with social creativity. In contrast, and in line with the 'noblesse oblige' effect, members of the high status group would seem to rely on compensation as a means to appear non-discriminatory. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  20. Disappointment expression evokes collective guilt and collective action in intergroup conflict: the moderating role of legitimacy perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Nevin; Reifen Tagar, Michal; Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2017-09-01

    Research on intergroup emotions has largely focused on the experience of emotions and surprisingly little attention has been given to the expression of emotions. Drawing on the social-functional approach to emotions, we argue that in the context of intergroup conflicts, outgroup members' expression of disappointment with one's ingroup induces the complementary emotion of collective guilt and correspondingly a collective action protesting ingroup actions against the outgroup. In Study 1 conducted immediately after the 2014 Gaza war, Jewish-Israeli participants received information about outgroup's (Palestinians) expression of emotions (disappointment, fear, or none). As predicted, outgroup's expression of disappointment increased collective guilt and willingness to participate in collective action, but only among those who saw the intergroup situation as illegitimate. Moreover, collective guilt mediated the relationship between disappointment expression and collective action, moderated, again, by legitimacy perception. In Study 2, we replicated these results in the context of racial tension between Black and White Americans in the US. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of the findings.

  1. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  2. Social identity as both cause and effect : The development of group identification in response to anticipated and actual changes in the intergroup status hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B; Spears, R; Ellemers, N

    This study investigates how in-group identification develops during group interaction and forms a dynamic input and output that changes over time. Phase I of the study shows how initial level of identification in combination with anticipated changes in the intergroup status hierarchy, predicts

  3. Gender and Intergroup Contact: the Case of Arab Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed BENITTO

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of various ethnic groups within the American and British societies made newspaper headlines following the events of 9/11 in the United States and of July 7 in Great Britain. This article based on survey research and focus group interviews aims to address intergroup contact. In a heterogeneous society, two major tendencies with regard to relation of the Arab community with the mainstream society surface. On the one hand, we notice a tendency to forge a new identity that is deep-roo...

  4. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel/cisplatin/ gemcitabine and gemcitabine/cisplatin in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer without prior systemic therapy: EORTC intergroup study 30987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bellmunt (Joaquim); H. von der Maase (Hans); G.M. Mead (Graham); I. Skoneczna (I.); M. de Santis (Maria); G. Daugaard (Gedske); J. Boehle; C. Chevreau (Christine); L. Paz-Ares (Luis); L.R. Laufman (Leslie); E. Winquist (Eric); R. Raghavan (Raghu); S. Marreaud (Sandrine); S. Collette (Sandra); R. Sylvester (Richard); R. de Wit (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The combination of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) is a standard regimen in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer. A phase I/II study suggested that a three-drug regimen that included paclitaxel had greater antitumor activity and might improve survival.

  5. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2012-08-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intergroup helping in response to separatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Mashuri, A.; Mashuri, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its prevalence and widespread media coverage, separatism as a phenomenon is barely covered in psychological investigations, and the majority's response to separatism has been completely ignored. We present two studies in which we investigated the notion that separatist movements threaten the

  7. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  8. From Dialogue to Action: The Impact of Cross-Race Intergroup Dialogue on the Development of White College Students as Racial Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimo, Craig John

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of postsecondary education are poised to leverage the presence of racial diversity to educate for social change. The purpose of this study was to examine how a race/ethnicity intergroup dialogue facilitates the development of confidence and frequency of white college students' engagement in actions that are congruent with the…

  9. Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between Isoko and her immediate neighbours in the western Niger Delta of Nigeria. ... The article shows that the discovery of crude oil petroleum in the western Niger Delta marked a watershed in the history of intergroup relations in the area. Keywords: Discovery ...

  10. Intergroup Relations in Integrated Schools: A Glimpse inside Interdistrict Magnet Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Robert; Buerger, Christian; Cobb, Casey

    2012-01-01

    The frequency and quality of intergroup contact within racially and ethnically diverse schools has potentially important implications for the achievement of desegregation goals. The analyses presented here use survey data to assess intergroup contact within a sample of ten interdistrict magnet schools in Connecticut. Findings indicate frequent…

  11. Communicating anger and contempt in intergroup conflict : Exploring their relational functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bartholomeus

    2015-01-01

    Although the experience of anger in intergroup conflict is typically viewed as a destructive force that is best kept under wraps, the current dissertation suggests that its communication can help de-escalate intergroup conflict because of its relational function. Specifically, this entails that the

  12. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Consensus Review: Uterine and Ovarian Leiomyosarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensley, Martee L.; Barrette, Brigitte A.; Baumann, Klaus; Gaffney, David; Hamilton, Anne L.; Kim, Jae-Weon; Maenpaa, Johanna U.; Pautier, Patricia; Siddiqui, Nadeem Ahmad; Westermann, Anneke M.; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup aimed to provide an overview of uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcoma management. Published articles and author experience were used to draft management overview. The draft manuscript was circulated to international members of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup for

  13. Aspect of Intergroup Relations in 21st Century Nigeria: Emblem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is on the aspects of intergroup relations in 21st century Nigeria: Emblem of Ethnicity, Religious Fundamentalism and National Security Crisis, 2000-2014. The objective of the paper is to contribute to some existing literature on the state of intergroup relations in Nigeria. Besides, it would provoke further ...

  14. Interim results from the CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) of treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma: a phase 3, randomised, open-label intergroup study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bent, Martin J; Baumert, Brigitta; Erridge, Sara C; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Nowak, Anna K; Sanson, Marc; Brandes, Alba Ariela; Clement, Paul M; Baurain, Jean Francais; Mason, Warren P; Wheeler, Helen; Chinot, Olivier L; Gill, Sanjeev; Griffin, Matthew; Brachman, David G; Taal, Walter; Rudà, Roberta; Weller, Michael; McBain, Catherine; Reijneveld, Jaap; Enting, Roelien H; Weber, Damien C; Lesimple, Thierry; Clenton, Susan; Gijtenbeek, Anja; Pascoe, Sarah; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Hau, Peter; Dhermain, Frederic; van Heuvel, Irene; Stupp, Roger; Aldape, Ken; Jenkins, Robert B; Dubbink, Hendrikus Jan; Dinjens, Winand N M; Wesseling, Pieter; Nuyens, Sarah; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Gorlia, Thierry; Wick, Wolfgang; Kros, Johan M

    2017-10-07

    The role of temozolomide chemotherapy in newly diagnosed 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic gliomas, which are associated with lower sensitivity to chemotherapy and worse prognosis than 1p/19q co-deleted tumours, is unclear. We assessed the use of radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in adults with non-co-deleted anaplastic gliomas. This was a phase 3, randomised, open-label study with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had newly diagnosed non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma with WHO performance status scores of 0-2. The randomisation schedule was generated with the electronic EORTC web-based ORTA system. Patients were assigned in equal numbers (1:1:1:1), using the minimisation technique, to receive radiotherapy (59·4 Gy in 33 fractions of 1·8 Gy) alone or with adjuvant temozolomide (12 4-week cycles of 150-200 mg/m 2 temozolomide given on days 1-5); or to receive radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide 75 mg/m 2 per day, with or without adjuvant temozolomide. The primary endpoint was overall survival adjusted for performance status score, age, 1p loss of heterozygosity, presence of oligodendroglial elements, and MGMT promoter methylation status, analysed by intention to treat. We did a planned interim analysis after 219 (41%) deaths had occurred to test the null hypothesis of no efficacy (threshold for rejection p<0·0084). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00626990. At the time of the interim analysis, 745 (99%) of the planned 748 patients had been enrolled. The hazard ratio for overall survival with use of adjuvant temozolomide was 0·65 (99·145% CI 0·45-0·93). Overall survival at 5 years was 55·9% (95% CI 47·2-63·8) with and 44·1% (36·3-51·6) without adjuvant temozolomide. Grade 3-4 adverse events were seen in 8-12% of 549 patients assigned temozolomide, and were mainly haematological and reversible. Adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy was associated with a

  15. Group Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Predicts Intergroup Negotiation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Tang, Chen; Qu, Xiaofei; Wang, Chao; Denson, Thomas F

    2018-01-01

    Past studies have found that the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) is associated with a range of traits and behaviors that are possibly important to dyadic negotiations. However, it is unknown whether the FWHR would have an impact on intergroup negotiations, which happen frequently and often have higher stakes in the real world. To examine this question, in the current study, we randomly assigned 1,337 Chinese business executives into 288 groups and they completed a multi-issue negotiation exercise against each other. Results showed that groups with larger maximum individual FWHRs achieved objectively better negotiation outcomes. We conclude that groups containing individuals with relatively large FWHRs can claim more value in negotiations between groups.

  16. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xihe Zhao,1 Lei Liu,2 Kai Li,1 Wusheng Li,1 Li Zhao,1 Huawei Zou1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78, letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92, and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4. OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. Keywords: CV risk, breast cancer, AI, network meta-analysis

  17. Intergroup interactions in Tibetan macaques at Mt. Emei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q K

    1997-12-01

    Data on intergroup-interactions (I-I) were collected in 5 seasonally provisioned groups (A, B, D, D1, and E) of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Emei in three 70-day periods between 1991 April-June (P1), September-November (P2), December-1992 February (P3). The I-I were categorized as forewarning made by high-ranking males (including Branch Shaking and/or Loud Calls), long-distance interactions in space (specified by changes in their foraging movements), and close encounters (with Affinitive Behavior, Male's Herding Female, Sexual Interaction, Severe Conflict, Adult Male-male Conflict, Opportunistic Advance and Retreat, etc. performed by different age-sex classes). From periods P1 to P3, the I-I rate decreased with reduction in population density as a positive correlate of food clumpedness or the number of potential feeders along a pedestrian trail. On the other hand, from the birth season (BS, represented by P1 and P3) to the mating season (MS, represented by P2) the dominance relation between groups, which produced a winner and a loser in the encounters, became obscure; the proportion of close encounters in the I-I increased; the asymmetry (local groups over intruders) of forewarning signals disappeared; the rate of branch shaking decreased; and sometimes intergroup cohesion appeared. Considering that sexual interactions also occurred between the encountering groups, above changes in intergroup behaviors may be explained with a model of the way in which the competition for food (exclusion) and the sexual attractiveness between opposite sexes were in a dynamic equilibrium among the groups, with the former outweighing the latter in the BS, and conversely in the MS. Females made 93% of severe conflicts, which occurred in 18% of close encounters. Groups fissioned in the recent past shared the same home range, and showed the highest hostility to each other by females. In conspicuous contrast with females' great interest in intergroup food/range competition

  18. Peer Effects, Social Networks, and Intergroup Competition in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Shu, Pian

    Using weekly data for defect rates (proportion of defective output) for all weavers in a Chinese textile firm during a 12 months (April 2003 - March 2004) period, we provide some of the first rigorous evidence on the presence and nature of peer effects in the manufacturing workplace. First...... novel evidence on the interplay between social networks (urban resident group and rural migrant group) and peer effects. Specifically, we find that a worker puts in more effort when she is working with more able outgroup teammates but not when working with more able ingroup teammates, pointing...... to intergroup competition as a powerful source of the peer effects. Such peer effects across the social network, combined with the presence of incentive to outperform teammates at this firm, are largely consistent with recent experimental evidence on the important role that group identities play in facilitating...

  19. The effects of intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathleen B

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on conflict management, few have considered the effects of unit technology and intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction. The model was tested using a nonexperimental design. Path analysis using multiple regression was used to test the model. The nonrandom sample consisted of 141 nurses employed on 13 inpatient units at a state-supported, 597-bed academic medical center in a southeastern city. Findings indicated that intrapersonal conflict had a direct negative impact on intragroup conflict and work satisfaction. Intragroup conflict had direct negative effects on work satisfaction and team performance effectiveness. Unit technology had a direct negative impact on work satisfaction. Findings have implications for administrators to implement strategies to decrease a stressful work environment and increase team-building activities.

  20. Threat and parochialism in intergroup relations: lab-in-the-field evidence from rural Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Max

    2017-10-25

    Competition between groups is widely considered to foster cooperation within groups. Evidence from laboratory experiments hints at the existence of a proximate mechanism by which humans increase their level of cooperation with their ingroup when faced with an external threat. Further work suggests that ingroup cooperation should go along with aggressive behaviour towards the outgroup, although these theories are at odds with others that see high investments in outgroup relations as important means of stabilizing intergroup relations. Surprisingly, few of these arguments have been tested in the field, and existing studies are also limited by the lack of a direct measure of threat perception and aggressive behaviour. This study presents lab-in-the-field results from a rural context where exposure to an ethnic outgroup varies between villages. This context makes it possible to capture levels of threat perception, aggressive behaviour and cooperation without inducing intergroup competition artificially in the laboratory. All concepts are measured behaviourally. In- and outgroup cooperation was measured with a standard public goods game, and a novel experimental protocol was developed that measures perceived threat and aggressive behaviour: the threat game. The results show that levels of perceived threat, ingroup cooperation and aggressive behaviour are higher in regions more strongly exposed to ethnic outsiders. However, exposed regions also show high levels of outgroup cooperation and a concomitant lack of elevated ingroup bias. This pattern is explained by theorizing that communities show parochial altruism when faced with an ethnic outgroup, but balance aggressive behaviour with cooperative offers to diffuse tensions and to keep open channels of mutually beneficial exchange. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. A Phase I/Ib Study of Enzalutamide Alone and in Combination with Endocrine Therapies in Women with Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Lee S; Yardley, Denise A; Elias, Anthony D; Patel, Manish; LoRusso, Patricia; Burris, Howard A; Gucalp, Ayca; Peterson, Amy C; Blaney, Martha E; Steinberg, Joyce L; Gibbons, Jacqueline A; Traina, Tiffany A

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Several lines of evidence support targeting the androgen signaling pathway in breast cancer. Enzalutamide is a potent inhibitor of androgen receptor signaling. Preclinical data in estrogen-expressing breast cancer models demonstrated activity of enzalutamide monotherapy and enhanced activity when combined with various endocrine therapies (ET). Enzalutamide is a strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inducer, and ETs are commonly metabolized by CYP3A4. The pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, safety, and tolerability of enzalutamide monotherapy and in combination with ETs were assessed in this phase I/Ib study. Experimental Design: Enzalutamide monotherapy was assessed in dose-escalation and dose-expansion cohorts of patients with advanced breast cancer. Additional cohorts examined effects of enzalutamide on anastrozole, exemestane, and fulvestrant PK in patients with estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive (ER + /PgR + ) breast cancer. Results: Enzalutamide monotherapy ( n = 29) or in combination with ETs ( n = 70) was generally well tolerated. Enzalutamide PK in women was similar to prior data on PK in men with prostate cancer. Enzalutamide decreased plasma exposure to anastrozole by approximately 90% and exemestane by approximately 50%. Enzalutamide did not significantly affect fulvestrant PK. Exposure of exemestane 50 mg/day given with enzalutamide was similar to exemestane 25 mg/day alone. Conclusions: These results support a 160 mg/day enzalutamide dose in women with breast cancer. Enzalutamide can be given in combination with fulvestrant without dose modifications. Exemestane should be doubled from 25 mg/day to 50 mg/day when given in combination with enzalutamide; this combination is being investigated in a randomized phase II study in patients with ER + /PgR + breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4046-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Droogendyk

    Full Text Available The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime", crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  3. Why does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Pyszczynski, Tom; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N = 209), mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N = 112), examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran's nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems - even when these solutions make little practical sense.

  4. Why Does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eHirschberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N=209, mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N=112, examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems – even when these solutions make little practical sense.

  5. A two-dimensional model of intergroup leadership: the case of national diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittinsky, Todd L

    2010-04-01

    The model presented argues that leadership involves bringing together not only diverse individuals but also the subgroups to which they belong. The model further argues that this does not require replacing people's subgroup identities with a superordinate group identity (turning "us" and "them" into "we"); bringing together diverse individuals and their subgroups can be accomplished by promoting positive relations among subgroups, even as their distinctive identities (their senses of "us" and "them") remain. The model conceptualizes positive and negative intergroup attitudes as two independent dimensions of intergroup relations, each with distinct antecedents and distinct associated outcomes. Leaders seeking to create a collective from diverse subgroups must therefore (a) reduce negative intergroup attitudes and (b) increase positive intergroup attitudes. The author applies the model to organizational contexts of national diversity, but it can be applied to leadership across other forms of diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. When does activating diversity alleviate, when does it increase intergroup bias? An ingroup projection perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C Steffens

    Full Text Available The question how intergroup bias can be alleviated is of much theoretical and practical interest. Whereas diversity training and the multiculturalism ideology are two approaches prominent in practice, most theoretical models on reducing intergroup bias are based on social-identity theory and self-categorization theory. This social-identity perspective assumes that similar processes lead to intergroup bias in very different intergroup contexts if people identify with the respective social groups. A recent prominent model based on these theories is the ingroup-projection model. As this model assumes, an ingroup's norms and standards are applied to outgroups included in a common superordinate category (this is called ingroup projection. Intergroup bias results because the outgroup fulfils these norms and standards less than the ingroup. Importantly, if the diversity of the superordinate category is induced as the norm, ingroup projection and thus intergroup bias should be reduced. The present research delineates and tests how general this process is. We propose that ingroup prototypicality is not only an outcome variable, as the ingroup-projection model originally assumes, but can also be an important moderator. We hypothesize that for members considering their ingroup highly prototypical ("pars pro toto", large majorities, the superordinate group's diversity may question their ingroup's position and thus elicit threat and intergroup bias. In contrast, for members who consider their group as less prototypical (one among several, or "una inter pares" groups, activating diversity should, as originally assumed in the ingroup-projection model, reduce intergroup bias. Three experiments (total N = 345 supported these predictions in the contexts of groups defined by gender or nationality. Taken together, the ingroup-projection model can explain under which conditions activating superordinate-category diversity induces tolerance, and when it may backfire

  7. When does activating diversity alleviate, when does it increase intergroup bias? An ingroup projection perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Reese, Gerhard; Ehrke, Franziska; Jonas, Kai J.

    2017-01-01

    The question how intergroup bias can be alleviated is of much theoretical and practical interest. Whereas diversity training and the multiculturalism ideology are two approaches prominent in practice, most theoretical models on reducing intergroup bias are based on social-identity theory and self-categorization theory. This social-identity perspective assumes that similar processes lead to intergroup bias in very different intergroup contexts if people identify with the respective social groups. A recent prominent model based on these theories is the ingroup-projection model. As this model assumes, an ingroup’s norms and standards are applied to outgroups included in a common superordinate category (this is called ingroup projection). Intergroup bias results because the outgroup fulfils these norms and standards less than the ingroup. Importantly, if the diversity of the superordinate category is induced as the norm, ingroup projection and thus intergroup bias should be reduced. The present research delineates and tests how general this process is. We propose that ingroup prototypicality is not only an outcome variable, as the ingroup-projection model originally assumes, but can also be an important moderator. We hypothesize that for members considering their ingroup highly prototypical (“pars pro toto”, large majorities), the superordinate group’s diversity may question their ingroup’s position and thus elicit threat and intergroup bias. In contrast, for members who consider their group as less prototypical (one among several, or “una inter pares” groups), activating diversity should, as originally assumed in the ingroup-projection model, reduce intergroup bias. Three experiments (total N = 345) supported these predictions in the contexts of groups defined by gender or nationality. Taken together, the ingroup-projection model can explain under which conditions activating superordinate-category diversity induces tolerance, and when it may backfire. We

  8. First-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with paclitaxel/carboplatin with or without epirubicin (TEC versus TC)-a gynecologic cancer intergroup study of the NSGO, EORTC GCG and NCIC CTG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, K.; Christensen, R. D.; Vergote, I.

    2012-01-01

    phase III study comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel (TC; area under the curve 5 and 175 mg/m(2)) with the same combination and epirubicin (TEC; 75 mg/m(2) i.v.). Between March 1999 and August 2001, 887 patients with epithelial ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer International Federation of Gynecology...

  9. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Improved outcome secondary to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx: preliminary corroboration of the intergroup experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Jay S.; Lee, Heather; Torrey, Meg; Hochster, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The recent Intergroup 0099 trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas, demonstrated improved survival for chemoradiotherapy as compared to radiation therapy alone. Following closure of this study, we adopted the chemoradiotherapy regimen used in 0099 as our standard of practice. We herein report our recent institutional results, representing a relatively large uniformly treated cohort. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 1997, 35 consecutive patients, who had clinically nondisseminated Stage III or IV nasopharyngeal cancer, were treated by chemoradiotherapy. The prescribed radiation regimen was 7000 cGy delivered in 35 fractions over 7 weeks to all macroscopic disease and 5000 cGy to areas considered at risk of harboring microscopic disease. Chemotherapy was designed to deliver cisplatin (100 mg/m 2 i.v.) on Days 1, 22, and 43 of radiation therapy and cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 i.v.) on Days 71, 99, and 127 plus fluorouracil (5-FU; 1 g/m 2 /day by 96-h infusion) on Days 71-74, 99-102, and 127-130. Results: All patients had at least a partial response (PR) to treatment, including an 85% complete response (CR) rate. The actuarial 3-year overall survival rate was 93% and the disease-free survival rate was 65%. Both represent substantial improvements over our institutional historical controls treated by radiation therapy alone and both are similar to the rates observed in the Intergroup trial. Conclusion: Our data support the conclusion that concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (as was used in Intergroup 0099) should be considered the current standard of care for patients who have advanced cancers of the nasopharynx

  11. First-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with paclitaxel/carboplatin with or without epirubicin (TEC versus TC)--a gynecologic cancer intergroup study of the NSGO, EORTC GCG and NCIC CTG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, K; Christensen, R D; Vergote, I; Stuart, G; Izquierdo, M A; Kærn, J; Havsteen, H; Eisenhauer, E; Ridderheim, M; Lopez, A B; Hirte, H; Aavall-Lundquvist, E; Vrdoljak, E; Green, J; Kristensen, G B

    2012-10-01

    The addition of anthracyclines to platinum-based chemotherapy may provide benefit in survival in ovarian cancer patients. We evaluated the effect on survival of adding epirubicin to standard carboplatin and paclitaxel. We carried out a prospectively randomized phase III study comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel (TC; area under the curve 5 and 175 mg/m(2)) with the same combination and epirubicin (TEC; 75 mg/m(2) i.v.). Between March 1999 and August 2001, 887 patients with epithelial ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IIB-IV were randomized to receive either TC (442 patients) or TEC (445 patients). Median time to progression was 16.4 months in the TEC arm and 16.0 months in the TC arm (hazard ratio 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-1.2). Median overall survival time was 42.4 months for the TEC arm and 40.2 for the TC arm (hazard ratio 0.96; 95% CI: 0.8-1.1). Grade 3/4 hematologic toxic effects and most grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxic effects were more frequent in the TEC arm. Accordingly, a quality-of-life analysis showed inferiority of TEC versus TC. The addition of epirubicin to standard carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment did not improve survival in patients with advanced ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer.

  12. The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoona; Gray, Jeremy R; Dovidio, John F

    2014-06-01

    Although meditation is increasingly accepted as having personal benefits, less is known about the broader impact of meditation on social and intergroup relations. We tested the effect of lovingkindness meditation training on improving implicit attitudes toward members of 2 stigmatized social outgroups: Blacks and homeless people. Healthy non-Black, nonhomeless adults (N = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 6-week lovingkindness practice, 6-week lovingkindness discussion (a closely matched active control), or waitlist control. Decreases in implicit bias against stigmatized outgroups (as measured by Implicit Association Test) were observed only in the lovingkindness practice condition. Reduced psychological stress mediated the effect of lovingkindness practice on implicit bias against homeless people, but it did not mediate the reduced bias against Black people. These results suggest that lovingkindness meditation can improve automatically activated, implicit attitudes toward stigmatized social groups and that this effect occurs through distinctive mechanisms for different stigmatized social groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Effects of intergroup upward comparison, trait self-esteem, and identity shift on state self-esteem and affect in upward comparison with in-group members

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Chikae; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in...

  14. Negative intergroup contact is more influential, but positive intergroup contact is more common: Assessing contact prominence and contact prevalence in five Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Paolini, S.; Rubin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 96 (2014), 536–547 ISSN 0046-2772 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : intergroup contact * negative contact * outgroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2014

  15. Us versus Them in Context: Meta-Analysis as a Tool for Geotemporal Trends in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania B. Huedo-Medina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The increasing availability of studies from many nations offers important potential insights into group-based psychology and behavior, conflict, and violence. Nonetheless, to date, few cross-national or cultural comparisons of study findings have been made, representing a gap in our understanding of the historical causes and courses of inter-group conflict in current comparative approaches. Meta-analytic methods offer researchers the ability to combine data from studies with groups as well as across time. Our review of statistical methods available for comparative analyses in inter-group research found strengths and limitations for understanding group differences, conflict, and violence, and meta-analytic methods address these limitations by exploring potential structural-level moderators and by identifying how temporal and geographical variations may relate directly to group-based variables. Such methods can contribute to our understanding of broad structural effects on group-based variables by elucidating the mechanisms underlying them.

  16. Specific emotions as mediators of the effect of intergroup contact on prejudice: findings across multiple participant and target groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Charles R; Banerji, Ishani; Park, Sang Hee; Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M

    2017-08-01

    Emotions are increasingly being recognised as important aspects of prejudice and intergroup behaviour. Specifically, emotional mediators play a key role in the process by which intergroup contact reduces prejudice towards outgroups. However, which particular emotions are most important for prejudice reduction, as well as the consistency and generality of emotion-prejudice relations across different in-group-out-group relations, remain uncertain. To address these issues, in Study 1 we examined six distinct positive and negative emotions as mediators of the contact-prejudice relations using representative samples of U.S. White, Black, and Asian American respondents (N = 639). Admiration and anger (but not other emotions) were significant mediators of the effects of previous contact on prejudice, consistently across different perceiver and target ethnic groups. Study 2 examined the same relations with student participants and gay men as the out-group. Admiration and disgust mediated the effect of past contact on attitude. The findings confirm that not only negative emotions (anger or disgust, based on the specific types of threat perceived to be posed by an out-group), but also positive, status- and esteem-related emotions (admiration) mediate effects of contact on prejudice, robustly across several different respondent and target groups.

  17. Enacting cultural interests: how intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the hypothesis that cues of social connectedness to a member of another social group can spark interest in the group's culture, and that such interest, when freely enacted, contributes to reductions in intergroup prejudice. In two pilot studies and Experiment 1, we found that extant and desired cross-group friendships and cues of social connectedness to an out-group member predicted increased interest in the target group's culture. In Experiments 2 and 3, we manipulated cues of social connectedness between non-Latino American participants and a Latino American (i.e., Mexican American) peer and whether participants freely worked with this peer on a Mexican cultural task. This experience reduced the participants' implicit bias against Latinos, an effect that was mediated by increased cultural engagement, and, 6 months later in an unrelated context, improved intergroup outcomes (e.g., interest in interacting with Mexican Americans; Experiment 4). The Discussion section addresses the inter- and intragroup benefits of policies that encourage people to express and share diverse cultural interests in mainstream settings.

  18. The balanced ideological antipathy model: explaining the effects of ideological attitudes on inter-group antipathy across the political spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. The implicit power motive in intergroup dialogues about the history of slavery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlmann, Ruth K; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Dovidio, John F; Naft, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This research demonstrates that individual differences in the implicit power motive (i.e., the concern with impact, influence, and control) moderate how African Americans communicate with White Americans in challenging intergroup dialogues. In a study with African American participants we find that the higher their implicit power motive, the more they use an affiliation strategy to communicate with a White American partner in a conversation context that evokes the history of slavery (Study 1). In a study with White American participants we find that, in the same conversation context, they are more engaged (i.e., open, attentive, and motivated) if they receive an affiliation message rather than a no-affiliation message from an African American partner (Study 2). In interracial dyads we find that African American participants' implicit power motives moderate how much they intend to signal warmth to a White American discussion partner, how much they display immediacy behaviors and use affiliation imagery in the discussion, and with what level of engagement White American participants respond (Study 3). High but not low implicit power African Americans thus employ a communication strategy-expressing affiliation and warmth-that can be effective for engaging White Americans with uncomfortable, race-identity-relevant topics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification depends in part on the (incompatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (incompatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.

  1. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2018-01-01

    The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance-congruity and imbalance-dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.

  2. How we think they see us? Valence and difficulty of retrieval as moderators of the effect of meta-stereotype activation on intergroup orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Alexandra; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Dovidio, John F; Gómez, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicates that meta-stereotypes are predominantly negative. However, the valence of the meta-stereotypes may not be the only factor accounting for the detrimental effects associated with their activation. In addition to valence, we propose that the subjective difficulty of retrieving the meta-stereotype might critically determine whether its activation deteriorates intergroup orientations. An experimental study showed that the effect of the meta-stereotype activation on the desire to interact with outgroup members was moderated by the interaction between the valence of the meta-stereotype and its difficulty of retrieval. In particular, the activation of a positive meta-stereotype deteriorated intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was high as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was low. In sharp contrast, the activation of a negative meta-stereotype worsened intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was low as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was high. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. When Novel Rituals Lead to Intergroup Bias: Evidence From Economic Games and Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Nicholas M; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I; Inzlicht, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Long-established rituals in preexisting cultural groups have been linked to the cultural evolution of group cooperation. We tested the prediction that novel rituals-arbitrary hand and body gestures enacted in a stereotypical and repeated fashion-can inculcate intergroup bias in newly formed groups. In four experiments, participants practiced novel rituals at home for 1 week (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) or once in the lab (Experiment 3) and were divided into minimal in-groups and out-groups. Our results offer mixed support for the hypothesis that novel rituals promote intergroup bias. Specifically, we found a modest effect for daily repeated rituals but a null effect for rituals enacted only once. These results suggest that novel rituals can inculcate bias, but only when certain features are present: Rituals must be sufficiently elaborate and repeated to lead to bias. Taken together, our results offer modest support that novel rituals can promote intergroup bias.

  4. Two signatures of implicit intergroup attitudes: developmental invariance and early enculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Chen, Eva E; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2013-06-01

    Long traditions in the social sciences have emphasized the gradual internalization of intergroup attitudes and the putatively more basic tendency to prefer the groups to which one belongs. In four experiments (N = 883) spanning two cultures and two status groups within one of those cultures, we obtained new evidence that implicit intergroup attitudes emerge in young children in a form indistinguishable from adult attitudes. Strikingly, this invariance from childhood to adulthood holds for members of socially dominant majorities, who consistently favor their in-group, as well as for members of a disadvantaged minority, who, from the early moments of race-based categorization, do not show a preference for their in-group. Far from requiring a protracted period of internalization, implicit intergroup attitudes are characterized by early enculturation and developmental invariance.

  5. When Groups Are Not Created Equal: Effects of Group Status on the Formation of Intergroup Attitudes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S.; Brown, Christia Spears; Markell, Marc

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether the presence of implicit links between social groups and high versus low status attributes affected formation of intergroup attitudes among 7- to 12-year-olds. Found that children's intergroup attitudes were affected by a status manipulation when teachers made functional use of the novel groups. Children who were members of…

  6. Real or Artificial? Intergroup Biases in Mind Perception in a Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Swiderska, Aleksandra; Tsankova, Elena; Kamble, Shanmukh V; Kappas, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attributions of aliveness and mental capacities to faces are influenced by social group membership. In this article, we investigated group related biases in mind perception in participants from a Western and Eastern culture, employing faces of varying ethnic groups. In Experiment 1, Caucasian faces that ranged on a continuum from real to artificial were evaluated by participants in the UK (in-group) and in India (out-group) on animacy, abilities to plan and to feel pain, and having a mind. Human features were found to be assigned to a greater extent to faces when these belonged to in-group members, whereas out-group faces had to appear more realistic in order to be perceived as human. When participants in India evaluated South Asian (in-group) and Caucasian (out-group) faces in Experiment 2, the results closely mirrored those of the first experiment. For both studies, ratings of out-group faces were significantly predicted by participants' levels of ethnocultural empathy. The findings highlight the role of intergroup processes (i.e., in-group favoritism, out-group dehumanization) in the perception of human and mental qualities and point to ethnocultural empathy as an important factor in responses to out-groups.

  7. Real or Artificial? Intergroup Biases in Mind Perception in a Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva G Krumhuber

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attributions of aliveness and mental capacities to faces are influenced by social group membership. In this article, we investigated group related biases in mind perception in participants from a Western and Eastern culture, employing faces of varying ethnic groups. In Experiment 1, Caucasian faces that ranged on a continuum from real to artificial were evaluated by participants in the UK (in-group and in India (out-group on animacy, abilities to plan and to feel pain, and having a mind. Human features were found to be assigned to a greater extent to faces when these belonged to in-group members, whereas out-group faces had to appear more realistic in order to be perceived as human. When participants in India evaluated South Asian (in-group and Caucasian (out-group faces in Experiment 2, the results closely mirrored those of the first experiment. For both studies, ratings of out-group faces were significantly predicted by participants' levels of ethnocultural empathy. The findings highlight the role of intergroup processes (i.e., in-group favoritism, out-group dehumanization in the perception of human and mental qualities and point to ethnocultural empathy as an important factor in responses to out-groups.

  8. Real or Artificial? Intergroup Biases in Mind Perception in a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhuber, Eva G.; Swiderska, Aleksandra; Tsankova, Elena; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Kappas, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attributions of aliveness and mental capacities to faces are influenced by social group membership. In this article, we investigated group related biases in mind perception in participants from a Western and Eastern culture, employing faces of varying ethnic groups. In Experiment 1, Caucasian faces that ranged on a continuum from real to artificial were evaluated by participants in the UK (in-group) and in India (out-group) on animacy, abilities to plan and to feel pain, and having a mind. Human features were found to be assigned to a greater extent to faces when these belonged to in-group members, whereas out-group faces had to appear more realistic in order to be perceived as human. When participants in India evaluated South Asian (in-group) and Caucasian (out-group) faces in Experiment 2, the results closely mirrored those of the first experiment. For both studies, ratings of out-group faces were significantly predicted by participants’ levels of ethnocultural empathy. The findings highlight the role of intergroup processes (i.e., in-group favoritism, out-group dehumanization) in the perception of human and mental qualities and point to ethnocultural empathy as an important factor in responses to out-groups. PMID:26360588

  9. Cultural Value Differences, Value Stereotypes, and Diverging Identities in Intergroup Conflicts: The Estonian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Dobewall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    An examination of the relationship between cultural values, value stereotypes and social identities in Estonia, where intergroup conflicts triggered riots in the capital
    Tallinn in April 2007, using data from the European Social Survey on cultural differences and value trends as the background to a survey exploring perceived
    group values and assessed social identities among ethnic Estonians and members of the Russian-speaking minority. The study, conducted in summer 2008, found
    agreement across both ethnic groups about the values of a typical group member, but no accuracy in their attribution. The Estonian students (n = 152 avoided
    Eastern-European identification, while the Russian-speaking students (n = 54 did not want to give up Estonia’s Soviet past. We found that attributed rather than
    self-rated value differences between groups caused the conflicts, whilst diverging identities were found to make value stereotypes more extreme.

  10. Intergroup biases of the intermediate-status group: the effect of stability and instability of social stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Monacelli, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, the effect of instability of social stratification on intergroup behaviour of the intermediate-status group was investigated. In both studies, participants were categorised in the intermediate-status group. In Study 1, perceived instability was measured. Results show that the more social stratification was perceived as stable, the more intermediate-status group members were biased against the high-status group. Biases against both high- and low-status groups tended to become similar as social stratification was perceived as more unstable. In Study 2, instability was manipulated in upward and downward conditions. Results showed that, in the upwardly unstable condition, intermediate-status group members were more biased against high-status group, while in the downwardly unstable condition they were more biased against the low-status group.

  11. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Aharon; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc.) to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc.) has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers ) by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  12. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreu, de C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Greer, L.L.; Kleef, van G.A.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual’s motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a

  13. Group Representations and Intergroup Bias: Positive Affect, Similarity, and Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidio, John F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined how social appearance and affective factors can influence social categorization and intergroup bias. Positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one. Subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the members to feel less like…

  14. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  15. Opposing effects of personal and collective self-esteem on interpersonal and intergroup comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, KM; Spears, R

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between self-esteem deriving from both personal and social identity and comparisons at both interpersonal and intergroup level was examined. Participants took part in individual and group brainstorming tasks which they later had the opportunity to evaluate. In the case of the

  16. From Awareness to Action: College Students' Skill Development in Intergroup Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Larissa E.; Domingue, Andrea D.

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of intergroup dialogue (IGD) is to strengthen individual and collective capacities to foster social justice commitments by supporting new ways of thinking about oneself, others, and the social structures in which we live. Relatedly, IGD assists individuals with building multicultural competencies and skill sets that support peoples'…

  17. Intergroup Dialogue & Religious Identity: Attempting to Raise Awareness of Christian Privilege & Religious Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sachi

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup Dialogue (IGD)--a pedagogical model that purposefully advances a critical social justice agenda--is used on college campuses around the country to facilitate student learning about issues of identity and structural power dynamics. In light of the tension that exists on college campuses between students from different religious…

  18. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  19. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations : the development of intergroup attitudes in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Barner, David

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of

  20. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Y.; Srinivasan, M.; Dotsch, R.; Barner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of

  1. The Influence of Psychological Mechanisms on Intergroup Adaptation as a Resource for Corporate Management and Organizational Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulgacov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author provides the findings of the empiric study, involving the employees of construction companies, with account for their diverse social statuses. Top executives, directors of departments, and engineers participated in the research project, covered by the article. One hundred and forty employees of six construction companies were involved in the empiric study. The project comprises quantitative and qualitative correlation of management situations, based on the methodology, developed by D. Snowden; contributions made by the psychological mechanisms of intergroup adaptation, as well as the resolution of management situations. The findings have proven that by getting adjusted to versa-tile management situations, group members alter the motivation potential of their groups by urging other groups, interacting with theirs, to get adjusted to the new environment of social interaction. Therefore, the difference in the motivation potentials of interacting groups may cause the resonance, leading to constructive solutions.

  2. Same spaces, different races: what can cafeteria seating patterns tell us about intergroup relations in middle school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Solomon, Brett J; Graham, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Using 2 segregation indices--an exposure index previously used in cafeteria studies and an entropy index used for the first time, to our knowledge, in this study--we examined racial segregation in seating patterns among ethnically diverse middle school students in their school cafeteria over a 2-week period. Given the representation of groups in the cafeteria each day, results indicated the expected amount of contact between Asian and White students, but more limited contact between Asian and Latino students and between White and Latino students. Latino students, who were in the numerical majority in the sample, appeared least likely to contribute to overall segregation in the cafeteria. Implications for using the cafeteria methodology to examine intergroup relations were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Their pain gives us pleasure: How intergroup dynamics shape empathic failures and counter-empathic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikara, M; Bruneau, E; Van Bavel, J J; Saxe, R

    2014-11-01

    Despite its early origins and adaptive functions, empathy is not inevitable; people routinely fail to empathize with others, especially members of different social or cultural groups. In five experiments, we systematically explore how social identity, functional relations between groups, competitive threat, and perceived entitativity contribute to intergroup empathy bias : the tendency not only to empathize less with out-group relative to in-group members, but also feel pleasure in response to their pain (and pain in response to their pleasure). When teams are set in direct competition, affective responses to competition-irrelevant events are characterized not only by less empathy toward out-group relative to in-group members, but also by increased counter-empathic responses: Schadenfreude and Glückschmerz (Experiment 1). Comparing responses to in-group and out-group targets against responses to unaffiliated targets in this competitive context suggests that intergroup empathy bias may be better characterized by out-group antipathy rather than extraordinary in-group empathy (Experiment 2). We find also that intergroup empathy bias is robust to changes in relative group standing-feedback indicating that the out-group has fallen behind (Experiment 3a) or is no longer a competitive threat (Experiment 3b) does not reduce the bias. However, reducing perceived in-group and out-group entitativity can significantly attenuate intergroup empathy bias (Experiment 4). This research establishes the boundary conditions of intergroup empathy bias and provides initial support for a more integrative framework of group-based empathy.

  4. Entitativity and intergroup bias: How belonging to a cohesive group allows people to express their prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Knowles, Eric D

    2015-02-01

    We propose that people treat prejudice as more legitimate when it seems rationalistic-that is, linked to a group's pursuit of collective interests. Groups that appear to be coherent and unified wholes (entitative groups) are most likely to have such interests. We thus predicted that belonging to an entitative group licenses people to express prejudice against outgroups. Support for this idea came from 3 correlational studies and 5 experiments examining racial, national, and religious prejudice. The first 4 studies found that prejudice and discrimination seemed more socially acceptable to third parties when committed by members of highly entitative groups, because people could more easily explain entitative groups' biases as a defense of collective interests. Moreover, ingroup entitativity only lent legitimacy to outgroup prejudice when an interests-based explanation was plausible-namely, when the outgroup could possibly threaten the ingroup's interests. The last 4 studies found that people were more willing to express private prejudices when they perceived themselves as belonging to an entitative group. Participants' perceptions of their own race's entitativity were associated with a greater tendency to give explicit voice to their implicit prejudice against other races. Furthermore, experimentally raising participants' perceptions of ingroup entitativity increased explicit expressions of outgroup prejudice, particularly among people most likely to privately harbor such prejudices (i.e., highly identified group members). Together, these findings demonstrate that entitativity can lend a veneer of legitimacy to prejudice and disinhibit its expression. We discuss implications for intergroup relations and shifting national demographics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The psychology of diaspora experiences: intergroup contact, perceived discrimination, and the ethnic identity of Koreans in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M; Noh, Chi-Young; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Doh, Hyun-Sim

    2007-04-01

    The moderating role of intergroup contact on the relationship between perceived discrimination and ethnic identity was examined in a diaspora community of Koreans living in China. It was hypothesized that Koreans with higher intergroup contact would have a lower ethnic identity under higher discrimination, whereas Koreans with lower intergroup contact would have a higher ethnic identity. Across two separate college samples, Koreans who were more willing to interact with Han Chinese had a lower ethnic identity when discrimination was higher, but this finding was not replicated within one college setting. These findings challenge the linear rejection-identification model and suggest displaced people may minimize ingroup-outgroup differences, depending on their willingness to seek intergroup contact. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Differing levels of gender salience in preschool classrooms: effects on children's gender attitudes and intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Lacey J; Liben, Lynn S

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed gender attitude, intergroup bias, and personal preference measures at the beginning and end of a 2-week period during which teachers either did or did not make gender salient. Observations of peer play were also made at both times. After 2 weeks, children in the high- (but not low-) salience condition showed significantly increased gender stereotypes, less positive ratings of other-sex peers, and decreased play with other-sex peers. Children's own activity and occupational preferences, however, remained unaffected. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Group member prototypicality and intergroup negotiation: how one's standing in the group affects negotiation behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; Steinel, Wolfgang; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hogg, Michael A; Svensson, Alicia

    2007-03-01

    How does a representative's position in the group influence behaviour in intergroup negotiation? Applying insights from the social identity approach (specifically self-categorization theory), the effects of group member prototypicality, accountability and group attractiveness on competitiveness in intergroup bargaining were examined. As representatives of their group, participants engaged in a computer-mediated negotiation with a simulated out-group opponent. In Experiment 1 (N=114), representatives with a peripheral status in the group sent more competitive and fewer cooperative messages to the opponent than did prototypical representatives, but only under accountability. Experiment 2 (N=110) replicated this finding, and showed that, under accountability, peripherals also made higher demands than did prototypicals, but only when group membership was perceived as attractive. Results are discussed in relation to impression management and strategic behaviour.

  9. They see us as less than human: Metadehumanization predicts intergroup conflict via reciprocal dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Hodson, Gordon; Bruneau, Emile

    2016-03-01

    Although the act of dehumanizing an outgroup is a pervasive and potent intergroup process that drives discrimination and conflict, no formal research has examined the consequences of being dehumanized by an outgroup-that is, "metadehumanization." Across 10 studies (N = 3,440) involving several real-world conflicts spanning 3 continents, we provide the first empirical evidence that metadehumanization (a) plays a central role in outgroup aggression that is (b) mediated by outgroup dehumanization, and (c) distinct from metaprejudice. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate experimentally that Americans who learn that Arabs (Study 1a) or Muslims (Study 1b) blatantly dehumanize Americans are more likely to dehumanize that outgroup in return; by contrast, experimentally increasing outgroup dehumanization did not increase metadehumanization (Study 1c). Using correlational data, Study 2 documents indirect effects of metadehumanization on Americans' support for aggressive policies toward Arabs (e.g., torture) via Arab dehumanization. In the context of Hungarians and ethnic minority Roma, Study 3 shows that the pathway for Hungarians from metadehumanization to aggression through outgroup dehumanization holds controlling for outgroup prejudice. Study 4 examines Israelis' metaperceptions with respect to Palestinians, showing that: (a) feeling dehumanized (i.e., metadehumanization) is distinct from feeling disliked (i.e., metaprejudice), and (b) metadehumanization uniquely influences aggression through outgroup dehumanization, controlling for metaprejudice. Studies 5a and 5b explore Americans' metaperceptions regarding ISIS and Iran. We document a dehumanization-specific pathway from metadehumanization to aggressive attitudes and behavior that is distinct from the path from metaprejudice through prejudice to aggression. In Study 6, American participants learning that Muslims humanize Americans (i.e., metahumanization) humanize Muslims in turn. Finally, Study 7 experimentally contrasts

  10. Recognition of shared past sufferings, trust and improving intergroup attitudes in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Alarcón-Henríquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of intergroup trust and recognition of past sufferings on intergroup attitudes. We conducted an experiment among Dutch-speaking students in which we manipulated the degree of importance that French-speakers gave to historical episodes of past victimizations in order to test its impact on the attitudes towards the French-speakers. Results show that intergroup attitudes were most favorable among the high-trusting Dutch-speaking participants when they were led to believe that the French speakers judged important the events where both communities were considered as victims, compared to the conditions where only French-speaking or only Dutch-speaking sufferings were considered important. This suggests some level of intergroup trust is a condition for the positive effect of shared memories of victimization on attitudes.---Este artículo examina el rol de la confianza intergrupal y el reconocimiento del sufrimiento pasado en las relaciones intergrupales. Un experimento con estudiantes belgas flamencos manipuló la importancia que belgas francófonos otorgaban a episodios del pasado de victimización para contrastar su impacto en las actitudes hacia los francófonos. Los resultado smostraron que las actitudes intergrupales eran más favorables en los belgas flamencos con alta confianza intergrupal cuando se les presentaba información que los francófonos juzgaban como importantes los sufrimientos de ambos comunidades, en comparación cuando la información solo enfatizaba el sufrimiento de los flamencos o de los francófonos. Estosugiere que un nivel de confianza intergrupo es necesario para que memorias compartidas de sufrimiento mejoren las actitudes.

  11. Threat, prejudice and stereotyping in the context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Chris; Abrams, Dominic; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Christian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated threat theory, realistic conflict theory, and group justification (based on social\\ud identity theory) were evaluated in the international context of Japanese prejudice toward North\\ud Korea and South Korea. Military threat emerged as an important addition to the four threats\\ud outlined by integrated threat theory. Three perceived North Korean threats (realistic [domestic]\\ud threat; intergroup anxiety; military threat) predicted prejudice toward North Korea. North\\ud Korean preju...

  12. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare.

  13. Collective Memories and Present-Day Intergroup Relations: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This special thematic section aims to bring together current research on the connections between collective memories – or representations of history – and present-day intergroup relations. Drawing from a multitude of geographical and historical contexts as well as different methodologies, we bring forth ten articles focusing on distinct aspects of the relations between representations of the past and present day intergroup dynamics. The topics covered in these articles focus on one or more of the four research lines identified within this field: 1 the antecedents of collective memories; 2 the contents and structure of collective memories; 3 the official or institutional transmission of collective memories; and 4 distinct socio-psychological correlates of collective memories in present-day societies. Together, the contributions in this special thematic section showcase current directions of research within the field and highlight the need to consider the role of representations of the past for understanding present day instances of intergroup conflict or harmony. We discuss the need for more interdisciplinary work in this field, as well as more applied research in the future.

  14. A phase II study of combined ridaforolimus and dalotuzumab compared with exemestane in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baselga, José; Morales, Serafin M.; Awada, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Combining the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus and the anti-IGFR antibody dalotuzumab demonstrated antitumor activity, including partial responses, in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive advanced breast cancer, especially in high proliferation tumors (Ki67 > 15%). Methods: This randomized, multi...

  15. Belief in the malleability of groups strengthens the tenuous link between a collective apology and intergroup forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Caouette, Julie; Hayes, Nicole; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Although it is widely assumed that collective apologies for intergroup harms facilitate forgiveness, evidence for a strong link between the two remains elusive. In four studies we tested the proposition that the apology-forgiveness link exists, but only among people who hold an implicit belief that groups can change. In Studies 1 and 2, perceived group malleability (measured and manipulated, respectively) moderated the responses to an apology by Palestinian leadership toward Israelis: Positive responses such as forgiveness increased with greater belief in group malleability. In Study 3, university students who believed in group malleability were more forgiving of a rival university's derogatory comments in the presence (as opposed to the absence) of an apology. In Study 4, perceived perpetrator group remorse mediated the moderating effect of group malleability on the apology-forgiveness link (assessed in the context of a corporate transgression). Implications for collective apologies and movement toward reconciliation are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research...... and treatment of gynecologic neoplasms. RESULTS: Thirty-four surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of endometrial cancer after hysterectomy, mean (SD) pelvic dose was 47.37 (2.32) Gy. The upper border of the pelvic field was L4/5 in 14 respondents, L5/S1 in 13 respondents...

  17. 'Hooligans' abroad? Inter-group dynamics, social identity and participation in collective 'disorder' at the 1998 World Cup Finals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, C; Hutchison, P; Drury, J

    2001-09-01

    During the 1998 Football World Cup Finals in France, English supporters were, once again, involved in major incidents of collective 'disorder'. Explanations for these incidents concentrated on the conflictual norms held by 'hooligans'. In contrast, Scottish supporters attending the tournament displayed norms of non-violence, explained by the popular press in terms of the absence of 'hooligans'. This study challenges this tendency to explain the presence or absence of 'disorder' in the context of football solely in terms of the presence or absence of 'hooligan' fans. Using data obtained from an ethnographic study of both Scottish and English supporters attending the tournament (N = 121), we examine the processes through which ordinarily 'peaceful' supporters would or would not become involved in collective conflict. In line with the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM) of crowd behaviour, the analysis highlights the role of the intergroup context. Where out-group activity was understood as illegitimate in in-group terms, in-group members redefined their identity such that violent action toward out-group members came to be understood as legitimate. By contrast, where there was no out-group hostility, in-group members defined themselves through an explicit contrast with the 'hooligan' supporters of rival teams. This analysis represents an advance on previous studies of crowd behaviour by demonstrating how the ESIM can account for not only the presence, but also the absence, of collective 'disorder'.

  18. Structural Determinants of Intergroup Association: Interracial Marriage and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Messner, Steven F.

    1986-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 25 U. S. metropolitan cities, this study investigates the relationship between interracial marriage and violent interracial crime. Results show a positive relationship, one which was predicted by Blau's macrosociological theory of social structure. (Author/JDH)

  19. Inter-Group Variation in Non-Conceptive Sexual Activity in Female Japanese Macaques: Could it be Cultural?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Leca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We compared two non-conceptive sexual behavioral patterns (female-male mounting – FMM – and female-female mounting – FFM across four free-ranging groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata living at three different field sites in Japan (Arashiyama, Minoo, and Jigokudani. We found marked inter-group differences and covariation in the frequency and form of FMM and FFM. This result supports the view that FMM and FFM in Japanese macaques are developmentally and evolutionarily linked. The customary occurrence, high prevalence, and great diversity of FMM and FFM at Arashiyama may be the result of combined favorable socio-demographic conditions, namely few resident males, most of them being old, sexually under-motivated, and less aggressive and controlling than the average male Japanese macaques. We suggest that FMM and FFM may be cultural sexual practices in the Arashiyama-E group. In most other populations, all the aforementioned favorable socio-demographic conditions are not met, and although female mounting may occasionally be expressed by several group members, it does not reach the group-level tradition status. Our cultural interpretation of female mounting in Japanese macaques is consistent with evidence of the social transmission of courtship behaviors and mating preferences in various animal taxa, including nonhuman primates and humans. Our study may have implications for the evolution of non-conceptive sexuality in humans, including sexual fluidity in women.

  20. Perceived Peer and Parent Out-Group Norms, Cultural Identity, and Adolescents' Reasoning About Peer Intergroup Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Romano, Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Cultural group identity and group norms are significantly related to social exclusion evaluations (Bennett, ). This study examined 241 Jewish-American mid (M = 14.18 years, SD = 0.42) to late (M = 17.21 years, SD = 0.43; MageTOTAL  = 15.54 years, SD = 1.57) adolescents' cultural identities and contextually salient perceived group norms in relation to their evaluations of Arab-American inclusion and exclusion across two contexts (peers vs. family at home). Results suggest that perceived group norms are related to the context in which they are applied: parents in the home and peers in the peer context. Peers remained a significant source of perceived group norms in the home context. Significant interactions emerged between perceived parent group norms and cultural identity. Findings highlight the need to address group-specific norms by context to ensure maximum effectiveness for intergroup interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Intergroup Contact: Using Storytelling to Increase Awareness of Lesbian and Gay Older Adults in Long-Term Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelts, Michael D; Galambos, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    Due to societally imposed stigmatization, lesbian and gay (LG) older adults fear and prolong accessing long-term care (LTC) even though they need LTC at higher rates. Interventions that decrease negative attitudes toward LG older adults among LTC staff are a first step in addressing this problem. In this study, the influence of intergroup contact (IGC) on LTC staff members' attitudes toward LG was explored through the use of storytelling as a training mechanism. An embedded mixed-method approach was employed to collect and analyze responses of 60 LTC staff who participated in a storytelling event. Participants completed pretests, posttests, and participated in audio-recorded group discussions. The findings showed that storytelling had a significant (p =0.001) and positive effect (d =0.57) on participants attitudes toward LG. Qualitative analysis revealed 90 codes, 13 process codes, and 4 themes: making meaning of stories, seeking understanding, application to LTC setting, and debating. When guided by IGC theory, storytelling has potential for positively influencing attitudes of LTC staff members toward LG older adults. There is a need for longitudinal work to further test this model.

  2. Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Fuentes, Agustín; Luecke, Ellen; Cortes, John; Shaw, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic impact. This study uses stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to examine intraspecific variation in diet between five groups of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. Analysis of hair from 135 macaques showed significant differences in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values between a group with minimal tourist contact and groups that were main tourist attractions. Because we observed no overt physiological or substantial behavioral differences between the groups, feeding ecology is the most likely cause of any differences in stable isotope ratios. Haphazard provisioning by tourists and Gibraltarians is a likely source of dietary variation between groups. Stable isotope analysis and observational data facilitate a deeper understanding of the feeding ecology of the Barbary macaques relevant to the role of an anthropogenic ecology for the species.

  3. Parochial Cooperation in Nested Intergroup Dilemmas Is Reduced When It Harms Out-Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaldering, Hillie; Ten Velden, Femke S; van Kleef, Gerben A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2018-02-01

    In intergroup settings, humans often contribute to their in-group at a personal cost. Such parochial cooperation benefits the in-group and creates and fuels intergroup conflict when it simultaneously hurts out-groups. Here, we introduce a new game paradigm in which individuals can display universal cooperation (which benefits both in- and out-group) as well as parochial cooperation that does, versus does not hurt the out-group. Using this set-up, we test hypotheses derived from group selection theory, social identity, and bounded generalized reciprocity theory. Across three experiments we find, first, that individuals choose parochial over universal cooperation. Second, there was no evidence for a motive to maximize differences between in- and out-group, which is central to both group selection and social identity theory. However, fitting bounded generalized reciprocity theory, we find that individuals with a prosocial value orientation display parochial cooperation, provided that this does not harm the out-group; individualists, in contrast, display parochialism whether or not nut it hurts the out-group. Our findings were insensitive to cognitive taxation (Experiments 2-3), and emerged even when universal cooperation served social welfare more than parochialism (Experiment 3). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin eIbanez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members and words (positive and negative valence as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated in the task had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes.

  6. That's what friends are for: how intergroup friendships promote historically disadvantaged groups' substantive political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Andrej; Karlsson, David

    2017-12-01

    The interests of historically disadvantaged groups risk being overlooked if they are not present in the decision-making process. However, a mere presence in politics does not guarantee political success. Often groups need allies to promote their interests successfully. We argue that one way to identify such allies is to judge politicians by whether they have friends in historically disadvantaged groups, as intergroup friendships have been shown to make people understand and feel empathy for outgroups. In other words, intergroup friendships may function as an important complement to descriptive representation. We test our argument with a unique survey that asks all elected political representatives in Sweden's 290 municipalities (response rate 79 per cent) about their friendship ties to, and their representation of, five historically disadvantaged groups: women, immigrants, youths, pensioners and blue-collar workers. We find a strong correlation between representatives' friendship ties to these groups and their commitment to represent them. The correlation is especially strong for youths and blue-collar workers, which likely can be explained by the fact that these groups usually lack crucial political resources (such as experience and education). We conclude that friendship ties function as an important complement to descriptive representation for achieving substantive representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  7. Postconflict History Curriculum Revision as an "Intergroup Encounter" Promoting Interethnic Reconciliation among Burmese Migrants and Refugees in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature shows that revising history curricula in postconflict settings can either worsen or ameliorate identity conflict. I conceptualize history curriculum revision workshops as intergroup encounters (IGEs) and analyze the conditions under which reconciliation emerges. I conducted participant observation with multiethnic groups of…

  8. Warriors and peacekeepers: Testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spisak, B.R.; Dekker, P.H.; Krüger, M.; van Vugt, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued

  9. Results and conclusions of the European intergroup EURO-LB02 trial in children and adolescents with lymphoblastic lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landmann, E. (Eva); B. Burkhardt (Birgit); M. Zimmermann (Martin); Meyer, U. (Ulrike); Woessmann, W. (Wilhelm); W. Klapper (Wolfram); G. Wrobel (Grazyna); A. Rosolen (Angelo); Pillon, M. (Marta); G. Escherich (Gabriele); A. Attarbaschi (Andishe); A. Beishuizen (Auke); K. Mellgren (Karin); R.F. Wynn (Robert F.); R. Ratei (Richard); Plesa, A. (Adriana); M. Schrappe (Martin); A. Reiter (Alfred); C. Bergeron (Christophe); C. Patte (Catherine); Y. Bertrand (Yves)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the European Intergroup EURO-LB02 trial, children and adolescents with lymphoblastic lymphoma underwent the non-Hodgkin lymphoma Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster protocol without prophylactic cranial radiotherapy. The primary aims of this trial were to test whether replacing prednisone with

  10. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) endometrial cancer clinical trials planning meeting: taking endometrial cancer trials into the translational era.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creutzberg, C.L.; Kitchener, H.C.; Birrer, M.J.; Landoni, F.; Lu, K.H.; Powell, M.; Aghajanian, C.; Edmondson, R.; Goodfellow, P.J.; Quinn, M.; Salvesen, H.B.; Thomas, G; Ottevanger, N.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The second Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Endometrial Cancer Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was held on December 1, 2012, and included international multidisciplinary representatives of the 24 member groups. The aims were to review recent advances in molecular pathology of

  11. Languages of borderlands, borders of languages: Native and foreign language use in intergroup contact between Czechs and their neighbours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrjánošová, M.; Leix, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), s. 658-679 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : native language * foreign language * intergroup contact Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  12. When threats foreign turn domestic : Two ways for distant realistic intergroup threats to carry over into local intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    In times of economic downturn, perceived realistic intergroup threats (e.g., labour competition) often dominate political and media discourse. Although local outgroups (e.g., local immigrants) can be experienced as sources of realistic threats, we propose that such threats can also be perceived to

  13. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  14. Intergroup competition as a double-edged sword : How sex composition regulates the effects of competition on group creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bear, M.; Abhijeet, K.; Leenders, R.T.A.J.; Oldham, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Building on social role theory, we extend a contingency perspective on intergroup competition proposing that having groups compete against one another is stimulating to the creativity of groups composed largely or exclusively of men but detrimental to the creativity of groups composed largely or

  15. [Intergroup discrimination and illusory correlation induced by social category: minority, majority, and outsider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, K

    1997-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine intergroup discrimination and illusory correlation in majority and minority members and outsiders of a group. In Experiment 1, allegedly based on social attitudes, 64 participants were divided into the three groups, and then completed a point distribution task in a minimal group paradigm. It was found that although both minority and majority members showed ingroup favoritism, outsiders favored neither majority nor minority. In Experiment 2, a continuation of Experiment 1, 45 statements were shown that described majority and minority members in favorable and unfavorable terms. The majority members perceive illusory correlations between the minority group and infrequent, unfavorable characteristics, whereas the minority members did not. The results suggest that for the majority, both distinctiveness-based cognitive bias and ingroup bias had the same effects on perception of illusory correlation, whereas for the minority, the two had opposite effects. The outsiders did not perceive any illusory correlation.

  16. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David

    2014-03-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children, the latter drawn from various positions in the Hindu caste system. Results from two tests of implicit attitudes find that caste attitudes parallel previous findings for race: higher-caste children as well as lower-caste children have robust high-caste preferences. However, results for religion were strikingly different: both lower-status Muslim children and higher-status Hindu children show strong implicit ingroup preferences. We suggest that religion may play a protective role in insulating children from the internalization of stigma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Student Teaching Abroad Inter-Group Outcomes: A Comparative, Country-Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Jiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As student diversity becomes the norm in U.S. schools, future teachers must be comprehensively prepared to work with the increasingly diverse student population through application of informed instruction that enhances general and individual student learning and outcomes. Teacher Education programs increasingly promote student teaching in international settings as a substantive step to develop teachers who embody these new competencies and instructional practices. The proposed paper presentation offers a framework and analysis highlighting similarities and differences between two groups of student teachers in Belize (2005 and 2008. Findings are comparative and relate to the type and degree of (1 cultural-, professional-, and character-development influences on student teachers, and (2 emergent common intergroup patterns.

  18. Beyond dark and bright: towards a more holistic understanding of inter-group networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejnova, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Networks are becoming a popular organizational form for structuring human activities. To date, scholars have addressed networks in a variety of fields, including sociology, economics, public administration, criminology, political science, and international security. However, little has been done so far to systematically examine the similarities, differences, and connections between network forms of organization across different academic disciplines. This has important implications for both theory and practice. The lack of attention paid to organizational similarities and differences prevents the exchange of knowledge developed across fields. In turn, policy-makers cannot take full advantage of existing research, and may miss opportunities to improve the work of some networks and combat that of others. To address this gap in the literature, this paper uses the combination of organizational environments and organizational goals to develop a new typology of inter-group networks, and thus improve our understanding of how human behaviour is coordinated through networks.

  19. Right-wing authoritarianism and stereotype-driven expectations interact in shaping intergroup trust in one-shot vs multiple-round social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Ponsi

    Full Text Available Trust towards unrelated individuals is often conditioned by information about previous social interactions that can be derived from either personal or vicarious experience (e.g., reputation. Intergroup stereotypes can be operationalized as expectations about other groups' traits/attitudes/behaviors that heavily influence our behavioral predictions when interacting with them. In this study we investigated the role of perceived social dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM-Warmth (W and Competence (C-in affecting trusting behavior towards different European national group members during the Trust Game. Given the well-known role of ideological attitudes in regulating stereotypes, we also measured individual differences in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA. In Experiment 1, we designed an online survey to study one-shot intergroup trust decisions by employing putative members of the European Union states which were also rated along SCM dimensions. We found that low-RWA participants' trusting behavior was driven by perceived warmth (i.e., the dimension signaling the benevolence of social intentions when interacting with low-C groups. In Experiment 2, we investigated the dynamics of trust in a multiple-round version of the European Trust Game. We found that in low-RWA participants trusting behavior decreased over time when interacting with high-W groups (i.e., expected to reciprocate trust, but did not change when interacting with low-W groups (i.e., expected not to reciprocate trust. Moreover, we found that high-RWA participants' trusting behavior decreased when facing low-W groups but not high-W ones. This suggests that low-RWA individuals employ reputational priors but are also permeable to external evidence when learning about others' trustworthiness. In contrast, high-RWA individuals kept relying on stereotypes despite contextual information. These results confirm the pivotal role played by reputational priors triggered by perceived

  20. A randomized phase III study comparing standard dose BEP with sequential high-dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus stem-cell support in males with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer. An intergroup study of EORTC, GTCSG, and Grupo Germinal (EORTC 30974)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Skoneczna, I; Aass, N

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of one cycle of standard dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus three cycles of high-dose VIP followed by stem-cell infusion [high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT arm)] to four cycles of standard cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) in patients with poor......-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patient and methods: Patients with poor-prognosis GCC were assigned to receive either BEP or VIP followed by HD-CT. To show a 15% improvement in a 1-year failure-free survival (FFS), the study aimed to recruit 222 patients but closed with 137, due to slow accrual....

  1. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the

  2. From outgroups to allied forces: Effect of intergroup cooperation in violent and nonviolent video games on boosting favorable outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Hodson, Gordon; Willoughby, Teena; Blank, Carolyn; Ha, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Here we addressed whether even violent video games can improve intergroup attitudes if played cooperatively with an outgroup, in keeping with the Contact Hypothesis. In addition, we examined potential mechanisms of this effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 77), Canadians played a violent video game (Call of Duty: Black Ops) against zombies, either cooperatively or independently (i.e., at the same time but solo) with a (supposed) University of Buffalo participant. As expected, cooperative (vs. solo) play significantly improved outgroup attitudes and pro-outgroup participant behavior, effects explained by heightened 1-group recategorization (i.e., feeling psychologically on the same team and connected with the outgroup member). In Experiment 2 (N = 239), effects of cooperation (vs. solo play) held whether playing a violent or nonviolent video game. Importantly, our findings offer an engaging and pragmatic solution to the pervasive issue of setting up and negotiating opportunities for successful intergroup cooperation. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Influence of Intragroup Dynamics and Intergroup Relations on Authenticity in Organizational and Social Contexts: A Review of Conceptual Framework and Research Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Lyubomirova Mateeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their shared focus on influence of groups on individual, research bridging intragroup dynamics and intergroup relations as predictors of authentic and inauthentic (self-alienated experience, behavior and interaction of individuals in organizational and social contexts is surprisingly rare. The goal of the present article is to highlight how understanding the reciprocal dynamic relationship between intragroup processes and intergroup relations offers valuable new insights into both topics and suggests new, productive avenues for psychological theory, research and practice development – particularly for understanding and improving the intragroup and intergroup relations in groups, organizations and society affecting authentic psychosocial functioning. The article discusses the complementary role of intergroup and intragroup dynamics, reviewing how intergroup relations can affect intragroup dynamics which, in turn, affects the authenticity of individual experiences, behaviors and relations with others. The paper considers the implications, theoretical and practical, of the proposed reciprocal relationships between intragroup and intergroup processes as factors influencing authentic psychosocial functioning of individuals in organizational and social settings.

  4. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R; Dekker, Peter H; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  5. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace. Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  6. Warriors and Peacekeepers: Testing a Biosocial Implicit Leadership Hypothesis of Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and Feminine Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R.; Dekker, Peter H.; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership. PMID:22276190

  7. The Cortisol Response to Anticipated Intergroup Interactions Predicts Self-Reported Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat–prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Methodology/Principal findings Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. Conclusions These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience. PMID:22442709

  8. To be respected and to respect: the challenge of mutual respect in intergroup relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bernd; Grabow, Hilmar

    2014-03-01

    Building on theorizing in social and political philosophy the article illuminates the phenomenology of respect and examines its role in intergroup relations. The particular focus is on members of the gay and lesbian community in Germany, their respect experiences, and how these experiences relate to their attitudes towards Muslims. We predicted and found that the experience of being respected in society primarily reflected perceived recognition of gays and lesbians as equal members of society. In addition, we predicted and found that perceived respect from the Muslim community was negatively related to anti-Muslim attitude among gays and lesbians. The same was true for perceived respect from society at large. More specifically, respondents who felt respected by the majority of society showed lower levels of anti-Muslim attitude and, in line with the dominant status of perceived equality recognition in the experience of being respected, this decrease was fully mediated via an increase in perceived equality recognition. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The cortisol response to anticipated intergroup interactions predicts self-reported prejudice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bijleveld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50 and blatant (r = .53 prejudice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups, experienced threat (or its biological substrate is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience.

  10. The cortisol response to anticipated intergroup interactions predicts self-reported prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience.

  11. Situation-based social anxiety enhances the neural processing of faces: evidence from an intergroup context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofan, Renana H.; Rubin, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the intense fear of negative evaluation by others, and it emerges uniquely from a social situation. Given its social origin, we asked whether an anxiety-inducing social situation could enhance the processing of faces linked to the situational threat. While past research has focused on how individual differences in social anxiety relate to face processing, we tested the effect of manipulated social anxiety in the context of anxiety about appearing racially prejudiced in front of a peer. Visual processing of faces was indexed by the N170 component of the event-related potential. Participants viewed faces of Black and White males, along with nonfaces, either in private or while being monitored by the experimenter for signs of prejudice in a ‘public’ condition. Results revealed a difference in the N170 response to Black and Whites faces that emerged only in the public condition and only among participants high in dispositional social anxiety. These results provide new evidence that anxiety arising from the social situation modulates the earliest stages of face processing in a way that is specific to a social threat, and they shed new light on how anxiety effects on perception may contribute to the regulation of intergroup responses. PMID:23709354

  12. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  13. Inter-group associations in Mongolian gerbils: Quantitative evidence from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dehua

    2017-11-01

    Animals often interact non-randomly with conspecifics, and association preferences can differ across life-history stages to maximize individuals' fitness. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are a social rodent that live in highly seasonal habitats and display seasonal fluctuations in population density, growth rate and the size of overlapped home ranges. Nevertheless, whether gerbils modify their social relationships at different life-history stages remains unknown. Here, we used social network analysis to examine whether social associations differ between the sexes and between life-history stages in a wild population of Mongolian gerbils. We quantified social attributes at both group level (assortativity) and individual level (social differentiation and degree, closeness and betweenness centrality); these attributes reflect individuals' social preferences and their potential influence on others in the network. We found that both male and female gerbils established fewer inter-group social connections during the food-hoarding season than during the breeding season, revealing constraints on sociality. Similarly, during the food-hoarding season, degree centrality and social differentiation increased significantly whereas closeness and betweenness centrality decreased significantly. Together, these results suggest that gerbils have relatively more partners and preferred associations and decreased influence over others in the network during the food-hoarding season. In addition, we found no significant difference in any of the social attribute between males and females, but there was a significant interaction effect between sex and season on degree, closeness and betweenness centrality. Our results demonstrate that Mongolian gerbils adjust their association strategies to adapt to the changes of life history. Such adjustments may balance the costs/benefits associated with survival and reproduction. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by

  14. Intergroup Conflict and the Media: An Experimental Study of Greek Students after the 2008 Riots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Katsanidou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    We report a laboratory experiment in the context of the December 2008 riots in Greece, after the killing of a 15-year-old student by a policeman. Our sample comprised 266 students from the University of Thessaloniki. We tested whether media reports can affect people’s willingness to harm those in opposing groups by examining the way students allocated money between themselves and others of various professions, including police, in modified dictator games. Exposure to media reports decreased giving to police, but only when choices were private. Laboratory behaviour was correlated with self-reported participation in demonstrations, supporting the external validity of our measure. Media exposure appears to have affected behaviour by different pathways than those proposed in the existing literature, including “spiral of silence” and “frame alignment” theories.

  15. Recurrent abnormalities can be used for risk group stratification in pediatric AMKL: A retrospective intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. de Rooij (Johan); R. Masetti (Riccardo); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); J.-M. Cayuela (Jean-Michel); J. Trka (Jan); D. Reinhardt (Dirk); Rasche, M. (Mareike); E. Sonneveld (Edwin); T.A. Alonzo (Todd); M.W.J. Fornerod (Maarten); M. Zimmermann (Martin); Pigazzi, M. (Martina); R. Pieters (Rob); S. Meshinchi (S.); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); F. Locatelli (Franco)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenetic abnormalities and early treatment response are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of AML. Deep sequencing has identified CBFA2T3/GLIS2 and NUP98/KDM5A as recurrent aberrations, occurring in similar

  16. The Politicized Motivations of Volunteers in the Refugee Crisis: Intergroup Helping as the Means to Achieve Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kende

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The refugee crisis in the summer of 2015 mobilized thousands of volunteers in Hungary to help refugees on their journey through Europe despite the government’s hostile stance. We conducted a survey (N = 1459 among people who were active in supporting refugees and providing services to them to test the hypothesis of whether volunteers in the context of this humanitarian crisis had social change motivations similar to those engaged in direct political activism. Hierarchical regression analysis and mediation analysis revealed the importance of opinion-based identity and moral convictions as predictors of volunteerism, while efficacy beliefs and anger only predicted political activism. Our findings suggest that volunteers engaged in helping refugees based on motivations previously described as drivers of mobilization for political activism, but chose volunteerism to alleviate the problems embedded in the intergroup situation. Although the context of the refugee crisis in Hungary may have been somewhat unique, these findings have implications for other asymmetrical politicized intergroup relations in which advantaged group members can choose to offer humanitarian aid, engage in political actions to change the situation, or do both.

  17. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Dussel, D.B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict

  18. Explaining Gender-Based Language Use: Effects of Gender Identity Salience on References to Emotion and Tentative Language in Intra- and Intergroup Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment tested hypotheses derived from self-categorization theory's explanation for gender-based language use. Under high or low conditions of gender salience, men and women sent e-mail to an ostensible male or female recipient yielding either an intra- or an intergroup setting. Gender salience was manipulated so that the stereotypically…

  19. Does Identification With Rwanda Increase Reconciliation Sentiments Between Genocide Survivors and Non-Victims? The Mediating Roles of Perceived Intergroup Similarity and Self-Esteem During Commemorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Kanazayire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey (N = 247 investigated the influence of identification with the Rwandan nation on reconciliation sentiments between members of the survivor and of the non-victim groups of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Results showed that, whereas the two groups did not differ in their level of identification with the nation, members of the non-victim group were more willing to reconcile than members of the survivor group. Perceived intergroup similarity mediated the effect of national identification on reconciliation sentiment for both groups, but this effect was stronger among non-victims. Finally, self-esteem during commemorations also mediated this effect, but only among non-victims. We discuss the importance of people’s motivation to reconcile with out-group members in post-genocidal contexts in light of the common in-group identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000 as well as the needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation (Nadler & Schnabel, 2008.

  20. The Influence of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem on the Interpersonal and Inter-group Evaluations of Japanese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 236 Japanese college students evaluated themselves, two in-groups, and two outgroups,on five positive and five negative traits. They also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scaleand two subscales of the Luhtanen & Crocker Collective Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed thatthe personal and collective self-esteem of Japanese college students is unaffected by perceptions of interpersonal or inter-group superiority or inferiority. It is therefore inferred that personal or group e...

  1. Bright minds and dark attitudes: lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models.

  2. Trimodality therapy for superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer: Southwest Oncology Group-Intergroup Trial S0220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernstine, Kemp H; Moon, James; Kraut, Michael J; Pisters, Katherine M W; Sonett, Joshua R; Rusch, Valerie W; Thomas, Charles R; Waddell, Thomas K; Jett, James R; Lyss, Alan P; Keller, Steven M; Gandara, David R

    2014-08-01

    Although preoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin-etoposide) and radiotherapy, followed by surgical resection, is considered a standard of care for superior sulcus cancers, treatment is rigorous and relapse limits long-term survival. The Southwest Oncology Group-Intergroup Trial S0220 was designed to incorporate an active systemic agent, docetaxel, as consolidation therapy. Patients with histologically proven and radiologically defined T3 to 4, N0 to 1, M0 superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer underwent induction therapy with cisplatin-etoposide, concurrently with thoracic radiotherapy at 45 Gy. Nonprogressing patients underwent surgical resection within 7 weeks. Consolidation consisted of docetaxel every 3 weeks for 3 doses. The accrual goal was 45 eligible patients. The primary objective was feasibility. Of 46 patients registered, 44 were eligible and assessable; 38 (86%) completed induction, 29 (66%) underwent surgical resection, and 20 (45% of eligible, 69% surgical, and 91% of those initiating consolidation therapy) completed consolidation docetaxel; 28 of 29 (97%) underwent a complete (R0) resection; 2 (7%) died of adult respiratory distress syndrome. In resected patients, 21 of 29 (72%) had a pathologic complete or nearly complete response. The known site of first recurrence was local in 2, local-systemic in 1, and systemic in 10, with 7 in the brain only. The 3-year progression-free survival was 56%, and 3-year overall survival was 61%. Although trimodality therapy provides excellent R0 and local control, only 66% of patients underwent surgical resection and only 45% completed the treatment regimen. Even in this subset, distant recurrence continues to be a major problem, particularly brain-only relapse. Future strategies to improve treatment outcomes in this patient population must increase the effectiveness of systemic therapy and reduce the incidence of brain-only metastases. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier

  3. Explanation and Intergroup Emotion: Social Explanations as a Foundation of Prejudice-Related Compunction

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Michael J.; Andreychik, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Two studies examined whether social explanations?causal frameworks used to make sense of a group?s status and behavior?are associated with prejudice-related compunction. In Study 1, based on Devine, Monteith, Zuwerink, & Elliott, (1991), participants who endorsed external explanations (e.g. low socioeconomic status of Blacks stems from historical maltreatment) showed a particular...

  4. A Puzzle Unsolved: Failure to Observe Different Effects of God and Religion Primes on Intergroup Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jonathan E; Tong, Eddie M W; Pang, Joyce S; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Religious priming has been found to have both positive and negative consequences, and recent research suggests that the activation of God-related and community-related religious cognitions may cause outgroup prosociality and outgroup derogation respectively. The present research sought to examine whether reminders of God and religion have different effects on attitudes towards ingroup and outgroup members. Over two studies, little evidence was found for different effects of these two types of religious primes. In study 1, individuals primed with the words "religion", "God" and a neutral control word evaluated both ingroup and outgroup members similarly, although a marginal tendency towards more negative evaluations of outgroup members by females exposed to religion primes was observed. In study 2, no significant differences in attitudes towards an outgroup member were observed between the God, religion, and neutral priming conditions. Furthermore, the gender effect observed in study 1 did not replicate in this second study. Possible explanations for these null effects are discussed.

  5. The Mandate of the Collective: Apology Representativeness Determines Perceived Sincerity and Forgiveness in Intergroup Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Hornsey, Matthew J; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Coughlin, Anne-Marie

    2017-06-01

    The sincerity of an apology is often critical for it to be viewed positively by victims. For collective apologies, we argue that sincerity takes on a particular meaning: It is a function of the apology's perceived representativeness for the offender group's will or sentiment. Consistent with this notion, when an apologetic (vs. nonapologetic) message was democratically chosen (Study 1) or explicitly endorsed by the majority of the offending outgroup (Study 2), it was considered more sincere and, through this, led to more forgiveness. Furthermore, while disagreement about an apology within the offender group reduced its perceived representativeness and sincerity, this was less so when the dissenters could be subtyped: when disagreement was correlated with an existing subgroup within the offending outgroup (Study 3) and in line with expectations for that subgroup (Study 4). This research shows that victim group members consider intragroup processes within the offending outgroup for attributions of sincerity.

  6. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreu, Carsten K W De; Dussel, D Berno; Velden, Femke S Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma-Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged-in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  7. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreu, Carsten K. W. De; Dussel, D. Berno; Velden, Femke S. Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma–Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888

  8. MULTIVARIANT AND UNIVARIANT INTERGROUP DIFFERENCES IN THE INVESTIGATED SPECIFIC MOTOR SPACE BETWEEN RESPONDENTS JUNIORS AND SENIORS MEMBERS OF THE MACEDONIAN NATIONAL KARATE TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kеnan Аsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to establish intergroup multivariant and univariant investigated differences in specific motor space between respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. The sample of 30 male karate respondents covers juniors on 16,17 and seniors over 18 years.In the research were applied 20 specific motor tests. Based on Graph 1 where it is presented multivariant analysis of variance Manova and Anova can be noted that respondents juniors and seniors, although not belonging to the same population are not different in multivariant understudied area.W. lambda of .19, Rao-wool R - Approximation of 1.91 degrees of freedom df 1 = 20 and df 2 = 9 provides the level of significance of p =, 16. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in sagital plane for 15 sec. SUDMNR (hitting a moving target with weaker hand and SUDMPN (hitting a moving target with favoritism foot of twenty applied manifest variables. There are no intergroup differences in multivariant investigated specific - motor space among the respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in

  9. Eating Disorder Public Service Announcements: Analyzing Effects from an Intergroup Affect and Stereotype Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Irina A.; Seate, Anita Atwell; Waks, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have documented that exposure to stereotypical information about certain social groups leads to unfavorable perceptions and feelings toward that group. Integrating insights from the mental illness stigma and the social identity perspective literatures, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of eating disorder…

  10. Intergroup Contact and Outgroup Humanization: Is the Causal Relationship Uni- or Bidirectional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, Dora; Di Bernardo, Gian Antonio; Falvo, Rossella

    2017-01-01

    The attribution of uniquely human characteristics to the outgroup may favor the search for contact with outgroup members and, vice versa, contact experiences may improve humanity attributions to the outgroup. To explore this bidirectional relationship, two studies were performed. In Study 1, humanity perceptions were manipulated using subliminal conditioning. Two experimental conditions were created. In the humanization condition, the unconditioned stimuli (US) were uniquely human words; in the dehumanization condition, the US were non-uniquely human and animal words. In both conditions, conditioned stimuli were typical outgroup faces. An approach/avoidance technique (the manikin task) was used to measure the willingness to have contact with outgroup members. Findings showed that in the humanization condition participants were faster in approaching than in avoiding outgroup members: closeness to the outgroup was preferred to distance. Latencies of approach and avoidance movements were not different in the dehumanization condition. In Study 2, contact was manipulated using the manikin task. One approach (contact) condition and two control conditions were created. The attribution of uniquely human traits to the outgroup was stronger in the contact than in the no-contact conditions. Furthermore, the effect of contact on humanity attributions was mediated by increased trust toward the outgroup. Thus, findings demonstrate the bidirectionality of the relationship between contact and humanity attributions. Practical implications of findings are discussed.

  11. Power effects on implicit prejudice and stereotyping: The role of intergroup face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Amodio, David M

    2017-04-01

    Power is thought to increase discrimination toward subordinate groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs. Black outgroup faces. Whereas high power increased the relative processing of outgroup faces during evaluative judgments in the prejudice task, it decreased the relative processing of outgroup faces during stereotype trait judgments. An indirect effect of power on implicit prejudice through enhanced processing of outgroup versus ingroup faces suggested a potential link between face processing and implicit bias. Together, these findings demonstrate that power can affect implicit prejudice and stereotyping as well as early processing of racial ingroup and outgroup faces.

  12. Radiotherapy quality assurance for the RTOG 0834/EORTC 26053-22054/NCIC CTG CEC.1/CATNON intergroup trial "concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy in newly diagnosed non-1p/19q deleted anaplastic glioma": Individual case review analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrunhosa-Branquinho, André N; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Collette, Sandra; Clementel, Enrico; Liu, Yan; Hurkmans, Coen W; Feuvret, Loïc; Van Beek, Karen; van den Bent, Martin; Baumert, Brigitta G; Weber, Damien C

    2018-03-29

    The EORTC phase III 26053-22054/ RTOG 0834/NCIC CTG CEC.1/CATNON intergroup trial was designed to evaluate the impact on concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy in newly diagnosed non-1p/19q deleted anaplastic gliomas. The primary endpoint was overall survival. We report the results of retrospective individual case reviews (ICRs) for the first patient randomized per institution to detect the compliance with the study protocol. Sixty-nine institutions were required to submit the radiotherapy plan of their first randomized patient. Full digital datasets uploaded to the EORTC server were assessed by three independent and blinded reviewers through the EORTC radiotherapy quality assurance platform. Sixty-two (90%) of sixty-nine ICRs were received and assessable. Of the 62 cases, 22 were evaluated as per protocol (35.5%), 11 as acceptable variation (17.7%) and 29 were classified as unacceptable variations (46.8%). Most common unacceptable variations were related to the PTV dose (n = 19, 31%) and delineation (n = 17, 27%) processes. The ICR analysis showed a significant number of unacceptable variations with potential impact on tumor control and/or toxicity profile. Prospective ICRs are encouraged for future studies to prevent and correct protocol violations before start of treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The price of racial bias: intergroup negotiations in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Li, Jian; Bar-David, Eyal; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-12-01

    Existing stereotypes about Black Americans may influence perceptions of intent during financial negotiations. In this study, we explored whether the influence of race on economic decisions extends to choices that are costly to the decision maker. We investigated whether racial group membership contributes to differential likelihood of rejection of objectively equal unfair monetary offers. In the Ultimatum Game, players accept or reject proposed splits of money. Players keep accepted splits, but if a player rejects an offer, both the player and the proposer receive nothing. We found that participants accepted more offers and lower offer amounts from White proposers than from Black proposers, and that this pattern was accentuated for participants with higher implicit race bias. These findings indicate that participants are willing to discriminate against Black proposers even at a cost to their own financial gain.

  14. Support to Military or Humanitarian Counterterrorism Interventions: The Effect of Interpersonal and Intergroup Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.

  15. Interpretative Repertoires of Multiculturalism – Supporting and Challenging Hierarchical Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Nortio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social psychological research on immigrant integration has predominantly examined multiculturalism from the perspective of majority members, and has seen it to be in conflict with that of minority members. In this discursive psychological study, we analyzed how members of the Finnish majority and different immigrant groups discussed managing ethnic and cultural diversity. As a result, four different interpretative repertoires of multiculturalism were identified. The first two repertoires normalize the hierarchical relations between immgrants and hosts. The other two repertoires questioned and criticized multiculturalism as an official policy or as everyday practices that highlight the importance of ethnic and cultural group memberships and that enable the discriminatory and essentializing treatment of immigrants. Our analysis showed that both minority and majority members can make sense of and orient towards multiculturalism in many different ways and that, contrary to the common assumption based on previous research, the viewpoints presented are not always clearly divided between the groups. Finally, implications of the results for multiculturalism as an ideology and as practices are discussed.

  16. Intercultural Understanding through Intergroup Dialogue between Japanese and Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Tomomi

    2017-09-01

    This study had two purposes: (1) to develop university classes in which students can participate in intercultural dialogue by exchanging letters focusing on a topic about everyday norms implicit in each culture, and (2) to examine how students develop their intercultural understanding through participating in these classes. Twenty-two Japanese and six Chinese university students (each group in their own country) participated in three class sessions. At the beginning of the first class, students were given a dialogue theme that focused on cultural differences. The selected theme was mobile phone use while riding on public transportation, as this practice is prohibited in Tokyo but not in Beijing. Students discussed their opinions in small groups, wrote questions to their counterparts in the other country, and then reflected on and discussed the answers received. Analysis of the Japanese students' written reflections showed that their understanding of different cultural values and beliefs changed from one based only on a Japanese cultural perspective to one that respected the relativity of cultural norms. The results suggested that the arousal of negative emotions when students are exposed to the perspectives of other cultures is closely related to their understanding of cultural relativity.

  17. Temozolomide and interferon-alpha in metastatic melanoma: a phase II study of the Italian Melanoma Intergroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Ruggero; Romanini, Antonella; Sileni, Vanna Chiarion; Michiara, Maria; Guida, Michele; Biasco, Guido; Poletti, Paola; Amaducci, Laura; Leoni, Maurizio; Ravaioli, Alessandra

    2004-08-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is a new oral alkylating agent which has proven to be as active as dacarbazine (DTIC) in the treatment of melanoma, but with a lower toxicity. A multicentric phase II trial was conducted in an out-patient setting to determine the therapeutic activity and safety of TMZ in combination with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). From June 2000 to July 2001, 41 patients were recruited to receive TMZ 200 mg/m orally on days 1-5 every 28 days and with 5 MU IFN-alpha subcutaneously three times a week, continuously for eight cycles or until disease progression occurred. Of the 40 treated patients, two complete responses (5%) and three partial responses (7.5%) were observed, with a median duration of 4 months (range, 1.5-13.5 months). Thirteen patients (32.5%) had stable disease for a median of 2.5 months. Time to progression was 2.6 months and the median overall survival was 11.8 months. Nine patients (22.5%) developed brain metastases. The grade 4 toxicity observed in seven patients was of a transient haematological nature. This combination therapy is well tolerated but does not appear to increase the response rate or overall survival with respect to TMZ alone or to chemotherapeutic regimens. Further and more complex associations of these two drugs could be investigated in specific subsets of patients, in particular to evaluate its real efficacy in preventing brain metastases. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  18. Intergroup Contact, Prejudicial Attitudes, and Policy Preferences: The Case of the U.S. Military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Data from 115,052 active United States military personnel were analyzed to explore links between contact with gay people and attitudes about repealing "Don't Ask, Don't Tell." Results showed that prejudice against homosexuals significantly mediated the association between contact and supporting repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"; quality of contact in the military was a stronger predictor than other measures of contact. Quality and quantity of contact interacted: more contact quantity had opposing statistical effects on policy attitudes for people experiencing high versus low quality contact. Findings are discussed in terms of contact theory, the association between intergroup attitudes and policy preferences, and practical implications for situations in which groups' access to new positions or roles is limited, and hence contact opportunities are rare.

  19. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Gastrointestinal lymphomas: French Intergroup clinical practice recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up (SNFGE, FFCD, GERCOR, UNICANCER, SFCD, SFED, SFRO, SFH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak-Budnik, Tamara; Fabiani, Bettina; Hennequin, Christophe; Thieblemont, Catherine; Malamut, Georgia; Cadiot, Guillaume; Bouché, Olivier; Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, Agnès

    2018-02-01

    This document is a summary of the French Intergroup guidelines on the management of gastro-intestinal lymphomas, available on the web-site of the French Society of Gastroenterology, SNFGE (www.tncd.org), updated in September 2017. This collaborative work was realised under the auspices of several French medical societies and involved clinicians with specific expertise in the field of gastrointestinal lymphomas, including gastroenterologists, haematologists, pathologists, and radiation oncologist, representing the major French or European clinical trial groups. It summarises their consensus on the management of gastrointestinal lymphomas, based on the recent literature data, previous published guidelines and the expert opinions. The clinical management, and especially the therapeutic strategies of the gastro-intestinal lymphomas are specific to their histological subtypes and to their locations in the digestive tract, with the particularity of gastric MALT lymphomas which are the most frequent and usually related to gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori. Lymphomas are much less common than epithelial tumours of gastro-intestinal digestive tract. Their different histological subtypes determine their management and prognosis. Each individual case should be discussed within the expert multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term results of RTOG trial 8911 (USA Intergroup 113): a random assignment trial comparison of chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, David P; Winter, Katryn A; Gunderson, Leonard L; Mortimer, Joanne; Estes, Norman C; Haller, Daniel G; Ajani, Jaffer A; Kocha, Walter; Minsky, Bruce D; Roth, Jack A; Willett, Christopher G

    2007-08-20

    We update Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 8911 (USA Intergroup 113), a comparison of chemotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with localized esophageal cancer. The relationship between resection type and between tumor response and outcome were also analyzed. The chemotherapy group received preoperative cisplatin plus fluorouracil. Outcome based on the type of resection (R0, R1, R2, or no resection) was evaluated. The main end point was overall survival. Disease-free survival, relapse pattern, the influence of postoperative treatment, and the relationship between response to preoperative chemotherapy and outcome were also evaluated. Two hundred sixteen patients received preoperative chemotherapy, 227 underwent immediate surgery. Fifty-nine percent of surgery only and 63% of chemotherapy plus surgery patients underwent R0 resections (P = .5137). Patients undergoing less than an R0 resection had an ominous prognosis; 32% of patients with R0 resections were alive and free of disease at 5 years, only 5% of patients undergoing an R1 resection survived for longer than 5 years. The median survival rates for patients with R1, R2, or no resections were not significantly different. While, as initially reported, there was no difference in overall survival for patients receiving perioperative chemotherapy compared with the surgery only group, patients with objective tumor regression after preoperative chemotherapy had improved survival. For patients with localized esophageal cancer, whether or not preoperative chemotherapy is administered, only an R0 resection results in substantial long-term survival. Even microscopically positive margins are an ominous prognostic factor. After a R1 resection, postoperative chemoradiotherapy therapy offers the possibility of long-term disease-free survival to a small percentage of patients.

  2. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  3. Improving Intergroup Relations in Higher Education: A Critical Examination of the Influence of Educational Interventions on Racial Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the influence of various educational interventions in higher education on students' racial bias. The author reviews studies in four principle domains: multicultural courses, diversity workshops and training, peer-based interventions, and service-based interventions. He pays particular attention to the varied approaches,…

  4. The Rural-Urban Divide, Intergroup Relations, and Social Identity Formation of Rural Migrant Children in a Chinese Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    Through ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a Beijing public school, this study aims to investigate how rural migrant children in China negotiate and construct their identity vis-à-vis the school's local children. Building on social identity theory, this study reveals that rural migrant children develop a strong non-local group identity as a…

  5. Protective or harmful? Exploring the ambivalent role of social identification as a moderator of intergroup stress in sojourners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierwiaczonek, Kinga; Waldzus, Sven; van der Zee, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Living outside one's home country may be stressful, and having strong social ties should help deal with this stress. However, social ties may be protective or harmful depending on whether the social group they evoke belongs to the host- or the home country context. The current study examines how

  6. Intergroup Contact, Attitudes toward Homosexuality, and the Role of Acceptance of Gender Non-Conformity in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8…

  7. Intergroup contact and minority group empowerment : The perspective of Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamberi, Ermira; Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the endorsement of Roma empowerment in Macedonia among Roma (N = 187) and non-Roma (Macedonian, Albanian, and Turkish; N = 627) adolescents. Using structural equation modelling, we examined the mediating roles of out-group feelings, negative Roma stereotypes, and perceived

  8. Bullying as a Social Process: The Role of Group Membership in Students' Perception of Inter-Group Aggression at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread social phenomenon involving both individual and group variables. The present study was aimed at analyzing how students' perception of a bullying episode might be influenced by group and context variables. A convenience sample of 455 adolescents read a short story, in which the in-group role (bully vs. victim) and level of…

  9. "Some of My Best Friends": Intergroup Contact, Concealable Stigma, and Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M.; Capitanio, John P.

    1996-01-01

    In a 2-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (n=538) and toward both gay men and lesbians approximately 1 year later (n=382). Discusses findings of the study and theoretical and policy implications of the results. (KW)

  10. Ethnic minority identity and group context : Self-descriptions, acculturation attitudes and group evaluations in an intra- and intergroup situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Wolf, Angela de

    2002-01-01

    In an experimental questionnaire study among Chinese participants living in the Netherlands, it was found that self-descriptions, acculturation attitudes and ingroup evaluation were affected by the comparative group context. Following self-categorization theory, different predictions were tested and

  11. Predicting College Students' Intergroup Friendships across Race/Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…

  12. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, K.L.; Bos, H.M.W.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no

  13. National Identity and Group Narcissism as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes toward Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patricia A.; Coursey, Lauren E.; Kenworthy, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    The debate surrounding immigration reform to address undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States has been emotionally charged and polarizing. This study's goal was to better understand some of the psychological predictors of attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States, namely, collective identity as an…

  14. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study of Italian and U.S. Children's Perceptions of Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in Two Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Antognazza, Davide; Marland, Joshua J.; Crescentini, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This cross-cultural and cross-sectional study investigated Italian and US children's perceptions of interethnic and interracial friendships, also known as intergroup friendships. A total sample of 226 children attending two urban, elementary schools in a middle-sized Northeastern US city and a middle-sized northern Italian city, were interviewed…

  16. Molecular remission is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in patients with mantle cell lymphoma after combined immunochemotherapy: a European MCL intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, Christiane; Hoster, Eva; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene

    2010-01-01

    The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) was analyzed in 259 patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) treated within 2 randomized trials of the European MCL Network (MCL Younger and MCL Elderly trial). After rituximab-based induction treatment, 106 of 190 evaluable patients (56....../CRu and 51% in BM MRD-positive PR, P = .002). Sustained MR during the postinduction period was predictive for outcome in MCL Younger after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT; RD at 2 years 100% vs 65%, P = .001) and during maintenance in MCL Elderly (RD at 2 years: 76% vs 36%, P = .015). ASCT......, 0.1-0.9, P = .028). MR was highly predictive for prolonged RD independent of clinical response (complete response [CR], complete response unconfirmed [CRu], partial response [PR]; RD at 2 years: 94% in BM MRD-negative CR/CRu and 100% in BM MRD-negative PR, compared with 71% in BM MRD-positive CR...

  17. Molecular remission is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in patients with mantle cell lymphoma after combined immunochemotherapy: a European MCL intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, Christiane; Hoster, Eva; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene

    2010-01-01

    %) achieved a molecular remission (MR) based on blood and/or bone marrow (BM) analysis. MR resulted in a significantly improved response duration (RD; 87% vs 61% patients in remission at 2 years, P = .004) and emerged to be an independent prognostic factor for RD (hazard ratio = 0.4, 95% confidence interval....../CRu and 51% in BM MRD-positive PR, P = .002). Sustained MR during the postinduction period was predictive for outcome in MCL Younger after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT; RD at 2 years 100% vs 65%, P = .001) and during maintenance in MCL Elderly (RD at 2 years: 76% vs 36%, P = .015). ASCT...

  18. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, B.G.; Hegi, M.E.; Bent, M.J. van den; Deimling, A. von; Gorlia, T.; Hoang-Xuan, K.; Brandes, A.A.; Kantor, G.; Taphoorn, M.J.; Hassel, M.B.; Hartmann, C.; Ryan, G.; Capper, D.; Kros, J.M.; Kurscheid, S.; Wick, W.; Enting, R.; Reni, M.; Thiessen, B.; Dhermain, F.; Bromberg, J.E.; Feuvret, L.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Chinot, O.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Rossiter, J.P.; Dif, N.; Balana, C.; Bravo-Marques, J.; Clement, P.M.; Marosi, C.; Tzuk-Shina, T.; Nordal, R.A.; Rees, J.; Lacombe, D.; Mason, W.P.; Stupp, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and

  19. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Brigitta G.; Hegi, Monika E.; van den Bent, Martin J.; von Deimling, Andreas; Gorlia, Thierry; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Brandes, Alba A.; Kantor, Guy; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Hassel, Mohamed Ben; Hartmann, Christian; Ryan, Gail; Capper, David; Kros, Johan M.; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wick, Wolfgang; Enting, Roelien; Reni, Michele; Thiessen, Brian; Dhermain, Frederic; Bromberg, Jacoline E.; Feuvret, Loic; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Chinot, Olivier; Gijtenbeek, Johanna M. M.; Rossiter, John P.; Dif, Nicolas; Balana, Carmen; Bravo-Marques, Jose; Clement, Paul M.; Marosi, Christine; Tzuk-Shina, Tzahala; Nordal, Robert A.; Rees, Jeremy; Lacombe, Denis; Mason, Warren P.; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and assessed

  20. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033) : a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Brigitta G.; Hegi, Monika E.; van den Bent, Martin J.; von Deimling, Andreas; Gorlia, Thierry; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Brandes, Alba A.; Kantor, Guy; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Ben Hassel, Mohamed; Hartmann, Christian; Ryan, Gail; Capper, David; Kros, Johan M.; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wick, Wolfgang; Enting, Roelien; Reni, Michele; Thiessen, Brian; Dhermain, Frederic; Bromberg, Jacoline E.; Feuvret, Loic; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Chinot, Olivier; Gijtenbeek, Johanna M. M.; Rossiter, John P.; Dif, Nicolas; Balana, Carmen; Bravo-Marques, Jose; Clement, Paul M.; Marosi, Christine; Tzuk-Shina, Tzahala; Nordal, Robert A.; Rees, Jeremy; Lacombe, Denis; Mason, Warren P.; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and

  1. Incidence of meningeal involvement by rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children. A report of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tefft, M.; Fernandez, C.; Donaldson, M.; Newton, W.; Moon, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the head and neck are reviewed. 57/141 had lesions of para-meningeal sites. 20/57 (35%) developed evidence of direct meningeal extension. 18/20 (90%) died of this complication. Radiation portals and doses were limited in 42% and 32%, respectively. All patients had chemotherapy for 6 weeks prior to radiation. The significance of the adequacy of radiation factors and the timing of chemotherapy are reviewed. Recommendations for managing these patients include earlier use of radiation and increased coverage of adjacent meninges by radiation including total craniospinal axis radiation when brain meningeal involvement exists

  2. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G. Baumert (Brigitta); M.E. Hegi (Monika); M.J. van den Bent (Martin); A. von Deimling (Andreas); T.S. Gorlia (Thierry); K. Hoang-Xuan (Khê); A. Brandes (Alba); R. Kantor (Rami); M.J. Taphoorn (Martin); Hassel, M.B. (Mohamed Ben); C. Hartmann (Christian); Ryan, G. (Gail); D. Capper (David); J.M. Kros (Johan); S. Kurscheid (Sebastian); W. Wick (Wolfgang); R. Enting (Roelien); M. Reni (Michele); Thiessen, B. (Brian); F.G. Dhermain (Frederic); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); Feuvret, L. (Loic); J.C. Reijneveld; O. Chinot; J. Gijtenbeek (Johanna); Rossiter, J.P. (John P); Dif, N. (Nicolas); Balana, C. (Carmen); Bravo-Marques, J. (Jose); P.M.J. Clement (Paul); C. Marosi (Christine); Tzuk-Shina, T. (Tzahala); Nordal, R.A. (Robert A); Rees, J. (Jeremy); D. Lacombe (Denis); W.P. Mason (Warren); R. Stupp (Roger)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade

  3. TOPGEAR: a randomised phase III trial of perioperative ECF chemotherapy versus preoperative chemoradiation plus perioperative ECF chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer (an international, intergroup trial of the AGITG/TROG/EORTC/NCIC CTG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Trevor; Smithers, B Mark; Michael, Michael; Gebski, Val; Boussioutas, Alex; Miller, Danielle; Simes, John; Zalcberg, John; Haustermans, Karin; Lordick, Florian; Schuhmacher, Christoph; Swallow, Carol; Darling, Gail; Wong, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The optimal management of patients with resectable gastric cancer continues to evolve in Western countries. Following publication of the US Intergroup 0116 and UK Medical Research Council MAGIC trials, there are now two standards of care for adjuvant therapy in resectable gastric cancer, at least in the Western world: postoperative chemoradiotherapy and perioperative epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) chemotherapy. We hypothesize that adding chemoradiation to standard perioperative ECF chemotherapy will achieve further survival gains. We also believe there are advantages to administering chemoradiation in the preoperative rather than postoperative setting. In this article, we describe the TOPGEAR trial, which is a randomised phase III trial comparing control arm therapy of perioperative ECF chemotherapy with experimental arm therapy of preoperative chemoradiation plus perioperative ECF chemotherapy. Eligible patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction will be randomized to receive either perioperative chemotherapy alone (3 preoperative and 3 postoperative cycles of ECF) or perioperative chemotherapy plus preoperative chemoradiation. In the chemoradiation arm, patients receive 2 cycles of ECF plus chemoradiation prior to surgery, and then following surgery 3 further cycles of ECF are given. The trial is being conducted in two Parts; Part 1 (phase II component) has recruited 120 patients with the aim of assessing feasibility, safety and preliminary efficacy of preoperative chemoradiation. Part 2 (phase III component) will recruit a further 632 patients to provide a total sample size of 752 patients. The primary endpoint of the phase III trial is overall survival. The trial includes quality of life and biological substudies, as well as a health economic evaluation. In addition, the trial incorporates a rigorous quality assurance program that includes real time central review of radiotherapy plans and central review of

  4. The effects of ingroup and outgroup friendships on ethnic attitudes in college: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Shana; van Laar, Colette; Sidanius, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Data for this longitudinal study were collected from over 2000 White, Asian, Latino, and African American college students. Results indicated that students who exhibited more ingroup bias and intergroup anxiety at the end of their first year of college had fewer outgroup friends and more ingroup friends during their second and third years of college, controlling for pre-college friendships and other background variables. In addition, beyond these effects of prior ethnic attitudes and orientat...

  5. RADIATION THERAPY QUALITY IN CCG/POG INTERGROUP 9961: IMPLICATIONS FOR CRANIOSPINAL IRRADIATION AND THE POSTERIOR FOSSA BOOST IN FUTURE MEDULLOBLASTOMA TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadine eDonahue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Associations of RT deviations and outcomes in medulloblastoma have not been defined well, particularly in the era of reduced-dose CSI and chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of RT on CCG/POG 9961 and analyze associations of RT deviations with outcome.Methods and Materials: Major volume deviations were assessed based on the distance from specified anatomical region to field edge. We investigated associations of RT deviations with progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and explored associations with demographics and clinical variables.Results: Of the 308 patients who were evaluable for volume deviations, 101 patients (33% did not have any. Of the remaining 207 patients, 50% had only minor deviations, 29% had only major deviations, and 21% had both minor and major deviations. Of the patients with major deviations, 73% had a single major deviation. The most common major deviation was in the cribriform plate region, followed by the posterior fossa; posterior fossa deviations resulted from treating less than whole posterior fossa. There were no significant differences in PFS or OS between patients with deviations and those without. There was no evidence of associations of deviations with patient age. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients had major volume deviations. There was no evidence of a significant association between these and outcome. This lack of correlation likely reflects the current high quality of radiation therapy delivered in COG institutions, our strict definition of volume deviations, and the relatively few instances of multiple major deviations in individual patients. In is noteworthy that the types of posterior fossa volume deviations observed in this study were not adversely associated with outcome. As we move forward, quality assurance will continue to play an important role to ensure that deviations on study do not influence study outcome.

  6. Chromosomal Abnormalities Are Major Prognostic Factors in Elderly Patients With Multiple Myeloma: The Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Hulin, Cyrille; Campion, Loic; Rodon, Philippe; Marit, Gerald; Attal, Michel; Royer, Bruno; Dib, Mamoun; Voillat, Laurent; Bouscary, Didier; Caillot, Denis; Wetterwald, Marc; Pegourie, Brigitte; Lepeu, Gerard; Corront, Bernadette; Karlin, Lionel; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Delbrel, Xavier; Guilhot, Francois; Kolb, Brigitte; Decaux, Olivier; Lamy, Thierry; Garderet, Laurent; Allangba, Olivier; Lifermann, Francois; Anglaret, Bruno; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Facon, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chromosomal abnormalities, especially t(4;14) and del(17p), are major prognostic factors in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, this has been especially demonstrated in patients age < 66 years treated with intensive approaches. The goal of this study was to address this issue in elderly patients treated with conventional-dose chemotherapy. Patients and Methods To answer this important question, we retrospectively analyzed a series of 1,890 patients (median age, 72 years; range, 66 to 94 years), including 1,095 with updated data on treatment modalities and survival. Results This large study first showed that the incidence of t(4;14) was not uniform over age, with a marked decrease in the oldest patients. Second, it showed that both t(4;14) and del(17p) retained their prognostic value in elderly patients treated with melphalan and prednisone–based chemotherapy. Conclusion t(4;14) and del(17p) are major prognostic factors in elderly patients with MM, both for progression-free and overall survival, indicating that these two abnormalities should be investigated at diagnosis of MM, regardless of age. PMID:23796999

  7. Tolerability of intensified intravenous interferon alfa-2b versus the ECOG 1684 schedule as adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma: a randomized phase III Italian Melanoma Inter-group trial (IMI – Mel.A. [ISRCTN75125874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridolfi Ruggero

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFNalfa-2b, according to the ECOG 1684 schedule, is the only approved adjuvant treatment for stage III melanoma patients by the FDA and EMEA. However, the risk/benefit profile has been questioned limiting its world-wide use. In the late nineties, the Italian Melanoma Inter-group started a spontaneous randomized clinical trial (RCT to verify if a more intense, but shorter than the ECOG 1684 regimen, could improve survival without increasing the toxicity profile. The safety analysis in the first 169 patients who completed the treatment is here described. Methods Stage III melanoma patients were randomized to receive IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d intravenously (IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks, repeated for three times on weeks 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 25 to 28 (Dose-Dense/Dose-Intense, DD/DI, arm, or IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks followed by 10 MU/m2 subcutaneously (SC three times per week × 48 weeks (High Dose Interferon, HDI, arm. Toxicity was recorded and graded, according to the WHO criteria, as the worst grade that occurred during each cycle. Results The most common toxicities in both arms were flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, leukopenia, liver and neuro-psichiatric morbidities; with regard to severe toxicity, only leukopenia was statistically more frequent in DD/DI arm than in HDI arm (24% vs 9% (p = 0.0074, yet, this did not cause an increase in the infection risk. Discontinuation of treatment, due to toxicity, was observed in 13 and 17% of the patients in the DD/DI and HDI arm, respectively. The median actual dose intensity delivered in the DD/DI arm (36.4 MU/m2/week was statistically higher than that delivered in the HDI arm (30.7 MU/m2/week (p = 0.003. Conclusion Four cycles of intravenous high-dose IFNalfa-2b can be safely delivered with an increase in the median dose intensity. Efficacy results from this trial are eagerly awaited.

  8. First Step to Understand Intergroup Bias and Cohesion from the One World Experiment: A Pilot Project to Evaluate the Effect of the 'Pale Blue Dot' Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K.; Venugopal, R.

    2018-02-01

    The One World Experiment was carried out as a pilot effort in Cape Town, South Africa, to test whether exposure to an astronomy intervention affects empathy and altruism in children. The intervention focused on introducing children to knowledge around the Earth's position in the Universe and collecting data to assess the effect. This paper presents the project background as well as the methodology and results from the project's first phase, designed to understand the possible difference in empathetic response between a child and other 'ingroup' and 'outgroup' children; for any child, an 'ingroup' child is one belonging to their own social group (in this case, nationality), and an 'outgroup' child is one belonging to a social group other than their own. It is found that the students across the study have a strong cohesion to those of the same nationality but that there is no nationality bias in their feelings towards how other children share their joy with them. Full analysis of the data, which will compare the control group and experimental group results and focuses on the impact of astronomy intervention, is underway for future publication.

  9. Fibrinogen: a novel predictor of responsiveness in metastatic melanoma patients treated with bio-chemotherapy: IMI (italian melanoma inter-group trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casamassima Addolorata

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate a panel of pretreatment clinical and laboratory parameters in metastatic melanoma (MM in order to verify their impact on response and survival in a single prospective multi-institutional phase III study comparing out-patient chemotherapy (CT vs bioCT. Methods A total of 176 patients were randomised to receive CT (cisplatin, dacarbazine, optional carmustine or bioCT (the same CT followed by subcutaneous IL-2 plus intramuscular α-IFN-2b. Pretreatment total leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophyls, C-reactive protein (CRP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, erytrosedimentation rate (ESR, and fibrinogen were analyzed. Some clinical parameters (performance status, age, sex, and disease site were also considered. As we found a positive trend for bio-CT with no statistical significance in OR (25.3% vs 20.2% and OS (11 Mo vs 9.5 Mo, all analyses are stratified by treatment arm. Results In univariate analysis, higher value of lymphocytes percentage (P Conclusion Liver disease and higher LDH and fibrinogen levels had an important impact on survival in MM patients. In particular, fibrinogen has been recently reconsidered both for its determinant role in the host hemostatic system, and for its capability to provide protection against NK and LAK-cell-induced lysis. These observations could have some important implications for therapeutic approaches, in particular when immunological strategies are used.

  10. Reducing prejudice and promoting positive intergroup attitudes among elementary-school children in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Benatov, Joy; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Tadmor, Carmit T

    2016-08-01

    The current investigation tested the efficacy of the Extended Class Exchange Program (ECEP) in reducing prejudicial attitudes. Three hundred and twenty-two 3rd and 4th grade students from both Israeli-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian schools in the ethnically mixed city of Jaffa were randomly assigned to either intervention or control classes. Members of the intervention classes engaged in ECEP's activities, whereas members of the control classes engaged in a social-emotional learning program. The program's outcomes were measured a week before, immediately after, and 15months following termination. Results showed that the ECEP decreased stereotyping and discriminatory tendencies toward the other group and increased positive feelings and readiness for social contact with the other group upon program termination. Additionally, the effects of the ECEP were generalized to an ethnic group (i.e., Ethiopians) with whom the ECEP's participants did not have any contact. Finally, the ECEP retained its significant effect 15months after the program's termination, despite the serious clashes between Israel and the Palestinians that occurred during that time. This empirical support for the ECEP'S utility in reducing prejudice makes it potentially applicable to other areas in the world, especially those that are characterized by ethnic tension and violent conflicts. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fibrinogen: a novel predictor of responsiveness in metastatic melanoma patients treated with bio-chemotherapy: IMI (italian melanoma inter-group) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Michele; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Sileni, Vanna Chiarion; Romanini, Antonella; Labianca, Roberto; Freschi, Antonio; Brugnara, Salvatore; Casamassima, Addolorata; Lorusso, Vito; Nanni, Oriana; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a panel of pretreatment clinical and laboratory parameters in metastatic melanoma (MM) in order to verify their impact on response and survival in a single prospective multi-institutional phase III study comparing out-patient chemotherapy (CT) vs bioCT. Methods A total of 176 patients were randomised to receive CT (cisplatin, dacarbazine, optional carmustine) or bioCT (the same CT followed by subcutaneous IL-2 plus intramuscular α-IFN-2b). Pretreatment total leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophyls, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), erytrosedimentation rate (ESR), and fibrinogen were analyzed. Some clinical parameters (performance status, age, sex, and disease site) were also considered. As we found a positive trend for bio-CT with no statistical significance in OR (25.3% vs 20.2%) and OS (11 Mo vs 9.5 Mo), all analyses are stratified by treatment arm. Results In univariate analysis, higher value of lymphocytes percentage (P < .0001), lower value of total leucocytes (P=.005), CRP (P=.003), LHD (P < .0001), ESR (P < .027), fibrinogen (P < .0001), and no liver disease were strongly related to a better survival. In a multivariate analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, only fibrinogen (P=.004), LDH (P=.009) and liver disease (P=.04) were found to have an independent role on clinical outcome in metastatic melanoma patients. Conclusion Liver disease and higher LDH and fibrinogen levels had an important impact on survival in MM patients. In particular, fibrinogen has been recently reconsidered both for its determinant role in the host hemostatic system, and for its capability to provide protection against NK and LAK-cell-induced lysis. These observations could have some important implications for therapeutic approaches, in particular when immunological strategies are used. PMID:14690541

  12. The Effect of Auricular and Systemic Acupuncture on the Electromyographic Activity of the Trapezius Muscle with Trigger Points—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva de Camargo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare intra and intergroup the immediate effect of the auricular and LR8 systemic acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the trapezius with the trigger points. This is an experimental clinical trial; 40 people were split in 4 distinct groups (n = 10: GI mustard seed application in the auricular acupoint; GII bilateral needle application in the LR8 acupoint; GIII combination of the techniques; GIV/Control Group mustard seed application in an acupoint not linked to the muscle tension. The EMG was used to assess the muscle contraction for 5 seconds during the resting time and during the isometric contraction time. The EMG signal was first collect without the acupuncture intervention; then both techniques were applied for 5 minutes; and the EMG was collected again right after these applications. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used, the t test was paired with the Wilcoxon test to the intragroup comparison; One-way analysis of variance test for intergroup comparison. There was no statistical difference in the intragroup comparison for the groups. The same happened to the intergroup comparison before and after application. Systemic and auricular acupuncture did not promote immediate changes in the EMG activity of the trapezius muscle in individuals with MTrPs.

  13. Interim results from the CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) of treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma: a phase 3, randomised, open-label intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bent, Martin J.; Baumert, Brigitta; Erridge, Sara C.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Nowak, Anna K.; Sanson, Marc; Brandes, Alba Ariela; Clement, Paul M.; Baurain, Jean Francais; Mason, Warren P.; Wheeler, Helen; Chinot, Olivier L.; Gill, Sanjeev; Griffin, Matthew; Brachman, David G.; Taal, Walter; Rudà, Roberta; Weller, Michael; McBain, Catherine; Reijneveld, Jaap; Enting, Roelien H.; Weber, Damien C.; Lesimple, Thierry; Clenton, Susan; Gijtenbeek, Anja; Pascoe, Sarah; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Hau, Peter; Dhermain, Frederic; van Heuvel, Irene; Stupp, Roger; Aldape, Ken; Jenkins, Robert B.; Dubbink, Hendrikus Jan; Dinjens, Winand N. M.; Wesseling, Pieter; Nuyens, Sarah; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Gorlia, Thierry; Wick, Wolfgang; Kros, Johan M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The role of temozolomide chemotherapy in newly diagnosed 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic gliomas, which are associated with lower sensitivity to chemotherapy and worse prognosis than 1p/19q co-deleted tumours, is unclear. We assessed the use of radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant

  14. Interim results from the CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) of treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma: a phase 3, randomised, open-label intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bent, M.J. van den; Baumert, B.; Erridge, S.C.; Vogelbaum, M.A.; Nowak, A.K.; Sanson, M.; Brandes, A.A.; Clement, P.M.; Baurain, J.F.; Mason, W.P.; Wheeler, H.; Chinot, O.L.; Gill, S.; Griffin, M.; Brachman, D.G.; Taal, W.; Ruda, R.; Weller, M.; McBain, C.; Reijneveld, J.; Enting, R.H.; Weber, D.C.; Lesimple, T.; Clenton, S.; Gijtenbeek, A.; Pascoe, S.; Herrlinger, U.; Hau, P.; Dhermain, F.; Heuvel, I. van; Stupp, R.; Aldape, K.; Jenkins, R.B.; Dubbink, H.J.; Dinjens, W.N.; Wesseling, P.; Nuyens, S.; Golfinopoulos, V.; Gorlia, T.; Wick, W.; Kros, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of temozolomide chemotherapy in newly diagnosed 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic gliomas, which are associated with lower sensitivity to chemotherapy and worse prognosis than 1p/19q co-deleted tumours, is unclear. We assessed the use of radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant

  15. Effects of Stigmas on Intergroup Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Melvin C.; Lee, Motoko Y.

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to identify the master stigma, that characteristic of an individual that he believes to have the strongest negative effects on interactions with others, as perceived by students from four developing nations. Racial background was the master stigma only for the Nigerian students and being a foreigner was for the Iranian, Taiwanese, and…

  16. A Qualitative Assessment of Factors Precipitating Intergroup ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental and social political context of a university may have direct import on factors that can create conflict situations among the various groups that make up the university; academic, non academic and university administration. Consequently this paper takes a critical assessment of six universities (private, state ...

  17. INTERGROUP RELATIONS IN NIGERIA: THE DYNAMICS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    strengthen the shattered socio-economic and political relationship between and among the constituent .... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 11 June, 2016 ..... Despite the public masquerading and the showmanship of Nigeria as a united and indivisible country, it is of ...

  18. An Intergroup Perspective on Group Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    concepts that existed apart from the functioning of individuals. Floyd H. Allport (1924, cited by Brown and Turner, 1981, p. 33) made the case against group...brings to bear a variety of methods and theories from social science on a diverse set of difficult social problems ( Allport , 1954; Merton, 1960; Sherif...Journal of Occupational Behavior. 1983, 4, pp. 105-136. Allport , F. H. Social Psychology. New York, New York: Houghtoo-Mifflin, 1924. Allport , G. W. The

  19. Intergroup Conflicts and Customary Mediation: Experiences from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently scholars around the globe have given attention to conflict prevention, management and resolution. A considerable body of literature has been added to our academic libraries mostly by scholars from the Western societies. Conflicts in the developing areas by contrast are only minimally researched. For quite some ...

  20. Group rationale, collective sense : Beyond intergroup bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, Russell

    In this paper, I contest the view of the group as a source of bias and irrationality, especially prevalent within social psychology. I argue that this negative evaluation often arises by applying inappropriate standards, relating to the wrong level of analysis (often the individual level). Second,

  1. [A cross-sectional study on serum uric acid level and the distribution of metabolic syndrome among Uigur, Han and Kazak prediabetic groups in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-wu; Jiang, Sheng; Xu, Yan-cheng

    2013-10-01

    To explore the levels of uric acid, blood pressure, serum lipid metabolic disorders and the distribution of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) among Uygur, Han and Kazak pre-diabetic groups in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2053 Uygur residents, 2219 Kazak residents and 2656 Han residents aged 30-80, all with prediabetic syndromes. The pre-dialectic patients were divided into three groups for analysis on metabolic features and inter-group comparisons. (1)In total, 1934 pre-diabetic cases (28.3%)were diagnosed, with the highest prevalence (31.6%) seen in Uygurs and the lowest (25.5%) in Kazaks and medium (27.0%) in Hans. Data from the inter-group comparison showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.00). (2)Prevalence of high LDL-C was 80.5% , with hyperuricemia as 30.3% and MS as 58.3% , while the inter-group comparison did not show any statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). (3) Prevalence of pre-diabetic when combined with hypertension or earlier-stage hypertension, reached 88.0%, with the highest (96.8%) among Kazak group, 85.1% in Uygurs and 83.7% in Han population. Data from the inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference(χ(2) = 59.959, P = 0.00). (4)The overall prevalence of prediabetic, when combined with obesity was 35.4%, with 29.6% in Han, 36.8% in Uygur and 41.0% in Kazak groups. Data from the inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference(χ(2) = 19.097, P = 0.00). According to results from this cross-sectional study regarding the metabolic features of Uygur, Kazak and Han prediabetic groups, differences were seen in the prevalence rates of pre-diabetic among Uygur, Kazak and Han ethnic groups, with the highest seen in Uygurs and the lowest in Kazaks. Hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia,MS and obesity were commonly seen in all the prediabetic groups, with the highest prevalence of hypertension seen in the Kazak group and the highest rate of obesity in Uygur group.

  2. Estudo em fase III da utilização de talco em pó versus talco slurry na esclerose do derrame pleural maligno Phase III intergroup study of talc poudrage vs talc slurry sclerosis for malignant pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Dresler

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objectivo de demonstrar a eficácia, segurança e técnica apropriada de instilação de talco para a pleurodese do derrame pleural maligno, os autores efectuaram um estudo prospectivo e randomizado comparando a esclerose com talco em pó versus talco slurry (lama de talco. O estudo englobou 482 doentes com derrame pleural maligno que foram submetidos a pleurodese e que foram divididos em 2 grupos: grupo A com 242 doentes onde se efectuou pleurodese com talco em pó, e grupo B com 240 doentes, onde se utilizou talco slurry. A dose de talco utilizada nos 2 grupos foi de 4 a 5 gr. Os critérios de inclusão no estudo passaram pelo diagnóstico de neoplasia, derrame pleural maligno necessitando de esclerose, esperança de vida superior a 2 meses, status performance aceitável e condições físicas para anestesia geral. Os critérios de exclusão incluíram a gravidez, esclerose pleural prévias, radioterapia a um hemitórax em toda a sua extensão, derrame pleural quiloso ou bilateral e alterações da terapêutica sistémica nas 2 semanas previas à pleurodese. Os dados demográficos e a doença maligna de base eram semelhantes nos 2 grupos A primeira meta do estudo foi a avaliação radiológica do tórax ao fim de 30 dias após a pleurodese com o talco em pó ou slurry. A evidência de recorrência ou não de derrame pleural, a morbilidade, a mortalidade e a qualidade de vida dos doentes sobreviventes aos 30 dias foram avaliadas. Sequencialmente os doentes efectuaram radiografias torácicas mensalmente até aos 6 meses após o procedimento ou morte do doente. A percentagem de doentes que ao fim dos 30 dias se manteve sem derrame pleural foi semelhante nos 2 grupos (78% no grupo A e 71% no grupo B , com 14% de mortalidade no primeiro grupo e 20% no grupo B. Contudo, o subgrupo de doentes com neoplasia da mama e do pulmão obtiveram maior sucesso com o talco em pó do que com o talco slurry ( 82% versus 67%. A morbilidade da pleurodese inclui febre, dispneia e dor torácica. As complicações respiratórias foram mais comuns após a pleurodese com talco em pó (14% versus 6% com talco slurry, com desenvolvimento de insuficiência respiratória em 8% dos doentes do grupo A e 4% do grupo B. Na avaliação da qualidade de vida, demonstrou-se menor fadiga no grupo A. Os autores concluíram não haver diferença significativa em termos de eficácia com a utilização de talco em pó ou talco slurry, na pleurodese de derrames pleurais malignos.

  3. Learning health 'safety' within non-technical skills interprofessional simulation education: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Fell, Christopher W R; Box, Helen; Farrell, Michael; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare increasingly recognises and focusses on the phenomena of 'safe practice' and 'patient safety.' Success with non-technical skills (NTS) training in other industries has led to widespread transposition to healthcare education, with communication and teamwork skills central to NTS frameworks. This study set out to identify how the context of interprofessional simulation learning influences NTS acquisition and development of 'safety' amongst learners. Participants receiving a non-technical skills (NTS) safety focussed training package were invited to take part in a focus group interview which set out to explore communication, teamwork, and the phenomenon of safety in the context of the learning experiences they had within the training programme. The analysis was aligned with a constructivist paradigm and took an interactive methodological approach. The analysis proceeded through three stages, consisting of open, axial, and selective coding, with constant comparisons taking place throughout each phase. Each stage provided categories that could be used to explore the themes of the data. Additionally, to ensure thematic saturation, transcripts of observed simulated learning encounters were then analysed. Six themes were established at the axial coding level, i.e., analytical skills, personal behaviours, communication, teamwork, context, and pedagogy. Underlying these themes, two principal concepts emerged, namely: intergroup contact anxiety - as both a result of and determinant of communication - and teamwork, both of which must be considered in relation to context. These concepts have subsequently been used to propose a framework for NTS learning. This study highlights the role of intergroup contact anxiety and teamwork as factors in NTS behaviour and its dissipation through interprofessional simulation learning. Therefore, this should be a key consideration in NTS education. Future research is needed to consider the role of the affective non

  4. Origins of intergroup bias: developmental and social cognitive research on intergroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Y.; Degner, J.

    2010-01-01

    Prejudice and stereotyping are central to research and theorizing in social psychology. Yet, all too often this work tacitly assumes that these phenomena spring into existence fully formed in adults. This special issue originates from the need to integrate adult social psychological approaches with

  5. Interpersonal conflict and depression among Japanese workers with high or low socioeconomic status: findings from the Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito

    2010-07-01

    Research that focuses on the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work (i.e., intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) and depression that also considers differences in socioeconomic status (SES) is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and depression at different levels of SES. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 17,390 males and 2923 females employed in nine factories located in several regions of Japan. These participants were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire that included self-reported measures of interpersonal conflict at work (intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict), SES (education and occupation), worksite support (supervisor support and coworker support), depression (assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] scale), and other demographic covariates. Those who had scores of 16 + on the CES-D scale (4066 males and 873 females) were classified as experiencing depression. The association of interpersonal conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES (i.e., higher educational status and non-manual workers) than males of a low SES (i.e., lower educational status and manual workers) after adjusting for demographic variables, supervisor support, and coworker support. More specifically, the association of intergroup conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES than males of a low SES. However, this pattern was not observed in females. The current study suggests that males of a higher SES are more vulnerable to interpersonal conflict at work in terms of developing depression than males of a lower SES. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    2009-01-01

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  7. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Science Institute, College of Dentistry, Kangnung-Wonju National University, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  8. Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: a meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Frederick L; Mitchell, Gregory; Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Tetlock, Philip E

    2013-08-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination. The meta-analysis estimates the heterogeneity of effects within and across 2 domains of intergroup bias (interracial and interethnic), 6 criterion categories (interpersonal behavior, person perception, policy preference, microbehavior, response time, and brain activity), 2 versions of the IAT (stereotype and attitude IATs), 3 strategies for measuring explicit bias (feeling thermometers, multi-item explicit measures such as the Modern Racism Scale, and ad hoc measures of intergroup attitudes and stereotypes), and 4 criterion-scoring methods (computed majority-minority difference scores, relative majority-minority ratings, minority-only ratings, and majority-only ratings). IATs were poor predictors of every criterion category other than brain activity, and the IATs performed no better than simple explicit measures. These results have important implications for the construct validity of IATs, for competing theories of prejudice and attitude-behavior relations, and for measuring and modeling prejudice and discrimination.

  9. Aromatherapy with ylang ylang for anxiety and self-esteem: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify if the use of ylang ylang essential oil by cutaneous application or inhalation alters the anxiety and self-esteem perception and physiological parameters as blood pressure and temperature. Method : A pilot study with 34 professionals from a nursing group randomized in three groups: one received the ylang ylang essential oil by cutaneous application, the second received through inhalation and the third (placebo received the ylang ylang essence through cutaneous application. The assessment was done by an Anxiety Inventory (IDATE and the Dela Coleta self-esteem scale, applied on baseline, after 30, 60 and 90 days and after 15 days post-intervention (follow up. Results : In the pre and post-intervention intergroup analysis, there was a significant difference in self-esteem for the three groups (p values: G1=0.014; G2=0.016; G3=0.038. There were no differences in the analysis between groups for anxiety or for physiological parameters. Conclusion : It was found significant alterations only to the intergroup perception of self-esteem for the three groups.

  10. Affinity of estrogens for human progesterone receptor A and B monomers and risk of breast cancer: a comparative molecular modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique N Hasan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarique N Hasan1,4, Leena Grace B2, Tariq A Masoodi3,5, Gowhar Shafi4 , Ali A. Alshatwi4, P Sivashanmugham31Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbator, TN, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, V. M. K. V. College of Engineering, Salem, TN, India; 3Department of Bioinformatics, Jamal Mohammed College, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India; 4Molecular Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences; 5Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaBackground: The human progesterone receptor (hPR belongs to the steroid receptor family. It may be found as monomers (A and B and or as a dimer (AB. hPR is regarded as the prognostic biomarker for breast cancer. In a cellular dimer system, AB is the dominant species in most cases. However, when a cell coexpresses all three isoforms of hPR, the complexity of the action of this receptor increases. For example, hPR A suppresses the activity of hPR B, and the ratio of hPR A to hPR B may determine the physiology of a breast tumor. Also, persistent exposure of hPRs to nonendogenous ligands is a common risk factor for breast cancer. Hence we aimed to study progesterone and some nonendogenous ligand interactions with hPRs and their molecular docking.Methods and results: A pool of steroid derivatives, namely, progesterone, cholesterol, testosterone, testolectone, estradiol, estrone, norethindrone, exemestane, and norgestrel, was used for this in silico study. Dockings were performed on AutoDock 4.2. We found that estrogens, including estradiol and estrone, had a higher affinity for hPR A and B monomers in comparison with the dimer, hPR AB, and that of the endogenous progesterone ligand. hPR A had a higher affinity to all the docked ligands than hPR B.Conclusion: This study suggests that the exposure of estrogens to hPR A as well as hPR B, and more

  11. We believe in your conspiracy if we distrust you: the role of intergroup distrust in structuring the effect of Islamic identification, competitive victimhood, and group incompatibility on belief in a conspiracy theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashuri, A.; Zaduqisti, Esti

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how distrust towards an out-group believed to be an actor of a conspiracy theory moderates the role of Islamic identification, group incompatibility and competitive victimhood in explaining belief in said conspiracy. The contextual background we used to verify this idea is the

  12. National (dis)identification and ethnic and religious identity: a study among Turkish-Dutch muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Yildiz, Ali Aslan

    2007-10-01

    National (dis)identification is examined in three studies among Turkish-Dutch Muslim participants. In explaining national (dis)identification, the first study focuses on ethnic identity, the second on ethnic and religious identity, and the third on three dimensions of religious identity. Many participants show low commitment to the nation, and many indicate national disidentification. In addition, there is very strong ethnic and religious identification. Ethnic and Muslim identifications relate negatively to Dutch identification and, in Study 3, to stronger Dutch disidentification. Furthermore, perceived group rejection is associated with increased ethnic minority and religious identification but also with decreased national Dutch identification. In addition, in Studies 1 and 2 the effect of perceived rejection on Dutch identification is (partly) mediated by minority group identification. The findings are discussed in relation to social psychological thinking about group identification, dual identities, and the importance of religion for intergroup relations.

  13. A Cycle Ergometer Exercise Program Improves Exercise Capacity and Inspiratory Muscle Function in Hospitalized Patients Awaiting Heart Transplantation: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Forestieri

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a cycle ergometer exercise program on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle function in hospitalized patients with heart failure awaiting heart transplantation with intravenous inotropic support. Methods: Patients awaiting heart transplantation were randomized and allocated prospectively into two groups: 1 Control Group (n=11 - conventional protocol; and 2 Intervention Group (n=7 - stationary cycle ergometer exercise training. Functional capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test and inspiratory muscle strength assessed by manovacuometry before and after the exercise protocols. Results: Both groups demonstrated an increase in six-minute walk test distance after the experimental procedure compared to baseline; however, only the intervention group had a significant increase (P =0.08 and P =0.001 for the control and intervention groups, respectively. Intergroup comparison revealed a greater increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P <0.001. Regarding the inspiratory muscle strength evaluation, the intragroup analysis demonstrated increased strength after the protocols compared to baseline for both groups; statistical significance was only demonstrated for the intervention group, though (P =0.22 and P <0.01, respectively. Intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P <0.01. Conclusion: Stationary cycle ergometer exercise training shows positive results on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation while on intravenous inotropic support.

  14. Effects of game-based virtual reality on health-related quality of life in chronic stroke patients: A randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joon-Ho; Bog Park, Si; Ho Jang, Seong

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine whether game-based virtual reality (VR) rehabilitation, combined with occupational therapy (OT), could improve health-related quality of life, depression, and upper extremity function. We recruited 35 patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke, and these participants were randomized into groups that underwent VR rehabilitation plus conventional OT, or the same amount of conventional OT alone, for 20 sessions over 4 weeks. Compared to baseline, the VR rehabilitation plus OT group exhibited significantly improved role limitation due to emotional problems (p=0.047). Compared to baseline, both groups also exhibited significantly improved depression (p=0.017) and upper extremity function (p=0.001), although the inter-group differences were not significant. However, a significant inter-group difference was observed for role limitation due to physical problems (p=0.031). Our results indicate that game-based VR rehabilitation has specific effects on health-related quality of life, depression, and upper extremity function among patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ten-Year Progression-Free and Overall Survival in Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic GI Stromal Tumors: Long-Term Analysis of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Italian Sarcoma Group, and Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group Intergroup Phase III Randomized Trial on Imatinib at Two Dose Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Paolo G; Zalcberg, John; Le Cesne, Axel; Reichardt, Peter; Blay, Jean-Yves; Lindner, Lars H; Judson, Ian R; Schöffski, Patrick; Leyvraz, Serge; Italiano, Antoine; Grünwald, Viktor; Pousa, Antonio Lopez; Kotasek, Dusan; Sleijfer, Stefan; Kerst, Jan M; Rutkowski, Piotr; Fumagalli, Elena; Hogendoorn, Pancras; Litière, Saskia; Marreaud, Sandrine; van der Graaf, Winette; Gronchi, Alessandro; Verweij, Jaap

    2017-05-20

    Purpose To report on the long-term results of a randomized trial comparing a standard dose (400 mg/d) versus a higher dose (800 mg/d) of imatinib in patients with metastatic or locally advanced GI stromal tumors (GISTs). Patients and Methods Eligible patients with advanced CD117-positive GIST from 56 institutions in 13 countries were randomly assigned to receive either imatinib 400 mg or 800 mg daily. Patients on the 400-mg arm were allowed to cross over to 800 mg upon progression. Results Between February 2001 and February 2002, 946 patients were accrued. Median age was 60 years (range, 18 to 91 years). Median follow-up time was 10.9 years. Median progression-free survival times were 1.7 and 2.0 years in the 400- and 800-mg arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.91; P = .18), and median overall survival time was 3.9 years in both treatment arms. The estimated 10-year progression-free survival rates were 9.5% and 9.2% for the 400- and 800-mg arms, respectively, and the estimated 10-year overall survival rates were 19.4% and 21.5%, respectively. At multivariable analysis, age (< 60 years), performance status (0 v ≥ 1), size of the largest lesion (smaller), and KIT mutation (exon 11) were significant prognostic factors for the probability of surviving beyond 10 years. Conclusion This trial was carried out on a worldwide intergroup basis, at the beginning of the learning curve of the use of imatinib, in a large population of patients with advanced GIST. With a long follow-up, 6% of patients are long-term progression free and 13% are survivors. Among clinical prognostic factors, only performance status, KIT mutation, and size of largest lesion predicted long-term outcome, likely pointing to a lower burden of disease. Genomic and/or immune profiling could help understand long-term survivorship. Addressing secondary resistance remains a therapeutic challenge.

  16. Learning health ‘safety’ within non-technical skills interprofessional simulation education: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Fell, Christopher W. R.; Box, Helen; Farrell, Michael; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Healthcare increasingly recognises and focusses on the phenomena of ‘safe practice’ and ‘patient safety.’ Success with non-technical skills (NTS) training in other industries has led to widespread transposition to healthcare education, with communication and teamwork skills central to NTS frameworks. Objective: This study set out to identify how the context of interprofessional simulation learning influences NTS acquisition and development of ‘safety’ amongst learners. Methods: Participants receiving a non-technical skills (NTS) safety focussed training package were invited to take part in a focus group interview which set out to explore communication, teamwork, and the phenomenon of safety in the context of the learning experiences they had within the training programme. The analysis was aligned with a constructivist paradigm and took an interactive methodological approach. The analysis proceeded through three stages, consisting of open, axial, and selective coding, with constant comparisons taking place throughout each phase. Each stage provided categories that could be used to explore the themes of the data. Additionally, to ensure thematic saturation, transcripts of observed simulated learning encounters were then analysed. Results: Six themes were established at the axial coding level, i.e., analytical skills, personal behaviours, communication, teamwork, context, and pedagogy. Underlying these themes, two principal concepts emerged, namely: intergroup contact anxiety – as both a result of and determinant of communication – and teamwork, both of which must be considered in relation to context. These concepts have subsequently been used to propose a framework for NTS learning. Conclusions: This study highlights the role of intergroup contact anxiety and teamwork as factors in NTS behaviour and its dissipation through interprofessional simulation learning. Therefore, this should be a key consideration in NTS education. Future

  17. More than a feeling: strategic emotion expression in intergroup conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Er zijn veel verschillende vormen van conflict, maar een aspect wat vrijwel alle conflicten delen is dat ze verschillende – veelal negatieve – emoties teweeg brengen. Deze emoties zijn geen ‘bijproducten’ van een conflict maar geven het conflict vorm: Hoe we ons voelen beïnvloedt hoe we ons gedragen

  18. Entering the boxing ring: intergroup behavior in multiteam systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Organizations nowadays need to adjust quickly to new challenges. Consequently they are in need of a form of cooperation to help them react more efficiently. A Multiteam system (MTS) is such a form of cooperation. MTSs are two or more teams that interface directly and interdependently and that need

  19. Introduction. Intergroup prejudice from a developmental and social approach

    OpenAIRE

    Enesco, Ileana; Guerrero, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este Tema Monográfico ha sido reunir investigaciones de psicólogos evolutivos y sociales, españoles y extranjeros, en el amplio ámbito del prejuicio y las relaciones intergrupales. Se incluyen trabajos de revisión y estudios empíricos con distintos presupuestos teóricos, procedimientos de investigación y tipo de poblaciones. La mayoría de las contribuciones abordan el estudio de las actitudes de niños, adolescentes y jóvenes hacia la diversidad étnico-racial, el sesgo endogrupa...

  20. Inter-group conflicts along the Ethiopia-Kenya border

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-21

    Aug 21, 2015 ... This is because, for ethnicity and resources to cause conflict, there would be an actor or force that mobilises people and changes their perception on their identity vis-à-vis others, resource availability, ownership, utilisation right and governance. Hence, it is the volatility of ethnicity that can be activated by ...

  1. Knowledge Preservation Techniques That Can Facilitate Intergroup Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Coffee, John; Noga, Donald F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed tools, social methods and software, for (1) acquiring technical knowledge from engineers and scientists, (2) preserving that knowledge, (3) making the totality of our stored knowledge rapidly searchable. Our motivation has been, mainly, to preserve rare knowledge of senior engineers who are near retirement. Historical value of such knowledge, and also of our tools, has been pointed out to us by historians. We now propose the application these tools to enhancing communication among groups that are working jointly on a project. Of most value will be projects having groups among whom communication is rare and incomplete. We propose that discussions among members of a group be recorded in audio and that both the actual audio and transcriptions of that audio, and optional other pieces be combined into electronic, webpage-like "books". These books can then be searched rapidly by interested people in other groups. At points of particular interest, a searcher can zoom in on the text and even on the original recordings to pick up nuances (e.g. to distinguish a utterance said in seriousness from one in sarcasm). In this matter, not only can potentially valuable technical details be preserved for the future, but communication be enhanced during the life of a joint undertaking.

  2. Intergroup Processes in Childhood: Social Categorization and Sex Role Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlishta, Kimberly K.

    1995-01-01

    Using naturalistic methods, examined effect of awareness and valuation of gender on children's social group interactions. Subjects were 96 3rd and 4th graders. Found that children do exaggerate differences and similarities when forming first impressions of new boys and girls and do use gender stereotypes in relating to the other sex. (JW)

  3. 20 CFR 638.518 - Intergroup relations program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reduce prejudice, prevent discriminatory behavior by staff and students, and increase understanding among racial/ethnic groups and between men and women. The program shall be developed in accordance with...

  4. Ikwerre Intergroup Relations and its Impact on Their Culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    produce for sale at Abonnema where the UAC Group of Companies where the principal exporters (Wobasi, 1976). ... known as Trans Amadi industrial Estate and the area where Okrika Villages of Amadi. Okuru Fimie, Abuloma ... real owners, but both communities have continued to exist relatively peacefully. Ikwerre- Etche ...

  5. Effects of Network Segregation in Intergroup Conflict : An Experimental Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2006-01-01

    Dense in-group and scarce out-group relations (network segregation) often support the emergence of conflicts between groups. A key underlying mechanism is social control that helps to overcome the collective action problem within groups, but contributes to harmful conflicts among them in segregated

  6. South Africans and Mexicans in Florida: intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambou, Elie

    2011-01-01

    Newly arriving immigrants from Southern Africa and Mexicans do not get on well in the sunbelt state of Florida. A persistent theme emerging from discussions with South Africans on their relationship with Mexicans is that both sides perceive the other as culturally ethnocentric. The antagonistic relationship between both social groups is due to strong ethnic bonds and the clash of cultures.

  7. Intergroup relations in Nigeria: The dynamics and complexities | Ofili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  9. Emerging Issues in Race, Ethnicity, and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Intergroup Relations, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes discussion at an international conference of human rights professionals in 1982. Addresses such topics as: police-community relations, education and the mass media, the roles of human rights agencies, affirmative action, the impact of new technology, new challenges in dealing with discrimination, and coalition-building. (KH)

  10. The effect of brief digital interventions on attitudes to intellectual disability: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Natalie; Amin, Tara; Zambon, Amy; Scior, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of contact and education based interventions on attitudes is limited in the intellectual disability field. This study compared the effects of brief interventions with different education, indirect and imagined contact components on lay people's attitudes. 401 adult participants were randomised to six digital brief interventions consisting of different combinations of education, indirect and imagined contact. Their attitudes, intergroup anxiety and social distance were assessed post-intervention and at four to six-week follow-up. An intervention combining film-based education about intellectual disability and indirect contact had small positive effects on all three outcomes. Social distance was further reduced with the addition of a positively toned imagined contact task. These effects were maintained at follow-up. A brief film-based digital intervention can have small positive effects on attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities. These may be enhanced by adding positive imagined contact. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Polymorphisms associated with everolimus pharmacokinetics, toxicity and survival in metastatic breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Pascual

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer (MBC progressing after endocrine therapy frequently activates PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The BOLERO-2 trial showed that everolimus-exemestane achieves increased progression free survival (PFS compared with exemestane. However, there is great inter-patient variability in toxicity and response to exemestane-everolimus treatment. The objective of this study was to perform an exploratory study analyzing the implication of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on outcomes from this treatment through a pharmacogenetic analysis.Blood was collected from 90 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative MBC treated with exemestane-everolimus following progression after prior treatment with a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor. Everolimus pharmacokinetics was measured in 37 patients. Twelve SNPs in genes involved in everolimus pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were genotyped and associations assessed with drug plasma levels, clinically relevant toxicities (non-infectious pneumonitis, mucositis, hyperglycemia and hematological toxicities, dose reductions or treatment suspensions due to toxicity, progression free survival (PFS and overall survival.We found that CYP3A4 rs35599367 variant (CYP3A4*22 allele carriers had higher everolimus blood concentration compared to wild type patients (P = 0.019. ABCB1 rs1045642 was associated with risk of mucositis (P = 0.031, while PIK3R1 rs10515074 and RAPTOR rs9906827 were associated with hyperglycemia and non-infectious pneumonitis (P = 0.016 and 0.024, respectively. Furthermore, RAPTOR rs9906827 was associated with PFS (P = 0.006.CYP3A4*22 allele influenced plasma concentration of everolimus and several SNPs in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway genes were associated with treatment toxicities and prognosis. These results require replication, but suggest that germline variation could influence everolimus outcomes in MBC.

  12. Microprocessor-controlled vs. "dump-freezing" platelet and lymphocyte cryopreservation: A quantitative and qualitative comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Bela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thermodynamical and cryobiological parameters responsible for cell damages during cryopreservation (cryoinjuries have not yet been completely explained. Thus, freezing procedures should be revised, exactly optimized to obtain an enhanced structural and functional recovery of frozen- thawed cells. The aim of this study was to compare microprocessor- controlled (controlled-rate with the compensation of the released fusion heat and “dump-freezing” (uncontrolled- rate of the platelet and lymphocyte cryopreservation efficacy. Methods. Platelet quantitative recovery (post-thaw vs. unfrozen cell count, viability (using hypotonic shock response - HSR, morphological score (PMS, ultrastructural (electron microscopy properties and expression of different surface antigens were investigated. In lymphocyte setting, cell recovery and viability (using trypan blue exclusion test as well as functionality (by plant mitogens were determined. Controlled- rate freezing and uncontrolled-rate cryopreservation were combined with 6% (platelets and 10% (lymphocytes dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Results. Platelet recovery and functionality were superior in the controlled-rate system. The majority of surface antigen expression was reduced in both freezing groups vs. unfrozen cells, but GP140/CD62p was significantly higher in controlled-rate vs. uncontrolled-rate setting. Controlled- rate freezing resulted with better lymphocyte recovery and viability (trypan blue-negative cell percentage. In mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferative response no significant intergroup difference (controlled-rate vs. uncontrolled-rate were found. Conclusion. The data obtained in this study showned the dependence of cell response on the cryopreservation type. Controlled-rate freezing provided a superior platelet quantitative and functional recovery. Lymphocyte recovery and viability were better in the controlled-rate group, although only a minor intergroup difference for cell

  13. Affective Change at the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute: Studies of Assessment and of Symbolic Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    psychoanalytic approaches might suggest that this guilt could be turned in either prosocial or antisocial directions both attitudinally and...R. J., & Turner, J. C. (1981). Interpersonal and intergroup behaviour . In J. C. Turner & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behaviour (pp. 33-65). Chicago... attached envelope when you are finished. Who will get the ratings? The ratings will be "sanitized" once I put them in the computer, and I will not

  14. Local Control With Reduced-Dose Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group D9602 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breneman, John, E-mail: john.breneman@uchealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Meza, Jane [Department of Biostatistics, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health, Omaha, NE (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Raney, R. Beverly [Children' s Cancer Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Children' s Ambulatory Blood and Cancer Center, Dell Children' s Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wolden, Suzanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Rodeberg, David A. [Department of Surgery, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Meyer, William [Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Walterhouse, David [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children' s Memorial Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Hawkins, Douglas S. [Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children' s Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of reduced-dose radiotherapy on local control in children with low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated in the Children's Oncology Group D9602 study. Methods and Materials: Patients with low-risk RMS were nonrandomly assigned to receive radiotherapy doses dependent on the completeness of surgical resection of the primary tumor (clinical group) and the presence of involved regional lymph nodes. After resection, most patients with microscopic residual and uninvolved nodes received 36 Gy, those with involved nodes received 41.4 to 50.4 Gy, and those with orbital primary tumors received 45 Gy. All patients received vincristine and dactinomycin, with cyclophosphamide added for patient subsets with a higher risk of relapse in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV studies. Results: Three hundred forty-two patients were eligible for analysis; 172 received radiotherapy as part of their treatment. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 15% in patients with microscopic involved margins when cyclophosphamide was not part of the treatment regimen and 0% when cyclophosphamide was included. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 14% in patients with orbital tumors. Protocol-specified omission of radiotherapy in girls with Group IIA vaginal tumors (n = 5) resulted in three failures for this group. Conclusions: In comparison with Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV results, reduced-dose radiotherapy does not compromise local control for patients with microscopic tumor after surgical resection or with orbital primary tumors when cyclophosphamide is added to the treatment program. Girls with unresected nonbladder genitourinary tumors require radiotherapy for postsurgical residual tumor for optimal local control to be achieved.

  15. Current trends in study of xenophobia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malantseva O.D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobia is one of the most topical problems of the modern world which attains special significance in view of its extension among adolescents. The article regards the results of the latest studies of xenophobia in works of foreign scholars, as well as mechanisms of its emergence and the ways of preventing it. In the course of analysis of the latest findings of foreign investigators three main directions in study of xenophobia were singled out: investigations at the level of individual psychological processes; investigations at the level of group processes; investigations at the level of cultural, public processes. The directions of xenophobia studies mentioned above make it possible to determine the main forms of xenophobia prophylaxis among adolescents; development of socio-cultural competence, enlargement of capabilities and choice of various forms of inter-racial and inter-national cooperation; inclusion of conciliation techniques for resolution of individual and intergroup conflicts into educational process at school sites; discussion and analysis of different views on the events taking place in the contemporary world.

  16. Comparison of conventional prognostic indices in patients older than 60 years with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP in the US Intergroup Study (ECOG 4494, CALGB 9793): consideration of age greater than 70 years in an elderly prognostic index (E-IPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Ranjana H; Chen, Haiyan; Habermann, Thomas M; Morrison, Vicki A; Weller, Edie A; Fisher, Richard I; Peterson, Bruce A; Gascoyne, Randy D; Horning, Sandra J

    2010-10-01

    To assess if immunochemotherapy influenced the prognostic value of IPI in elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, we evaluated the performance of the standard International Prognostic Index (IPI) and following modifications: age adjusted (AA)-IPI, revised (R)-IPI, and an elderly IPI with age cut-off 70 years (E-IPI) in patients > 60 years treated with RCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). In 267 patients, by IPI/AA-IPI 60% were high-intermediate, 53% high and 12% low risk. With R-IPI, 60% were poor risk and none very good risk. Using E-IPI, 45% were high-intermediate/high risk and 27% low risk. No differences in outcome were seen in the low/low-intermediate groups with IPI/AA-IPI. For E-IPI, failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly different for low/low-intermediate groups. No differences were detected in the four indices with model fit/discrimination measures; however, E-IPI ranked highest. For elderly R-CHOP treated patients, distribution of IPI/AA-IPI skewed toward high/high-intermediate risk with no differences in FFS/OS between low/low-intermediate risk. In contrast, with E-IPI, more are classified as low risk with significant differences in FFS/OS for low-intermediate compared to low risk. The R-IPI does not identify a very good risk group, thus minimizing its utility in this population. The prognostic discrimination provided by the E-IPI for low and low-intermediate elderly DLBCL patients needs validation by other datasets. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Comparison of Conventional Prognostic Indices in Patients Older than 60 Years with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP in the US Intergroup Study (ECOG 4494, CALGB 9793): Consideration of Age Greater than 70 Years in an Elderly Prognostic Index (E-IPI)

    OpenAIRE

    Advani, R.H.; Chen, H.; Habermann, T.M; Morrison, V.A.; Weller, E.A.; Fisher, R.I.; Peterson, B. A.; Gascoyne, R.D.; Horning, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess if immunochemotherapy influenced the prognostic value of IPI in elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, we evaluated the performance of the standard International Prognostic Index (IPI) and following modifications: age adjusted (AA)-IPI, revised (R)-IPI, and an elderly IPI with age cut-off 70 years (E-IPI) in patients >60 years treated with RCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). In 267 patients, by IPI/AA-IPI 60% were high-inter...

  18. Thalidomide salvage therapy following allogeneic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a retrospective study from the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) and the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohty, M; Attal, M; Marit, G; Bulabois, C E; Garban, F; Gratecos, N; Rio, B; Vernant, J P; Sotto, J J; Cahn, J Y; Blaise, D; Jouet, J P; Facon, T; Yakoub-Agha, I

    2005-01-01

    Thalidomide is effective in multiple myeloma (MM), even in patients who have relapsed after high-dose therapy. A potent graft-versus-myeloma (GVM) effect can be induced against MM after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). In all, 31 MM patients received thalidomide as a salvage therapy after progression following allo-SCT. The median maximum daily dose of thalidomide was 200 mg (range, 50-600). Thalidomide had to be discontinued in six patients (19%) because of toxicity. In all, nine patients (29%; 95% CI, 13-45) achieved an objective response with thalidomide therapy (six partial and three very good partial responses, VGPR). Five patients developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after thalidomide therapy, including the three patients achieving a VGPR. These data demonstrate that thalidomide is potentially effective in MM patients failing allo-SCT.

  19. A comparative evaluation of freeze dried bone allograft and decalcified freeze dried bone allograft in the treatment of intrabony defects: A clinical and radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Gothi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ideal graft material for regenerative procedures is autogenous bone graft but the major disadvantage with this graft is the need for a secondary surgical site to procure donor material and the frequent lack of intraoral donor site to obtain sufficient quantities of autogenous bone for multiple or deep osseous defects. Hence, to overcome these disadvantages, bone allografts were developed as an alternative source of graft material. Materials and Methods: In 10 patients with chronic periodontitis, 20 bilateral infrabony defects were treated with freeze dried bone allograft (FDBA-Group A and decalcified freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA-Group B. Clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed preoperatively and at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Significant improvement in the reduction in probing depth and relative attachment level (RAL from the baseline to 3 months to baseline to 6 months in group A and group B, which was statistically significant but no statistically significant reduction was seen between 3 months and 6 months. On inter-group comparison, no significant differences were observed at all-time points. In adjunct to the probing depth and RAL, the radiographic area of the defect showed a similar trend in intra-group comparison and no significant difference was seen on inter-group comparison at all-time points. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that DFDBA did not show any improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters in the treatment of the intrabony defects as compared to FDBA.

  20. Mental practice enhances surgical technical skills: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Sirimanna, Pramudith; Moran, Aidan; Grantcharov, Teodor; Kneebone, Roger; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2011-02-01

    To assess the effects of mental practice on surgical performance. Increasing concerns for patient safety have highlighted a need for alternative training strategies outside the operating room. Mental practice (MP), "the cognitive rehearsal of a task before performance," has been successful in sport and music to enhance skill. This study investigates whether MP enhances performance in laparoscopic surgery. After baseline skills testing, 20 novice surgeons underwent training on an evidence-based virtual reality curriculum. After randomization using the closed envelope technique, all participants performed 5 Virtual Reality (VR) laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC). Mental practice participants performed 30 minutes of MP before each LC; control participants viewed an online lecture. Technical performance was assessed using video Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills-based global ratings scale (scored from 7 to 35). Mental imagery was assessed using a previously validated Mental Imagery Questionnaire. Eighteen participants completed the study. There were no intergroup differences in baseline technical ability. Learning curves were demonstrated for both MP and control groups. Mental practice was superior to control (global ratings) for the first LC (median 20 vs 15, P = 0.005), second LC (20.5 vs 13.5, P = 0.001), third LC (24 vs 15.5, P enhances the quality of performance based on VR laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This may be a time- and cost-effective strategy to augment traditional training in the OR thus potentially improving patient care.

  1. A Comparative Study of Clinical Outcomes and Second-Look Arthroscopic Findings between Remnant-Preserving Tibialis Tendon Allograft and Hamstring Tendon Autograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Matched-Pair Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Keun; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Yoo, Jae Doo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare stability, functional outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft and remnant-sacrificing hamstring tendon autograft. We matched two groups (remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group and hamstring tendon autograft group) in terms of demographic characteristics, associated injury, and knee characteristics. Each group consisted of 25 patients. Operation time was longer in the remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group, but there was no significant intergroup difference in stability, clinical outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings. When an autograft is not feasible in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the remnant-preserving technique can produce comparable results in terms of restoration of function, stability of the knee, and degree of synovium coverage at second-look arthroscopy compared to remnant-sacrificing hamstring autograft.

  2. Temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome: a prospective study of 255 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Demet; Dıraçoğlu, Demirhan; Karan, Ayşe

    2013-06-01

    To determine the relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome (TMDS), sex and pain severity. Data were collected prospectively from consecutive patients with TMDS. Patients were divided into four subgroups according to signs and symptoms: myofascial pain; intra-articular disorders; extra-articular disorders; degenerative disorders. Intergroup sex distribution differences were evaluated, the pain severity between the four subgroups was compared, and the rates of bruxism and inco-ordination were measured. A visual analogue scale was used to rate the pain. A total of 255 patients with TMDS were included in the study. A significantly higher rate of extra-articular disorders was found in male patients. Bruxism was found to be significantly more common in females than in males. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of inco-ordination based on sex. The overall pain score was higher in females than in males, but there was no significant difference. The pain score was significantly higher in patients in the degenerative disorders subgroup, compared with other subgroups. There was no relationship between TMDS and pain and sex. Pain scores were significantly higher in the degenerative disorders subgroup, compared with other subgroups.

  3. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced bronchial cancer: impact of radiotherapy quality on global survival: results of a trial by the Thoracic Cancerology French-speaking Inter-group (IFCT) and Pneumo-Cancerology French Group (GFPC) 02.01; Chimioradiotherapie concomitante pour cancer bronchique localement evolue: impact de la qualite de la radiotherapie sur la survie globale: resultats de l'essai de l'Intergroupe francophone de cancerologie thoracique (IFCT) et du Groupe francais de pneumo-cancerologie (GFPC) 02.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel-Lafay, I.; Montella, A.; Pommier, P. [Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Clavere, P. [CHU de Limoges, 87 - Limoges (France); Labat, J.P. [CHU de Brest, 29 - (France); Benchalal, M. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Renne (France); Teissier, E. [Centre azureen de radiotherapie, 06 - Mougins (France); Talabard, J.N.; Fournel, P. [CHU de Saint- Etienne, 42 - Saint- Etienne (France); D' Hombres, A. [Centre hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2010-10-15

    The author report the assessment of the influence of radiotherapy quality and of its consequences on the future of 113 patients during a phase-II randomized trial of concomitant chemo-radiotherapy of bronchial cancers without stage-II non-resectable small cells. The patients have been submitted to a conformational radiotherapy and a concomitant induction of consolidation chemotherapy. Ten items are analysed: immobilisation, dose per fraction, total dose, ganglion radiotherapy, number of beams, images before and after radiotherapy, radiotherapy duration, duration without radiotherapy, dose-lung volume histogram. The study notably shows the deleterious effects of an interruption of the concomitant chemotherapy on the global survival. Short communication

  4. The impact of silo mentality on team identity: An organisational case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe how the silo mentality impacts on team identity. Motivation for the study: During a recent organisational consultation the researchers realised that a so-called silo phenomenon had much more unexplained unconscious behaviour than was traditionally realised in terms of organisational development. It is hoped that findings from this qualitative study could give consultants entry into what happens below the surface in the silos’ unconscious. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative and descriptive research design using a case study strategy was used. Data gathering consisted of 25 narrative interviews. Using discourse analysis four themes manifested, integrated into four working hypotheses and a research hypothesis. Trustworthiness and ethical standards were ensured. Main findings: Themes that emerged were the physical environment and structure, intra-group relations, experiences of management, and intergroup relations. Practical/managerial implications: Consulting on silo behaviour as physical structures only may not be successful in changing organisational behaviour. The silo resembles an iceberg – the largest part is below the surface. Contribution/value-add: The findings evidenced silo behaviour to be an unconscious phenomenon influencing team identity negatively. Consultants are urged to study these manifestations towards understanding silos and their effect on team identity better.

  5. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  6. Immediate Occlusal versus Non-Occlusal Loading of Implants: A Randomized Clinical Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Susanne; Stopper, Marlene; Hof, Markus; Wegscheider, Walther A; Lorenzoni, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Immediate occlusal and non-occlusal loading protocols have been discussed and, despite varying success rates, are considered viable in selected cases. Preoperative implant planning and intraoperative transfer are essential to the success of implant-supported reconstructions in partially or completely edentulous jaws. This study was performed to compare clinical outcomes of immediate occlusal versus non-occlusal loading of posterior implants. Of 19 patients with 52 screw-type implants replacing mandibular molars or premolars, nine patients with 21 implants were randomized to a study group that received immediate restorations with occlusal loading, whereas 10 patients with 31 implants were randomized to a control group that received provisional restorations without occlusal loading. Occlusal loading was defined as full loading in maximum intercuspidation. Single-tooth or splinted multiunit restorations were incorporated by screw retention or cementation. Marginal bone defects (MBD), implant survival, and implant success were evaluated 12 months after insertion. Both groups revealed similar MBD levels consistent with previous reports. No implants were lost (overall survival: 100%) or found to fail (overall success: 100%). No significant intergroup differences were noted for any of the evaluated parameters. Immediate restorations in partially edentulous mandibles demonstrated successful clinical and radiographic 12-month results. Larger long-term prospective studies are needed to confirm the final evidence and predictability of immediate functional loading as a standard treatment concept for partially edentulous jaws. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pulmonary function studies in young healthy Malaysians of Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary function tests have been evolved as clinical tools in diagnosis, management and follow up of respiratory diseases as it provides objective information about the status of an individual's respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among the male and female young Kelantanese Malaysians of Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and to compare the data with other populations. A total of 128 (64 males, 64 females) non-smoking healthy young subjects were randomly sampled for the study from the Kelantanese students' population of the University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia. The study population (20-25 yr age group) had similar socio-economic background. Each subject filled up the ATS (1978) questionnaire to record their personal demographic data, health status and consent to participate in the study. Subjects with any history of pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study. The pulmonary function measurements exhibited significantly higher values among males than the females. FEV 1% did not show any significant inter-group variation probably because the parameter expresses FEV 1 as a percentage of FVC. FVC and FEV 1 exhibited significant correlations with body height and body mass among males whereas in the females exhibited significant correlation with body mass, body weight and also with age. FEV 1% exhibited significant correlation with body height and body mass among males and with body height in females. FEF 25-75% did not show any significant correlation except with body height among females. However, PEFR exhibited significant positive correlation with all the physical parameters except with age among the females. On the basis of the existence of significant correlation between different physical parameters and pulmonary function variables, simple and multiple regression norms have been computed. From the present investigation it can be concluded that Kelantanese Malaysian youths have normal range of

  8. The relationship between school multiculturalism and interpersonal violence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Johansen, Samantha

    2011-11-01

    Multiculturalism has been purported to be supportive of positive youth development and outcomes. This study examined the relationship between perceived school multiculturalism-whether youth felt and thought that their school and teachers supported and provided activities for diverse intergroup interactions-and serious interpersonal violence, and explored whether this relation was mediated by civic engagement, ethnic identity, ethnocultural empathy, and positive peers. An ethnically diverse sample of 324 middle-school youth (mean age: 12.5 years; range: 11-15 years; sex: 50% female) from a city in northern California participated in the study. Analyses consisted of structural equation modeling with bootstrapping. The results revealed a negative association between school multiculturalism and interpersonal violence that was fully mediated by positive peers and civic engagement. Although school multiculturalism was positively associated with ethnic identity, ethnic identity, in turn, was not significantly associated with interpersonal violence. School multiculturalism is an important protective factor against youth violence by facilitating positive peer relationships and community engagement among youth. Teachers, administrators, and health officials need to consider the ways in which they can facilitate and encourage greater understanding, openness, and respect for diversity, and promote harmonious interactions among different groups at schools. Greater institutional support for school multiculturalism through implementation of tolerance curriculum and activities, for example, could in turn facilitate favorable youth outcomes. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  9. Color vision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot visual evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Banaschewski, Tobias; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reported to manifest visual problems (including ophthalmological and color perception, particularly for blue-yellow stimuli), but findings are inconsistent. Accordingly, this study investigated visual function and color perception in adolescents with ADHD using color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which provides an objective measure of color perception. Thirty-one adolescents (aged 13-18), 16 with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD, and 15 healthy peers, matched for age, gender, and IQ participated in the study. All underwent an ophthalmological exam, as well as electrophysiological testing color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which measured the latency and amplitude of the neural P1 response to chromatic (blue-yellow, red-green) and achromatic stimuli. No intergroup differences were found in the ophthalmological exam. However, significantly larger P1 amplitude was found for blue and yellow stimuli, but not red/green or achromatic stimuli, in the ADHD group (particularly in the medicated group) compared to controls. Larger amplitude in the P1 component for blue-yellow in the ADHD group compared to controls may account for the lack of difference in color perception tasks. We speculate that the larger amplitude for blue-yellow stimuli in early sensory processing (P1) might reflect a compensatory strategy for underlying problems including compromised retinal input of s-cones due to hypo-dopaminergic tone. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Occlusal Pressure Analysis of Complete Dentures after Microwave Disinfection: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michael Frederico Manzolli; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Jorge, Janaina Habib

    2017-10-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effect of microwave disinfection protocols on the occlusal pressure pattern of dentures. Dentures were constructed for 40 patients and evaluated as follows (n = 20). Group 1: Patients had the maxillary dentures submitted to microwave disinfection, once a week, for 4 weeks. Group 2: Patients had the maxillary dentures submitted to microwave disinfection, three times a week, for 4 weeks. Occlusal contacts were recorded on five occasions: 30 days after denture insertion and before first disinfection (baseline or control group); 1 week after disinfection; 2 weeks after disinfection; 3 weeks after disinfection; 4 weeks after disinfection. Occlusal contacts were analyzed by T-Scan III. Intergroup analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test and intragroup analysis using the Friedman test with significance of 5%. The results showed no significant difference between groups during the periods. The data on parameters loss of denture adaptation or complaints showed that patients used their dentures regularly for eating and expressed comfort and satisfaction in all experimental periods. The evaluation of functional occlusion revealed that the distribution of the occlusal contacts remained unaltered after disinfection. Microwave disinfection protocols as studied in this report did not influence occlusal contacts of the complete dentures. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. [How to care for homeless mentally ill men in the community - a randomised intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, Gerhard; Egerter, Birgit; Petrasch, Monika; Albrecht-Dürr, Friederike

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify whether the mediation of homeless persons identified as mentally ill into the sociopsychiatric or the help-seeking system can be facilitated by a short-term intervention. Probands with at least one psychiatric diagnosis according to ICD-10 (73 % of the sample) were randomized to the intervention group (manualized procedure with five brief contacts) or to the control group (no intervention). The course of the contacts and the further help-seeking behavior after 4 and 8 months were registered. The very sporadic participation of the patients in the therapeutic discussion permitted a manualized procedure in individual cases only. The establishment of contact was very successful, but the problem-centered procedure only within limits. The intergroup comparison revealed no fundamental differences in the utilization of offers of support during the course of the study. Overall, however, the number of users tended to increase, with an increased contact frequency being recorded especially among those participating in therapeutic discussions. Only a relatively small proportion of the clientele can be reached through short-term behavior therapy. Fundamentally a low-profile, primarily outreach-based offer founded on longer-term contact appears to be more promising.

  12. Middle ear impedance studies in elderly patients implications on age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ayodele Sogebi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Controversies arise with respect to functioning of the middle ear over time.OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in middle ear impedance that may be related to aging, and/or if there was an association of these changes with those of the inner ear in the elderly patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional, comparative study of elderly patients managed in ear, nose and throat clinics. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain clinical information. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes were performed. Comparative analyses were performed to detect intergroup differences between clinico-audiometric findings and middle ear measures, viz. tympanograms and acoustic reflexes.RESULTS: One hundred and three elderly patients participated in the study; 52.4% were male, averagely 70.0 ± 6.3 years old, age-related hearing loss in 59.2%, abnormal tympanograms in 39.3%, absent acoustic reflex in 37.9%. There was no association between age and gender in patients with abnormal tympanograms and absent acoustic reflex. Significantly more patients with different forms and grades of age-related hearing loss had abnormal tympanometry and absent acoustic reflex.CONCLUSION: Some abnormalities were observed in the impedance audiometric measures of elderly patients, which were significantly associated with parameters connected to age-related hearing loss.

  13. The study of bodily socialization of adolescents, whose families are experiencing divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechulina A.E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of the sociogenesis of corporeality adolescents whose parents are in high conflict relationships and experiencing divorce. The main group consisted of families that have undergone the examination of parent-child relations in the Centre for forensic examinations and studies, the control group – families with prosperous spousal relationship (a total of 28 parents and 16 adolescents aged 13-15 years. To assess qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the bodily sphere of the adolescents used the methodology of "the Volume and structure intercepting background", "Scale of assessment of skin" and test "body Shape", especially the parent-child relationship was assessed using questionnaires "the Behavior and attitudes of parents of adolescents to them." Statistically significant intergroup differences (U-Mann–Whitney test on a number of parameters that characterize the bodily socialization of adolescents. Adolescents from families undergoing divorce, revealed violations of individual (lability of borders and social (reflection, metaphoric levels of physicality in the type of retardation.

  14. Middle ear impedance studies in elderly patients implications on age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    Controversies arise with respect to functioning of the middle ear over time. To assess changes in middle ear impedance that may be related to aging, and/or if there was an association of these changes with those of the inner ear in the elderly patients. Cross-sectional, comparative study of elderly patients managed in ear, nose and throat clinics. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain clinical information. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes were performed. Comparative analyses were performed to detect intergroup differences between clinico-audiometric findings and middle ear measures, viz. tympanograms and acoustic reflexes. One hundred and three elderly patients participated in the study; 52.4% were male, averagely 70.0±6.3 years old, age-related hearing loss in 59.2%, abnormal tympanograms in 39.3%, absent acoustic reflex in 37.9%. There was no association between age and gender in patients with abnormal tympanograms and absent acoustic reflex. Significantly more patients with different forms and grades of age-related hearing loss had abnormal tympanometry and absent acoustic reflex. Some abnormalities were observed in the impedance audiometric measures of elderly patients, which were significantly associated with parameters connected to age-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. You Are the Real Terrorist and We Are Just Your Puppet: Using Individual and Group Factors to Explain Indonesian Muslims’ Attributions of Causes of Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashuri, A.; Akhrani, Lusy Asa; Zaduqisti, Esti

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates the role of individual and intergroup factors in predicting Muslims’ tendency to attribute domestic terrorism in Indonesia to an external cause (i.e., The West) or an internal cause (i.e., radical Islamist groups). The results (N = 308) showed that intergroup factors

  16. Everyone Is a Winner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuben, Ernesto; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    In this paper, we study the effectiveness of intergroup competition in promoting cooperative behavior. We focus on intergroup competition that is non-rival in the sense that everyone can be a winner. This type of competition does not give groups an incentive to outcompete others. However, in spit...

  17. Comparison of palbociclib in combination with letrozole or fulvestrant with endocrine therapies for advanced/metastatic breast cancer: network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirila, Costel; Mitra, Debanjali; Colosia, Ann; Ling, Caroline; Odom, Dawn; Iyer, Shrividya; Kaye, James A

    2017-08-01

    Palbociclib is the first cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor approved in the United States for HR+/HER2- advanced/metastatic breast cancer, in combination with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy in postmenopausal women or with fulvestrant in women with disease progression following endocrine therapy. We compared progression-free survival (PFS) and discontinuations due to adverse events for palbociclib combinations against other endocrine therapies using a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. A systematic literature review identified relevant trials. Separate analyses were conducted for each palbociclib combination using a Bayesian approach. Treatment rankings were established using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Sixty-five unique studies met inclusion criteria. Palbociclib plus letrozole had the highest SUCRA value (99.9%) and was associated with significantly longer PFS than all comparators in treatment-naïve patients (hazard ratios [HRs] ranged from 0.41 to 0.58). Palbociclib plus fulvestrant had the second highest SUCRA value (93.9%) and, in previously treated patients, yielded significantly longer PFS than most comparators (HRs ranged from 0.26 to 0.46); the exception was everolimus plus exemestane, with similar PFS (HR, 1.04; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.58-1.76). Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was associated with significantly lower odds of discontinuation due to adverse events than everolimus plus exemestane (odds ratio, 0.14; 95% CrI, 0.05-0.39). The results suggest that the two palbociclib combinations yielded significantly greater PFS than endocrine therapy in treatment-naïve and previously treated patients with advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was associated with significantly less toxicity than everolimus plus exemestane.

  18. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  19. Impact of protein supplementation after bariatric surgery: A randomized controlled double-blind pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollenberger, Asja E; Karschin, Judith; Meile, Tobias; Küper, Markus A; Königsrainer, Alfred; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2016-02-01

    Bariatric patients are at risk of protein deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine possible benefits of postoperative protein supplementation weight reduction, body composition, and protein status. Twenty obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were randomized either to the protein (PRO) group, which received a daily protein supplement over 6 months postoperatively, or to the control (CON) group, which received an isocaloric placebo in a double-blind fashion. Data on protein and energy intake, body weight, body composition, blood proteins, and grip force was collected preinterventionally and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. In both groups body weight was significantly reduced to a similar extent (after 6 months: PRO group 25.4 ± 7.2%, CON group 20.9 ± 3.9%; intergroup comparison P > 0.05). Protein intake was steadily increased in the PRO group, but not in the CON group, and reached maximum at month 6 (25.4 ± 3.7% of energy intake versus 15.8 ± 4.4%; P bariatric surgery improves body composition by enhancing loss of body fat mass and reducing loss of lean body mass within the 6 months follow up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D Conformal radiotherapy for gastric cancer-results of a comparative planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Trevor; Willis, David; Joon, Daryl Lim; Condron, Sara; Hui, Andrew; Ngan, Samuel Y.K.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Many radiation oncologists are reluctant to use anteroposterior-posteroanterior (AP-PA) field arrangements when treating gastric cancer with adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy due to concerns about normal tissue toxicity, particularly in relation to the kidneys and spinal cord. In this report, we describe a multiple-field conformal radiotherapy technique, and compare this technique to the more commonly used AP-PA technique that was used in the recently reported Intergroup study (INT0116). Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stages II-IV adenocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant postoperative chemoradiotherapy using a standardised 3D conformal radiotherapy technique that consisted of a 'split-field', mono-isocentric arrangement employing 6 radiation fields. For each patient, a second radiotherapy treatment plan was generated utilising AP-PA fields. The two techniques were then compared for target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Results: The conformal technique provides more adequate coverage of the target volume with 99% of the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 95% of the prescribed dose, compared to 93% using AP-PA fields. Comparative DVHs for the right kidney, left kidney and spinal cord demonstrate lower radiation doses using the conformal technique, and although the liver dose is higher, it is still well below liver tolerance. Conclusions: 3D conformal radiotherapy produces superior dose distributions and reduced radiation doses to the kidneys and spinal cord compared to AP-PA techniques, with the potential to reduce treatment toxicity

  1. Body posture and pulmonary function in mouth and nose breathing children: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Mouth breathing can lead to changes in body posture and pulmonary function. However, the consequences are still inconclusive and a number of studies are controversial. Objective: Evaluate and correlate spirometric parameters and postural measures in mouth breathing children, and compare them to nose breathers. Methods: two groups of 6 to 12 year-old children were evaluated: mouth breathers (MB, n = 55 and nose breathers (NB, n = 45. Spirometry and body posture analysis using photogrammetry (SAPo 0.68® v were carried out. The following spirometric measures were evaluated: peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio (% and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75%. Biophotogrammetric measures analyzed were: horizontal alignment of acromions (HAA and anterior superior iliac spine (HAASIS, Charpy angle, horizontal alignment of the head (HAH, cervical lordosis (CL, thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, cervical distance (CD and lumbar distance (LD. Results: There were no intergroup differences in spirometric and postural variables. Positive and moderate correlations were found between CL and CD measures with PEF, FEV1, FVC and FEF 25-75%, while weak correlations were observed between lumbar lordosis and PEF, FEV1 and FVC. Conclusion: The breathing mode had no influence on postural and respiratory measures. However, greater forward head posture, with smaller cervical lordosis, was related to higher lung volumes and flows in both groups.

  2. Impact of smoking on experimental gingivitis. A clinical, microbiological and immunological prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, D C; Gimenes, J H; Taiete, T; Casarin, R C V; Feres, M; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z; Kantovitz, K R; Nociti, F H

    2016-12-01

    The present study assessed the effect of smoking on clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters in an experimental gingivitis model. Twenty-four healthy dental students were divided into two groups: smokers (n = 10); and nonsmokers (n = 14). Stents were used to prevent biofilm removal during brushing. Visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were determined 5- on day -7 (running phase), baseline, 21 d (experimental gingivitis) and 28 d (resolution phase). Supragingival biofilm and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and assayed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and a multiplex analysis, respectively. Intragroup comparison was performed by Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests, whereas the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied for intergroup analyses. Cessation of oral hygiene resulted in a significant increase in VPI, GBI and gingival crevicular fluid volume in both groups, which returned to baseline levels 7 d after oral hygiene was resumed. Smokers presented lower GBI than did nonsmokers (p gingival inflammation after supragingival biofilm accumulation, but smokers had less bleeding, higher proportions of periodontal pathogens and distinct host-response patterns during the course of experimental gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. External root resorption with the self-ligating Damon system—a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Heiffig Handem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. Results No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Conclusions Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF GENERIC AND ORIGINAL LOW-DOSE BISOPROLOL/HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE COMBINATION IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION OF 1-2 DEGREES. RESULTS OF CLINICAL RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the clinical equivalence of the two low-dose combined drugs on the base of generic and original bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ: BISANGIL® (Ozon, Russia and LODOZ® (NYCOMED, Merck KGaA, Germany in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degrees.Material and methods. Patients with HT of 1-2 degrees (n=30; 11 men and 19 women; aged 62.7±10.7 years were included in open crossover randomized trial. Duration of the study for each patient was 18 weeks: two 6-week courses of active treatment with each drug and two 2-week washout periods prior to each treatment course. The sequence of treatment courses was determined by randomization. Increase in bisoprolol dose and/or amlodipine addition occurred when effect was not sufficient. Therapy effectiveness (office blood pressure (BP, heart rate and safety was monitored at visits.Results. BP reduction after 6 weeks of therapy was -21.6±11.1/10.4±11.3 mm Hg in LODOZ® group and -22.9±9.7/11.7±13.5 mm Hg in BISANGIL® group (p<0.0001 for both, intergroup differences were insignificant. Target BP after 6 weeks of therapy was achieved in 26 (87% and 28 (93% patients, respectively.Conclusion. The therapeutic equivalence of the studied fixed combinations of bisoprolol/HCTZ was demonstrated in treatment of patients with HT of 1-2 degrees.

  5. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced bronchial cancer: impact of radiotherapy quality on global survival: results of a trial by the Thoracic Cancerology French-speaking Inter-group (IFCT) and Pneumo-Cancerology French Group (GFPC) 02.01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel-Lafay, I.; Montella, A.; Pommier, P.; Clavere, P.; Labat, J.P.; Benchalal, M.; Teissier, E.; Talabard, J.N.; Fournel, P.; D'Hombres, A.

    2010-01-01

    The author report the assessment of the influence of radiotherapy quality and of its consequences on the future of 113 patients during a phase-II randomized trial of concomitant chemo-radiotherapy of bronchial cancers without stage-II non-resectable small cells. The patients have been submitted to a conformational radiotherapy and a concomitant induction of consolidation chemotherapy. Ten items are analysed: immobilisation, dose per fraction, total dose, ganglion radiotherapy, number of beams, images before and after radiotherapy, radiotherapy duration, duration without radiotherapy, dose-lung volume histogram. The study notably shows the deleterious effects of an interruption of the concomitant chemotherapy on the global survival. Short communication

  6. Influence of cyclosporin A therapy on bone healing around titanium implants: a histometric and biomechanic study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Celso E; Margonar, Rogério; Holzhausen, Marinella; Nociti, Francisco H; Alba, Rodolfo Candia; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2003-07-01

    Immunosuppressive agents may induce severe changes on bone metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the administration of cyclosporin A (CsA) on the bone tissue around titanium implants. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups of 9 each. The test group (CsA) received daily subcutaneous injection of CsA (10 mg/kg body weight) and the control group (CTL) received saline solution by the same administration route. Three days after therapy began, 2 implants (7.0 mm long and 3.75 mm in diameter) were inserted bilaterally at the region of the tibial methaphysis. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks the animals were sacrificed and biomechanical tests and histometrical procedures, consisting of the determination of the percentages of bone-implant contact and bone area within the limits of the implant threads, were performed. Intergroup analysis showed that the removal torque and the percentage of bone contact with the implant surface for CsA group were significantly lower than those of the CTL group at 12 weeks (28.5 and 39.2 N cm, P = 0.01; 7.76% and 18.52%, P = 0.02, respectively). The data from the present study suggest that long-term administration of cyclosporin A may negatively influence bone healing around dental implants.

  7. Role of Surgical Versus Clinical Staging in Chemoradiated FIGO Stage IIB-IVA Cervical Cancer Patients-Acute Toxicity and Treatment Quality of the Uterus-11 Multicenter Phase III Intergroup Trial of the German Radiation Oncology Group and the Gynecologic Cancer Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnitz, Simone; Martus, Peter; Köhler, Christhardt; Stromberger, Carmen; Asse, Elke; Mallmann, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Affonso Júnior, Renato José; Nunes, João Soares; Sehouli, Jalid; Budach, Volker

    2016-02-01

    patients treated with extended field RT. The question of whether surgical staging is beneficial in the context of primary CRT requires further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Surgical Versus Clinical Staging in Chemoradiated FIGO Stage IIB-IVA Cervical Cancer Patients—Acute Toxicity and Treatment Quality of the Uterus-11 Multicenter Phase III Intergroup Trial of the German Radiation Oncology Group and the Gynecologic Cancer Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone, E-mail: simone.marnitz-schulze@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne Medical Faculty, Cologne (Germany); Martus, Peter [Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Köhler, Christhardt [Department of Advanced Operative and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Clinics, Hamburg (Germany); Stromberger, Carmen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne Medical Faculty, Cologne (Germany); Asse, Elke [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Mallmann, Peter [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Affonso Júnior, Renato José [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Cãncer de Barretos, Barretos (Brazil); Nunes, João Soares [Department of Clinical Oncology, Hospital de Cãncer de Barretos, Barretos (Brazil); Sehouli, Jalid [Department of Gynecology, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Budach, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne Medical Faculty, Cologne (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    care analyses. Surgical staging led to a doubled number of patients treated with extended field RT. The question of whether surgical staging is beneficial in the context of primary CRT requires further study.

  9. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiphei, S. Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Sharan, R.N.; Chaubey, R.C.; Kma, L.

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving 60 Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of 60 Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min -1 at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. (author)

  10. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiphei, S Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Chaubey, R C; Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving (60)Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of (60)Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min(-1) at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. A comparative study of the effectiveness of early and delayed loading of short tissue-level dental implants with hydrophilic surfaces placed in the posterior section of the mandible-A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Arkadiusz; Botzenhart, Ute; Seeliger, Julia; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Biocev, Peter; Dominiak, Marzena

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the primary and secondary stability of tissue-level short dental titanium implants with polished necks and hydrophilic surfaces of two different designs and manufacturers. The first implant system used (SPI ® ELEMENT RC INICELL titanium implants, Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland), allowed functional loading 6 weeks after its placement, whereas the second implant system (RN SLActiv ® tissue-level titanium implants, Straumann GmbH, Fribourg, Germany), was loaded after 15 weeks. The degree of primary and secondary stability was determined using an Osstell ISQ measuring device. Marginal bone loss (MBL) was evaluated radiographically 12 and 24 weeks after implantation and the Wachtel's healing index as well as the patient's satisfaction with the treatment was registered on a VAS scale. The intergroup comparison revealed significant differences in terms of primary stability as well as differences in MBL 3 months after the procedure, but no significant differences could be found after 6 months and for secondary stability. The primary stability was significantly higher for Thommen ® compared to Straumann ® implants. Insertion of short dental implants with a hydrophilic conditioned surface significantly shortens patient treatment time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Relevance of trichoscopy in the differential diagnosis of alopecia: A cross-sectional study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiramel, Minu Jose; Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Khandpur, Sujay; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2016-01-01

    Trichoscopy is an office tool used in the diagnosis of alopecia but its utility has not been assessed. To compare the trichoscopic characteristics of different types of alopecia, identify features of diagnostic value, and to determine the utility of trichoscopy in the diagnosis of alopecia. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in patients with alopecia. After clinical assessment and relevant investigations, trichoscopy was performed using a non-polarized trichoscope (×10). The utility of trichoscopy in difficult cases of alopecia was assessed statistically. One hundred and twenty patients of alopecia (90 non-cicatricial, 30 cicatricial) were recruited. The diagnosis was made on the basis of a detailed history and clinical examination, and confirmed by biopsy and relevant investigations in difficult cases. Yellow dots (63.3%) were the most common trichoscopic feature followed by thin hair (40.8%). Among the 21 difficult cases of alopecia, trichoscopy was diagnostic in 19 (90.5%). Statistically significant features on intergroup comparison included black dots (Fischer's exact test, Palopecia areata; diameter diversity more than 20% (P alopecia; broken hair of different lengths (P alopecia was a limiting factor. Trichoscopy is useful in the differential diagnosis of alopecia. Among the various trichoscopic findings, those of diagnostic value were identified.

  13. Mobilization in early rehabilitation in intensive care unit patients with severe acquired brain injury: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; Bargellesi, Stefano; Castioni, Carlo Alberto; Intiso, Domenico; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Scarponi, Federico; Bonaiuti, Donatella

    2017-11-21

    To determine whether early mobilization of patients with severe acquired brain injury, performed in the intensive/neurointensive care unit, influences functional outcome. Prospective observational study. Fourteen centres in Italy. A total of 103 consecutive patients with acquired brain injury. Clinical, neurological and functional data, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning (LCF), Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were collected at admission and every 3?5 days until discharge from the intensive/neurointensive care unit. Patients were divided into mobilization and no mobilization groups, depending on whether they received mobilization. Data were analysed by intragroup and intergroup analysis using a multilevel regression model. Sixty-eight patients were included in the mobilization group. At discharge, both groups showed significant improvements in GCS, DRS, LCF and ERBI scores. The mobilization group showed significantly better improvements in FIM cognitive, GOS and ERBI. The patients in the mobilization group stayed longer in the intensive care unit (p=0.01) and were more likely to be discharged to intensive rehabilitation at a significantly higher rate (p=0.002) than patients in the no mobilization group. No adverse events were reported in either group. Early mobilization appears to favour the clinical and functional recovery of patients with severe acquired brain injury in the intensive care unit.

  14. Voiding characteristics and related hormonal changes in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jong Kyu; Kim, Jae Heon; Choi, Hoon; Chang, In Ho; Park, Bo Ra; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Lee, Eun Sil; Choi, Gyu Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Lee, Im Soon

    2014-11-01

    To characterize voiding symptoms during the peri- and post-menopausal periods and to investigate related hormonal changes. We enrolled a total of 55 patients between February 10, 2013, and August 15, 2013, to participate in this cross-sectional study. To characterize patients' voiding symptoms, we administered voiding questionnaires, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and Sandvik Severity Index. Measured hormones included E2, FSH, TSH, prolactin, progesterone, and testosterone. In the univariate analysis, there were significant intergroup differences for all of the hormones except progesterone. Among the voiding symptoms, straining (IPSS question 1), frequency (IPSS question 2), and SUI were significantly different between the two groups (p=0.039. 0.010, and 0.017, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, frequency (IPSS question 2) and SUI were significantly different between the two groups (p=0.020 and 0.011, respectively). Among the hormones, only testosterone was marginally different between the two groups (p=0.059). During the transition to menopause, voiding symptoms, such as frequency, can potentially worsen in the peri-menopausal period, and SUI is more prevalent in the post-menopausal period. Additionally, testosterone may have a role in voiding changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanapriyan Soundappan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM, as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I - MTA, Group II - Biodentine, Group III - IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis.The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine.In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material.

  16. The Effects of Transformational Leadership and Mediating Factors on the Organizational Success Using Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravangard, Ramin; Karimi, Sakine; Farhadi, Payam; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of transformational leadership (TL) and mediating factors on organizational success (OS) from the administrative, financial, and support employees' perspective in teaching hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences using structural equation modeling. Three hundred administrative and financial employees were selected, using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling. Data were collected using 5 questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and Lisrel 8.5 through Pearson correlation coefficient and path analysis and confirmatory factor analysis methods. Results showed that TL had significant positive effects on the 3 mediating factors, including organizational culture (t = 15.31), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (t = 10.06), and social capital (t = 10.25). Also, the organizational culture (t = 2.26), OCB (t = 3.48), and social capital (t = 7.41) had significant positive effects on OS. According to the results, TL had an indirect effect on OS. Therefore, organizations can achieve more success by strengthening organizational culture, OCB, and social capital through using transformational leadership style. Therefore, in order to increase OS, the following recommendations are made: supporting and encouraging new ideas in the organization, promoting teamwork, strengthening intergroup and intragroup relationships, planning to strengthen and enrich the social and organizational culture, considering the promotion of social capital in the employee training, establishing a system to give rewards to the employees performing extra-role activities, providing a suitable environment for creative employees, and so on.

  17. Tackling stigma associated with intellectual disability among the general public: a study of two indirect contact interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica; Scior, Katrina

    2013-07-01

    Although evidence abounds that people with intellectual disabilities are exposed to stigma and discrimination, few interventions have attempted to tackle stigma among the general public. This study set out to assess the impact of two brief indirect contact interventions on lay people's inclusion attitudes, social distance and positive behavioral intentions, and to explore emotional reactions towards the two interventions. 925 participants completed the first online survey. Participants were randomized to watch either a 10 min film based on intergroup contact theory, or a film based on a protest message. In total, 403 participants completed the follow-up survey at one month. Both interventions were effective at changing inclusion attitudes and social distance in the short term and these effects were partially maintained at one month. The protest based intervention had a greater effect compared to the contact one on aspects of inclusion attitudes and evoked stronger emotional reactions. Despite small effect sizes, brief indirect contact interventions may have a potential role in tackling public stigma associated with intellectual disability but their effects on behavioral intentions are questionable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Communicating with Intent: A Study of Social Awareness and Children's Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Amy J.; Selman, Robert L.; Schultz, Lynn Hickey

    2009-01-01

    This research examined relationships between children's social awareness (ability to understand and negotiate intergroup relationships) and their narrative and persuasive writing. Forty 5th grade students wrote a short fictional narrative and a persuasive letter to their principal. Writing samples were coded for quality, form, and social…

  19. Social groups and children´s intergroup prejudice: Just how influential are social group norms?

    OpenAIRE

    Nesdale, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Teniendo como referencia la Teoría Evolutiva de la Identidad Social (SIDT, Nesdale, 2007), en este trabajo se presenta una serie de estudios en los que se examina la influencia de las normas grupales sobre el prejuicio intergrupal de los miembros del grupo. Los estudios 1 al 3, realizados en niños desde Educación Infantil hasta 9 años, mostraron que una norma interna de exclusión promueve la antipatía hacia el exogrupo mientras que una norma de inclusión promueve la simpatía por el exogrupo. ...

  20. Mutual Influence of Moral Values, Mental Models and Social Dynamics on Intergroup Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    material offers and sweeteners increasing resistance to negotiation and support for violence because they are interpreted as morally taboo and insulting...Layer Assessment Office (SMA), Dept. of Defense, Office of the Sec of Defense, 2011. 4. Psychological origins and cultural evolution of religion. In...In P. Antonello and P. Gifford (eds.), Can We Survive our Origins ? Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, in press. 7. Ginges, J. & Atran, S

  1. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M K; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Aoki, D

    2017-01-01

    to consider include histology, BRCA mutation status, number/type of previous therapies, outcome of prior surgery and patient reported symptoms. (ii) What are the control arms for clinical trials in ROC? When platinum is considered the best option, the control arm should be a platinum-based therapy...... with or without an anti-angiogenic agent or a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. If platinum is not considered the best option, the control arm could include a non-platinum drug, either as single agent or in combination. (iii) What are the endpoints for clinical trials in ROC? Overall survival (OS...

  2. A Two-Dimensional Model of Intergroup Leadership: The Case of National Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittinsky, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    The model presented argues that leadership involves bringing together not only diverse individuals but also the subgroups to which they belong. The model further argues that this does not require replacing people's subgroup identities with a superordinate group identity (turning "us" and "them" into "we"); bringing together diverse individuals and…

  3. Parochial cooperation in humans: forms and functions of self-sacrifice in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Balliet, D.; Halevy, N.; Elliot, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Although cooperation between groups is not unusual, most forms of human cooperation are in-group bounded and, sometimes, motivated by the desire to ward-off and subordinate rivaling out-groups. Building on evolutionary perspectives and models, we propose that humans evolved a capacity for parochial

  4. Intergroup contact and religiosity as predictor of between group attitudes in conflict environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Bojan R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify relations between level of religiosity and level of contact on one side and social attitudes towards members of religious out-groups in conflict environment on the other side. This research was conducted on the sample of Christian Orthodox students in Kosovska Mitrovica (which is partially conflict environment and the Muslims were the out-group towards whom attitudes were analyzed. Attitudes measures we used were social distance scale and semantic differential. Likert type scale was used for religiosity measure, quantity and quality of contact. Controlled variables in this research were: gender, age and social status. Results showed that significant amount of variance was explained by independent variables (R2=.270, F(7,779=9.241, p=.000 for semantic differential and R2=.306, F(5,105=9.241, p=.000. However, there is no significant correlation between religiosity and attitude level towards Muslims. Most of the variance for semantic differential was explained by quality of contact (R2=.255, F(1,109=37,285, p=.000 and this was the only significant predictor for this attitude measure. Quantity of contact was significant predictor for social distance attitude measure, with highest incremental value - calculated by hierarchical linear regression (R2change=.216, F(l,109=30,076, p=.000. Following predictor was quality of contact (R2????????=.049, F(l,108=7,269, p=.008 and the last predictor was sex, with the lowest incremental value (R2=.034, F(1,107=5,159, p=.025. These results are interpreted by probable existence of several types of religiosity. There is possibility that general religiosity we measured in this research, was influenced by different types of religiosity, which could be the reason why correlation was not identified. Correlation between quality of contact confirms results published by other authors (Allport, Pettigrew who claimed that contact by itself cannot diminish prejudices and lead to change of social attitudes, but quality of contact with specific individuals. Finally, correlation between quantity of contact and social distance scale scores is explained by regular contact which participants have with Muslims on the daily basis. Since they have this contact, they do subordinate to it, which consequently leads to lower scores on this attitude measure.

  5. Modeling the Role of Networks and Individual Differences in Inter-Group Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Alexander; Holcomb, Amelia; Glowacki, Luke; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    There is significant heterogeneity within and between populations in their propensity to engage in conflict. Most research has neglected the role of within-group effects in social networks in contributing to between-group violence and focused instead on the precursors and consequences of violence, or on the role of between-group ties. Here, we explore the role of individual variation and of network structure within a population in promoting and inhibiting group violence towards other populations. Motivated by ethnographic observations of collective behavior in a small-scale society, we describe a model with differentiated roles for individuals embedded within friendship networks. Using a simple model based on voting-like dynamics, we explore several strategies for influencing group-level behavior. When we consider changing population level attitude changes and introducing control nodes separately, we find that a particularly effective control strategy relies on exploiting network degree. We also suggest refinements to our model such as tracking fine-grained information spread dynamics that can lead to further enrichment in using evolutionary game theory models for sociological phenomena.

  6. Pre-colonial transport systems: A veritable instrument for inter-group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It thinks that pre-colonial transport systems, due to its commercial and strategic importance, were extensively used by farmers and traders, who participated actively in both internal and long distance commerce. This paper submits that, pre-colonial transport systems such as human porterage on land and dug-out canoe on ...

  7. The Dynamics of Intergroup Relations in Pre-Colonial Nigeria up to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30) ...

  8. Sharing Classes between Separate Schools: A Mechanism for Improving Inter-Group Relations in Northern Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joanne; Lolliot, Simon; Hewstone, Miles; Schmid, Katharina; Carlisle, Karen

    2012-01-01

    One manifestation of division and the history of conflict in Northern Ireland is the parallel education system that exists for Protestants and Catholics. Although recent decades have seen some advances in the promotion of integrated education, around 95% of children continue to attend schools separated on ethno-religious lines. In 2007 a programme…

  9. Interpersonal disgust, ideological orientations, and dehumanization as predictors of intergroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Costello, Kimberly

    2007-08-01

    Disgust is a basic emotion characterized by revulsion and rejection, yet it is relatively unexamined in the literature on prejudice. In the present investigation, interpersonal-disgust sensitivity (e.g., not wanting to wear clean used clothes or to sit on a warm seat vacated by a stranger) in particular predicted negative attitudes toward immigrants, foreigners, and socially deviant groups, even after controlling for concerns with contracting disease. The mechanisms underlying the link between interpersonal disgust and attitudes toward immigrants were explored using a path model. As predicted, the effect of interpersonal-disgust sensitivity on group attitudes was indirect, mediated by ideological orientations (social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism) and dehumanizing perceptions of the out-group. The effects of social dominance orientation on group attitudes were both direct and indirect, via dehumanization. These results establish a link between disgust sensitivity and prejudice that is not accounted for by fear of infection, but rather is mediated by ideological orientations and dehumanizing group representations. Implications for understanding and reducing prejudice are discussed.

  10. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash

    2007-01-01

    hemoglobin level. For a para-aortic field, the upper border was most commonly (15 of 24) at the T12-L1 interspace. Maintenance chemotherapy (after radiotherapy) was not performed by 68% of respondents. For vaginal brachytherapy after hysterectomy, 23 groups performed HDR brachytherapy and four groups used...

  11. Contested collaboration: A descriptive model of intergroup communication in information system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    support patterns of work activities, social groups, and personal beliefs. In these situations, design is fundamentally an interactive process that requires communication among users, designers, and developers. However, communication among these groups is often difficult although of paramount importance......Many information system design situations today include users, designers, and developers who, with their own unique group and individual perspectives, need to interact so that they can come to a working understanding of how the information system being developed will coexist with and ideally...... to design outcomes. Through a qualitative analysis of a house, expert system, and telecommunications network architecture and management system design situations, a descriptive model of design that characterizes communication among users, designers, and developers as they create an artifact was developed...

  12. The Cortisol Response to Anticipated Intergroup Interactions Predicts Self-Reported Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Scheepers, D.; Ellemers, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to

  13. The Cortisol Response to Anticipated Intergroup Interactions Predicts Self-Reported Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Scheepers, D.; Ellemers, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. bl...

  14. Oxytocin conditions intergroup relations through upregulated in-group empathy, cooperation, conformity, and defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Kret, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to

  15. Modeling the Role of Networks and Individual Differences in Inter-Group Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Isakov

    Full Text Available There is significant heterogeneity within and between populations in their propensity to engage in conflict. Most research has neglected the role of within-group effects in social networks in contributing to between-group violence and focused instead on the precursors and consequences of violence, or on the role of between-group ties. Here, we explore the role of individual variation and of network structure within a population in promoting and inhibiting group violence towards other populations. Motivated by ethnographic observations of collective behavior in a small-scale society, we describe a model with differentiated roles for individuals embedded within friendship networks. Using a simple model based on voting-like dynamics, we explore several strategies for influencing group-level behavior. When we consider changing population level attitude changes and introducing control nodes separately, we find that a particularly effective control strategy relies on exploiting network degree. We also suggest refinements to our model such as tracking fine-grained information spread dynamics that can lead to further enrichment in using evolutionary game theory models for sociological phenomena.

  16. Moral Judgments and Emotions: Adolescents' Evaluations in Intergroup Social Exclusion Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines children's moral judgments and emotional evaluations in the context of social exclusion. As they age, children and adolescents face increasingly complex situations in which group membership and allegiance are in opposition with morally relevant decisions, such as the exclusion of an individual from a group. While adolescents…

  17. National and ethnic identification, intergroup attitudes, and sport participation in the context of the London Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginia L; Corson, Eliza-Jane

    2013-11-01

    In the run-up to the 2012 London Olympics, the sense of national identity was salient. We tested children (N = 401) aged 5-15 years living near the Olympic site on national (British) and ethnic identification, national ingroup and outgroup attitudes, and sport participation. It was found that the strength of British identification peaked at age 9 years, but the strength of ethnic identification remained stable with age. Both liking for, and stereotyping of, different national groups diverged from age 9 years, but whilst stereotyping remained diverged liking converged by 15 years. The in group was one of the most liked, but one of the least positively stereotyped groups. Sport participation declined with age and was higher among boys, whilst the lowest socio-economic group showed the greatest discrepancy between normal and recent reported participation. The strength of British identification was associated with liking for, and stereotyping of, the British as well as sport participation, but the degree of associations varied between different groups of children. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion : Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J.

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and

  19. Explanations from Intra- and Inter-Group Discourse: Students Building Knowledge in the Science Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Earl; Meyer, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Examines student discourse in both small and large contexts. Explores the role of shared inquiry and the nature of consensus-building in students' development of explanations from a collaborative knowledge-building stance. Concludes that two forms of discourse (constructive and generative, dialectic and persuasive) effectively promote progressive…

  20. Intergroup contact as the missing link between LGB rights and sexual prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Górska, Paulina; van Zomeren, Martijn; Bilewicz, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Although research has revealed that more progressive LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) rights are positively associated with more favorable attitudes toward sexual minorities, little is known about why LGB rights co-occur with positive attitudes. The present contribution fills this gap by testing

  1. The Impact of Team Characteristics on the Course and Outcome of Intergroup Price Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, K.; van Doorn, J.; Wilken, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and Methodology. Both academic research and managerial practice devote attention to the topic of negotiation, and price negotiations have particular salience in business relations. Despite frequent negotiations between buying and selling centers in practice, the impact of team

  2. Aversive Racism and Intergroup Contact Theories: Cultural Competence in a Segregated World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenborg, Nancy A.; Boisen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The United States remains highly segregated, and social work students are likely to live and work in segregated contexts. What implications does this have for their cultural competence? Does segregation affect social workers' ability to serve diverse clients without bias? This article reviews two social psychology theories, aversive racism…

  3. Subjective social status and intergroup attitudes among ethnic majority and minority children in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, A.R.; Monteiro, M.B.; Justo, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their ingroup over the Black and Roma out-groups on the

  4. Acute diarrhea during adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer: a detailed analysis from a randomized intergroup trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Robert C.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Martenson, James A.; Macdonald, John S.; Haller, Daniel; Mayer, Robert J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Cha, Stephen S.; O'Connell, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: During adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for rectal cancer, patients receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by protracted venous infusion have a higher risk of diarrhea than have patients receiving bolus 5-FU. Toxicity from a previously reported randomized clinical trial was analyzed to quantify the difference in this risk. Additionally, the persistence of diarrhea after RT was analyzed. Methods and Materials: A total of 656 patients were eligible. Patients with T3-4 N0-2 M0 or T1-2 N1-2 M0 resected, high-risk rectal cancer were randomly allocated to receive 5-FU by either protracted venous infusion or bolus during RT (50.4-54.0 Gy). Two cycles of bolus 5-FU were given before and after RT. One-half of the first 445 patients were also randomly allocated to receive lomustine in conjunction with the bolus 5-FU. The incidence and severity of diarrhea in relation to patient and treatment characteristics were evaluated. Results: The rate of diarrhea was significantly greater in patients receiving 5-FU by protracted venous infusion than in patients receiving bolus 5-FU; the difference was most pronounced for Grade 3 (severe) diarrhea (21% versus 13%, p=0.007). The incidence and magnitude of diarrhea before and after RT were similar. Patients treated with an anterior resection had a higher rate of severe or life-threatening diarrhea than did patients treated with an abdominoperineal resection (31% vs. 12%, p<0.001). Conclusions: During pelvic RT, patients who receive 5-FU by protracted venous infusion rather than by bolus have a higher risk of severe or life-threatening diarrhea during RT. This risk does not appear to persist during chemotherapy after completion of pelvic RT

  5. Forbidden fruit and forbidden pleasures: Interpersonal and intergroup schadenfreude following the exclusion of bad apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Wilco W.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Pennekamp, S.F.; Spears, R.

    2005-01-01

    When other people are socially excluded or ostracized our reaction is often one of sympathy and compassion. However, we may also experience what Germans have termed Schadenfreude (i.e., pleasure in another’s misfortune). Which of these two emotional reactions will occur is arguably dependent on the

  6. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  7. Inefficacy of Kinesio-Taping(®) on early postoperative pain after ACL reconstruction: Prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, M; Klouche, S; Herman, S; Gerometta, A; Lefevre, N; Bohu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Kinesio-Taping(®) (K-Tape) is used in sports traumatology with the aim of reducing pain and improving blood and lymph circulation. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of K-Tape on early postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The study hypothesis was that K-Tape significantly decreases pain. A prospective non-randomized comparative study was conducted in 2013-2014 and included all patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction by hamstring graft. Analgesia was standardized. Two groups, "K-Tape" and "controls", were formed according to the days on which the study physiotherapist was present. The K-Tape compression/decompression assembly was applied immediately postoperatively and maintained for 3days. Patients filled out online questionnaires. The main assessment criterion was mean postoperative pain (D0-D3) on a 0-to-10 scale. Secondary criteria were analgesia intake on the three WHO levels, awakening during the night of D0 due to pain, signs of postoperative discomfort, and patient satisfaction. Sixty patients (30 per group) were included, 57 of whom could be assessed: 28 K-Tape, 29 controls; 44 male, 13 female; mean age, 30.9±8.9 years. At inclusion, the two groups were comparable. There was no significant difference in mean (D0-D3) knee pain intensity: 3.8±2.2 for K-Tape, and 3.9±2 for controls (P=0.93). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no significant intergroup difference in evolution of pain (P=0.34). There were no other significant differences on the other assessment criteria. K-Tape showed no efficacy on early postoperative pain following ACL reconstruction. III; prospective non-randomized comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fostering Social Inclusion through Multilingual Habitus in Estonia: A Case Study of the Open School of Kalamaja and the Sakala Private School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana L’nyavskiy-Ekelund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the restoration of independence in 1991, Estonia continued with a parallel school system with separate public schools operating for Russian- and Estonian-speaking children. Seen as a developmental ‘growing pains’ of a transitional state, during the last 27 years the separate school system has contributed to infrastructural difficulties, educational injustice, and societal segregation. This article investigates the role of private schools in addressing this injustice from the analytical angle of new institutionalism, structuration and intergroup contact theories. How do these institutions challenge and aim at changing the state language regime or path dependency in the language of education? Two case studies are presented in this article: The Open School, established in 2017 for children with different home language backgrounds and targeting trilingual competences; The Sakala Private School, established in 2009, offering trilingual education with Russian as a medium of instruction. During this period of nation-state rebuilding and globalization, we investigate whether developing a multilingual habitus is a way to address the issue of social cohesion in the Estonian society in. So far, no other studies of private initiatives in Estonian language acquisition planning have been done.

  9. Improved protocols for the study of urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure in rodents: use of gel food and stepwise changes in diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Jonathan M; Bouby, Nadine; Bankir, Lise; Bhalla, Vivek

    2018-01-10

    Many experimental protocols in rodents require the comparison of groups that are fed different diets. Changes in dietary electrolyte and/or fat content can influence food intake, which can potentially introduce bias or confound the results. Unpalatable diets slow growth or cause weight loss, which is exacerbated by housing the animals in individual metabolic cages or by surgery. For balance studies in mice, small body weight and food intake, and low urinary flow can amplify these challenges. Powder food can be administered as a gel with the addition of a desired amount of water, electrolytes, drugs (if any), and a small amount of agar. We describe here how the use of gel food, to vary water, Na, K, and fat content can reduce weight loss and improve reproducibility of intake, urinary excretion, and blood pressure in rodents. In addition, mild food restriction reduces the inter-individual variability and inter-group differences in food intake and associated variables, thus, improving the statistical power of the experiment. Finally, we also demonstrate the advantages of using gel food for weight-based drug dosing. These protocols can improve the accuracy and reproducibility of experimental data where dietary manipulations are needed, and are especially advisable in rodent studies related to water balance, obesity and blood pressure.

  10. Depsidones inhibit aromatase activity and tumor cell proliferation in a co-culture of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and T47D breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chottanapund, Suthat; Van Duursen, M B M; Zwartsen, Anne; Timtavorn, Supatchaya; Navasumrit, Panida; Kittakoop, Prasat; Sureram, Sanya; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Van den Berg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring depsidones from the marine fungus Aspergillus unguis are known to have substantial anti-cancer activity, but their mechanism of action remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-aromatase activity of two common depsidones, unguinol and aspergillusidone A, in a co-culture system of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and hormonal responsive T47D breast tumor cells. Using this in vitro model it was shown that these depsidones inhibit the growth of T47D tumor cells most likely via inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity. The IC 50 values of these depisidones were compared with the aromatase inhibitors letrozole and exemestane. Letrozole and exemestane had IC 50 values of respectively, 0.19 and 0.14 μM, while those for Unguinol and Aspergillusidone A were respectively, 9.7 and 7.3 μM. Our results indicate that among the depsidones there maybe aromatase inhibitors with possible pharmacotherapeutical relevance.

  11. The efficacy of peloid therapy in management of hand osteoarthritis: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Meliha; Altan, Lale; Eröksüz, Rıza; Metin Ökmen, Burcu

    2017-12-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with pain, reduced grip strength, loss of range of motion (ROM), and joint stiffness, leading to impaired hand function and difficulty in performance of daily living activities. Mud bath therapy has been reported to play a primary role in the prevention and management of OA. Thus, we planned to conduct a study aimed at investigating the effects of peloid therapy on pain, functional state, grip strength, and the quality of life and performing a comparative analysis of the outcomes of peloid therapy. In this randomized, controlled, single-blind, pilot study, patients ( n = 33) underwent peloid therapy over 2 weeks, 5 sessions a week, for a total of 10 sessions and home exercise program in group 1. Patients in group 2 (control, n = 30) received only the same home exercise program as in group 1. Patients were evaluated just before, and 2 and 6 weeks after the start of the study with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index (AUSCAN), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), hand grip strength (HGS), and pinch strength (PS). Statistically significant improvements were observed in all parameters assessed at week 2 and week 6 in the group 1 ( p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were observed in HGS scores in the group 2 at week 2 and in AUSCAN scores at week 6 ( p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons of the scores revealed significant differences between the peloid therapy group and control group in VAS, HAQ, AUSCAN, HGS, and PS scores at week 2 and week 6 ( p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that peloid therapy might be an effective and confident treatment modality in the management of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hand and may provide effective pain control and improvements in the hand functions, quality of life, and grip strength.

  12. The impact of silo mentality on team identity: An organisational case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational silos do not only refer to conscious structures, but also to an unconscious state of mind and mentality that takes on a life of its own. Silos result in the splitting of organisational artefacts and relationships, and impact negatively on relationship forming between individuals and within teams.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe how the silo mentality impacts on team identity.Motivation for the study: During a recent organisational consultation the researchers realised that a so-called silo phenomenon had much more unexplained unconscious behaviour than was traditionally realised in terms of organisational development. It is hoped that findings from this qualitative study could give consultants entry into what happens below the surface in the silos’ unconscious.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative and descriptive research design using a case study strategy was used. Data gathering consisted of 25 narrative interviews. Using discourse analysis four themes manifested, integrated into four working hypotheses and a research hypothesis. Trustworthiness and ethical standards were ensured.Main findings: Themes that emerged were the physical environment and structure, intra-group relations, experiences of management, and intergroup relations.Practical/managerial implications: Consulting on silo behaviour as physical structures only may not be successful in changing organisational behaviour. The silo resembles an iceberg – the largest part is below the surface.Contribution/value-add: The findings evidenced silo behaviour to be an unconscious phenomenon influencing team identity negatively. Consultants are urged to study these manifestations towards understanding silos and their effect on team identity better.

  13. Treatment Rationale and Design for J-AXEL: A Randomized Phase 3 Study Comparing Nab-Paclitaxel With Docetaxel in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Morita, Satoshi; Ando, Masahiko; Miura, Satoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Abe, Tetsuya; Kato, Terufumi; Kondo, Masashi; Hosomi, Yukio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel is a promising new therapeutic agent for all histologic types of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We recently performed a phase 2 study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC, finding promising activity and acceptable toxicity for this regimen. We have now designed a randomized phase 3 intergroup study (J-AXEL, UMIN000017487) to examine the clinical benefit and safety of nab-paclitaxel compared to docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Patients are randomized to receive either docetaxel (60 mg/m 2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, control arm) or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 3 weeks, experimental arm), with each drug being administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study will evaluate the noninferiority of nab-paclitaxel relative to docetaxel for the primary end point of overall survival. If the primary objective is achieved, this study will provide evidence for a new alternative treatment option for patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare and evaluate the changes in the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity before and after chewing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty children aged between 8 and 12 years were selected for the study. They were randomly divided into Group 1 (CPP-ACP chewing gum and Group 2 (xylitol-containing chewing gum comprising thirty children each. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples at 15 and 30 min interval were collected from all children. All the saliva samples were estimated for salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Results: Significant increase in salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity from baseline to immediately after spitting the chewing gum was found in both the study groups. No significant difference was found between the two study groups with respect to salivary flow rate and pH. Intergroup comparison indicated a significant increase in salivary buffer capacity in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Conclusion: Chewing gums containing CPP-ACP and xylitol can significantly increase the physiochemical properties of saliva. These physiochemical properties of saliva have a definite relation with caries activity in children.

  15. Factors affecting the integration of immigrant nurses into the nursing workforce: A double hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Jeffers, Lesley

    2014-04-01

    Variations in nursing practice and communication difficulties pose a challenge for the successful integration into the workforce of immigrant nurses. Evidence for this is found in cultural clashes, interpersonal conflicts, communication problems, prejudiced attitudes and discrimination towards immigrant nurses. While the evidence shows that integrating immigrant nurses into the nursing workforce is shaped by factors that are socially constructed, studies that examine social structures affecting workforce integration are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine interplaying relationships between social structures and nurses' actions that either enabled or inhibited workforce integration in hospital settings. Giddens' Structuration Theory with double hermeneutic methodology was used to interpret 24 immigrant and 20 senior nurses' perceptions of factors affecting workforce integration. Four themes were identified from the data. These were: (1) employer-sponsored visa as a constraint on adaptation, (2) two-way learning and adaptation in multicultural teams, (3) unacknowledged experiences and expertise as barriers to integration, and (4) unquestioned sub-group norms as barriers for group cohesion. The themes presented a critical perspective that unsuitable social structures (policies and resources) constrained nurses' performance in workforce integration in the context of nurse immigration. The direction of structural changes needed to improve workforce integration is illustrated throughout the discussions of policies and resources required for workforce integration at national and organisational levels, conditions for positive group interactions and group cohesion in organisations. Our study reveals inadequate rules and resources used to recruit, classify and utilise immigrant nurses at national and healthcare organisational levels can become structural constraints on their adaptation to professional nursing practice and integration into the workforce in a host

  16. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate Plus™ and Biodentine™ for repair of furcal perforation in primary molars: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katge, Farhin A.; Shivasharan, Pooja Ravindra; Patil, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the unfavorable outcomes of endodontic treatment in primary molars is furcal perforation. During treatment, bacterial infection at the site of perforation should be prevented for better prognosis. Aim: This study aims to compare sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Plus™ and Biodentine™ for the repair of furcal perforation in primary molars using spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: Access opening was done for all ninety extracted teeth. Perforation was made in furcation area in all the teeth. The sample size consisted of ninety extracted teeth. They were divided into four groups, Group 1 (n = 30) in which perforations were repaired with MTA Plus™, Group 2 (n = 30) in which perforations were repaired with Biodentine™. The other two groups were considered as control groups, Group 3 (n = 15) in which perforations were left unsealed (positive control) and Group 4 (n = 15) without perforations (negative control). Dye extraction method was used to compare the sealing ability of MTA Plus™ and Biodentine™. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test to compare the mean between the different groups. Intergroup comparison was performed using post hoc Scheffe test. Results: The highest dye absorbance was seen in the positive control group with a mean value of 0.080 ± 0.033. The mean value of MTA Plus™ was 0.031 ± 0.026 and Biodentine™ was 0.024 ± 0.031. Conclusion: The mean value of dye absorption of MTA Plus™ was greater than Biodentine™ but it was statistically insignificant. PMID:27994416

  17. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate Plus™ and Biodentine™ for repair of furcal perforation in primary molars: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin A Katge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the unfavorable outcomes of endodontic treatment in primary molars is furcal perforation. During treatment, bacterial infection at the site of perforation should be prevented for better prognosis. Aim: This study aims to compare sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Plus™ and Biodentine™ for the repair of furcal perforation in primary molars using spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: Access opening was done for all ninety extracted teeth. Perforation was made in furcation area in all the teeth. The sample size consisted of ninety extracted teeth. They were divided into four groups, Group 1 (n = 30 in which perforations were repaired with MTA Plus™, Group 2 (n = 30 in which perforations were repaired with Biodentine™. The other two groups were considered as control groups, Group 3 (n = 15 in which perforations were left unsealed (positive control and Group 4 (n = 15 without perforations (negative control. Dye extraction method was used to compare the sealing ability of MTA Plus™ and Biodentine™. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test to compare the mean between the different groups. Intergroup comparison was performed using post hoc Scheffe test. Results: The highest dye absorbance was seen in the positive control group with a mean value of 0.080 ± 0.033. The mean value of MTA Plus™ was 0.031 ± 0.026 and Biodentine™ was 0.024 ± 0.031. Conclusion: The mean value of dye absorption of MTA Plus™ was greater than Biodentine™ but it was statistically insignificant.

  18. Pulmonary function studies in young healthy Malaysians of Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pulmonary function tests have been evolved as clinical tools in diagnosis, management and follow up of respiratory diseases as it provides objective information about the status of an individual's respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among the male and female young Kelantanese Malaysians of Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and to compare the data with other populations. Methods: A total of 128 (64 males, 64 females) non-smoking healthy young subjects were randomly sampled for the study from the Kelantanese students’ population of the University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia. The study population (20-25 yr age group) had similar socio-economic background. Each subject filled up the ATS (1978) questionnaire to record their personal demographic data, health status and consent to participate in the study. Subjects with any history of pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study. Results: The pulmonary function measurements exhibited significantly higher values among males than the females. FEV1% did not show any significant inter-group variation probably because the parameter expresses FEV1 as a percentage of FVC. FVC and FEV1 exhibited significant correlations with body height and body mass among males whereas in the females exhibited significant correlation with body mass, body weight and also with age. FEV1% exhibited significant correlation with body height and body mass among males and with body height in females. FEF25-75% did not show any significant correlation except with body height among females. However, PEFR exhibited significant positive correlation with all the physical parameters except with age among the females. On the basis of the existence of significant correlation between different physical parameters and pulmonary function variables, simple and multiple regression norms have been computed. Interpretation & conclusions: From the present investigation it can be

  19. Examestane in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Kristina; Malander, Susanne; Christensen, René dePont

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma.......We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma....

  20. Effects of mobile phone WeChat services improve adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a 3-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoyan; Liang, Zibin; Zhang, Rongkai; Liao, Wei; Chen, Yuan; Fan, Yunping; Li, Huabin

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of receiving daily WeChat services on one's cell phone on adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). This study was a two-arm, randomized, follow-up investigation. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with/without nasal polyps following bilateral FESS were randomised to receive, or to not receive, daily WeChat service on their cell phone to take corticosteroid nasal spray treatment. A prescription of budesonide aqueous nasal spray 128 µg bid was given to all the subjects. Then they returned to the clinic after 30, 60, 90 days. The primary study outcome was adherence to nasal spray treatment, whereas secondary outcomes were change in endoscopic findings and SinoNasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20). On the whole, there was a significant inter-group difference in the change of adherence rate (F = 90.88, p = 0.000). The WeChat group had much higher adherence rate than the control group during the follow-up. In terms of postoperative endoscopic scores and SNOT-20, except granulation score, no significant differences were observed between the two randomization groups. WeChat services are already after a short period of observation associated with improved adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment in CRS patients after FESS.

  1. Abnormal Default-Mode Network Activation in Cirrhotic Patients: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long Jiang Zhang; Guifen Yang; Jianzhong Yin; Yawu Liu; Ji Qi [Dept. of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin Medical Univ., Tianjin (China)

    2007-09-15

    Background: Recently, increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated that, in humans, a default-mode functional network exists in the resting state. Abnormal default-mode network in various diseases has been reported; however, no report concerning hepatic cirrhosis has been published to date. Purpose: To prospectively explore whether the resting-state network in patients with hepatic cirrhosis is abnormal or not, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Material and Methods: 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (12 male, two female; 45{+-}9 years) and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (12 male, two female; 42{+-}10 years) participated in a blocked-design fMRI study. A modified Stroop task with Chinese characters was used as the target stimulus. Statistical Parametric Mapping 99 software was employed to process the functional data. Individual maps and group data were generated for patients with hepatic cirrhosis and for healthy controls, respectively. Intergroup analysis between patients and healthy controls was also generated using the two-sample t-test model. Cluster analyses were done based on the group data, and an identical P value 0.01 with continuously connected voxels of no less than 10 was defined as significant deactivation. After fMRI scanning was complete, behavioral Stroop interference tests were performed on all subjects; reaction time and error number were recorded. Results: Functionally, deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus was absent when subjects performed the incongruous word-reading task; deactivation of the PCC, precuneus, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex was increased when they performed the incongruous color-naming task. Conclusion: The functional as well as behavioral data suggest that cirrhotic patients may have an abnormal deactivation mode. The absence of deactivation in the PCC and precuneus may be a sensitive rather than specific marker in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

  2. Comparison of canine retraction using single and Siamese edgewise brackets: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to check the rate of canine retraction with bodily mechanics using two different pre-adjusted edgewise bracket Systems. Materials and Methods: A split mouth study with twenty patients who were randomly selected and allotted to a single operator. Duration of canine retraction, angulation of canine during its retraction, degree of Rotation, anchorage Loss, distance between canine and premolar at different time intervals were then evaluated, pre- (To, 3 months- (T1 and canine tip touches the second premolar- (T2. Descriptive statistics including mean values and standard deviations were calculated. Paired and unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate the differences between the groups. Results: Rotation and angulation of the canines did not show significant difference in both the systems. There was statistically significant difference (P<0.01 in anchorage loss between single wing and Siamese bracket being 2.65 ±1.41 mm and 1.31 ± 0.93 respectively. There was statistically significant intergroup difference (P<0.01 in canine movement i.e distance between canine and premolar was recorded as 4.72mm (15.06 ± 1.69 to 10.34 ± 1.68mm in single wing bracket and 6.25mm in Siamese (15.52 ± 1.41 to 9.27 ± 1.94. Conclusion: In cases where high anchorage is required and the rate of canine retraction is a concern, Siamese brackets pose a definite advantage over Single wing brackets.

  3. Dorsal Sural Sensory Nerve Action Potential: A Study for Reference Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sweta Chetan; Mansukhani, Khushnuma Anil; Sharma, Alika; Balakrishnan, Lajita; Sreenivasan, Aarthika

    2017-01-01

    Dorsal sural sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) could help diagnose early or subclinical peripheral neuropathy. To establish reference data for dorsal sural SNAP amplitude, latency, and velocity in healthy participants. A prospective study was conducted in 45 nerves from healthy participants between 18 and 90 years and stratified into three age groups (a = 18-40 years, b = 41-60 years, and c>60 years). StataCorp 12.2 statistical program was used for all statistical analyses. Mean-2 standard deviation was used to generate reference values for the lower limit of amplitude and velocity in each age group. ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used for intergroup comparisons of amplitude and velocity. Regression analysis was used to compute an equation for the predicted amplitude with age, height, and weight as the covariates. The lower limit for amplitude (uv) in Groups a, b, and c was 2.57, 1.97, and 1.01, respectively. The lower limit for velocity (m/s) was 33.6, 32, and 22.8, respectively. Statistical significance was noted between the amplitudes of participants in Groups b and c ( P = 0.039) and a and c ( P = 0.001). Similarly, velocity was significantly different between Groups b and c ( P = 0.04) and a and c ( P = 0.008). Age was the covariate with maximum effect on the dorsal sural amplitude. Gender and side-to-side comparison did not show statistical significance for amplitude and velocity measurements. Linear regression analysis of the transformed amplitude gave the predictive equation as (y) =3.338 + age (-0.0167) + height in meters (-0.209) + weight (0.001). This study provides reference data for dorsal sural SNAP in Indian population stratified by age.

  4. Adjunctive antipsychotic in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder - A retrospective naturalistic case note study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Haroon; Khan, Akif A; Fineberg, Naomi A

    2015-06-01

    A retrospective naturalistic case note study to determine the frequency, co-morbidity and treatment-response of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Records from 280 patients attending a highly specialised obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)/BDD service were analysed. The clinical outcome was measured either through scoring of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for OCD/BDD, or textual analysis of case notes for evidence of symptomatic improvement, treatment tolerability, and premature disengagement. A total of 32 patients (11.43%) were diagnosed with BDD. Of these, 28 (87.5%) had at least one co-morbidity. All patients were offered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Adjunctive low-dose antipsychotic was prescribed for 21 (66%) patients. Overall, 18/32 (56%) responded, and 7/32 (22%) disengaged prematurely. Patients offered antipsychotic, SSRI and CBT (n = 21) were compared with those offered SSRI and CBT only (n = 11). The treatment was well-tolerated. Whereas there was no significant inter-group difference in the clinical response rate, premature disengagement occurred less frequently in the antipsychotic-treated patients (9.5% versus 45%; Fisher's Exact Test P = 0.0318). BDD frequently presents with co-morbidity, treatment-resistance and premature disengagement. Adjunctive antipsychotic was associated with significantly better treatment adherence, but responder rates did not differ significantly, possibly related to the small sample-size. A well-powered randomised controlled study is warranted, to determine clinical outcomes with adjunctive antipsychotic in BDD.

  5. Randomized, Double-blind Study with Glycerol and Paraffin in Uremic Xerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaskas, Elias; Szepietowski, Jacek C.; Bessis, Didier; Ioannides, Dimitrios; Ponticelli, Claudio; Ghienne, Corinne; Taberly, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Uremic xerosis is a bothersome condition that is poorly responsive to moisturizing and emollient therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A randomized, double-blind, intraindividual (left versus right comparison), multicentric clinical study was performed on 100 patients with moderate to severe uremic xerosis for 7 days, during which the patients applied twice daily an emulsion combining glycerol and paraffin (test product) on one allocated lower leg, and the emulsion alone (comparator) on the other lower leg. This was followed by an open-labeled use of the test product on all of the xerotic areas for 49 days. The main efficacy parameter was treatment response on each lower leg, as defined by a reduction from baseline of at least two grades in a five-point clinical score on day 7. Results Among the 99 patients analyzed, the test product was highly effective with a treatment response in 72 patients (73%), whereas 44 patients (44%) responded to the comparator (P < 0.0001, intergroup analysis). This was associated with an objective reduction in the density and thickness of the scales on day 7 (P < 0.0001 compared with the comparator) and a substantial improvement of the uremic pruritus (75%) and quality of life of the patients at study end (P < 0.001, intragroup analysis). The test product was very well tolerated, with product-related local intolerance (exacerbated pruritus, local burning, or erythema) occurring in only five patients (5%). Conclusions Uremic xerosis can be managed successfully when an appropriate emollient therapy is used. PMID:21258039

  6. A Comparative Study of Single Incision versus Conventional Four Ports Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajong, Ranendra; Hajong, Debobratta; Natung, Tanie; Anand, Madhur; Sharma, Girish

    2016-10-01

    Cholelithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the digestive tract encountered by general surgeons worldwide. Conventional or open cholecystectomy was the mainstay of treatment for a long time for this disease. In the 1980s laparoscopic surgery revolutionized the management of biliary tract diseases. It brought about a revolutionary change in the basic concepts of surgical principles and minimal access surgery gradually started to be acknowledged as a safe means of carrying out surgeries. To investigate the technical feasibility, safety and benefit of Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC) versus Conventional Four Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (C4PLC). This prospective randomized control trial was conducted to compare the advantages if any between the SILC and C4PLC. Thirty two patients underwent SILC procedure and C4PLC, each. The age of the patients ranged from 16-60years. Other demographic data and indications for cholecystectomy were comparable in both the groups. Simple comparative statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. Results on continuous variables are shown in Mean ± SD; whereas results on categorical variables are shown in percentage (%) by keeping the level of significance at 5%. Intergroup analysis of the various study parameters was done by using Fisher exact test. SPSS version 22 was used for statistical analysis. The mean operating time was higher in the SILC group (69 ± 4.00 mins vs. 38.53 ± 4.00 mins) which was of statistical significance (p=post-operative pain, with lesser analgesic requirements (p=operating time was longer otherwise it has almost similar clinical outcomes to those of C4PLC.

  7. Comparative clinical study of the effectiveness of different dental bleaching methods - two year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated color change, stability, and tooth sensitivity in patients submitted to different bleaching techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 48 patients were divided into five groups. A half-mouth design was conducted to compare two in-office bleaching techniques (with and without light activation: G1: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP (Lase Peroxide - DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil + hybrid light (HL (LED/Diode Laser, Whitening Lase II DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; G2: 35% HP; G3: 38% HP (X-traBoost - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA + HL; G4: 38% HP; and G5: 15% carbamide peroxide (CP (Opalescence PF - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA. For G1 and G3, HP was applied on the enamel surface for 3 consecutive applications activated by HL. Each application included 3x3' HL activations with 1' between each interval; for G2 and G4, HP was applied 3x15' with 15' between intervals; and for G5, 15% CP was applied for 120'/10 days at home. A spectrophotometer was used to measure color change before the treatment and after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. A VAS questionnaire was used to evaluate tooth sensitivity before the treatment, immediately following treatment, 24 h after and finally 1 week after. RESULTS: Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between in-office bleaching with or without HL activation related to effectiveness; nevertheless the time required was less with HL. Statistical differences were observed between the results after 24 h, 1 week and 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (intergroup. Immediately, in-office bleaching increased tooth sensitivity. The groups activated with HL required less application time with gel. CONCLUSION: All techniques and bleaching agents used were effective and demonstrated similar behaviors.

  8. A comparative study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of exposed cab drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization is associated with an enormous increase in vehicular traffic emitting exhausts and polluting the atmosphere. Emissions from vehicular traffic constitute the most significant source of ultraparticle in an urban environment. Cab drivers who work near areas located in the vicinity of traffic junctions through which maximum number of vehicles passes are more prone to develop health issues pertaining to the respiratory system. The effect of this occupational hazard in this unorganised workforce is not adequately studied. This study is designed to determine the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in cab drivers exposed to automobile exhaust. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFTs on 20 cab drivers who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their work venue nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 age, gender-matched, and anthropometric profile cab drivers who work in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution. PFT by computerized spirometer measuring forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and forced expiratory flow (FEF 25%-75% were measured. Statistical analysis was done by Student′s t test (two-tailed, independent for intergroup analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared. FVC, FEV in first second, PEFR, FEV 1 /FVC, and FEF 25%-75% were all found to be statistically significantly lower in cab drivers as compared to control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study finds a significant decline in various PFT parameters recorded in the study group as compared with the control group. These suggests a tendency for obstructive lung disease among cab drivers exposed to a polluted urban environment.

  9. The Influence of Interethnic Ideologies on Intention to Discriminate through In-Group Favoritism

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Marie; Herman, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two interethnic ideologies (assimilation and multiculturalism) on in-group favoritism and discrimination intention toward immigrants. Specifically, this study aims to test the concomitant impact of these two ideologies on intergroup biases in order to affirm whether these two paths are related to intergroup bias. Moreover, this study is designed to extend previous work that found relationships between interethnic ideologies and in-group favoritism to discrim...

  10. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  11. Management of breech and twin labor during registrarship: A two-year prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreau, J; Foulon, A; Abou Arab, O; Luisin, M; Parent, C; Sergent, F; Gondry, J

    2018-03-03

    Breech presentation and twin pregnancy are regarded as stressful situations for medical staff. This stress is often associated with an increased likelihood of intervention during labor - especially when the on-shift obstetrician lacks experience. We performed a 2-year prospective, observational study of cesarean section (CSDs) and assisted vaginal (AVDs) deliveries in a tertiary maternity unit for attempted vaginal deliveries of breech presentations and twin pregnancies. The obstetric management decisions taken by a group of four registrars were compared with those taken by a group of 11 experienced obstetricians. Changes over time in practice were also monitored. Registrars managed 66 and 52 breech presentations and twin pregnancies respectively (30 and 27 in the experienced group). Groups' neonatal outcomes were similar. There were no intergroup differences in proportions of CSDs for either breech presentations (25 [37.5%] vs. 15 [50%] in the registrar and experienced groups, respectively; P=0.26) or twin pregnancies (11 [21.1%] vs. 6 [22.2%], respectively; P=0.91) or in proportion of AVDs for twin pregnancies (41 [78.8%] vs. 21 [77.8%], respectively; P=0.91). Proportions of CSDs for breech presentation and AVDs for twin pregnancies did not change over time in either group. However, proportion of CSDs for twin pregnancies increased over time in the registrar group (P=0.004). Well-trained registrars appeared to have acquired the skills required to safely manage an obstetric ward; this pleads to maintain clinical practice during residency to preserve low CSD and AVD rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Flowable composite an alternative orthodontic bonding adhesive: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Supradeep; Rao, C Hanumantha; Reddy, Kv Baburam; Chidambaram, S; Girish, Hc; Murgod, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    To determine the clinical applicability of Ormocer based fowable adhesive (Admira fow) in comparison with BisGMA based adhesive (Transbond XT) and Ormocer based packable adhesive (Admira). Sixty human premolars, divided into group I (n = 20) Transbond XT, group II (n = 20) Admira and group III (n = 20) Admira fow were bonded with metal brackets using adhesives. Brackets were debonded in shear on an Instron universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute. The mode of bond failure was determined by modifed ARI index. The results obtained from SBS evaluation and modifed ARI showed highest shear bond strength for Transbond XT (SD 11.64) 3.68 followed by Admira fow (SD 11.0) 2.87 and least for Admira (SD 9.42) 2.21. However, the difference was not statistically signifcant, but an intergroup comparison done using Independent student 't' test, showed statically signifcant difference between Transbond XT and Admira. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed least survival median value for Admira, but the survival median value is not statistically signifcant among the three groups. All groups had modifed ARI score of three (60-70%), suggestive of cohesive type of failure. The in vitro study showed that fowable Ormocer can be an good alternative to commonly used BisGMA based adhesive but the its effcacy needs clinical assessment through a survival analysis. CLINICAL SIGNIFCANCE: Admire fow can defnitely be considered as an alternative bonding system due to their comparable bond strength and debonding characters and reported properties of biocompatibility.

  13. A prospective comparative study between differential moments and miniscrews in anchorage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoody, Amirparviz R; Posada, Laura; Utreja, Achint; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Neace, William P; Uribe, Flavio; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the efficacy of anchorage control between differential moments mechanics and temporary anchorage devices in a clinical trial. Forty-six patients requiring extraction of maxillary first premolars were allocated into 2 treatment groups. The differential moments group (G1) received a nickel titanium (NiTi) intrusion arch and a 150g NiTi closing coil spring for separate canine retraction, followed by a continuous mushroom loop archwire for the retraction of the incisors. The TAD group (G2) received one miniscrew placed between maxillary second premolars and first molars with a 150 g NiTi closing coil spring connecting the miniscrew to a hook placed in the archwire between the lateral incisor and canine. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T1) and after incisor retraction (T2). The ratio of molar protraction to incisor retraction was calculated and intragroup and intergroup changes in upper lip, maxillary incisor and molar position were analyzed by paired and independent t-tests. Twenty-eight patients were analyzed after 18 patients did not receive the intervention, were lost to follow-up, or discontinued treatment. The ratio of molar protraction to incisor retraction in G1 was 0.44 and in G2 was -0.11, which was significantly different. There was a statistically significant change in upper lip from T1 to T2 but no difference between the two groups. Moreover, there was a significant distal molar tipping and lingual incisor tipping in G2. There is a significant difference in the amount of anchorage control using differential moments mechanics compared to TADs. Although statistically significant retraction of upper lip was observed in both groups, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

  14. Comparative study of intravenously administered clonidine and magnesium sulfate on hemodynamic responses during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand Kishore Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both magnesium and clonidine are known to inhibit catecholamine and vasopressin release and attenuate hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum. This randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study has been designed to assess which agent attenuates hemodynamic stress response to pneumoperitoneum better. Materials and Methods: 120 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into 4 groups of 30 each. Group K patients received 50 ml normal saline over a period of 15 min after induction and before pneumoperitoneum, group M patients received 50 mg/kg of magnesium sulfate in normal saline (total volume 50 ml over same time duration. Similarly group C1 patients received 1 μg/kg clonidine and group C2 1.5 μg/kg clonidine respectively in normal saline (total volume 50 ml. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before induction (baseline value, at the end of infusions and every 5 min after pneumoperitoneum. Statistical Analysis: Paired t test was used for intra-group comparison and ANOVA for inter-group comparison. Results: Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in control group as compared to all other groups during pneumoperitoneum. On comparing patients in group M and group C1, no significant difference in systolic BP was found at any time interval. Patients in group C2 showed best control of systolic BP. As compared to group M and group C1, BP was significantly lower at 10, 30 and 40 min post pneumoperitoneum. No significant episodes of hypotension were found in any of the groups. Extubation time and time to response to verbal command like eye opening was significantly longer in group M as compared to other groups. Conclusion: Administration of magnesium sulfate or clonidine attenuates hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum. Although magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg produces hemodynamic stability comparable to clonidine 1 μg/kg, clonidine in doses of 1.5μg/kg blunts the hemodynamic response

  15. Assessing the Feasibility and Effectiveness of an App in Improving Knowledge on Oral Cancer-an Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prajna Pramod; Nayak, Sushma S; Sathiyabalan, Deepicca; Aditya, N K; Das, Priyanjana

    2017-06-13

    Although current oral health care initiatives have proved to be quite successful, a great number of individuals are unaware of how their choice of daily activities compromises their oral health. That is why newer technologies like WhatsApp can definitely serve as a platform to communicate dental advice, thereby strengthening the bridge between health and technology. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of WhatsApp as a tool for providing health education on tobacco and oral cancer as compared to the conventional health education via PowerPoint. The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial, single-center study. The students of 18-24 years of age with WhatsApp application active in their mobile phones were included. Four classes with 182 students were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Control group received health education on oral cancer using a PowerPoint presentation weekly, for a total of 4 weeks. Intervention group received health education through WhatsApp messaging thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-health education knowledge scores were assessed using a questionnaire and compared using unpaired and paired two-sample t tests. Statistically significant increase in knowledge scores was seen in both groups, with highly significant improvement in the intervention group (p value = 0.00). Intergroup comparison showed no significant difference in knowledge scores at baseline, but a significant difference in post intervention knowledge scores (t = -15.05 pWhatsApp can be a more effective tool for providing dental education on tobacco and oral cancer as compared to conventional audio-visual aids.

  16. Effect of instruction and motivation in the use of electric and manual toothbrushes in periodontal patients. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, Tove; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Gjermo, Per; Aass, Anne Merete

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of manual and electric toothbrushes in plaque control in periodontal patients after proper instructions. Thirty six periodontal patients (mean age of 49 years, 21 females and 15 males) were included and completed the study (100% compliance). A single-blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over clinical design was adopted, with the patients using during 2 periods of 14 days each the manual and/or electric toothbrush. Four subgroups of 9 individuals were studied: A1--used manual toothbrush in both experimental periods; A2--used the manual toothbrush during the first period and the electrical toothbrush during the second period; B1--used electrical toothbrush during both periods; B2--used the electrical toothbrush in the first period and the manual one in the second period. Brushing was performed during 14 days and at day 14 and 28 it was performed in the clinic, and timing of brushing was recorded without patients being aware. The Plaque Index (Silness, Löe, 1964) was used. Intra-group comparisons were performed by paired t-test and inter-group comparisons by independent sample t-test, with an alpha level of 0.05. The results showed no difference between the tested brushes neither for plaque nor for timing. However, re-instruction was detected as an important factor, since for all groups the second period, after reinstruction, showed lower plaque scores. It is concluded that professional advice and instruction and re-instruction seem more important in order to obtain good plaque control than the choice of toothbrush in subjects with periodontal disease.

  17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the elderly: results of a retrospective study and a geriatricians' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Marianna; Mazzola, Paolo; Valcarcel, Breanna; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Dinelli, Marco; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Annoni, Giorgio

    2018-03-14

    The incidence of biliary tract pathology is growing with an age-related trend, and progresses as the population ages. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) represents the gold standard for treatment in these cases, but evidence about its safety in the elderly is still debated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of all patients aged ≥65 undergoing ERCP between July 2013 and July 2015. Of 387 ERCP cases, 363 (~ 94%) were completed entirely. The mean age of the study population (n = 363) was 79.9 years old (range 70-95), with 190 subjects aged 70-79 and 173 older than 80. We recorded demographics, Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification score, indication for the use of the ERCP procedure, and clinical outcomes. Then, we tested all variables to identify the potential risk factors for complications associated with the procedure. The older group (those ≥80 years old) showed significantly more patients with ASA Classes III-IV than the younger one (those ≤79 years old). Interestingly, the CCI was higher in the younger group (p = 0.009). The overall complication rate was 17.3% without inter-group differences. Older age, sex, CCI and intra-ERCP procedures were not related to a higher risk of complications, and the multivariate regression did not identify any of the considered variables to be an independent risk factor for complications. ERCP appears as safe in the patients aged 80 years and older, as it is in those aged 70-79 years old in our study, however, a selection bias may affect these findings. A study including a comprehensive geriatric assessment will contribute to shedding light on this issue.

  18. Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Myrtus communis on Pathogenic Strains Causing Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Medicine plants have been used as sources of medicine in virtually all cultures. During the last decade, the use of traditional medicine (TM has been expanded globally and is gaining popularity. Objectives The antimicrobial activities of methanol and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. leaves were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the tests were carried out using disk agar diffusion method at four extract concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL. The MICs and MBCs of the extracts of M. communis were determined by agar dilution method. Average results were reported as the mean and standard error (mean ± SE and SPSS-18 statistical software, oneway ANOVA followed by Turkey’s test were used to do inter-group comparison, while considering P ≤ 0.05 as the significance level. Results Methanol extract of M. communis exhibited significant antibacterial activity in the concentration of 20 mg/mL (P ≤ 0.05 against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis with a greater inhibition zone of 20 mm, while a 14 mm zone of inhibition was observed in Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts ranged between 2 mg/mL and 128 mg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged between 4 mg/mL and 256 mg/mL. Conclusions The study showed that species, strains and concentrations of M. communis extract are of those factors that may influence the sensitivity of the tested bacteria. A significant correlation was observed between zone of inhibition and concentration of extract.

  19. Regenerative Needs Following Alveolar Ridge Preservation Procedures in Compromised and Noncompromised Extraction Sockets: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzis, Theofilos; Lipton, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessity for additional regenerative procedures following healing of compromised and noncompromised extraction sockets with alveolar ridge preservation procedures through the use of virtual implant imaging software. The cohort was comprised of 87 consecutive patients subjected to a single maxillary tooth extraction with an alveolar ridge preservation procedure for subsequent implant placement. Patients were divided into two main groups based on the integrity of the buccal bone plate following teeth extraction. Patients in the compromised socket (CS) group (n = 52) had partial or complete buccal bone plate loss, and patients in the noncompromised socket (NCS) group (n = 35) exhibited no bone loss of their socket walls following tooth extraction. Following 4 to 6 months of healing, all patients had a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study. Root-formed implants were placed virtually in an ideal prosthetic position. The number of implants per group and location (anterior, premolar, molar) exhibiting exposed buccal implant surface was calculated. In the CS group, 5 out of 19 anterior implants (26.3%), 4 out of 14 premolar implants (28.5%), and 7 out of 19 molar implants (36.8%) had exposed buccal surfaces. In the NCS group, 4 out of 9 anterior implants (44.4%), 2 out of 9 premolar implants (22.2%), and 4 out of 17 molar implants (23.5%) had exposed buccal surfaces. There were no statistically significant differences for intragroup and intergroup comparisons (χ² test, P > .05). This study failed to find statistically significant differences in the frequency of implants with exposed buccal surfaces placed virtually, following treatment of compromised and noncompromised sockets. A high proportion (22% to 44%) of sites had implants that potentially needed additional regenerative procedures.

  20. Comparative Study of Ureteral Stents Following Endoureterotomy in the Porcine Model: 3 vs 6 Weeks and 7F vs 14F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Federico; Sanchez, Francisco M.; Sun, Fei; Ezquerra, Javier; Duran, Esther; Uson, Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal stent size and stenting duration following retrograde endoureterotomy of experimental ureteral strictures. Twenty healthy Large White female pigs were randomly divided into four groups, depending on stent size (7F vs 14F) and stenting duration (3 weeks vs 6 weeks). Three additional pigs were used as the control group. The internal ureteral diameter was measured 2 cm below the lower pole of the right kidney. Histopathological changes of the urinary tract, ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic studies, urine culture, and serum urea and creatine levels were analyzed during the different phases of the study. The study was divided into three phases. Phase I included premodel documentation of the normal urinary tract and laparoscopic ureteral stricture creation. During the second phase 1 month later, the diagnosis and endourologic treatment of strictures were performed. Phase III began 4 weeks after stent removal; follow-up imaging studies and postmortem evaluation of all animals were performed. Ureteral strictures developed in all animals 4 weeks after model creation. Results from ureteral diameter measurements and pathological studies revealed no statistically significant intergroup differences. However, prevalence of urinary infection proved to be directly related to stent size (14F) and permanence (6 weeks). The chi square results suggest a statistically significant relationship between the urinary tract infection and recurrent strictures (α = 0.046). We recommend the use of 7F stents for a period of 3 weeks or less, as these are more easily positioned and result in the reduction of secondary side effects (lower infection rate, less intramural ureteral lesions). A significant relationship between urinary tract infection and stricture recurrence was found in this experimental study

  1. Clinical implications of recent studies using mTOR inhibitors to treat advanced hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Approximately 75% of breast cancer is hormone receptor-positive (HR + ) and is managed with endocrine therapies. However, relapse or disease progression caused by primary or acquired endocrine resistance is frequent. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated signaling is one of the molecular mechanisms leading to endocrine resistance. mTOR inhibitors that target the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are the first of the targeted therapies to be evaluated in clinical trials to overcome endocrine resistance. Although the clinical trial with temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, did not show any benefit when compared with endocrine therapy alone, a Phase II clinical trial with sirolimus has been promising. Recently, everolimus was approved in combination with exemestane by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating postmenopausal women with advanced HR + breast cancer, based on the results of a Phase III trial. Therefore, everolimus represents the first and only targeted agent approved for combating endocrine resistance

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Sealing Ability, Water Absorption, and Solubility of Three Temporary Restorative Materials: Anin vitroStudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, A R; Shantha Rani, N; V Naik, Saraswathi

    2017-01-01

    The quality of the coronal seal of root canal filling material is important for periapical health. Absorption of water or saliva by the temporary restorative materials leads to dimensional changes, loss of retention, staining and breaking in margin contours. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the sealing properties, water absorption and solubility of IRM (intermediate restorative material), Cavit G and GC Caviton. Experimental, in vitro intergroup randomized control trial. 36 non carious premolars were randomly selected assigned to three groups, 12 teeth in each. Standard endodontic access cavities of approximately 4x4mm wide were prepared followed by the root canal obturation with Gutta-percha and restoration with experimental materials. For microleakage testing dye penetration method was used with 2% methylene blue dye. Followed by evaluation and scoring under stereomicroscope at 40x magnification. Disc shaped 12 specimens for each group were prepared for each material, stored in desiccator at 37° C, weighed daily to verify mass stabilization (dry mass,m1). Thereafter, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7days to obtain the mass after saturation with water (m2). The specimens were placed in the desiccators again, at 37° C, and reweighed until a constant dry mass is obtained (m3). Water absorption (WS) and solubility (SL) was determined by using the formulas, WS = m3 - m2/V and SL= ml - m3/ V. GC Caviton showed least microleakage and least water absorption followed by IRM and Cavit G, the differences were statistically highly significant ( p Cavit G. Prabhakar AR, Rani NS, Naik SV. Comparative Evaluation of Sealing Ability, Water Absorption, and Solubility of Three Temporary Restorative Materials: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):136-141.

  3. Evaluation of bond strength and load deflection rate of multi-stranded fixed retainer wires: An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sarah Samson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic retainers must be well retained on the tooth surfaces, allow physiologic movement of teeth and exert minimal forces on the teeth to be retained. Previous studies analyzed the bond strength and amount of deflection caused due to the debonding force but not the magnitude of force needed for unit deformation. Aims: This study aims to evaluate and compare the bond strength and load deflection rate (LDR of three different fixed retainer wires. Materials and Methods: The wires were divided into three Groups: A – three-stranded twisted ligature wire, B – Bond-A-Braid (Reliance Orthodontics, and C – three-stranded twisted lingual retainer wire (3M Unitek. Twenty models were prepared for each group with a passive 15 mm long lingual retainer wire bonded to two lower incisors. An occlusogingival force was applied to the wire until it debonded. For LDR, three-point bending test was done at 0.5 mm deflection. These forces were measured using a Universal Instron Testing Machine. Statistical Analysis: Mean bond strength/LDR and pairwise comparisons were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant difference post hoc test, respectively. Results: Group C exhibited the highest mean bond strength and LDR of 101.17N and 1.84N, respectively. The intergroup comparisons were all statistically significant. Conclusion: Compared to the other two wire types, Group C might be better retained on the teeth due to its higher bond strength. With its relatively higher LDR value, it may resist deformation from occlusal forces, thereby reducing inadvertent tooth movement and yet remain flexible enough to allow physiologic tooth movements.

  4. Treatment and outcome of patients suffering from perineal/perianal rhabdomyosarcoma: results from the CWS trials--retrospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Joerg; Dantonello, Tobias M; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Kosztyla, Daniel; Klingebiel, Thomas; Leuschner, Ivo; Schuck, Andreas; Niggli, Felix K; Koscielniak, Ewa; Seitz, Guido

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the clinical course, treatment, complications, outcome, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with perineal/perianal rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) treated within the CWS-86, -91, -96, and -2002P trials. Although multiple international study trials exist for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma, only very limited information is given on treatment, outcome, and QOL in PRMS. A total of 35 patients suffering from PRMS were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Local therapy with radiation and/or surgery was performed, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Functional long-term follow-up was evaluated by a gastrointestinal/QOL survey. Thirty-two patients were evaluated (exclusion n = 3). Eight patients had embryonal histology, and 24 patients had alveolar histology. The median age was 108 months (median follow-up: 5.8 years). The 5-year overall survival was 47% (95% confidence interval: 29-64). Sixteen IRS (Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study) III and IV patients had locoregional lymph node involvement at diagnosis. Seven patients were treated with chemotherapy/surgery alone [5-year event-free survival (EFS): 85.7%]. Eleven patients received only radiochemotherapy (5-year EFS: 27.3%). Combined radiochemotherapy/surgery was used in 12 patients (5-year EFS: 63.6%). Two patients were treated only with chemotherapy and they died. Patients with embryonal histology had a significantly better 5-year EFS (87.5%) than patients with alveolar histology (39.1%; P = 0.013). Some patients reported symptoms of fecal incontinence. The median Wexner fecal incontinence score was 9 (possible range: 0-20), and the median QOL score was 90.5 (applicable range: 0-144). The outcome of these patients remains unsatisfactory. Prognostic factors for a favorable outcome are tumor size of smaller than 5 cm, negative locoregional lymph nodes, age less than 10 years, low IRS group, and embryonal histology. Fecal incontinence seems to be a problem.

  5. Alignment efficiency of standard versus tandem wire mechanics using conventional and self-ligating brackets: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficiency of 0.018″/0.022″ slot self-ligating (SL bracket system (standard and tandem mechanics in terms of rate of alignment by comparing it with a 0.022″ slot conventional ligating appliance system (MBT. Settings and Sample Population: The Department of Orthodontics. Materials and Methods: The pilot study was carried out using randomized controlled trial design. Forty patients having Little's irregularity index (II of 6–15 mm, treated by all first premolars extractions, were randomly allocated to 0.022″ slot conventional ligating bracket system, 0.018″ slot SL bracket system, 0.018″ slot SL bracket system (tandem archwires, 0.022″ slot SL bracket system, and 0.022″ slot SL bracket system (tandem archwires. The rate of alignment for each bracket system was measured from the difference in the II of serial casts taken at pretreatment and at the end of alignment, divided by the number of days between the two measurements. A one-way ANOVA model with post hoc Bonferroni multiple comparison procedures was used to identify intergroup differences. Results: The mean value of alignment efficiency was not found to be statistically significant in any of the five groups using digital models (P = 0.104. Conclusions: Alignment efficiency was not different between SL versus conventional ligating group, the 0.018″ slot versus 0.022″ slot and tandem versus standard mechanics.

  6. Effect of Pre-Procedural Chair-Side Finger Stretches on Pinch Strength amongst Dental Cohort- A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Ninad Milind; Padhye, Ashvini Mukul; Gupta, Himani Swatantrakumar

    2017-04-01

    Ergonomics is the essential principle behind the health and successful practice for a dentist and dental hygienist. During the procedure of dental Scaling and Root Planing (SRP), a high level of pinch force is exerted by the finger muscles resulting in early muscle fatigue. This pilot study comparatively evaluated the Pinch Strength (PS) of the finger muscles, prior to and after SRP, amongst dental cohort performing chair-side hand and finger stretches to those not performing the same. Forty dental professionals were recruited by purposive sampling for the study and allocated into a test and control group. PS was recorded for both groups following which the test group performed finger stretches comprising of rubber band stretch, tendon glide, finger flexion and extension, thumb flexion and finger webbing. The subjects of both the groups carried out SRP for 30 minutes after which PS was again recorded. Inter-group difference was analysed for variability at baseline and 30 minutes after SRP using independent samples/unpaired t-test. Within group comparison of PS measurement was done using paired t-test. The PS for the test group declined from 14.425±2.577 pounds (lbs) to 13.725±2.557 lbs, while for the control group, a decline in PS from 13.65±2.636 lbs to 10.675±2.478 lbs after SRP was noted. On comparing the difference of means of both groups, a statistically significant result was obtained. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders can be reduced by performing a few simple chair-side stretches. These stretches can help prevent the finger muscle fatigue during SRP and thus, increase its efficacy.

  7. [Quality analysis of observational studies on pelvic organ prolapse in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y T; Tao, L Y; He, H J; Han, J S

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of observational studies on pelvic organ prolapse in China. Methods: The checklist of strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement was applied to evaluate the observational studies. The articles were searched in the SinoMed database using the terms: prolapse, uterine prolapse, cystocele, rectal prolapse and pelvic floor; limited to Chinese core journals in obstetrics and gynecology from January 1996 to December 2015. With two 10-year groups (1996-2005 and 2006-2015), the χ(2) test was used to evaluate inter-group differences. Results: (1) A total of 386 observational studies were selected, including 15.5%(60/386) of case-control studies, 80.6%(311/386) of cohort studies and 3.9% (15/386) of cross-sectional studies. (2) There were totally 22 items including 34 sub-items in the checklist. There were 17 sub-items (50.0%, 17/34) had a reporting ratio less than 50% in all of aticles, including: 1a (study's design) 3.9% (15/386), 6a (participants) 24.6% (95/386), 6b (matched studies) 0 (0/386), 9 (bias) 8.3% (32/386), 10 (study size) 3.9%, 11 (quantitative variables) 41.2% (159/386), 12b-12e (statistical methods in detail) 0-2.6% (10/386), 13a (numbers of individuals at each stage of study) 18.9% (73/386), 13b (reasons for non-participation at each stage) 18.9%, 13c (flow diagram) 0, 16b and 16c (results of category boundaries and relative risk) 9.6% (37/386) and 0, 19 (limitations) 31.6% (122/386), 22 (funding) 20.5% (79/386). (3) The quality of articles published in the two decades (1996-2005 and 2006-2015) were compared, and 38.2%(13/34) of sub-items had been significantly improved in the second 10-year (all Pobservational studies on POP in China is suboptimal in half of evaluation items. However, the quality of articles published in the second 10-year have significantly improved.

  8. Effect of using an intra-oral camera as a reinforcement tool for plaque control in a supervised toothbrushing program: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Machale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supervised toothbrushing program at schools have indicated limited improvement in oral hygiene among children. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the use of an intra-oral camera as a reinforcement tool in a supervised tooth brushing program at school can improve plaque control. Materials and Methods: A double-blind, parallel, two arm interventional study was conducted among 120 school children from 2 schools, aged 12-year in Pune. The study group received an intervention of supervised toothbrushing and reinforcement sessions for 30 days using intra-oral camera. The control group received only supervised toothbrushing. Evaluation for plaque control was performed at the end of 30 days, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis of co-variance was used to find the intergroup difference at different time intervals. Analysis of variance was used to find the intragroup differences of the plaque scores. Post hoc Bonferroni test was used to find the pairwise changes in plaque scores between different time intervals. Results: In the study group, the mean plaque score was reduced to a significant extent from baseline to 30 days and 3 months (P < 0.05 and then the plaque score remained stable until the end of 12 months. While in the control group, the plaque score increased compared to baseline. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean plaque scores of study and control group at each time interval (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Intra-oral camera can be effectively used as a reinforcement tool in supervised toothbrushing program at school for achieving higher plaque reduction.

  9. Contact, Political Solidarity and Collective Action: An Indian Case Study of Relations between Historically Disadvantaged Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, John; Cakal, Huseyin; Khan, Waheeda; Osmany, Meena; Majumdar, Sramana; Hassan, Mudassir

    2017-01-01

    Research on the contact hypothesis has highlighted the role of contact in improving intergroup relations. Most of this research has addressed the problem of transforming the prejudices of historically advantaged communities, thereby eroding wider patterns of discrimination and inequality. In the present research, drawing on evidence from a cross-sectional survey conducted in New Delhi, we explored an alternative process through which contact may promote social change, namely by fostering poli...

  10. The assessment of MMPI in panic and somatisation disorders: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Koçer, Emel; Özçetin, Adnan; İçmeli, Celaleddin; Ataoğlu, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to investigate the relationship between anxiety disorders and somatisation disorders described in ICD-10 within the title of neurotic disorders, and the personality characteristics related to both groups. Method: Fifty-eight individuals who were either have DSM-IV panic disorder (PD) and or somatisation disorder (SD) completed the Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI). Intergroup differences of MMPI scores and personality disorders were analyzed. Result: The scores obt...

  11. Er:YAG laser versus systemic metronidazole as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy: a clinical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Selçuk; Kut, Burak; Gursoy, Hare; Eren-Kuru, Bahar; Noyan, Ulku; Kadir, Tanju

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the clinical and microbiological results obtained by treatment with Er:YAG laser and systemic metronidazole used as adjuncts to mechanical subgingival debridement in chronic periodontitis. Twenty-seven chronic periodontitis (CP) patients were randomly divided into three parallel groups each comprising nine individuals with at least four teeth having at least one approximal site with a probing depth (PD) of ≥5 mm and gingival index (GI) of ≥2 in each quadrant. Groups of patients received: (1) Scaling and root planing (SRP)+ Er:YAG laser (10 hz, 30 mJ/pulse, 1 min per pocket, apico-coronal direction in parallel paths with 30 degree angle tips, under water irrigation), (2) SRP+ systemic metronidazole, or (3) SRP alone. In all treatment groups, SRP was performed at 1 week intervals in two sessions. The microbiological and clinical effects of the treatments were evaluated after 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, statistically significant improvements in plaque index, GI, PD and attachment level, as well as reductions in the number of total bacteria and proportions of obligately anaerobic microorganisms were observed within each group. Although intergroup comparisons revealed no significant microbiological differences, clinical parameters as attachment gain and PD reduction were found significantly higher in Group 1 compared with the other groups. Within its limits, this study demonstrated the possibility of better resolution of infection with combined SRP+Er:YAG laser treatment. However, microbiological results failed to demonstrate significant advantages of this combination in comparison with SRP alone or SRP+systemic metronidazole.

  12. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. Results: The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05 in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic. However, highly significant (P < 0.01 difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2 and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3 which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  13. Efficacy and acceptability of 0.074% diclofenac-containing mouthwash after periodontal surgery: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The systemic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with various side-effects like hepatotoxicity, blood dyscrasias, nephrotoxicity and gastric irritability. Among these, gastric irritability is the most common and the most important one, which should be taken care of. Therefore, it may be preferable to use a local formulation such as a mouthwash to treat the inflammatory conditions of the oral cavity. Aim: To determine the efficacy and acceptability of 0.074% diclofenac mouthwash in relieving pain and inflammation of post-periodontal surgery patients. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Twenty chronic periodontitis patients who were scheduled for full-mouth periodontal flap surgery were randomized to receive either diclofenac mouthwash or placebo to rinse with 15 ml of solution daily for a period of 7 days. Modified gingival index (Lobene 1986 was used to verify gingival inflammation and visual analog scale was used to assess pain. After the baseline measurements for all the parameters were recorded, spontaneous pain and burning were evaluated daily while redness and edema were recorded on the 3 rd and 7 th day from the day of treatment. Results: Data obtained were analyzed statistically using paired " t" test for intragroup comparison and unpaired " t"-test for intergroup comparison. Spontaneous pain was significantly reduced by diclofenac mouthwash. Other parameters, i.e. gingival inflammation and swelling, had not shown significant reduction in scores in either group, although the reduction was higher in the test group. Conclusion: The new 0.074% diclofenac mouthwash is an effective and tolerable medicinal product for post-surgical symptomatic relief.

  14. Marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia and titanium dental implants: an experimental study in the dog mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Benic, Goran I; Muñoz, Fernando; Kohal, Ralf; Sanz Martin, Ignacio; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to test whether or not the marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia implants are similar to the bone-level alterations of a grade 4 titanium one-piece dental implant. In six dogs, all premolars and the first molars were extracted in the mandible. Four months later, three zirconia implants (BPI, VC, ZD) and a control titanium one-piece (STM) implant were randomly placed in each hemimandible and left for transmucosal healing (baseline). Six months later, CAD/CAM crowns were cemented. Sacrifice was scheduled at 6-month postloading. Digital X-rays were taken at implant placement, crowns insertion, and sacrifice. Marginal bone-level alterations were calculated, and intra- and intergroup comparisons performed adjusted by confounding factors. Implants were successfully placed. Until crown insertion, two implants were fractured (one VC, one ZD). At sacrifice, 5 more implants were (partly) fractured (one BPI, four ZD), and one lost osseointegration (VC). No decementation of crowns occurred. All implant systems demonstrated a statistically significant (except VC) loss of marginal bone between baseline and crown insertion ranging from 0.29 mm (VC; P = 0.116) to 0.80 mm (ZD; P = 0.013). The estimated marginal bone loss between baseline and 6 months of loading ranged between 0.19 mm (BPI) and 1.11 mm (VC), being statistically significant for STM and VC only (P implants and control implants (STM vs. BPI P = 0.007; vs. VC P = 0.001; vs. ZD P = 0.011). Zirconia implants were more prone to fracture prior to and after loading with implant-supported crowns compared to titanium implants. Individual differences and variability in the extent of the bone-level changes during the 12-month study period were found between the different implant types and materials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Motion Capture Study to Measure the Feeling of Synchrony in Romantic Couples and in Professional Musicians

    KAUST Repository

    Preissmann, Delphine

    2016-10-27

    The feeling of synchrony is fundamental for most social activities and prosocial behaviors. However, little is known about the behavioral correlates of this feeling and its modulation by intergroup differences. We previously showed that the subjective feeling of synchrony in subjects involved in a mirror imitation task was modulated by objective behavioral measures, as well as contextual factors such as task difficulty and duration of the task performance. In the present study, we extended our methodology to investigate possible interindividual differences. We hypothesized that being in a romantic relationship or being a professional musician can modulate both implicit and explicit synchronization and the feeling of synchrony as well as the ability to detect synchrony from a third person perspective. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find significant differences between people in a romantic relationship and control subjects. However, we observed differences between musicians and control subjects. For the implicit synchrony (spontaneous synchronization during walking), the results revealed that musicians that had never met before spontaneously synchronized their movements earlier among themselves than control subjects, but not better than people sharing a romantic relationship. Moreover, in explicit behavioral synchronization tasks (mirror game), musicians reported earlier feeling of synchrony and had less speed errors than control subjects. This was in interaction with tasks difficulty as these differences appeared only in tasks with intermediate difficulty. Finally, when subjects had to judge synchrony from a third person perspective, musicians had a better performance to identify if they were present or not in the videos. Taken together, our results suggest that being a professional musician can play a role in the feeling of synchrony and its underlying mechanisms. © 2016 Preissmann, Charbonnier, Chagué, Antonietti, Llobera, Ansermet and Magistretti.

  16. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Gaurao Vasant; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Kumar, Prashanth Vishwakarma; Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional) for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup) and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup) on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05) in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup) and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic). However, highly significant (P < 0.01) difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2) and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3) which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  17. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundappan, Saravanapriyan; Sundaramurthy, Jothi Latha; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I – MTA, Group II – Biodentine, Group III – IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis. Results: The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine. Conclusion: In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material. PMID:24910689

  18. The optimal sequence for bronchial brushing and forceps biopsy in lung cancer diagnosis: a random control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gang; Miao, Yuan; Hu, Xue-Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qiu-Yue; Wu, Guang-Ping; Wang, En-Hua; Kang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Optimizing basic techniques in diagnostic bronchoscopy is important for improving medical services in developing countries. In this study, the optimal sequence of bronchial brushing relative to bronchial biopsy for lung cancer diagnosis was evaluated. A total of 420 patients with visible endobronchial tumors were prospectively and randomly enrolled in two groups: a pre-biopsy brushing group, receiving two brushings before biopsy; two brushings which performed afterwards; were set as self-control and compared with the pre-biopsy brushings as the intra-group comparison; and a post-biopsy brushing group, only receiving two brushings after biopsy, which were compared with the pre-biopsy brushings as the inter-group comparison. Diagnostic yield of brushing was compared before and after biopsy, and as well as for different tumor pathologies and bronchoscopic morphologies. The occurrence of treated bleeding which defined as bleeding needed further intervention with argon plasma coagulation and/or anti-coagulation drugs in two groups was also compared. Only patients with a definitive cytological or histological diagnosis of lung cancer based on bronchoscopy or other confirmatory techniques were included. Patients were excluded if they had submucosal lesions, extrinsic compressions, pulmonary metastasis of extrapulmonary malignancies or uncommon non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). A total of 362 patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Diagnostic yield for pre-biopsy brushing (49.2%, 88/179) was significantly higher than for post-biopsy brushing within the same pre-biopsy brushing group (31.8%, 57/179) (P=0.007) as the intra-group comparison, and significantly higher than for post-biopsy brushing in the post group (30.6%, 56/183) (Pcancer. In cases of endobronchial exophytic tumors, pre-biopsy brushing appears to be superior to post-biopsy brushing.

  19. A comparative study of itraconazole in various dose schedules in the treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma in treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Rai Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimal dose, duration, and efficacy of itraconazole in Indian patients of pulmonary aspergilloma (PA are not clearly defined. Therefore, a study was carried out, to resolve these issues in diagnosed cases of PA complicating old treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study patients randomly received itraconazole either in a fixed dose schedule of 200 mg (group I, 200 mg twice daily (group II or a variable dose schedule (group III, for 12 months. All the patients were followed up for the entire duration of the study for clinical, radiological, and immunological response. The side effects were recorded as and when reported by the patients and managed symptomatically. Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled, 20, in each group. There were no intergroup differences with regard to age, sex, body weight, smoking status, alcohol intake, symptoms, Potassium hydroxide (KOH mount, fungal culture, pattern of radiological lesions or anti-aspergillus antibodies (anti-Asp-Ab titers. The radiological response was poor in group I patients, as compared to the other groups, at two months (P < 0.05. The dose of itraconazole was increased in five of the patients in group I due to poor response. A higher number of group II patients suffered side effects and the dose of itraconazole had to be decreased in three of these patients, but none of the patients on a variable dose schedule required a change in dose schedule. Conclusion: Thus, a weight-based variable dose schedule of itraconazole was found to be a more effective and safer modality in the management of PA than a fixed dose schedule.

  20. Relationship between psychological well-being and perceptions of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anushri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dental profession has been considered a stressful occupation. The origins of this stress may also lie in the process of dental education. The perception of stress is frequently influenced by one′s personal system of beliefs and attitudes. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and perception of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 800 1-4 th year dental students. Information on demographics, social background, and health behaviors were collected. The psychological general well-being (PGWB index and the dental environment stress (DES questionnaire were used to measure PGWB and perceptions of stress, respectively. Multiple intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was done to find out relationship between PGWB and DES. Regression analysis to find out the strongest predictor of PGWB. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in PGWB among different year of study. Female students had significantly lower PGWB scores and higher DES scores than male students. The stress differed among different year of study with highest stress in final year students in all domains except for clinical/preclinical training, which was highest among 1 st year students. Correlational analysis showed a negative relationship between PGWB and DES score. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that "workload," "patient treatment," "performance pressure" and "others" domains of stress were significant predictors of PGWB. Conclusion: This study revealed that the perception of stress is influenced by gender and health behaviors which in turn affect PGWB.

  1. Adoption of pediatric-inspired acute lymphoblastic leukemia regimens by adult oncologists treating adolescents and young adults: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Lori; Lichtensztajn, Daphne; Shiraz, Parveen; Abrahão, Renata; McNeer, Jennifer; Stock, Wendy; Keegan, Theresa; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated superior outcomes for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are treated using pediatric versus adult therapeutic regimens. To the best of our knowledge, whether adult oncologists in the United States have adopted this approach to ALL in AYA patients is currently unknown. The objective of the current study was to provide a population-based description of ALL treatment patterns in AYA individuals over the past decade. Data regarding AYA patients aged 15 to 39 years and diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2014 while living in the Greater Bay Area were obtained from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry (GBACR). Treating facilities were designated as pediatric or adult centers; induction treatment regimens were abstracted from registry text data fields. Of 304 patients diagnosed in the GBACR catchment region, complete treatment data were available for 229 (75%). The location of care was identified for 296 patients (97%) treated at 31 unique centers. Approximately 70% of AYA patients received induction therapy at an adult treatment center. All AYA patients who were treated at pediatric centers received pediatric ALL regimens. Among AYA patients treated by adult oncologists with complete treatment data, none received a pediatric regimen before 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, while the US Adult Intergroup C10403 pediatric-inspired ALL protocol was open to accrual, 31% of AYA patients treated by adult oncologists received pediatric regimens. This rate fell to 21% from 2013 through 2014. Adult facilities treating ≥ 2 AYA patients with ALL per year captured in the GBACR were more likely to administer pediatric regimens than lower volume centers (P = .03). As of 2014, only a minority of AYA patients with ALL received pediatric ALL regimens at adult cancer centers. Cancer 2017;122-130. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Comparison of topical ropivacaine with and without ketamine on post-surgical pain in children undergoing tonsillectomy: a randomized controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Boohwi; Lim, Chae Seong; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Jung Un; Kim, Yong Min; Jung, Choonho; Jo, Yumin

    2017-08-01

    Tonsillectomy in pediatric patients may cause severe postoperative pain. Topical local anesthetics are an easy and safe way to control post-tonsillectomy pain, but there is no benefit during the early postoperative stage. Topical ketamine shows a good effect on early stage postoperative pain. We compared the effect of topical ropivacaine with and without ketamine on post-tonsillectomy pain. Patients aged 3-7 years undergoing tonsillectomy were selected to participate in the study. Our study was performed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups using computer-generated random numbers. The researchers who assessed the pain score, the caregivers, and the patient were blinded to group assignment. One group received topical ropivacaine with saline (RS group) and the other group received topical ropivacaine with 20 mg ketamine (RK group) on the tonsillar bed. Pain scores using the modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (mCHEOPS) at 15 min and 30 min, and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h were recorded. Rescue analgesic requirement and complications were also recorded. A total of 66 patients were randomly assigned to the RS group (n = 33) and the RK group (n = 33). The mCHEOPS scores were significantly lower in the RK group at 15 min (P = 0.046). The mCHEOPS scores of the two groups decreased with time, but there was no intergroup interaction. The RS group received more analgesics until 1 h after surgery and the RK group received more analgesics during 1-24 h after surgery. There were no differences in adverse outcomes. Topical ropivacaine with ketamine can reduce immediate postoperative pain and analgesic requirement better than ropivacaine alone.

  3. Quantitative analysis of digital videokymography: a preliminary study on age- and gender-related difference of vocal fold vibration in normal speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Kymography is an effective method for assessing temporal patterns of vocal fold vibrations. Because kymographic data for a number of normal speakers based on high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) were limited in the literature, this prospective study was conducted to provide normative kymographic HSDI data and clarify gender- and age-related normal variations. Vocally healthy adults were divided into young (≤35 years) and elderly groups (≥65 years). Kymograms were recomposed from HSDI data at the midglottal level, and kymographic parameters were analyzed quantitatively. Then gender- and age-related differences were evaluated. A total of 26 young subjects (9 men and 17 women, mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (8 men and 12 women, mean age: 73 years) were investigated. Obtained data generally matched the values in the literature. Slight asymmetry was seen in all groups, with the elderly subjects having more evident asymmetry than the young subjects. Most of the kymographic parameters showed a negative correlation with fundamental frequency (F0), whereas the open quotient displayed a positive correlation with F0. There were significant intergroup differences in F0, amplitude and lateral peak at a speaking F0. The present quantitative findings generally matched the qualitative kymographic data reported in the literature. When judging whether a vibratory pattern is normal or pathological, both gender and age should be taken into account, because gender- and age-related variations of symmetry, F0, and phase were frequently observed in the present study. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for an Elevated Aspartate pKa in the Active Site of Human Aromatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Giovanna; Breitner, Maximilian; Bandino, Andrea; Ghosh, Debashis; Jennings, Gareth K.; Hackett, John C.; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, is of significant mechanistic and therapeutic interest. Crystal structures and computational studies of this enzyme shed light on the critical role of Asp309 in substrate binding and catalysis. These studies predicted an elevated pKa for Asp309 and proposed that protonation of this residue was required for function. In this study, UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and enzyme kinetics were used to study the impact of pH on aromatase structure and androstenedione binding. Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that androstenedione binding is pH-dependent, whereas, in contrast, the D309N mutant retains its ability to bind to androstenedione across the entire pH range studied. Neither pH nor mutation perturbed the secondary structure or heme environment. The origin of the observed pH dependence was further narrowed to the protonation equilibria of Asp309 with a parallel set of spectroscopic studies using exemestane and anastrozole. Because exemestane interacts with Asp309 based on its co-crystal structure with the enzyme, its binding is pH-dependent. Aromatase binding to anastrozole is pH-independent, consistent with the hypothesis that this ligand exploits a distinct set of interactions in the active site. In summary, we assign the apparent pKa of 8.2 observed for androstenedione binding to the side chain of Asp309. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental assignment of a pKa value to a residue in a cytochrome P450. This value is in agreement with theoretical calculations (7.7–8.1) despite the reliance of the computational methods on the conformational snapshots provided by crystal structures. PMID:25425647

  5. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a ten-year retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Huang, Dongsheng; Zhao, Weihong; Sun, Liming; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Dawei; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Huanmin; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Ning; He, Lejian; Tang, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children. We have retrospectively explored the treatment results of childhood RMS and identified prognostic factors in multicenter in China, in order to lay the foundation for further multicenter study. This retrospective study was carried out analyzing the medical records of 161 patients with the pathological diagnosis of RMS from January, 2001 to February, 2014 at 5 large cancer centers in China. The data was reviewed clinico-epidemiological factors. Age, gender, histology type, primary site, tumor size, intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study (IRS) group and results of treatments were evaluated. Patients were followed up to Dec 31, 2014. The median age of our patients was 51 months. 10.5% of our patients were infants. The genitourinary system was the most common primary site of tumor (43.5%). The proportion of primary site of head and neck except parameningeal, at 28.2% (42 cases), while the proportion of parameningeal region was 4.6% (7 cases). The histological findings were as follows: 130 cases (80.7%) with embryonal, 19 cases (11.9%) with alveolar and 5 cases (3.1%) with botryoid type. According to the classification system of the IRS group, 1 case (0.6%) was group I, 54 cases (33.5%) were group II, 46 cases (28.6%) were group III and 60 cases (37.3 %) were group IV. 149 patients were treated and followed-up regularly, Patients in Beijing children's hospital (n=95) were enrolled in IRS-II/COG-D9803, D9802 protocols. while the other patients (n=54) started on treatment according to Chinese Anti-cancer Association protocol. There were median time of 51 months for following up, 60 occurred event. The ten-year event free survival rate was 53.4±5.1%, overall survival was 65.3±6.3%. The relations between outcome and age (0.046), primary site (0.022), pathologic subtype (0.013), tumor size (0.008) and IRS group (P=0.000) were associated significantly with event free survival. Among the variables, age (P

  6. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of high impact denture base resin with different polymer to monomer ratios: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheen Juneja Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to evaluate the flexural strength, hardness, and impact strength of heat-cured high-impact denture base resins with different polymer/monomer ratios. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 acrylic samples were prepared using high impact denture base resin (Travelon Hi. The samples were divided into five groups based on different powder/liquid ratios (g/ml with 30 samples in each group. The P/L ratio in Group 1 (Ratio - 2.2:1 was the manufacturer's recommended ratio and was used as control. In Group 2, the ratio was 2.7:1, in Group 3, the ratio was 3.2:1, in Group 4, the ratio was 1.9:1, and Group 5 the ratio was 1.6:1. Each group with 30 samples was further subdivided into three different subgroups comprising 10 samples each, based on the properties to be evaluated, i.e., for flexural strength, hardness, and impact strength evaluation. The samples were tested for flexural strength, Vicker's hardness number (VHN and impact strength. One-way ANOVA including post hoc-Tukey's tests was used to calculate the difference of means for quantitative variables and for intergroup comparison as well. Results: The results showed that the flexural strength values and VHN values showed a similar trend. The values decreased significantly as the ratio was increased or decreased from the control group. The results also showed that there was nonsignificant difference between the mean impact strength values for all the groups. Conclusion: For reinforced resins or high impact resins, the manufacturer's recommended polymer/monomer mixing ratio should be used to obtain the appropriate strength of the material.

  7. Vocal Tract Adjustments of Dysphonic and Non-Dysphonic Women Pre- and Post-Flexible Resonance Tube in Water Exercise: A Quantitative MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Rosiane; Murano, Emi Z; Gebrim, Eloisa; Hachiya, Adriana; Montagnoli, Arlindo; Behlau, Mara; Tsuji, Domingos

    2017-07-01

    To compare vocal tract (VT) adjustments of dysphonic and non-dysphonic women before and after flexible resonance tube in water exercise (FRTWE) at rest and during phonation using magnetic resonance imaging. Prospective study. Twenty women, aged 20-40 years, 10 dysphonic with vocal nodules (VNG) and 10 controls (CG), underwent four sets of sagittal VT MRI: two pre-FRTWE, at rest and during phonation, and two post-FRTWE, during phonation and at rest. The subjects performed 3 minutes of exercise. Nine parameters at rest and 21 during phonation were performed. Pre-FRTWE, eight significant differences were found, three at rest and five during phonation: at rest - laryngeal vestibule area, distance from epiglottis to pharyngeal posterior wall (PPW) and interarytenoid complex length were smaller in the VNG; during phonation - laryngeal vestibule area, angle between PPW and vocal fold (VF), epiglottis to PPW, and anterior commissure of the larynx to laryngeal posterior wall were smaller in the VNG; tongue area was larger in the VNG. Post-FRTWE, only three significant differences were found, two during phonation and one at rest: during phonation - angle between PPW and VF and the membranous portion of the VF length were smaller in the VNG; at rest - distance from epiglottis to PPW was smaller in the VNG. Results suggest that the habitual VT adjustments of dysphonic and non-dysphonic women are different at rest and during phonation. The FRTWE promoted positive VT changes in the VNG, reducing the intergroup differences. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of periodontal intrabony defects using β-TCP alone or in combination with rhPDGF-BB: a randomized controlled clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroo, Sneha; Murthy, K Raja V

    2014-01-01

    The need to increase the predictability of periodontal regeneration has encouraged clinicians and researchers to employ cell-stimulating proteins in combination with osteoconductive scaffolds, based on the principles of tissue engineering. The purpose of this clinical and radiographic study was to compare the regenerative potential of the combination of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB) in the grafting of intraosseous defects with the established technique of bone grafting with (β-TCP alone. A total of 30 sites from 15 patients with infrabony defects in two different quadrants were selected, and the sites were randomly divided into test sites (rhPDGF + β-TCP) and control sites (β-TCP alone) using a split-mouth design. Clinical parameters, including probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival recession, were recorded at baseline, 6 months, and 9 months. Radiographic evaluation was carried out to evaluate defect fill, change in alveolar crest height, and percentage of defect fill at baseline, 6 months, and 9 months. Both the experimental groups showed statistically significant reduction in probing pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level. On intergroup comparison, sites treated with rhPDGF + β-TCP demonstrated a significantly greater pocket depth reduction (P TCP-treated sites demonstrated a significant gain in mean alveolar crest height at 6 and 9 months (P TCP-treated sites demonstrated crestal resorption. Both groups demonstrated potential in enhancing periodontal regeneration; however, on comparison between the two groups, the results obtained by rhPDGF + β-TCP were significantly better with respect to both clinical and radiographic parameters.

  9. High-density lipoprotein levels are strongly associated with the recovery rate of insulin sensitivity during the acute phase of myocardial infarction: a study by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Martins, Naiara V; Moura, Filipe A; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Almeida, Osorio L R; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2013-01-01

    The decrease of insulin sensitivity (IS) during myocardial infarction (MI) is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest that in individuals under stable conditions, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may improve IS. To date, the role of HDL in the modulation of IS in acute metabolic stress conditions such as MI remains unknown. To explore the association between plasma HDL-C and the change in IS during the acute phase of MI. Consecutive nondiabetic patients with ST-segment elevation MI (n = 22) underwent direct measurement of IS through the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp on the first morning and on the fifth day after onset of MI. Patients were grouped according to HDL-C levels at admission above and below the median value (35 mg/dL). At admission, there was no significant difference in baseline IS index, clinical, anthropometric, or treatment characteristics between low and high HDL groups. Between admission and fifth day, there was a decrease of 8% in IS index in the low HDL group and an 11% increase in the high HDL group (P = .001 for intragroup and P = .012 for intergroup difference). This difference remained significant after we controlled for the sex, age, waist circumference, triglycerides, baseline IS index, and statin dose during hospitalization. This is the first study to provide evidence that plasma levels of HDL-C are strongly associated with the recovery rate of IS during the acute phase of MI. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of the effect of two doses of oral melatonin with oral midazolam and placebo on pre-operative anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function in children: A randomised double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Melatonin (MT, a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2-0.5 mg/kg in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. Methods: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5-15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Mentally disordered children were excluded from the study. They were randomised into four groups of 25 each (A, B, C, D to receive either oral MT 0.5 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg or oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg or placebo 45-60 min, respectively, before induction. The child′s anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function before and after pre-medication, behaviour during the parental separation and venepuncture were appropriately scored. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance for intergroup and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests for intragroup comparisons of data were applied. Results: The four groups were comparable regarding mean age, weight and sex. The anxiety score reductions in the three groups when compared to placebo were statistically significant. Children receiving MT 0.75 mg/kg had maximum anxiolysis and venepuncture compliance (P < 0.05. Cognition was decreased with maximum sedation, successful parental separation and psychomotor impairment in the midazolam group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral MT (0.5 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg in children decreases pre-operative anxiety without impairing cognitive and psychomotor functions, the 0.75 mg/kg dose being most effective.

  11. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and consequences of tattooing.

  12. Tattoo practices in north-east India: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kumar Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. Results: There were 178 (84% males and 34 (16% females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%, 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. Limitations: It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. Conclusion: The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe

  13. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. Results: There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. Limitations: It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. Conclusion: The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and

  14. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG): clinical trial design for rare ovarian tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leary, A. F.; Quinn, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Coleman, R. L.; Kohn, E.; Sugiyama, T.; Glasspool, R.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Colombo, N.; Bacon, M.; Zeimet, A.; Westermann, A.; Gomez-Garcia, E.; Provencher, D.; Welch, S.; Small, W.; Millan, D.; Okamoto, A.; Stuart, G.; Ochiai, K.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements on designing clinical trials in rare ovarian tumours reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC) held in Tokyo, November 2015. Three important questions were identified concerning rare ovarian tumours (rare epithelial ovarian

  15. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for high-grade undifferentiated sarcomas of the uterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pautier, Patricia; Nam, Eun Ji; Provencher, Diane M.; Hamilton, Anne L.; Mangili, Giorgia; Siddiqui, Nadeem Ahmad; Westermann, Anneke M.; Reed, Nicholas Simon; Harter, Philipp; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas (HGUSs) are rare uterine malignancies arising from the endometrial stroma. They are poorly differentiated sarcomas composed of cells that do not resemble proliferative-phase endometrial stroma. High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas are characterized by aggressive

  16. Brief note: Applying developmental intergroup perspectives to the social ecologies of bullying: Lessons from developmental social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    Over the past decades, the field of bullying research has seen dramatic growth, notably with the integration of the social-ecological approach to understanding bullying. Recently, researchers (Hymel et al., 2015; Hawley & Williford, 2015) have called for further extension of the field by incorporating constructs of group processes into our investigation of the social ecologies of bullying. This brief note details the critical connections between power, social identity, group norms, social and moral reasoning about discrimination and victimization, and experiences of, evaluations of, and responses to bullying. The authors highlight a parallel development in the bridging of developmental social-ecological and social psychological perspectives utilized in the field of social exclusion that provides a roadmap for extending the larger field of bullying research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled [VSI: Bullying] IG000050. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. National nostalgia : A group-based emotion that benefits the in-group but hampers intergroup relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Social psychological research on nostalgia has mainly considered this emotion at the individual level rather than the group level. The current paper proposes that group-based nostalgia for the nation (i.e., national nostalgia) is likely to be related to a positive in-group orientation and a negative

  18. Evaluative vs. trait representation in intergroup social judgments: distinct roles of anterior temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J; Swencionis, Jillian K; Amodio, David M

    2012-12-01

    When interacting with someone from another social group, one's responses may be influenced by both stereotypes and evaluations. Given behavioral results suggesting that stereotypes and evaluative associations operate independently, we used fMRI to test whether these biases are mediated by distinct brain systems. White participants viewed pairs of Black or White faces and judged them based on an evaluation (who would you befriend?) or a stereotype-relevant trait (who is more likely to enjoy athletic activities?). Multi-voxel pattern analysis revealed that a predominantly occipital network represented race in a context-invariant manner. However, lateral orbitofrontal cortex preferentially represented race during friendship judgments, whereas anterior medial prefrontal cortex preferentially represented race during trait judgments. Furthermore, representation of race in left temporal pole correlated with a behavioral measure of evaluative bias during friendship judgments and, independently, a measure of stereotyping during trait judgments. Whereas early sensory regions represent race in an apparently invariant manner, representations in higher-level regions are multi-componential and context-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interest (mis)alignments in representative negotiations: Do pro-social agents fuel or reduce inter-group conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, H.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In representative negotiations, interests of the representative and the represented constituency are not always aligned. We investigated how interest (mis)alignment and representative’s social value orientation influence representative negotiations. Past theory and research on the principal-agent

  20. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.