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Sample records for interfering rna delivery

  1. Functional nanostructures for effective delivery of small interfering RNA therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheol Am; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA.

  2. Advances in targeted delivery of small interfering RNA using simple bioconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Kjems, Jørgen; Sørensen, Kristine Rothaus;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Development of drugs based on RNA interference by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been progressing slowly due to a number of challenges associated with the in vivo behavior of siRNA. A central problem is controlling siRNA delivery to specific cell types. Here, we review existing...

  3. Small interfering RNA delivery through positively charged polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Luca; Ferrari, Raffaele; Lupi, Monica; Cesana, Alberto; Falcetta, Francesca; Ubezio, Paolo; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Morbidelli, Massimo; Moscatelli, Davide

    2016-03-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is receiving increasing attention with regard to the treatment of many genetic diseases, both acquired and hereditary, such as cancer and diabetes. Being a high molecular weight (MW) polyanion, siRNA is not able to cross a cell membrane, and in addition it is unstable in physiological conditions. Accordingly, a biocompatible nanocarrier able to deliver siRNA into cells is needed. In this work, we synthesized biocompatible positively charged nanoparticles (NPs) following a two-step process that involves ring opening polymerization (ROP) and emulsion free radical polymerization (EFRP). Firstly, we proved the possibility of fine tuning the NPs’ characteristics (e.g. size and surface charge) by changing the synthetic process parameters. Then the capability in loading and delivering undamaged siRNA into a cancer cell cytoplasm has been shown. This latter process occurs through the biodegradation of the polymer constituting the NPs, whose kinetics can be tuned by adjusting the polymer’s MW. Finally, the ability of NPs to carry siRNA inside the cells in order to inhibit their target gene has been demonstrated using green flourescent protein positive cells.

  4. Unzipping and binding of small interfering RNA with single walled Carbon Nanotube: a platform for small interfering RNA delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Sood, A K; Maiti, Prabal K; 10.1063/1.3682780

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to design efficient platform for siRNA delivery, we combine all atom classical and quantum simulations to study the binding of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by pristine single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Our results show that siRNA strongly binds to SWCNT surface via unzipping its base-pairs and the propensity of unzipping increases with the increase in the diameter of the SWCNTs. The unzipping and subsequent wrapping events are initiated and driven by van der Waals interactions between the aromatic rings of siRNA nucleobases and the SWCNT surface. However, MD simulations of double strand DNA (dsDNA) of the same sequence show that the dsDNA undergoes much less unzipping and wrapping on the SWCNT in the simulation time scale of 70 ns. This interesting difference is due to smaller interaction energy of thymidine of dsDNA with the SWCNT compared to that of uridine of siRNA, as calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT) methods. After the optimal binding of siRNA to SWCNT, t...

  5. Small interfering RNA delivery by polyethylenimine-functionalised porous silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh Kafshgari, M; Alnakhli, M; Delalat, B; Apostolou, S; Harding, F J; Mäkilä, E; Salonen, J J; Kuss, B J; Voelcker, N H

    2015-12-01

    In this study, thermally hydrocarbonised porous silicon nanoparticles (THCpSiNPs) capped with polyethylenimine (PEI) were fabricated, and their potential for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery was investigated in an in vitro glioblastoma model. PEI coating following siRNA loading enhanced the sustained release of siRNA, and suppressed burst release effects. The positively-charged surface improved the internalisation of the nanoparticles across the cell membrane. THCpSiNP-mediated siRNA delivery reduced mRNA expression of the MRP1 gene, linked to the resistence of glioblastoma to chemotherapy, by 63% and reduced MRP1-protein levels by 70%. MRP1 siRNA loaded nanoparticles did not induce cytotoxicity in glioblastoma cells, but markedly reduced cell proliferation. In summary, the results demonstrated that non-cytotoxic cationic THCpSiNPs are promising vehicles for therapeutic siRNA delivery.

  6. Prolonged in vivo gene silencing by electroporation-mediated plasmid delivery of small interfering RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eefting, D.; Grimbergen, J.M.; Vries, M.R. de; Weel, V. van; Kaijzel, E.L.; Que, I.; Moon, R.T.; Löwik, C.W.; Bockel, J.H. van; Quax, P.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    For the successful application of RNA interference in vivo, it is desired to achieve (local) delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long-term gene silencing. Nonviral electrodelivery is suitable to obtain local and prolonged expression of transgenes. By intramuscular electrodelivery of a pl

  7. Dermal/transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA and antisense oligonucleotides- advances and hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    A diverse array of nucleic acids has been studied by several researchers for the management of several diseases. Among these compounds, small interfering RNA and antisense oligonucleotides have attracted considerable attention. Antisense oligonucleotides are synthetic single stranded strings of nucleic acids that bind to RNA and thereby alter or reduce expression of the target RNA while siRNAs, on the other hand, are double-stranded RNA molecules which can hybridize with a specific mRNA sequence and block the translation of numerous genes. One of the main obstacles in the dermal or transdermal delivery of these compounds is their low skin permeability. In this review, various techniques used to enhance the delivery of these molecules into or across the skin are described and in some cases, the correlation between enhanced dermal/transdermal delivery and therapeutic efficacy is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Using Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian M.K. Shahzad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA. To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1. In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches.

  9. Application of biodegradable dendrigraft poly-l-lysine to a small interfering RNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Kuramoto, Haruka; Mieda, Yukari; Muro, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Sakaguchi, Miako; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kitahara, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Dendrigraft poly-l-lysine (DGL), including its central core, consists entirely of lysine, hence it is completely biodegradable. We applied DGL in a small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system. Binary complexes with siRNA and DGL had particle sizes of 23-73 nm and ζ-potentials of 34-42 mV. The siRNA-DGL complexes showed significant silencing effects in a mouse colon carcinoma cell line expressing luciferase (Colon26/Luc cells). The siRNA-DGL complexes induced slight cytotoxicity and hematological toxicity at a high charge ratio of DGL to siRNA, probably because of their cationic charges. Therefore, we recharged the siRNA-DGL complexes with γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), a biodegradable anionic compound, which was reported to reduce the cytotoxicity of cationic complexes. The ternary complexes showed particle sizes of 35-47 nm at a charge ratio of greater than 14 to siRNA with negative charges. Strong silencing effects of the ternary complexes were observed in Colon26/Luc cells without cytotoxicity or hematological toxicity. The cellular uptake and degradation of the binary and ternary complexes were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The ternary complexes suppressed luciferase activity in the tumor after direct injection into the tumors of mice bearing Colon26/Luc cells. Thus, a potentially important siRNA delivery system was constructed using biodegradable DGL.

  10. Nanoparticle-based delivery of small interfering RNA: challenges for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Evelina Miele,1,* Gian Paolo Spinelli,2,* Ermanno Miele,3 Enzo Di Fabrizio,3,6 Elisabetta Ferretti,4 Silverio Tomao,2 Alberto Gulino,1,5 1Department of Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, 4Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 5Center for Life Nanoscience, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy, 6BIONEM lab, University of Magna Graecia, Campus S. Venuta, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: During recent decades there have been remarkable advances and profound changes in cancer therapy. Many therapeutic strategies learned at the bench, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, have been used at the bedside, leading to important successes. One of the most important advances in biology has been the discovery that small interfering RNA (siRNA is able to regulate the expression of genes, by a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi is one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in biology and therapeutics. Much research effort has gone into the application of this new discovery in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, even though these molecules may have potential and strong utility, some limitations make their clinical application difficult, including delivery problems, side effects due to off-target actions, disturbance of physiological functions of the cellular machinery involved in gene silencing, and induction of the innate immune response. Many researchers have attempted to overcome these limitations and to improve the safety of potential RNAi-based therapeutics. Nanoparticles, which are nanostructured entities with tunable size, shape, and surface, as well as biological behavior, provide an ideal opportunity to modify current

  11. Peptidomimetics with beta-peptoid resudies as carriers for intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    complexes with and transport small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the cell cytoplasm. These new compounds are peptidomimetic dodecamers based on alternating repeats of chiral N-alkylated ß-alanine residues (ß-peptoids) and a-amino acids with a net charge of +6. Complexes of siRNA and peptidomimetics were...

  12. Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA into injured spinal cords in rats by photomechanical waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Toyooka, Terushige; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2011-03-01

    In the central nervous system, lack of axonal regeneration leads to permanent functional disabilities. In spinal cord injury (SCI), the over-expressions of intermediate filament (IF) proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, are mainly involved in glial scar formation; these proteins work as both physical and biochemical barriers to axonal regeneration. Thus, silencing of these IF proteins would be an attractive strategy to treat SCI. In this study, we first attempted to deliver fluorescent probe-labeled siRNAs into injured spinal cords in rats by applying photomechanical waves (PMWs) to examine the capability of PMWs as a tool for siRNA delivery. Intense fluorescence from siRNAs was observed in much broader regions in the spinal cords with PMW application when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. Based on this result, we delivered siRNAs for GFAP and vimentin into injured spinal tissues in rats by applying PMWs. The treatment resulted in efficient silencing of the proteins at five days after SCI and a decrease of the cavity area in the injured tissue at three weeks after SCI when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. These results demonstrate the capability of PMWs for efficient delivery of siRNAs into injured spinal cords and treatment of SCIs.

  13. Therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs/micro interfering RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2015-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems.

  14. New short interfering RNA-based therapies for glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2011-05-24

    Current treatments for glomerulonephritis are not satisfactory, and the development of new therapies would be indispensable. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are promising candidates for molecular therapy because of their strong and specific gene-silencing effects. Despite rapid progress in research into the therapeutic uses of siRNAs, however, many hurdles must be overcome before siRNA-based therapies can be brought to the clinic. Most in vivo studies of siRNA-based therapy have been limited to local administration or delivery to specific target organs, including the liver. Therapies based on siRNAs for patients with glomerulonephritis show promise, although tissue-specific protocols using siRNAs have not yet been established for this indication. This Review aims to provide an overview of the current challenges in siRNA-based therapy, primarily with respect to glomerular targeting. In addition, novel delivery approaches for glomerulus-targeted, siRNA-based therapies are described.

  15. Pulmonary administration of small interfering RNA : The route to go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, Mitchel; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), which is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, researchers have been studying the therapeutic potential of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to treat diseases that are characterized by excessive gene expression. Excessive gene

  16. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of bFGF small interfering RNA increases levels of connexin 43 in the glioma cell line, U251

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongsheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background bFGF is an important growth factor for glioma cell proliferation and invasion, while connexin 43 is implicated in the suppression of glioma growth. Correspondingly, gliomas have been shown to have reduced, or compromised, connexin 43 expression. Methods In this study, a bFGF-targeted siRNA was delivered to the glioma cell line, U251, using adenovirus (Ad-bFGF-siRNA and the expression of connexin 43 and its phosphorylation state were evaluated. U251 cells were infected with Ad-bFGF-siRNA (100, 50, or 25 MOI, and infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP at 100 MOI served as a control. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression levels, phosphorylation, and localization of connexin 43 in U251 cells infected, and not infected, with Ad-bFGF-siRNA. Results Significantly higher levels of connexin 43 were detected in U251 cells infected with Ad-bFGF-siRNA at 100 and 50 MOI than in cells infected with Ad-GFP, and the same amount of connexin 43 was detected in Ad-GFP-infected and uninfected U251 cells. Connexin 43 phosphorylation did not differ between Ad-bFGF-siRNA-infected and uninfected U251 cells. However, the ratio of phosphorylated to unphosphorylated connexin 43 in Ad-bFGF-siRNA cells was lower, and connexin 43 was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm. Using a scrape loading dye transfer assay, more Lucifer Yellow was transferred to neighboring cells in the Ad-bFGF-siRNA treated group than in the control group. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first description of a role for connexin 43 in the inhibition of U251 growth using Ad-bFGF-siRNA.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of bFGF small interfering RNA increases levels of connexin 43 in the glioma cell line, U251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Feng, Xuequan; Wang, Jinhuan; Xu, Xinnu; Liu, Hongsheng; Lin, Na

    2010-01-14

    bFGF is an important growth factor for glioma cell proliferation and invasion, while connexin 43 is implicated in the suppression of glioma growth. Correspondingly, gliomas have been shown to have reduced, or compromised, connexin 43 expression. In this study, a bFGF-targeted siRNA was delivered to the glioma cell line, U251, using adenovirus (Ad-bFGF-siRNA) and the expression of connexin 43 and its phosphorylation state were evaluated. U251 cells were infected with Ad-bFGF-siRNA (100, 50, or 25 MOI), and infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) at 100 MOI served as a control. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression levels, phosphorylation, and localization of connexin 43 in U251 cells infected, and not infected, with Ad-bFGF-siRNA. Significantly higher levels of connexin 43 were detected in U251 cells infected with Ad-bFGF-siRNA at 100 and 50 MOI than in cells infected with Ad-GFP, and the same amount of connexin 43 was detected in Ad-GFP-infected and uninfected U251 cells. Connexin 43 phosphorylation did not differ between Ad-bFGF-siRNA-infected and uninfected U251 cells. However, the ratio of phosphorylated to unphosphorylated connexin 43 in Ad-bFGF-siRNA cells was lower, and connexin 43 was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm. Using a scrape loading dye transfer assay, more Lucifer Yellow was transferred to neighboring cells in the Ad-bFGF-siRNA treated group than in the control group. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a role for connexin 43 in the inhibition of U251 growth using Ad-bFGF-siRNA.

  18. Interaction between cationic agents and small interfering RNA and DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unksov, I. N.; Slita, A. V.; Petrova, A. V.; Pereviazko, I.; Bakulev, V. M.; Rolich, V. I.; Bondarenko, A. B.; Kasyanenko, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Azobenzene containing surfactant AzoTAB was used for investigation of binding in cationic- agent + nucleic acid in NaCl salt aqueous solutions. Two nucleic acids, macromolecular DNA and small interfering RNA, were examined upon the interaction with the surfactant. For DNA the interaction was studied using spectral methods and the methods of viscometry and flow birefringence measurement. For siRNA the possibility of surfactant-based delivery was checked in vitro.

  19. mPEG-PCL-g-PEI聚合物纳米粒介导的小干扰RNA递送%Small interfering RNA delivery mediated by mPEG-PCL-g-PEI polymer nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟; 吕明; 高钟镐; 金明姬; 杨长青

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在合成小干扰核糖核酸(siRNA)递送载体聚合物聚乙二醇-聚己内酯-聚乙烯亚胺(mPEG-PCL-g-PEI),并探讨其体外siRNA递送性能.通过开环聚合反应制备二嵌段共聚物聚乙二醉-聚己内酯(mPEG-PCL-OH),将mPEG-PCL-OH的羟基末端依次化学转化为羟基(-COOH)和N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺(-NHS)生成mPEG-PCL-NHS,再将mPEG-PCL-NHS同枝化聚乙烯亚胺(PEI)反应生成三元共聚物mPEG-PCL-g-PEI.应用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)、核磁共振(NMR)和凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)对聚合物mPEG-PCL-g-PEI进行结构表征;通过复凝聚法制备mPEG-PCL-g-PEI/siRNA纳米粒,并测定其粒径和zeta电位;通过体外细胞MTT测试,比较mPEG-PCL-g-PEI/siRNA纳米粒和PEI/siRNA纳米粒的细胞毒性;通过体外细胞转染实验,考察不同N/P比的mPEG-PCL-g-PEI/siRNA纳米粒对萤火虫荧光素酶基因表达的抑制效率.结果表明,合成的三元聚合物(MPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEI10k能压缩siRNA形成粒径为50~200 mn的纳米粒,其表面带有正电荷.MTT分析结果显示(mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEI10k/siRNA纳米粒的细胞毒性显著小于PEI10K/siRNA纳米粒(P< 0.05).当N/P比在50~150,萤火虫荧光素酶基因的表达显著下调(P<0.01).当N/P比为125时,萤火虫荧光素酶基因表达的抑制效率最大.聚合物mPEG-PCL-g-PEI能递送siRNA进入细胞,抑制靶基因表达,且细胞毒性较低,有望成为一种新型的siRNA递送载体.%The aim of this paper is to report the synthesis of the mPEG-PCL-g-PEI copolymers as small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery vector, and exploration of the siRNA delivery potential of mPEG-PCL-g-PEI in vitro. The diblock copolymers mPEG-PCL-OH was prepared through the ring-opening polymerization. Then, the hydroxyl terminal (-OH) of mPEG-PCL-OH was chemically converted into the carboxy (-COOH) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in turn to prepare mPEG-PCL-NHS. The branched PEI was reacted with mPEG-PCL-NHS to synthesize the ternary

  20. Non-Viral Delivery and Therapeutic Application of Small Interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, N A; Prassolov, V S

    2013-07-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful method used for gene expression regulation. The increasing knowledge about the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon creates new avenues for the application of the RNAi technology in the treatment of various human diseases. However, delivery of RNA interference mediators, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), to target cells is a major hurdle. Effective and safe pharmacological use of siRNAs requires carriers that can deliver siRNA to its target site and the development of methods for protection of these fragile molecules from in vivo degradation. This review summarizes various strategies for siRNA delivery, including chemical modification and non-viral approaches, such as the polymer-based, peptide-based, lipid-based techniques, and inorganic nanosystems. The advantages, disadvantages, and prospects for the therapeutic application of these methods are also examined in this paper.

  1. Delivery of Small Interfering RNAs to Cells via Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Jessica; Statello, Luisa; Skogberg, Gabriel; Telemo, Esbjörn; Valadi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane bound vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter of endocytic origin that are secreted into the extracellular environment by many different cell types. Exosomes play a role in intercellular communication by transferring proteins, lipids, and RNAs to recipient cells.Exosomes from human cells could be used as vectors to provide cells with therapeutic RNAs. Here we describe how exogenous small interfering RNAs may successfully be introduced into various kinds of human exosomes using electroporation and subsequently delivered to recipient cells. Methods used to confirm the presence of siRNA inside exosomes and cells are presented, such as flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and Northern blot.

  2. Small Interfering RNA Transfection Across a Phospholipid Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Van; Choubey, Amit; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2012-02-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. We have performed steered MD simulations to study the transfection of a bare siRNA and siRNA/Oleic Acid (OA) complex across the dipalmitoylphosphatidycholine (DPPC) bilayer at T = 323 K. Bare siRNA induces the formation of frustrated lipid gel domains, whereas in the presence of siRNA/OA complex the membrane is found to be in the liquid-ordered phase. In both cases the stress profiles across the membrane indicate that the membrane is under tension near the head groups and highly compressed at the water-hydrophobic interface. During transfection, the membrane is deformed and the lateral stress is significantly lowered for the bare siRNA and siRNA/OA complex. The bare siRNA transfects through a lipid-nanopore of hydrophilic head-groups and hydrophobic carbon chains, whereas the siRNA/OA complex transfects through a lipid-nanopore of hydrophilic head groups.

  3. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based functional micro- and nanostructures for efficient and selective gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Nam, Yoon Sung; Mok, Hyejung

    2012-07-17

    Because of RNA's ability to encode structure and functional information, researchers have fabricated diverse geometric structures from this polymer at the micro- and nanoscale. With their tunable structures, rigidity, and biocompatibility, novel two-dimensional and three-dimensional RNA structures can serve as a fundamental platform for biomedical applications, including engineered tissues, biosensors, and drug delivery vehicles. The discovery of the potential of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has underscored the applications of RNA-based micro- and nanostructures in medicine. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA), synthetic double-stranded RNA consisting of approximately 21 base pairs, suppresses problematic target genes in a sequence-specific manner via inherent RNA interference (RNAi) processing. As a result, siRNA offers a potential strategy for treatment of many human diseases. However, due to inefficient delivery to cells and off-target effects, the clinical application of therapeutic siRNA has been very challenging. To address these issues, researchers have studied a variety of nanocarrier systems for siRNA delivery. In this Account, we describe several strategies for efficient siRNA delivery and selective gene silencing. We took advantage of facile chemical conjugation and complementary hybridization to design novel siRNA-based micro- and nanostructures. Using chemical crosslinkers and hydrophobic/hydrophilic polymers at the end of siRNA, we produced various RNA-based structures, including siRNA block copolymers, micelles, linear siRNA homopolymers, and microhydrogels. Because of their increased charge density and flexibility compared with conventional siRNA, these micro- and nanostructures can form polyelectrolyte complexes with poorly charged and biocompatible cationic carriers that are both more condensed and more homogenous than the complexes formed in other carrier systems. In addition, the fabricated siRNA-based structures are linked by cleavable disulfide

  4. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Zonghui [Graduate Program in Applied Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Luijten, Erik, E-mail: luijten@northwestern.edu [Graduate Program in Applied Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed binding patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.

  5. Cell type-specific delivery of short interfering RNAs by dye-functionalised theranostic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Adrian T.; Traeger, Anja; Pietsch, Christian; Mosig, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Clemens, Mark G.; Jbeily, Nayla; Koch, Nicole; Gottschaldt, Michael; Bézière, Nicolas; Ermolayev, Volodymyr; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Popp, Jürgen; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Efficient delivery of short interfering RNAs reflects a prerequisite for the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe highly specific nanoparticles, based on near infrared fluorescent polymethine dye-derived targeting moieties coupled to biodegradable polymers. The fluorescent dye, even when coupled to a nanoparticle, mimics a ligand for hepatic parenchymal uptake transporters resulting in hepatobiliary clearance of approximately 95% of the dye within 45 min. Body distribution, hepatocyte uptake and excretion into bile of the dye itself, or dye-coupled nanoparticles can be tracked by intravital microscopy or even non-invasively by multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Efficacy of delivery is demonstrated in vivo using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase siRNA as an active payload resulting in a reduction of plasma cholesterol levels if siRNA was formulated into dye-functionalised nanoparticles. This suggests that organ-selective uptake of a near infrared dye can be efficiently transferred to theranostic nanoparticles allowing novel possibilities for personalised silencing of disease-associated genes.

  6. CCR5 small interfering RNA ameliorated joint inflammation in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongmei; Yang, Pingting; Fang, Fang; Ding, Shuang; Xiao, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is found in inflamed synovium of RA patients and is necessary for formation of RA. We aimed to check whether delivery of CCR5-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) via electroporation suppresses local inflammation in arthritis rats. Vectors encoding siRNA that target CCR5 or negative control siRNA were constructed for gene silencing and the silencing effects of suppressing CCR5 expression in synovium examined by western blot. The vector with strongest effect was delivered into the knee joint of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by the in vivo electroporation method 7, 10, 13, and 16 days after immunization with Complete Freund's adjuvant. During an observation of 28 days, behavior, paw swelling, arthritis and histopathologic scoring were estimated. The expression level of CCR5 in synovium was evaluated by western blot and real-time PCR. Anti-CCR5 D1 siRNA was effectively inhibited CCR5 expression in vitro. Moreover, delivery of the siRNA into inflammatory joint also suppressed the expression of CCR5 in vivo and markedly suppressed paw swelling and inflammation. Local electroporation of anti-CCR5 siRNA into the left inflamed joints could achieve the silencing of CCR5 gene and alleviate local inflammation just in the knee joint injected with siRNA other than the opposite joint. Inhibition of CCR5 expression may provide a potential for treatment of RA.

  7. Engineering of small interfering RNA-loaded lipidoid-poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticles for highly efficient and safe gene silencing: A quality by design-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Zeng, Xianghui; Justesen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Safety and efficacy of therapeutics based on RNA interference, e.g., small interfering RNA (siRNA), are dependent on the optimal engineering of the delivery technology, which is used for intracellular delivery of siRNA to the cytosol of target cells. We investigated the hypothesis that commonly u...

  8. Atu027, a liposomal small interfering RNA formulation targeting protein kinase N3, inhibits cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleku, Manuela; Schulz, Petra; Keil, Oliver; Santel, Ansgar; Schaeper, Ute; Dieckhoff, Britta; Janke, Oliver; Endruschat, Jens; Durieux, Birgit; Röder, Nadine; Löffler, Kathrin; Lange, Christian; Fechtner, Melanie; Möpert, Kristin; Fisch, Gerald; Dames, Sibylle; Arnold, Wolfgang; Jochims, Karin; Giese, Klaus; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Scholz, Arne; Kaufmann, Jörg

    2008-12-01

    We have previously described a small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system (AtuPLEX) for RNA interference (RNAi) in the vasculature of mice. Here we report preclinical data for Atu027, a siRNA-lipoplex directed against protein kinase N3 (PKN3), currently under development for the treatment of advanced solid cancer. In vitro studies revealed that Atu027-mediated inhibition of PKN3 function in primary endothelial cells impaired tube formation on extracellular matrix and cell migration, but is not essential for proliferation. Systemic administration of Atu027 by repeated bolus injections or infusions in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates results in specific, RNAi-mediated silencing of PKN3 expression. We show the efficacy of Atu027 in orthotopic mouse models for prostate and pancreatic cancers with significant inhibition of tumor growth and lymph node metastasis formation. The tumor vasculature of Atu027-treated animals showed a specific reduction in lymph vessel density but no significant changes in microvascular density.

  9. Uptake, Efficacy, and Systemic Distribution of Naked, Inhaled Short Interfering RNA (siRNA) and Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Antisense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Sterghios A; Frick, Manfred; Taylor, Bruce; Turnpenny, Paul; Graves, Helen; Spink, Karen G; Brady, Kevin; Lamb, David; Collins, David; Rockel, Thomas D; Weber, Markus; Lazari, Ovadia; Perez-Tosar, Luis; Fancy, Sally A; Lapthorn, Chris; Green, Martin X; Evans, Steve; Selby, Matthew; Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lyn; Kearney, Sarah; Mechiche, Houria; Gikunju, Diana; Subramanian, Romesh; Uhlmann, Eugen; Jurk, Marion; Vollmer, Jörg; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Yeadon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) promise specific correction of disease-causing gene expression. Therapeutic implementation, however, has been forestalled by poor delivery to the appropriate tissue, cell type, and subcellular compartment. Topical administration is considered to circumvent these issues. The availability of inhalation devices and unmet medical need in lung disease has focused efforts in this tissue. We report the development of a novel cell sorting method for quantitative, cell type-specific analysis of siRNA, and locked nucleic acid (LNA) ASO uptake and efficacy after intratracheal (i.t.) administration in mice. Through fluorescent dye labeling, we compare the utility of this approach to whole animal and whole tissue analysis, and examine the extent of tissue distribution. We detail rapid systemic access and renal clearance for both therapeutic classes and lack of efficacy at the protein level in lung macrophages, epithelia, or other cell types. We nevertheless observe efficient redirection of i.t. administered phosphorothioate (PS) LNA ASO to the liver and kidney leading to targeted gene knockdown. These data suggest delivery remains a key obstacle to topically administered, naked oligonucleotide efficacy in the lung and introduce inhalation as a potentially viable alternative to injection for antisense administration to the liver and kidneys. PMID:21971426

  10. Protease-triggered siRNA delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, David B; Blokhin, Andrei V; Wakefield, Darren H; Benson, Jonathan D; Carlson, Jeffrey C; Klein, Jason J; Almeida, Lauren J; Nicholas, Anthony L; Hamilton, Holly L; Chu, Qili; Hegge, Julia O; Wong, So C; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Hagen, Collin M; Kitas, Eric; Wolff, Jon A; Lewis, David L

    2015-07-10

    The safe and efficacious delivery of membrane impermeable therapeutics requires cytoplasmic access without the toxicity of nonspecific cytoplasmic membrane lysis. We have developed a mechanism for control of cytoplasmic release which utilizes endogenous proteases as a trigger and results in functional delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). The delivery approach is based on reversible inhibition of membrane disruptive polymers with protease-sensitive substrates. Proteolytic hydrolysis upon endocytosis restores the membrane destabilizing activity of the polymers thereby allowing cytoplasmic access of the co-delivered siRNA. Protease-sensitive polymer masking reagents derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG), which inhibit membrane interactions, and N-acetylgalactosamine, which targets asialoglycoprotein receptors on hepatocytes, were synthesized and used to formulate masked polymer-siRNA delivery vehicles. The size, charge and stability of the vehicles enable functional delivery of siRNA after subcutaneous administration and, with modification of the targeting ligand, have the potential for extrahepatic targeting.

  11. Cellular delivery of siRNA mediated by fusion-active virosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huckriede, Anke; De Jonge, Jorgen; Holtrop, Marijke; Wilschut, Jan

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference is expected to have considerable potential for the development of novel specific therapeutic strategies. However, successful application of RNA interference in vivo will depend on the availability of efficient delivery systems for the introduction of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) in

  12. Sustained Small Interfering RNA-Mediated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Inhibition in Primary Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can induce potent gene silencing by degradation of cognate mRNA. However, in dividing cells, the silencing lasts only 3 to 7 days, presumably because of siRNA dilution with cell division. Here, we investigated if sustained siRNA-mediated silencing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is possible in terminally differentiated macrophages, which constitute an important reservoir of HIV in vivo. CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor...

  13. Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Small Interfering RNA Targeting the Conserved RNA Termini of Lassa Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stefanie; Günther, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs targeting the conserved RNA termini upstream of NP and L gene were found to reduce reporter gene expression from Lassa virus replicon and Lassa virus mRNA expression construct and to inhibit replication of different Lassa virus strains, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Mopeia virus in cell culture.

  14. Delivery of small interfering RNAs in human cervical cancer cells by polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I.-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% ( w/ w) and 5.28% ( w/ w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection

  15. Probing the MicroRNA and Small Interfering RNA Pathways with Virus-Encoded Suppressors of RNA SilencingW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Lecellier, Charles-Henri; Parizotto, Eneida Abreu; Himber, Christophe; Voinnet, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are effectors of RNA silencing, a process involved in defense through RNA interference (RNAi) and in development. Plant viruses are natural targets of RNA silencing, and as a counterdefensive strategy, they have evolved highly diverse silencing suppressor proteins. Although viral suppressors are usually thought to act at distinct steps of the silencing machinery, there had been no consensus system so far that allowed a strict side-by-side analysis of those factors. We have set up such a system in Arabidopsis thaliana and used it to compare the effects of five unrelated viral silencing suppressors on the siRNA and miRNA pathways. Although all the suppressors inhibited RNAi, only three of them induced developmental defects, indicating that the two pathways are only partially overlapping. These developmental defects were remarkably similar, and their penetrance correlated with inhibition of miRNA-guided cleavage of endogenous transcripts and not with altered miRNA accumulation per se. Among the suppressors investigated, the tombusviral P19 protein coimmunoprecipitated with siRNA duplexes and miRNA duplexes corresponding to the primary cleavage products of miRNA precursors. Thus, it is likely that P19 prevents RNA silencing by sequestering both classes of small RNAs. Moreover, the finding here that P19 binds siRNAs and suppresses RNAi in Hela cells also suggests that this factor may be useful to dissect the RNA silencing pathways in animals. Finally, the differential effects of the silencing suppressors tested here upon other types of Arabidopsis silencing-related small RNAs revealed a surprising variety of biosynthetic and, presumably, functional pathways for those molecules. Therefore, silencing suppressors are valuable probes of the complexity of RNA silencing. PMID:15084715

  16. Self-assembled RNA interference microsponges for efficient siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Bum; Hong, Jinkee; Bonner, Daniel K; Poon, Zhiyong; Hammond, Paula T

    2012-04-01

    The encapsulation and delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been realized using lipid nanoparticles, cationic complexes, inorganic nanoparticles, RNA nanoparticles and dendrimers. Still, the instability of RNA and the relatively ineffectual encapsulation process of siRNA remain critical issues towards the clinical translation of RNA as a therapeutic. Here we report the synthesis of a delivery vehicle that combines carrier and cargo: RNA interference (RNAi) polymers that self-assemble into nanoscale pleated sheets of hairpin RNA, which in turn form sponge-like microspheres. The RNAi-microsponges consist entirely of cleavable RNA strands, and are processed by the cell's RNA machinery to convert the stable hairpin RNA to siRNA only after cellular uptake, thus inherently providing protection for siRNA during delivery and transport to the cytoplasm. More than half a million copies of siRNA can be delivered to a cell with the uptake of a single RNAi-microsponge. The approach could lead to novel therapeutic routes for siRNA delivery.

  17. Porous silicon microparticles for delivery of siRNA therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianliang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Lee, Yeonju; Wolfram, Joy; Yang, Zhizhou; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2015-01-15

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to suppress gene expression, thereby providing a new avenue for the treatment of various diseases. However, the successful implementation of siRNA therapy requires the use of delivery platforms that can overcome the major challenges of siRNA delivery, such as enzymatic degradation, low intracellular uptake and lysosomal entrapment. Here, a protocol for the preparation and use of a biocompatible and effective siRNA delivery system is presented. This platform consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) and arginine (Arg)-grafted porous silicon microparticles, which can be loaded with siRNA by performing a simple mixing step. The silicon particles are gradually degraded over time, thereby triggering the formation of Arg-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles. This delivery vehicle provides a means for protecting and internalizing siRNA, without causing cytotoxicity. The major steps of polycation functionalization, particle characterization, and siRNA loading are outlined in detail. In addition, the procedures for determining particle uptake, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficacy are also described.

  18. Biodegradable Multiamine Polymeric Vector for siRNA Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuanyuan; Gong, Faming; Cao, Yang; Chen, Weicai; Cheng, Du; Shuai, Xintao

    2015-04-01

    The gene silencing activity of small interfering RNA (siRNA) has led to their use as tools for target validation and as potential therapeutics for a variety of diseases. A major challenge is the development of vectors with high delivery efficiency and low toxicity. Although poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) has been regarded as the most promising polymeric vector for nucleic acid delivery, the nonbiodegradable structure greatly hinders its clinical application. In the present study, a diblock copolymer, PEG-PAsp(DIP-DETA), of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(L-aspartic acid) (PAsp) randomly grafted with pH-sensitive 2-(diisopropylamino)ethylamine (DIP) and diethylenetriamine (DETA) groups was synthesized via ring-opening polymerization and aminolysis reaction. Similar to polyethylenimine (PEI), the copolymer possesses a multiamine structure that not only allows effective siRNA complexation at neutral pH but also facilitates lysosomal release of siRNA via a proton buffering effect. Moreover, the poly(L-aspartic acid) backbone renders the vector biodegradability, which is not achievable with PEI. This novel polymeric vector can mediate effective intracellular siRNA delivery in various cancer cells. Consequently, the delivery of BCL-2 siRNA resulted in target gene silencing, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. These results show the potential of this non-PEI based polymeric vector with proton buffering capacity and biodegradability for siRNA delivery in cancer therapy.

  19. Delivery of short interfering ribonucleic acid-complexed magnetic nanoparticles in an oscillating field occurs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenson Lim

    Full Text Available Gene delivery technologies to introduce foreign genes into highly differentiated mammalian cells have improved significantly over the last few decades. Relatively new techniques such as magnetic nanoparticle-based gene transfection technology are showing great promise in terms of its high transfection efficiency and wide-ranging research applications. We have developed a novel gene delivery technique, which uses magnetic nanoparticles moving under the influence of an oscillating magnetic array. Herein we successfully introduced short interfering RNA (siRNA against green fluorescent protein (GFP or actin into stably-transfected GFP-HeLa cells or wild-type HeLa and rat aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. This gene silencing technique occurred in a dose- and cell density- dependent manner, as reflected using fluorescence intensity and adhesion assays. Furthermore, using endocytosis inhibitors, we established that these magnetic nanoparticle-nucleic acid complexes, moving across the cell surface under the influence of an oscillating magnet array, enters into the cells via the caveolae-mediated endocytic pathway.

  20. Suppression of Breast Cancer Cell Migration by Small Interfering RNA Delivered by Polyethylenimine-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Hung, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Zhong, Cai-Yan; Wang, Wan-Rou; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2016-05-01

    The carbon-based nanomaterial graphene can be chemically modified to associate with various molecules such as chemicals and biomolecules and developed as novel carriers for drug and gene delivery. In this study, a nonviral gene transfection reagent was produced by functionalizing graphene oxide (GO) with a polycationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), to increase the biocompatibility of GO and to transfect small interfering RNA (siRNA) against C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), a biomarker associated with cancer metastasis, into invasive breast cancer cells. PEI-functionalized GO (PEI-GO) was a homogeneous aqueous solution that remained in suspension during storage at 4 °C for at least 6 months. The particle size of PEI-GO was 172 ± 4.58 and 188 ± 5.00 nm at 4 and 25 °C, respectively, and increased slightly to 262 ± 17.6 nm at 37 °C, but remained unaltered with time. Binding affinity of PEI-GO toward siRNA was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), in which PEI-GO and siRNA were completely associated at a PEI-GO:siRNA weight ratio of 2:1 and above. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was transfected with PEI-GO in complex with siRNAs against CXCR4 (siCXCR4). Suppression of the mRNA and protein expression of CXCR4 by the PEI-GO/siCXCR4 complex was confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. In addition, the metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated by the PEI-GO/siCXCR4 complex as demonstrated in wound healing assay. Our results suggest that PEI-GO is effective in the delivery of siRNA and may contribute to targeted gene therapy to suppress cancer metastasis.

  1. Disulfide-Based Poly(amido amine)s for siRNA Delivery: Effects of Structure on siRNA Complexation, Cellular Uptake, Gene Silencing and Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vader, Pieter; Aa, van der Leonardus J.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose RNA interference (RNAi) is a process by which small interfering RNAs (siRNA) induce sequence-specific gene silencing. Therefore, siRNA is an emerging promise as a novel therapeutic. In order to realize the high expectations for therapeutic applications, efficient delivery systems for siRNA

  2. Alkane-modified short polyethyleneimine for siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Avi; Dahlman, James E; Sahay, Gaurav; Love, Kevin T; Jiang, Shan; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Levins, Christopher G; Wang, Yingxia; Anderson, Daniel G

    2012-06-10

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly specific gene-silencing mechanism triggered by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Effective intracellular delivery requires the development of potent siRNA carriers. Here, we describe the synthesis and screening of a series of siRNA delivery materials. Short polyethyleneimine (PEI, Mw 600) was selected as a cationic backbone to which lipid tails were conjugated at various levels of saturation. In solution these polymer-lipid hybrids self-assemble to form nanoparticles capable of complexing siRNA. The complexes silence genes specifically and with low cytotoxicity. The efficiency of gene knockdown increased as the number of lipid tails conjugated to the PEI backbone increased. This is explained by reducing the binding affinity between the siRNA strands to the complex, thereby enabling siRNA release after cellular internalization. These results highlight the importance of complexation strength when designing siRNA delivery materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Specificity of insulin signalling in human skeletal muscle as revealed by small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, A; Zierath, J R

    2009-07-01

    Insulin action on metabolically active tissues is a complex process involving positive and negative feedback regulation to control whole body glucose homeostasis. At the cellular level, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as protein synthesis, are controlled through canonical insulin signalling cascades. The discovery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) allows for the molecular dissection of critical components of the regulation of metabolic and gene regulatory events in insulin-sensitive tissues. The application of siRNA to tissues of human origin allows for the molecular dissection of the mechanism(s) regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Penetration of the pathways controlling insulin action in human tissue may aid in discovery efforts to develop diabetes prevention and treatment strategies. This review will focus on the use of siRNA to validate critical regulators controlling insulin action in human skeletal muscle, a key organ important for the control of whole body insulin-mediated glucose uptake and metabolism.

  4. Use of cryopreserved cell aliquots in the high-throughput screening of small interfering RNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Elissa A; Fajardo, Flordeliza; Wang, Xiangyun; Watson, J E Vivienne; Quon, Kim C; Kassner, Paul D

    2010-06-01

    Screening small interfering RNA (siRNA) libraries holds the potential to elucidate gene function as well as discover new targets for the therapeutic treatment of disease. Since the inception of siRNA as a discovery tool, there have been progressive improvements in siRNA design algorithms, the transfection reagents used to deliver them, and the assay formats used to monitor phenotypic changes. These changes have helped to improve the quality of the data emerging from siRNA screens. One variable that introduces inconsistency into high-throughput screening (HTS) of siRNA libraries is the state of the cells used in the assays. Multiple factors can contribute to differences in transfection efficiency as well as the basic cell biology, which can lead to differences in the genes identified in siRNA screens. The authors have developed a system using frozen cell aliquots to use in siRNA HTS, so that a major source of variability introduced into cell-based screens can be standardized. In addition, by transiently transfecting plasmids into cell lines and then freezing these cells down to use in siRNA transfection experiments, they have used this same technology to create new cell lines. This process of using aliquots of frozen cells is logistically advantageous in an HTS setting, as it reduces the time spent maintaining cell lines, as well as reducing possible downtime in screening due to lack of cells or poor cell health.

  5. Bio-inspired pulmonary surfactant-modified nanogels : A promising siRNA delivery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Backer, Lynn; Braeckmans, Kevin; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Raemdonck, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation therapy with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach in the treatment of pulmonary disorders. However, clinical translation is severely limited by the lack of suitable delivery platforms. In this study, we aim to address this limitation by designing a novel bioinspired hybri

  6. Gene silencing in tick cell lines using small interfering or long double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Gerald; Alberdi, Pilar; Schnettler, Esther; Weisheit, Sabine; Kohl, Alain; Fazakerley, John K; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2013-03-01

    Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is an important research tool in many areas of biology. To effectively harness the power of this technique in order to explore tick functional genomics and tick-microorganism interactions, optimised parameters for RNAi-mediated gene silencing in tick cells need to be established. Ten cell lines from four economically important ixodid tick genera (Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus including the sub-species Boophilus) were used to examine key parameters including small interfering RNA (siRNA), double stranded RNA (dsRNA), transfection reagent and incubation time for silencing virus reporter and endogenous tick genes. Transfection reagents were essential for the uptake of siRNA whereas long dsRNA alone was taken up by most tick cell lines. Significant virus reporter protein knockdown was achieved using either siRNA or dsRNA in all the cell lines tested. Optimum conditions varied according to the cell line. Consistency between replicates and duration of incubation with dsRNA were addressed for two Ixodes scapularis cell lines; IDE8 supported more consistent and effective silencing of the endogenous gene subolesin than ISE6, and highly significant knockdown of the endogenous gene 2I1F6 in IDE8 cells was achieved within 48 h incubation with dsRNA. In summary, this study shows that gene silencing by RNAi in tick cell lines is generally more efficient with dsRNA than with siRNA but results vary between cell lines and optimal parameters need to be determined for each experimental system.

  7. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  8. Optimization of transfection efficiency of small interfering RNA in purified human prolactinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-hu; SONG Yong-mei; ZHAO Jiang; YU Chun-jiang; ZHAN Qi-min

    2011-01-01

    Background Control of hypersecretion of certain hormones is one of the key targets in the treatment of pituitary adenomas. RNA interference has been shown to inhibit protein expression, and thus it may represent a promising method for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. In the present study, transfection efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) was optimized in human prolactinoma cells.Methods First, a method was optimized to extract highly purified human prolactinoma cells in vitro. The extracted cells were verified to retain the physiological features of prolactin (PRL) secretion. Second, three conditions for siRNA transfection were tested by the evaluation of transfection efficiency and cell viability. The proper transfection condition was verified for human prolactinoma cells. Third, the siRNA for prolactin was transfected into the human prolactinoma cells, and the suppression of PRL mRNA was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR.Conclusion It is possible to inhibit hormone hypersecretion by RNA interference, that may eventually enable therapeutic siRNA drugs developed.

  9. Sustained small interfering RNA-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibition in primary macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Erwei; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Dykxhoorn, Derek M; Novina, Carl; Zhang, Dong; Crawford, Keith; Cerny, Jan; Sharp, Phillip A; Lieberman, Judy; Manjunath, N; Shankar, Premlata

    2003-07-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can induce potent gene silencing by degradation of cognate mRNA. However, in dividing cells, the silencing lasts only 3 to 7 days, presumably because of siRNA dilution with cell division. Here, we investigated if sustained siRNA-mediated silencing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is possible in terminally differentiated macrophages, which constitute an important reservoir of HIV in vivo. CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor in macrophages, and the viral structural gene for p24 were targeted either singly or in combination. When transfected 2 days prior to infection, both CCR5 and p24 siRNAs effectively reduced HIV-1 infection for the entire 15-day period of observation, and combined targeting of both genes abolished infection. To investigate whether exogenously introduced siRNA is maintained stably in macrophages, we tested the kinetics of siRNA-mediated viral inhibition by initiating infections at various times (2 to 15 days) after transfection with CCR5 and p24 siRNAs. HIV suppression mediated by viral p24 siRNA progressively decreased and was lost by day 7 posttransfection. In contrast, viral inhibition by cellular CCR5 knockdown was sustained even when transfection preceded infection by 15 days, suggesting that the continued presence of target RNA may be needed for persistence of siRNA. The longer sustenance of CCR5 relative to p24 siRNA in uninfected macrophages was also confirmed by detection of internalized siRNA by modified Northern blot analysis. We also tested the potential of p24 siRNA to stably silence HIV in the setting of an established infection where the viral target gene is actively transcribed. Under these circumstances, long-term suppression of HIV replication could be achieved with p24 siRNA. Thus, siRNAs can induce potent and long-lasting HIV inhibition in nondividing cells such as macrophages.

  10. MicroRNA Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages an...

  11. Apoptosis and autophagy induction in mammalian cells by small interfering RNA knockdown of mRNA capping enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun; Shatkin, Aaron J

    2008-10-01

    Addition of a 5' cap to RNA polymerase II transcripts, the first step of pre-mRNA processing in eukaryotes from yeasts to mammals, is catalyzed by the sequential action of RNA triphosphatase, guanylyltransferase, and (guanine-N-7)methyltransferase. The effects of knockdown of these capping enzymes in mammalian cells were investigated using T7 RNA polymerase-synthesized small interfering RNA and also a lentivirus-based inducible, short hairpin RNA system. Decreasing either guanylyltransferase or methyltransferase resulted in caspase-3 activation and elevated terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining characteristic of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was independent of p53 tumor suppressor but dependent on BAK or BAX. In addition, levels of the BH3 family member Bim increased, while Mcl-1 and Bik levels remained unchanged during apoptosis. In contrast to capping enzyme knockdown, apoptosis induced by cycloheximide inhibition of protein synthesis required BAK but not BAX. Both Bim and Mcl-1 levels decreased in cycloheximide-induced apoptosis while Bik levels were unchanged, suggesting that apoptosis in siRNA-treated cells is not a direct consequence of loss of mRNA translation. siRNA-treated BAK(-/-) BAX(-/-) double-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts failed to activate capase-3 or increase TUNEL staining but instead exhibited autophagy, as demonstrated by proteolytic processing of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and translocation of transfected green fluorescent protein-LC3 from the nucleus to punctate cytoplasmic structures.

  12. The Small Interfering RNA Pathway Is Not Essential for Wolbachia-Mediated Antiviral Protection in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren M Hedges; Yamada, Ryuichi; O'Neill, Scott L; Karyn N. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis delays RNA virus-induced mortality in Drosophila spp. We investigated whether Wolbachia-mediated protection was dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway, a key antiviral defense. Compared to Wolbachia-free flies, virus-induced mortality was delayed in Wolbachia-infected flies with loss-of-function of siRNA pathway components, indicating that Wolbachia-mediated protection functions in the absence of the canonical siRNA pathway.

  13. Biogenesis, delivery, and function of extracellular RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Patton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Extracellular RNA (exRNA Communication Consortium was launched by the National Institutes of Health to focus on the extent to which RNA might function in a non-cell-autonomous manner. With the availability of increasingly sensitive tools, small amounts of RNA can be detected in serum, plasma, and other bodily fluids. The exact mechanism(s by which RNA can be secreted from cells and the mechanisms for the delivery and uptake by recipient cells remain to be determined. This review will summarize current knowledge about the biogenesis and delivery of exRNA and outline projects seeking to understand the functional impact of exRNA.

  14. Bridging small interfering RNA with giant therapeutic outcomes using nanometric liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yuvraj; Tomar, Sandeep; Khan, Shariq; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Pawar, Vivek K; Raval, Kavit; Sharma, Komal; Singh, Pankaj K; Chaurasia, Mohini; Surendar Reddy, B; Chourasia, Manish K

    2015-12-28

    The scope of RNAi based therapeutics is unquestionable. However, if we dissect the current trend of clinical trials for afore mentioned drug class, some stark trends appear: 1) naked siRNA only exerts influence in topical mode whilst systemic delivery requires a carrier and 2) even after two decades of extensive efforts, not even a single siRNA containing product is commercially available. It was therefore felt that a perspective simplifying the unique intricacies of working with a merger of siRNA and liposomes from a pharmaceutical viewpoint could draw the attention of a wider array of interested researchers. We begin from the beginning and attempt to conduit the gap between theoretical logic and experimental/actual constraints. This, in turn could stimulate the next generation of investigators, gearing them to tackle the conundrum, which is siRNA delivery.

  15. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5'UTR RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-12-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and a polyadenylated 3'UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3D(pol) protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3D(pol), resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5'UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5'UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Silencing invariant chains of dendritic cells enhances anti-tumor immunity using small-interfering RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Shan; CHEN Xue-hua; ZHU Zheng-gang; LI Jian-fang; YU Bei-qin; GU Qin-long; LIU Bing-ya

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic modification of dendritic cells (DCs) has been used as an effective approach to enhance anti-tumor immunity. RNA interference (RNAi), which can cause the degradation of any RNA in a sequence-specific manner, is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism. In this study, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for the Ii gene was transfected into DCs, and the anti-tumor immunity of Ii-silenced DCs was assessed.Methods The silencing effect of siRNA was evaluated by Western blotting and real-time PCR analyses. In vitro cytotoxic activity of T cells was evaluated using a Cytotox 96(R) non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay kit. The time to tumor onset and the tumor volumes were used as reliable indices to assess the anti-tumor immunity in vivo. To further examine the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor immunity, flow cytometry analysis was used.Results The Ii expression of DCs was significantly reduced after Ii siRNA transfection. Significant in vitro anti-tumor ability was exhibited when DCs were co-transfected with Ii siRNA plus endogenous tumor antigen (P <0.05). Furthermore,tumor growth was greatly inhibited when mice were immunized with DCs transfected with Ii siRNA plus tumor antigen prior to or subsequent to tumor implantation. Flow cytometry analysis in vitro and in vivo indicated that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly activated in the Ii siRNA group (P <0.05).Conclusion Silencing of the Ii gene of DCs may offer a potential approach to enhance DC-based anti-tumor immunity.

  17. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    . The human body, however, possesses several natural transport mechanisms for active transport of molecules. Amongst these is albumin, which is the most abundant plasma protein and has a circulatory half-life of ~21 days, partially due to engagement and recycling by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Albumin......The recent development of protein, peptide and nucleotide therapeutics is an important step towards the successful treatment of many severe diseases caused by altered gene expression. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used for regulation of cellular gene expression to revert pathologic states...... vehicle. This proof of concept silencing showed that siRNA can be used for therapeutic purposes without the use of non-biocompatible polymer or lipid materials. This work, therefore, provides a novel technology platform for the safe delivery of siRNA therapeutics....

  18. Functional specialization of the small interfering RNA pathway in response to virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Trindade Marques

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, post-transcriptional gene silencing occurs when exogenous or endogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2 in association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP cofactor called Loquacious (Loqs-PD. siRNAs are then loaded onto Argonaute-2 (Ago2 by the action of Dcr-2 with another dsRBP cofactor called R2D2. Loaded Ago2 executes the destruction of target RNAs that have sequence complementarity to siRNAs. Although Dcr-2, R2D2, and Ago2 are essential for innate antiviral defense, the mechanism of virus-derived siRNA (vsiRNA biogenesis and viral target inhibition remains unclear. Here, we characterize the response mechanism mediated by siRNAs against two different RNA viruses that infect Drosophila. In both cases, we show that vsiRNAs are generated by Dcr-2 processing of dsRNA formed during viral genome replication and, to a lesser extent, viral transcription. These vsiRNAs seem to preferentially target viral polyadenylated RNA to inhibit viral replication. Loqs-PD is completely dispensable for silencing of the viruses, in contrast to its role in silencing endogenous targets. Biogenesis of vsiRNAs is independent of both Loqs-PD and R2D2. R2D2, however, is required for sorting and loading of vsiRNAs onto Ago2 and inhibition of viral RNA expression. Direct injection of viral RNA into Drosophila results in replication that is also independent of Loqs-PD. This suggests that triggering of the antiviral pathway is not related to viral mode of entry but recognition of intrinsic features of virus RNA. Our results indicate the existence of a vsiRNA pathway that is separate from the endogenous siRNA pathway and is specifically triggered by virus RNA. We speculate that this unique framework might be necessary for a prompt and efficient antiviral response.

  19. Blockage of receptor-interacting protein 2 expression by small interfering RNA in murine macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that blocking the receptor-interacting protein2(Rip2)expression can decrease inflammatory cytokine production by macrophage and protect mice from endotoxin lethality.Murine Rip2 small interfering RNA(siRNA)plasmids were constructed and transfected into macrophage and Rip2 expression was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and western blot.Cell proliferation was assayed with MTT.TNF-α concentration was assayed with ELISA and high-mobility group box 1 protein(HMGB1)level with semi-quantitative western blot after lipopolysaccharide(LPS)stimulation.LPS challenge was given after the plasmids were injected into mice and the survival rate was calculated.Rip2 siRNA plasmid could block the mRNA and protein expression of Rip2 and promote cell proliferation.Blocking Rip2 could attenuate LPS-induced TNF-~ and HMGB1 production.The HMGB1 expression in the liver decreased to(40.21±11.03)pg/g,and serum TNF-α level decreased to(300.43±59.26)ng/L(P<0.05).The survival rate of mice from endotoxemia was also improved(P<0.05).The results demonstrate that Rip2 siRNA plasmid can block the expression of Rip2,decrease the production of TNF-α and HMGB1 and protect mice from fatal endotoxemia.

  20. Progress of Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Small Interfering RNA in Liver Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Zhou; Xue-feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a common pathological consequence of a variety of chronic stimuli, including viral, autoimmune, drug-induced, cholestatic and metabolic diseases. Fibrosis is driven by a dynamic process involving increased synthesis of matrix components and a failure of physiological mechanisms of matrix turnover. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remains a central event in fibrosis. HSCs are the main source of extracellular matrix (ECM). Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), which is the fibrogenic master cytokine, can induce the activation of HSCs to produce a large amount of ECM, and is capable of inducing apoptosis of liver cells. RNA interference (RNAi) is a novel gene disruption technology. Studies have shown that small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TGF-β1 may inhibit the activation and proliferation of HSCs, suppress ECM synthesis and block liver fibrosis. TGF-β1 siRNA-mediated gene silencing therapy provides a new avenue for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes recent progresses in research on HSCs, TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 siRNA in liver fibrosis.

  1. Recent progress in development of siRNA delivery vehicles for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ahram; Miyata, Kanjiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress in RNA biology has broadened the scope of therapeutic targets of RNA drugs for cancer therapy. However, RNA drugs, typically small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are rapidly degraded by RNases and filtrated in the kidney, thereby requiring a delivery vehicle for efficient transport to the target cells. To date, various delivery formulations have been developed from cationic lipids, polymers, and/or inorganic nanoparticles for systemic delivery of siRNA to solid tumors. This review describes the current status of clinical trials related to siRNA-based cancer therapy, as well as the remaining issues that need to be overcome to establish a successful therapy. It, then introduces various promising design strategies of delivery vehicles for stable and targeted siRNA delivery, including the prospects for future design.

  2. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  3. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  4. Mutant p53 inhibits miRNA biogenesis by interfering with the microprocessor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, F; Falcone, E; Trisciuoglio, D; Colombo, T; Lisek, K; Walerych, D; Del Sal, G; Paci, P; Bossi, G; Piaggio, G; Gurtner, A

    2016-07-21

    Downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in cancers and promotes tumorigenesis suggesting that miRNAs may function as tumor suppressors. However, the mechanism through which miRNAs are regulated in cancer, and the connection between oncogenes and miRNA biogenesis remain poorly understood. The TP53 tumor-suppressor gene is mutated in half of human cancers resulting in an oncogene with gain-of-function activities. Here we demonstrate that mutant p53 (mutp53) oncoproteins modulate the biogenesis of a subset of miRNAs in cancer cells inhibiting their post-transcriptional maturation. Interestingly, among these miRNAs several are also downregulated in human tumors. By confocal, co-immunoprecipitation and RNA-chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we show that endogenous mutp53 binds and sequesters RNA helicases p72/82 from the microprocessor complex, interfering with Drosha-pri-miRNAs association. In agreement with this, the overexpression of p72 leads to an increase of mature miRNAs levels. Moreover, functional experiments demonstrate the oncosuppressive role of mutp53-dependent miRNAs (miR-517a, -519a, -218, -105). Our study highlights a previously undescribed mechanism by which mutp53 interferes with Drosha-p72/82 association leading, at least in part, to miRNA deregulation observed in cancer.

  5. Brain delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid and drugs through intranasal administration with nano-sized polymer micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanazawa T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Kanazawa School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Recently, the development of effective strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the brain has been a topic of great interest in both clinical and pharmaceutical fields. In this review, we summarize our studies evaluating nose-to-brain delivery of drugs and small interfering ribonucleic acids in combination with cell-penetrating peptide-modified polymer micelles. Our findings show that the use of polymer micelles with surface modification with Tat peptide in the intranasal administration enables the non-invasive delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain by increasing the transfer of the administered drug or small interfering ribonucleic acid to the central nervous system from the nasal cavity. Keywords: nose-to-brain, polymer micelles, cell-penetrating peptide, intranasal administration, nucleic acid

  6. Self-Amplifying Replicon RNA Vaccine Delivery to Dendritic Cells by Synthetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C. McCullough

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play essential roles determining efficacy of vaccine delivery with respect to immune defence development and regulation. This renders DCs important targets for vaccine delivery, particularly RNA vaccines. While delivery of interfering RNA oligonucleotides to the appropriate intracellular sites for RNA-interference has proven successful, the methodologies are identical for RNA vaccines, which require delivery to RNA translation sites. Delivery of mRNA has benefitted from application of cationic entities; these offer value following endocytosis of RNA, when cationic or amphipathic properties can promote endocytic vesicle membrane perturbation to facilitate cytosolic translocation. The present review presents how such advances are being applied to the delivery of a new form of RNA vaccine, replicons (RepRNA carrying inserted foreign genes of interest encoding vaccine antigens. Approaches have been developed for delivery to DCs, leading to the translation of the RepRNA and encoded vaccine antigens both in vitro and in vivo. Potential mechanisms favouring efficient delivery leading to translation are discussed with respect to the DC endocytic machinery, showing the importance of cytosolic translocation from acidifying endocytic structures. The review relates the DC endocytic pathways to immune response induction, and the potential advantages for these self-replicating RNA vaccines in the near future.

  7. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupin, Michalina; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Ryszard; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  8. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skupin, Michalina [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Sobczak, Krzysztof [Department of Gene Expression, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Zieliński, Ryszard [Department of Technology and Instrumental Analysis, Faculty of Commodity Science, Poznań University of Economics, al. Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Joint SAXS Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-05-23

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  9. Downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) utilizing adenovirus-mediated transfer of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a novel spinal metastatic melanoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Andrew J; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Chetty, Chandramu; Lakka, Sajani S; Gujrati, Meena; Spomar, Daniel G; Dinh, Dzung H; Rao, Jasti S

    2008-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a class of secreted zinc-dependent endopeptidases implicated in the metastatic potential of tumor cells due to their ability to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) has been detected in high levels and correlates with invasiveness in human melanoma. We have studied the effect of adenovirus-mediated transfer of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MMP-2 in the human melanoma cell line A2058. The delivery of these double-stranded RNA molecules represents an efficient technology in silencing disease-causing genes with known sequences at the post-transcriptional level. siRNA against MMP-2 mRNA (Ad-MMP-2) was found to decrease MMP-2 protein expression and activity in melanoma cells as demonstrated by western blotting and gelatin zymography. Furthermore, infection of cells with Ad-MMP-2 inhibited cellular migration and invasion as indicated by spheroid and matrigel assays. We also observed dose-dependent suppression of vascular network formation in an angiogenesis assay. Finally, we developed a nude mouse spinal metastatic model to investigate the local effects of tumor metastasis. Intravenous tail vein injection with Ad-MMP-2 on days 5, 9 and 11 after tumor implantation resulted in complete retention of neurological function as compared to control and scrambled vector (Ad-SV)-treated groups that showed complete paraplegia by day 14+/-2 days. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed decreased tumor size in the Ad-MMP-2-treated animals. This novel experimental model revealed that adenoviral-mediated transfer of RNA interference against MMP-2 results in the retention of neurological function and significantly inhibited tumor growth.

  10. Tumor-targeting multifunctional nanoparticles for siRNA delivery: recent advances in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Sook Hee; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Choi, Kuiwon; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Ick Chan

    2014-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring regulatory process that controls posttranscriptional gene expression. Small interfering RNA (siRNA), a common form of RNAi-based therapeutics, offers new opportunities for cancer therapy via silencing specific genes, which are associated to cancer progress. However, clinical applications of RNAi-based therapy are still limited due to the easy degradation of siRNA during body circulation and the difficulty in the delivery of siRNA to desired tissues and cells. Thus, there have been many efforts to develop efficient siRNA delivery systems, which protect siRNA from serum nucleases and deliver siRNA to the intracellular region of target cells. Here, the recent advances in siRNA nanocarriers, which possess tumor-targeting ability are reviewed; various nanoparticle systems and their antitumor effects are summarized. The development of multifunctional nanocarriers for theranostics or combinatorial therapy is also discussed.

  11. Reversal of multidrug resistance by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Yaprak; Gündüz, Ufuk

    2011-03-01

    Resistance to anticancer drugs is a serious obstacle to cancer chemotherapy. A common form of multidrug resistance (MDR) is caused by the overexpression of transmembrane transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1), encoded by MDR1 and MRP1 genes, respectively. These proteins lead to reduced intracellular drug concentration and decreased cytotoxicity by means of their ability to pump the drugs out of the cells. Breast cancer tumor resistance is mainly associated with overexpression of P-gp/MDR1. Although some chemical MDR modulators aim to overcome MDR by interfering functioning of P-gp, their toxicities limit their usage in clinics. Consequently, RNA interference mediated sequence specific inhibition of the expression of P-gp/MDR1 mRNA may be an efficient tool to reverse MDR phenotype and increase the success of chemotherapy. Aim of this study was resensitizing doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells to anticancer agent doxorubicin by selective downregulation of P-gp/MDR1 mRNA. The effect of the selected MDR1 siRNA, and MRP1 expression after MDR1 silencing was determined by qPCR analysis. Intracellular drug accumulation and localization was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after treatment with MDR1 siRNA. XTT cell proliferation assay was performed to determine the effect of MDR1 silencing on doxorubicin sensitivity. The results demonstrated that approximately 90% gene silencing occurred by the selected siRNA targeting MDR1 mRNA. However, the level of MRP1 mRNA did not change after MDR1 downregulation. Silencing of P-gp encoding MDR1 gene resulted in almost complete restoration of the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and relocalization of the drug in the nuclei. Introduction of siRNA resulted in about 70% resensitization to doxorubicin. Selected siRNA duplex was shown to effectively inhibit MDR1 gene expression, restore doxorubicin accumulation and localization, and enhance

  12. Small interfering RNA targeted to secretory clusterin blocks tumor growth, motility, and invasion in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohe Niu; Xinhui Li; Bin Hu; Rong Li; Ligang Wang; Lilin Wu; Xingang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Clusterin/apolipoprotein J (Clu) is a ubiquitously expressed secreted heterodimeric glycoprotein that is implicated in several physiological processes.It has been reported that the elevated level of secreted clusterin (sClu) protein is associated with poor survival in breast cancer patients and can induce metastasis in rodent models.In this study,we investigated the effects of sClu inhibition with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) on cell motility,invasion,and growth in vitro and in vivo.MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with pSuper-siRNA/sClu.Cell survival and proliferation were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and clonogenic survival assay.The results showed that sClu silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells.The invasion and migration ability were also dramatically decreased,which was detected by matrigel assays.TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that sClu silencing also could increase the apoptosis rate of cells,resulting in the inhibition of cell growth.We also determined the effects of sClu silencing on tumor growth and metastatic progression in an orthotopic breast cancer model.The results showed that orthotopic primary tumors derived from MDA-MB-231/pSuper sClu siRNA cells grew significantly slower than tumors derived from parental MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-231/pSuper scramble siRNA cells,and metastasize less to the lungs.These data suggest that secretory clusterin plays a significant role in tumor growth and metastatic progression.Knocking-down sClu gene expression may provide a valuable method for breast cancer therapy.

  13. Insights into the therapeutic potential of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α small interfering RNA in malignant melanoma delivered via folate-decorated cationic liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjian Chen,1,* Tianpeng Zhang,2,* Baojian Wu,2 Xingwang Zhang2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Gangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Malignant melanoma (MM represents the most dangerous form of skin cancer, and its incidence is expected to rise in the coming time. However, therapy for MM is limited by low topical drug concentration and multidrug resistance. This article aimed to develop folate-decorated cationic liposomes (fc-LPs for hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α small interfering (siRNA delivery, and to evaluate the potential of such siRNA/liposome complexes in MM therapy. HIF-1α siRNA-loaded fc-LPs (siRNA-fc-LPs were prepared by a film hydration method followed by siRNA incubation. Folate decoration of liposomes was achieved by incorporation of folate/oleic acid-diacylated oligochitosans. The resulting siRNA-fc-LPs were 95.3 nm in size with a ζ potential of 2.41 mV. The liposomal vectors exhibited excellent loading capacity and protective effect toward siRNA. The in vitro cell transfection efficiency was almost parallel to the commercially available Lipofectamine™ 2000. Moreover, the anti-melanoma activity of HIF-1α siRNA was significantly enhanced through fc-LPs. Western blot analysis and apoptosis test demonstrated that siRNA-fc-LPs substantially reduced the production of HIF-1α-associated protein and induced the apoptosis of hypoxia-tolerant melanoma cells. Our designed liposomal vectors might be applicable as siRNA delivery vehicle to systemically or topically treat MM. Keywords: malignant melanoma, HIF-1α siRNA, chitosan, cationic liposomes, gene therapy

  14. Stealth monoolein-based nanocarriers for delivery of siRNA to cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Norberto Gonçalves; Raemdonck, Koen; Martens, Thomas; Rombouts, Koen; Simón-Vázquez, Rosana; Botelho, C.M.; Lopes, Ivo Edgar Araújo; Lúcio, M.; González-Fernández, África; Real Oliveira, M. Elisabete C.D.; Gomes, Andreia; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    While the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is an attractive strategy to treat several clinical con- ditions, siRNA-nanocarriers stability after intravenous administration is still a major obstacle for the development of RNA-interference based therapies. But, although the need for stability is well recognized, the notion that strong stabilization can decrease nanocarriers efficiency is sometimes neglected. In this work we evaluated two stealth functionalization strategies to stabili...

  15. Assessing delivery and quantifying efficacy of small interfering ribonucleic acid therapeutics in the skin using a dual-axis confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Smith, Bryan R; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Kino, Gordon S; Solgaard, Olav; Kaspar, Roger L; Contag, Christopher H

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic reporter mice and advances in imaging instrumentation are enabling real-time visualization of cellular mechanisms in living subjects and accelerating the development of novel therapies. Innovative confocal microscope designs are improving their utility for microscopic imaging of fluorescent reporters in living animals. We develop dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes for such in vivo studies and create mouse models where fluorescent proteins are expressed in the skin for the purpose of advancing skin therapeutics and transdermal delivery tools. Three-dimensional image volumes, through the different skin compartments of the epidermis and dermis, can be acquired in several seconds with the DAC microscope in living mice, and are comparable to histologic analyses of reporter protein expression patterns in skin sections. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope further enables visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in the skin over time, and quantification of transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and therapeutic efficacy. Visualization of transdermal delivery of nucleic acids will play an important role in the development of innovative strategies for treating skin pathologies.

  16. Assessing delivery and quantifying efficacy of small interfering ribonucleic acid therapeutics in the skin using a dual-axis confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Smith, Bryan R.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Kaspar, Roger L.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic reporter mice and advances in imaging instrumentation are enabling real-time visualization of cellular mechanisms in living subjects and accelerating the development of novel therapies. Innovative confocal microscope designs are improving their utility for microscopic imaging of fluorescent reporters in living animals. We develop dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes for such in vivo studies and create mouse models where fluorescent proteins are expressed in the skin for the purpose of advancing skin therapeutics and transdermal delivery tools. Three-dimensional image volumes, through the different skin compartments of the epidermis and dermis, can be acquired in several seconds with the DAC microscope in living mice, and are comparable to histologic analyses of reporter protein expression patterns in skin sections. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope further enables visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in the skin over time, and quantification of transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and therapeutic efficacy. Visualization of transdermal delivery of nucleic acids will play an important role in the development of innovative strategies for treating skin pathologies.

  17. A small interfering RNA screen of genes involved in DNA repair identifies tumor-specific radiosensitization by POLQ knockdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higgins, Geoff S; Prevo, Remko; Lee, Yin-Fai

    2010-01-01

    radiosensitivity are largely unknown. We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 200 genes involved in DNA damage repair aimed at identifying genes whose knockdown increased tumor radiosensitivity. Parallel siRNA screens were conducted in irradiated and unirradiated tumor cells (SQ20B...... polymerase ) as a potential tumor-specific target. Subsequent investigations showed that POLQ knockdown resulted in radiosensitization of a panel of tumor cell lines from different primary sites while having little or no effect on normal tissue cell lines. These findings raise the possibility that POLQ...

  18. Designing synthetic RNA for delivery by nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejczyk, Dominika; Gendaszewska-Darmach, Edyta; Pawlowska, Roza; Chworos, Arkadiusz

    2017-03-01

    The rapid development of synthetic biology and nanobiotechnology has led to the construction of various synthetic RNA nanoparticles of different functionalities and potential applications. As they occur naturally, nucleic acids are an attractive construction material for biocompatible nanoscaffold and nanomachine design. In this review, we provide an overview of the types of RNA and nucleic acid’s nanoparticle design, with the focus on relevant nanostructures utilized for gene-expression regulation in cellular models. Structural analysis and modeling is addressed along with the tools available for RNA structural prediction. The functionalization of RNA-based nanoparticles leading to prospective applications of such constructs in potential therapies is shown. The route from the nanoparticle design and modeling through synthesis and functionalization to cellular application is also described. For a better understanding of the fate of targeted RNA after delivery, an overview of RNA processing inside the cell is also provided.

  19. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  20. A Nonpolycationic Fully Proteinaceous Multiagent System for Potent Targeted Delivery of siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David V; Yang, Nicole J; Wittrup, K Dane

    2014-01-01

    Protein-based methods of targeted short-interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery have the potential to solve some of the problems faced by nanoparticle-based methods, such as poor pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, low tumor penetration, and polydispersity. However, protein-based targeted delivery has been limited to fusion proteins with polycationic peptides as siRNA carriers, whose high charge density in some cases results in undesirable biophysical and in vivo properties. Here, we present a fully proteinaceous, multiagent approach for targeted siRNA delivery to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using a nonpolycationic carrier for siRNA. Each agent contributes a fundamentally different mechanism of action that work together for potent targeted RNA interference. The first agent is an EGFR-targeted fusion protein that uses a double-stranded RNA-binding domain as a nonpolycationic siRNA carrier. This double-stranded RNA-binding domain fusion protein can deliver siRNA to the endosomes of an EGFR-expressing cell line. A second agent delivers the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, perfringolysin O, in a targeted manner, which enhances the endosomal escape of siRNA and induces gene silencing. A third agent that clusters EGFR increases gene-silencing potency and decreases cytolysin toxicity. Altogether, this system is potent, with only 16 nmol/l siRNA required for gene silencing and a therapeutic window that spans two orders of magnitude of targeted cytolysin concentrations. PMID:24825362

  1. Chapter 17 - Engineering cationic liposome siRNA complexes for in vitro and in vivo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Jennifer E; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference, the sequence-specific silencing of gene expression by introduction of short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool that that the potential to act as a therapeutic agent and the advantage of decreasing toxic effects on normal tissue sometimes seen with conventional treatments i.e. small molecule inhibitors. Naked, unmodified siRNA is poorly taken up by cells and is subject to degradation when exposed to blood proteins during systemic administration. It has also been shown to produce non-specific immune response as well as having the potential to generate 'off-target' effects. Therefore there is a requirement for a delivery system to not only protect the siRNA and facilitate its uptake, but additionally to offer the potential for targeted delivery with an aim of exploiting the high specificity afforded by RNA interference. Cationic liposomes are the most studied, non-viral delivery system used for nucleic acid delivery. As such, the use of cationic liposomes is promising for siRNA for delivery. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be incorporated into the liposome formulation to create sterically stabilized or 'stealth' liposomes. Addition of PEG can reduce recognition by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) thereby prolonging circulation time. Here we describe a methodology for the complexation of siRNA with cationic liposomes and PEGylated liposomes using two protocols: mixing and encapsulation. Moreover, the different formulations are compared head to head to demonstrate their efficacy for gene silencing.

  2. Specific expression of short-interfering RNA driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter in tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejing Luan; Limin Guo; Zuozhen Yang; Min Liu; Xin Li; Hua Tang

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to be an effective method for inhibiting the expression of a given gene in human cells by targeting with short duplex RNA (short-interfering RNA or siRNA). However, more and more studies suggest that non-specific effects can be induced by siRNAs, such as off-target inhibition, activation of interferon response, and saturation of cellular silencing machinery. It has been known that more than 90% of human tumors exhibit teiomerase activity. Consequently, teiomerase is believed to be a broadspectrum molecular marker of malignancies. In the present study we attempt to develop a tumor-specific RNAi system using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter.This system may provide a basis for RNAi therapy.

  3. Human DMBT1-Derived Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Intracellular siRNA Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuttolomondo, Martina; Casella, Cinzia; Hansen, Pernille Lund

    2017-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising molecule for gene therapy, but its therapeutic administration remains problematic. Among the recently proposed vectors, cell-penetrating peptides show great promise in in vivo trials for siRNA delivery. Human protein DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain...... an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and UV spectra, we identified two DMBT1 peptides that could encapsulate the siRNA with a self- and co-assembly mechanism. The complexes were stable for at least 2 hr in the presence of either fetal bovine serum (FBS) or RNase A, with peptide-dependent time span protection. ζ...... line to exploit DMBT1-peptide nanocomplexes for therapeutic siRNA delivery....

  4. Albumin pre-coating enhances intracellular siRNA delivery of multifunctional amphiphile/siRNA nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummitha CM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available China M Kummitha, Anthony S Malamas, Zheng-Rong LuDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Nonspecific association of serum molecules with short-interfering RNA (siRNA nanoparticles can change their physiochemical characteristics, and results in reduced cellular uptake in the target tissue during the systemic siRNA delivery process. Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in the body and has been used to modify the surface of nanoparticles, to inhibit association of other serum molecules. Here, we hypothesized that surface modification of lipid-based nanoparticular siRNA delivery systems with albumin could prevent their interaction with serum proteins, and improve intracellular uptake. In this study, we investigated the influence of albumin on the stability and intracellular siRNA delivery of the targeted siRNA nanoparticles of a polymerizable and pH-sensitive multifunctional surfactant N-(1-aminoethyliminobis[N-(oleoylcysteinylhistinyl-1-aminoethylpropionamide] (EHCO in serum. Serum resulted in a significant increase in the size of targeted EHCO/siRNA nanoparticles and inhibited cellular uptake of the nanoparticles. Coating of targeted EHCO/siRNA nanoparticles with bovine serum albumin at 9.4 µM prior to cell transfection improved cellular uptake and gene silencing efficacy of EHCO/siRNA targeted nanoparticles in serum-containing media, as compared with the uncoated nanoparticles. At a proper concentration, albumin has the potential to minimize interactions of serum proteins with siRNA nanoparticles for effective systemic in vivo siRNA delivery.Keywords: multifunctional, lipid nanoparticles, RNA interference, pH-sensitive amphiphile, siRNA

  5. Small Interfering RNA Targeting MDR1 Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Growth and Increases Efficacy of Chemotherapy in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-jun Liu; Guo-lan Gao; Kai-jia Tu; Li-qun Yu; Jun Gao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To further validate a knockdown approach for circumventing the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), we used small interfering RNA(siRNA) targeting MDR1 gene to inhibit the expression of MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein(P-gp) in vivo.Methods: Ascite tumor xenografts were established by implanting human ovarian carcinoma cells SKOV3/AR intraperitoneally into the nude mice. The mice were randomized into the following three treatment groups with each group six mice respectively: Taxol, Taxol with lipofectamine and Taxol with siRNA/MDR1- lipofectamine intraperitoneal injection. The tumor growth rate and the ascite growth rate of mice were investigated. The expressions of MDR1 gene and P-gp in mice were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry respctively.Results: The growth of tumors and ascites in mice treated with Taxol and siRNA/MDR1- lipofectamine was significantly inhibited compared with those in mice of other groups. After 28 days' treatment, the average tumor weight and ascite volume decreased by 43.6% and 29.7% in the group treated with Taxol and siRNA/MDR1-lipofectamine compared with these treated with Taxol alone (P<0.001). The expressions of MDR1 gene and P-gp in the group treated with Taxol and siRNA/MDR1-lipofectamine were also decreased compared with those in the group treated with Taxol alone (P<0.001).Conclusion: Small interfering RNA targeting-MDR1 can effectively and specifically suppress the expression of MDR1(P-glycoprotein) and inhibit ovarian cancer growth in vivo.

  6. Strategies for ocular siRNA delivery: Potential and limitations of non-viral nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Ajit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controlling gene expression via small interfering RNA (siRNA has opened the doors to a plethora of therapeutic possibilities, with many currently in the pipelines of drug development for various ocular diseases. Despite the potential of siRNA technologies, barriers to intracellular delivery significantly limit their clinical efficacy. However, recent progress in the field of drug delivery strongly suggests that targeted manipulation of gene expression via siRNA delivered through nanocarriers can have an enormous impact on improving therapeutic outcomes for ophthalmic applications. Particularly, synthetic nanocarriers have demonstrated their suitability as a customizable multifunctional platform for the targeted intracellular delivery of siRNA and other hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs in ocular applications. We predict that synthetic nanocarriers will simultaneously increase drug bioavailability, while reducing side effects and the need for repeated intraocular injections. This review will discuss the recent advances in ocular siRNA delivery via non-viral nanocarriers and the potential and limitations of various strategies for the development of a ‘universal’ siRNA delivery system for clinical applications.

  7. Strategies for ocular siRNA delivery: Potential and limitations of non-viral nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajit; Fitzpatrick, Scott; Zaman, Abeyat; Kugathasan, Kapilan; Muirhead, Ben; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Sheardown, Heather

    2012-06-11

    Controlling gene expression via small interfering RNA (siRNA) has opened the doors to a plethora of therapeutic possibilities, with many currently in the pipelines of drug development for various ocular diseases. Despite the potential of siRNA technologies, barriers to intracellular delivery significantly limit their clinical efficacy. However, recent progress in the field of drug delivery strongly suggests that targeted manipulation of gene expression via siRNA delivered through nanocarriers can have an enormous impact on improving therapeutic outcomes for ophthalmic applications. Particularly, synthetic nanocarriers have demonstrated their suitability as a customizable multifunctional platform for the targeted intracellular delivery of siRNA and other hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs in ocular applications. We predict that synthetic nanocarriers will simultaneously increase drug bioavailability, while reducing side effects and the need for repeated intraocular injections. This review will discuss the recent advances in ocular siRNA delivery via non-viral nanocarriers and the potential and limitations of various strategies for the development of a 'universal' siRNA delivery system for clinical applications.

  8. Inhibition of hepatocelluar carcinoma MAT2A and MAT2beta gene expressions by single and dual small interfering RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Quan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract RNA interference (RNAi has been successfully applied in suppression of hepatic cancer genes. In hepatocelluar carcinoma cell, one methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT isozyme, MATII was found to have two catalytic subunits which were encoded by MAT2A and MAT2β respectively. During tumorigeness of hepatocelluar carcinoma, expressions of the two genes were discovered to be increased combining with a switch of MAT (form MATI to MATII, To figure out the role played by MATII in hepatic cancer, In this study, for the first time we established a dual small interfering RNA (siRNA expression system, which could simultaneously express two different siRNA molecules specifically targeting two genes. To test the effectiveness of this system, we applied this approach to express simultaneously two different siRNA duplexes that specifically target MAT2A and MAT2β genes of hepatocelluar carcinoma respectively in HepG2 cell. Results indicated that dual siRNA could simultaneously inhibit the expression of MAT2A and MAT2β gene by 89.5% and 97.8% respectively, In addition, dual siRNA molecules were able to significantly suppress growth of hepatocelluar carcinoma cell in vitro as well as induce apoptosis which was involved in arrest cell cycle at the G1/S checkpoint and the expressions of p21, p27 and Bax.

  9. Delivery of small interfering RNAs in human cervical cancer cells by polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method....

  10. Topical Delivery of siRNA into Skin using SPACE-peptide Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zakrewsky, Michael; Gupta, Vivek; Anselmo, Aaron C.; Slee, Deborah H.; Muraski, John A.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) offer a potential tool for the treatment of skin disorders. However, applications of siRNA for dermatological conditions are limited by their poor permeation across the stratum corneum of the skin and low penetration into skin’s viable cells. In this study, we report the use of SPACE-peptide in combination with a DOTAP-based ethosomal carrier system to enhance skin delivery of siRNA. A DOTAP-based SPACE Ethosomal System significantly enhanced siRNA penetration into porcine skin in vitro by 6.3±1.7-fold (pformulation reported here may open new opportunities for cutaneous siRNA delivery. PMID:24434423

  11. Small interfering RNA targeting the nonstructural gene 1 transcript inhibits influenza A virus replication in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Roopali; Khanna, Madhu; Kumar, Prashant; Kumar, Binod; Sharma, Sonal; Gupta, Neha; Saxena, Latika

    2012-12-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses counteracts the host immune response against the influenza viruses by not only inhibiting the nuclear export and maturation of host cell messenger RNA (mRNA), but by also blocking the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-mediated inhibition of viral RNA translation. Reduction of NS1 gene product in the host cell may be a potent antiviral strategy to provide protection against the influenza virus infection. We used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) synthesized against the viral mRNA to down regulate the NS1 gene and observed its effect on inhibition of virus replication. When NS1 gene-specific siRNA were transfected in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells followed by influenza A virus infection, approximately 60% inhibition in intracellular levels of NS1 RNA was observed. When siRNA was administered in BALB/c mice, 92% reduction in the levels of NS1 gene expression in mice lungs was observed. A significant reduction in the lung virus titers and cytokine levels was also detected in the presence of siRNAs as compared with the untreated control. The study was validated by the use of selectively disabled mutants of each set of siRNA. Our findings suggest that siRNA targeted against NS1 gene of influenza A virus can provide considerable protection to the virus-infected host cells and may be used as potential candidates for nucleic acid-based antiviral therapy for prevention of influenza A virus infection.

  12. Small interfering RNA therapy against carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 inhibits cardiac remodeling in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Harima, Meilei; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15) is a sulfotransferase responsible for biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E), which plays important roles in numerous biological events such as biosynthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the effects of CHST15 siRNA in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) after experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) have not yet been investigated. CHF was elicited in Lewis rats by immunization with cardiac myosin, and after immunization, the rats were divided into two groups and treated with either CHST15 siRNA (2μg/week) or vehicle. Age matched normal rats without immunizations were also included in this study. After 7weeks of treatment, we investigated the effects of CHST15 siRNA on cardiac function, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac remodeling in EAM rats. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic studies were significantly improved by CHST15 siRNA treatment in rats with CHF compared with that of vehicle-treated CHF rats. CHST15 siRNA significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis, and hypertrophy and its marker molecules (left ventricular (LV) mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor beta1, collagens I and III, and atrial natriuretic peptide) compared with vehicle-treated CHF rats. CHF-induced increased myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), and CHST15 were also suppressed by the treatment with CHST15 siRNA. Western blotting study has confirmed the results obtained from mRNA analysis as CHST15 siRNA treated rats expressed reduced levels of inflammatory and cardiac remodeling marker proteins. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that CHST15 siRNA treatment significantly improved LV function and ameliorated the progression of cardiac remodeling in rats with CHF after EAM.

  13. Efficient protection and transfection of small interfering RNA by cationic shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuefei; Fang, Huafeng; Zhang, Ke; Shrestha, Ritu; Wooley, Karen L; Taylor, John-Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    Despite the great potential of small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a therapeutic agent, progress in this area has been hampered by a lack of efficient biocompatible transfection agents. Recently, cationic shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles (cSCKs) were found to possess lower cytotoxicity and better transfection ability for phosphorothioate ODNs and plasmid DNA than the commonly used cationic lipid-based agent Lipofectamine. To determine the usefulness of cSCKs for siRNA transfection, a small library of cSCKs with varying percentage of primary and tertiary amines was assessed for its ability to bind to siRNA, inhibit siRNA degradation in human serum, and to transfect HeLa and mouse macrophage cell lines. The silencing efficiency in HeLa cells was greatest with the cSCK with 100% primary amines (pa100) as determined by their viability following transfection with cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic siRNAs. cSCK-pa100 showed greater silencing efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 in the HeLa cells, as well in 293T and human bronchial epithelial (HEK) cells, but was comparable in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and human mammary epithelial (MCF10a) cells. cSCK-pa100 also showed greater silencing of iNOS expression than Lipofectamine 2000 in a mouse macrophage cell line, and provided greater protection from serum degradation, demonstrating its potential usefulness as an siRNA transfection agent. The siRNA silencing of iNOS at lower concentrations of siRNA could be enhanced by complexation with the fusogenic GALA peptide, which was shown to enhance endosomal escape following uptake.

  14. Cloned Defective Interfering Influenza RNA and a Possible Pan-Specific Treatment of Respiratory Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Nigel J.; Easton, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Defective interfering (DI) genomes are characterised by their ability to interfere with the replication of the virus from which they were derived, and other genetically compatible viruses. DI genomes are synthesized by nearly all known viruses and represent a vast natural reservoir of antivirals that can potentially be exploited for use in the clinic. This review describes the application of DI virus to protect from virus-associated diseases in vivo using as an example a highly active cloned influenza A DI genome and virus that protects broadly in preclinical trials against different subtypes of influenza A and against non-influenza A respiratory viruses. This influenza A-derived DI genome protects by two totally different mechanisms: molecular interference with influenza A replication and by stimulating innate immunity that acts against non-influenza A viruses. The review considers what is needed to develop DI genomes to the point of entry into clinical trials. PMID:26184282

  15. The p122 subunit of Tobacco Mosaic Virus replicase is a potent silencing suppressor and compromises both small interfering RNA- and microRNA-mediated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Tibor; Bovi, Aurelie; Dalmay, Tamás; Burgyán, József

    2007-11-01

    One of the functions of RNA silencing in plants is to defend against molecular parasites, such as viruses, retrotransposons, and transgenes. Plant viruses are inducers, as well as targets, of RNA silencing-based antiviral defense. Replication intermediates or folded viral RNAs activate RNA silencing, generating small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are the key players in the antiviral response. Viruses are able to counteract RNA silencing by expressing silencing-suppressor proteins. It has been shown that many of the identified silencing-suppressor proteins bind long double-stranded RNA or siRNAs and thereby prevent assembly of the silencing effector complexes. In this study, we show that the 122-kDa replicase subunit (p122) of crucifer-infecting Tobacco mosaic virus (cr-TMV) is a potent silencing-suppressor protein. We found that the p122 protein preferentially binds to double-stranded 21-nucleotide (nt) siRNA and microRNA (miRNA) intermediates with 2-nt 3' overhangs inhibiting the incorporation of siRNA and miRNA into silencing-related complexes (e.g., RNA-induced silencing complex [RISC]) both in vitro and in planta but cannot interfere with previously programmed RISCs. In addition, our results also suggest that the virus infection and/or sequestration of the siRNA and miRNA molecules by p122 enhances miRNA accumulation despite preventing its methylation. However, the p122 silencing suppressor does not prevent the methylation of certain miRNAs in hst-15 mutants, in which the nuclear export of miRNAs is compromised.

  16. Suppression of feline calicivirus replication using small interfering RNA targeted to its polymerase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Matsuhiro, Takahisa; Harima, Hayato; Sato, Atsuko; Ohe, Kyoko; Sakai, Sachi; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Hara, Motonobu

    2012-06-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes upper respiratory diseases in cats. Recently, an FCV infection with a high mortality rate has been confirmed, and there is need to develop a treatment for cases of acute infection. We evaluated whether the replication of FCV could be prevented by RNA interference. For this study, we designed an siRNA targeted to the polymerase region of the strain FCV-B isolated from a cat that died after exhibiting neurological symptoms. Cells transfected with siR-pol dose-dependently suppressed the replication of FCV-B. siR-pol suppressed its replication by suppressing the target viral RNA.

  17. The small interfering RNA production pathway is required for shoot meristem initiation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Itoh, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Katsunobu; Hibara, Ken-ichiro; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Nosaka, Misuzu; Mukouhata, Motohiro; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Nagato, Yasuo; Sato, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a group of stem cells that are responsible for plant development. Mutations in rice SHOOTLESS2 (SHL2), SHL4/SHOOT ORGANIZATION2 (SHO2), and SHO1 cause complete deletion or abnormal formation of the SAM. In this study we showed that defects in SAM formation in shl mutants are associated with the loss of expression of the homeodomain–leucine zipper (HD-ZIPIII) family genes. Rice SHL2, SHL4/SHO2, and SHO1 encoded orthologues of Arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6, ARGONAUTE (AGO) 7, and DICER-like 4, respectively, whose mutations affect leaf development through the trans-acting siRNA (ta-siRNA) pathway. This suggested that the ta-siRNA pathway regulates the critical step of SAM formation during rice embryogenesis. The gain-of-function experiment by the ectopic expression of SHL4 resulted in reduced accumulation of an microRNA, miR166, and partial adaxialization of leaves, supporting a role for the ta-siRNA pathway in the maintenance of leaf polarity as previously reported in maize. Analysis of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of HD-ZIPIII and miR166 in wild-type and shl mutant embryos suggested that the loss of HD-ZIPIII expression in the SAM region of the developing embryo is the result of ectopic expression of miR166. Our analysis of shl mutants demonstrated that HD-ZIPIII expression regulated by miR166 is sensitive to the ta-siRNA pathway during SAM formation in rice embryogenesis. PMID:17804793

  18. Interferência por RNA: uma nova alternativa para terapia nas doenças reumáticas RNA interference: a new alternative for rheumatic diseases therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Regine de França

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A interferência por RNA (RNAi é um mecanismo de silenciamento gênico pós-transcricional conservado durante a evolução. Esse mecanismo, recentemente descrito, é mediado por pequenos RNAs de fita dupla (dsRNAs capazes de reconhecer especificamente uma sequência de mRNA-alvo e mediar sua clivagem ou repressão traducional. O emprego da RNAi como uma ferramenta de terapia gênica tem sido muito estudado, especialmente em infecções virais, câncer, desordens genéticas herdadas, doenças cardiovasculares e mesmo em doenças reumáticas. Aliados aos dados do genoma humano, os conhecimentos do silenciamento gênico mediado por RNAi podem permitir a determinação funcional de praticamente qualquer gene expresso em uma célula e sua implicação para o funcionamento e homeostase celular. Vários estudos terapêuticos in vitro e in vivo em modelos de doenças autoimunes vêm sendo realizados com resultados encorajadores. As vias de quebra de tolerância e inflamação são alvos potenciais para terapia com RNAi em doenças inflamatórias e autoimunes. Nesta revisão vamos recordar os princípios básicos da RNAi e discutir os aspectos que levaram ao desenvolvimento de propostas terapêuticas baseadas em RNAi, começando pelos estudos in vitro de desenvolvimento de ferramentas e identificação de alvos, chegando até os estudos pré-clínicos de disponibilização da droga in vivo, e testes em células humanas e modelos animais de doenças autoimunes. Por fim, vamos revisar os últimos avanços da experiência clínica da terapia com RNAiRNA interference (RNAi is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism preserved during evolution. This mechanism, recently described, is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs that can specifically recognize a target mRNA sequence and mediate its cleavage or translational repression. The use of RNAi as a tool for gene therapy has been extensively studied, especially in viral infections, cancer

  19. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5′UTR RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) and a polyadenylated 3′UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3Dpol protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3Dpol, resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5′UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5′UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication. PMID:27875274

  20. Delivery of siRNA to the brain using a combination of nose-to-brain delivery and cell-penetrating peptide-modified nano-micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, T; Akiyama, F; Kakizaki, S; Takashima, Y; Seta, Y

    2013-12-01

    The potential for RNA-based agents to serve as effective therapeutics for central nerve systems (CNS) disorders has been successfully demonstrated in vitro. However, the blood-brain barrier limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the CNS, posing a major challenge for drug development aimed at combatting CNS disorders. Therefore, the development of effective strategies to enhance siRNA delivery to the brain is of great interest in clinical and pharmaceutical fields. To improve the efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the brain, we developed a nose-to-brain delivery system combined with cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) modified nano-micelles comprising polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) copolymers conjugated with the CPP, Tat (MPEG-PCL-Tat). In this study, we describe intranasal brain delivery of siRNA or dextran (Mw: 10,000 Da) as a model siRNA, by using MPEG-PCL-Tat. Intranasal delivery of dextran with MPEG-PCL-Tat improved brain delivery compared to intravenous delivery of dextran either with or without MPEG-PCL-Tat. We also studied the intranasal transfer of MPEG-PCL-Tat to the brain via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves, the putative pathways to the brain from the nasal cavity. We found that MPEG-PCL-Tat accelerated transport along the olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathway because of its high permeation across the nasal mucosa.

  1. The 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides of bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA harbor cis-acting elements required for both negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu Liao

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the negative-strand [(--strand] complement of the ∼30 kilobase, positive-strand [(+-strand] coronaviral genome is a necessary early step for genome replication. The identification of cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses, however, has been hampered due to insufficiencies in the techniques used to detect the (--strand RNA species. Here, we employed a method of head-to-tail ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to detect and quantitate the synthesis of bovine coronavirus (BCoV defective interfering (DI RNA (- strands. Furthermore, using the aforementioned techniques along with Northern blot assay, we specifically defined the cis-acting RNA elements within the 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides (nts which function in the synthesis of (-- or (+-strand BCoV DI RNA. The major findings are as follows: (i nts from -5 to -39 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are the cis-acting elements responsible for (--strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, (ii nts from -3 to -34 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are cis-acting elements required for (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, and (iii the nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (-1 is important, but not critical, for both (-- and (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis. These results demonstrate that the 3'-terminal 55 nts in BCoV DI RNA harbor cis-acting RNA elements required for both (-- and (+-strand DI RNA synthesis and extend our knowledge on the mechanisms of coronavirus replication. The method of head-to-tail ligation and qRT-PCR employed in the study may also be applied to identify other cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses.

  2. Advances in the delivery of RNA therapeutics: from concept to clinical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, James C; Kowalski, Piotr S; Anderson, Daniel G

    2017-06-27

    The rapid expansion of the available genomic data continues to greatly impact biomedical science and medicine. Fulfilling the clinical potential of genetic discoveries requires the development of therapeutics that can specifically modulate the expression of disease-relevant genes. RNA-based drugs, including short interfering RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, are particularly promising examples of this newer class of biologics. For over two decades, researchers have been trying to overcome major challenges for utilizing such RNAs in a therapeutic context, including intracellular delivery, stability, and immune response activation. This research is finally beginning to bear fruit as the first RNA drugs gain FDA approval and more advance to the final phases of clinical trials. Furthermore, the recent advent of CRISPR, an RNA-guided gene-editing technology, as well as new strides in the delivery of messenger RNA transcribed in vitro, have triggered a major expansion of the RNA-therapeutics field. In this review, we discuss the challenges for clinical translation of RNA-based therapeutics, with an emphasis on recent advances in delivery technologies, and present an overview of the applications of RNA-based drugs for modulation of gene/protein expression and genome editing that are currently being investigated both in the laboratory as well as in the clinic.

  3. Cytosolic mRNA Target and Bioavailability of Nanoparticulate siRNA delivery systems for gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuta, Sorin Emilian

    2017-03-22

    Recent research in medical and pharmaceutical sciences has benefited from advances in molecular biology and genetics, which made possible a diagnosis at the molecular level in more and more diseases. This implies the drug treatment at the molecular level. The interest in Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is based on the mechanism operates by eliminating the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) coding for multiple proteins, which open solutions for treating many types of diseases. Small (short) interfering RNA (siRNA) has quickly been established as an effective gene-silencing strategy in animal models, and more recently in human clinical trials, as a potential therapeutic approach. Various nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for siRNA delivery have been explored extensively. However, there are many more barriers and challenges that need to be addressed and overcome to achieve the ideal formulation in terms of selectivity, efficacy and safety. One of the major causes of the drawback of these treatments is the difficulty to transport the nucleic acids in the cytosol and organelles. These delivery systems will favorably alter the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of siRNAs, should be biocompatible and genocompatible to avoid immune stimulation and off-target gene effects. These properties are essential for systemic use, as they prolong siRNA half-lives in blood and increase intracellular bioavailability of siRNA. Future research needs drug delivery systems with more effective design, enhanced biological stability, subcellular bioavailability, and efficient targeted delivery in vivo for improved targeting and specificity of siRNA molecules for any given clinical condition. The paper shows how to overcome physiological barriers to achieve the target, and examples in which significant results were obtained in therapeutic in vitro and in vivo research including nanoparticulate systems.To day, only a few nanoparticle-based siRNA delivery systems have been approved by the Food

  4. Small Interfering RNA Targeted to ASPP2 Promotes Progression of Experimental Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

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    Xiao-Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is vital in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR development. Apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP2 have recently been reported to participate in EMT. However, the role of ASPP2 in PVR pathogenesis has not been identified. Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of ASPP2 in epiretinal membranes of PVR patients. ARPE-19 cells were transfected with ASPP2-siRNA, followed with measurement of cell cytotoxicity, proliferation, and migration ability. EMT markers and related inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines were measured by western blot or flow cytometry. Additionally, PVR rat models were induced by intravitreal injection of ARPE-19 cells transfected with ASPP2-siRNA and evaluated accordingly. Results. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed less intense expression of ASPP2 in PVR membranes. ASPP2 knockdown facilitated the proliferation and migration of RPE cells and enhanced the expression of mesenchymal markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and ZEB1. Meanwhile, ASPP2-siRNA increased EMT-related and inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, CTGF, VEGF, TNF-α, and interleukins. PVR severities were more pronounced in the rat models with ASPP2-siRNA treatment. Conclusions. ASPP2 knockdown promoted EMT of ARPE-19 cells in vitro and exacerbated the progression of experimental PVR in vivo, possibly via inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines.

  5. [Construction and identification of small interfering RNA expression vector targeting ATF-2 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei-wei; Xiong, Peng; Han, Feng; Hu, Zhi-jian

    2012-09-01

    To construct an eukaryotic expression vector for RNA interference targeting activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) gene, and explore its effect on proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Two complementary oligonucleotides were synthesized based on ATF-2 mRNA sequence. The annealed fragment was inserted into the vector PBA-siU6. The recombinant plasmid PBA-siATF-2 was confirmed by DNA sequencing and transfected into HepG2 cells mediated by liposome. After transfection, ATF-2 protein was detected by Western blotting. The cellular growth activity and apoptosis rate were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Recombinant plasmid expressing siRNA targeting ATF-2 gene was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Plasmid transfection down-regulated the level of ATF-2 protein in HepG2 cells, which blocked cellular growth and induced cell apoptosis. The eukaryotic expression vector for RNA interference targeting ATF-2 gene was constructed successfully, which inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis.

  6. Targeted in vivo delivery of siRNA and an endosome-releasing agent to hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyén, Magdolna G; Wong, So C; Trubetskoy, Vladimir; Lewis, David L; Wooddell, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    The discoveries of RNA interference (RNAi) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have provided the opportunity to treat diseases in a fundamentally new way: by co-opting a natural process to inhibit gene expression at the mRNA level. Given that siRNAs must interact with the cells' natural RNAi machinery in order to exert their silencing effect, one of the most fundamental requirements for their use is efficient delivery to the desired cell type and, specifically, into the cytoplasm of those cells. Numerous research efforts involving the testing of a large number of delivery approaches using various carrier molecules and inventing several distinct formulation technologies during the past decade illustrate the difficulty and complexity of this task. We have developed synthetic polymer formulations for in vivo siRNA delivery named Dynamic PolyConjugates™ (DPCs) that are designed to mimic the features viruses possess for efficient delivery of their nucleic acids. These include small size, long half-life in circulation, capability of displaying distinct host cell tropism, efficient receptor binding and cell entry, disassembly in the endosome and subsequent release of the nucleic acid cargo to the cytoplasm. Here we present an example of this delivery platform composed of a hepatocyte-targeted endosome-releasing agent and a cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (chol-siRNA). This delivery platform forms the basis of ARC-520, an siRNA-based therapeutic for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this chapter, we provide a general overview of the steps in developing ARC-520 and detailed protocols for two critical stages of the discovery process: (1) verifying targeted in vivo delivery to hepatocytes and (2) evaluating in vivo drug efficacy using a mouse model of chronic HBV infection.

  7. Efficiency of siRNA delivery by lipid nanoparticles is limited by endocytic recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Gaurav; Querbes, William; Alabi, Christopher; Eltoukhy, Ahmed; Sarkar, Sovan; Zurenko, Christopher; Karagiannis, Emmanouil; Love, Kevin; Chen, Delai; Zoncu, Roberto; Buganim, Yosef; Schroeder, Avi; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2013-07-01

    Despite efforts to understand the interactions between nanoparticles and cells, the cellular processes that determine the efficiency of intracellular drug delivery remain unclear. Here we examine cellular uptake of short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) using cellular trafficking probes in combination with automated high-throughput confocal microscopy. We also employed defined perturbations of cellular pathways paired with systems biology approaches to uncover protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. We show that multiple cell signaling effectors are required for initial cellular entry of LNPs through macropinocytosis, including proton pumps, mTOR and cathepsins. siRNA delivery is substantially reduced as ≅70% of the internalized siRNA undergoes exocytosis through egress of LNPs from late endosomes/lysosomes. Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) is shown to be an important regulator of the major recycling pathways of LNP-delivered siRNAs. NPC1-deficient cells show enhanced cellular retention of LNPs inside late endosomes and lysosomes, and increased gene silencing of the target gene. Our data suggest that siRNA delivery efficiency might be improved by designing delivery vehicles that can escape the recycling pathways.

  8. A SHORT INTERFERING RNA MOLECULAR BEACON FOR THE ATTENUATION OF MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTION

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    Remo George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the pathogen Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB to invade and survive within macrophages of granulomas is attributed to the product of the Mammalian Cell Entry (MCE operon whose gene, mce4A, encodes a cholesterol transporter that transports host lipids into the bacterium that allows the bacterium to survive during chronic infection. Here, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that a mce4A siRNA molecular beacon can be used to attenuate mycobacterial infection in macrophages. Mce4A gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli (E. coli-4A and differentiated U937 cells were transduced with piLenti-siRNA-GFP phage expressing the mce4A siRNA for 24 h. This was followed by infection with either E. coli-4A or M. smegmatis for 3 h followed by incubation for 0, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. The cells were lysed and the lysates were plated on LB agar plates containing ampicillin (100 µg mL-1 or on 7H11 media and incubated at 37°C overnight. Our results showed that the siRNA treatment attenuated E.coli-4A infection in macrophages at 3, 6, 24 and 48 h by 0, 77, 59.6 and 99.7%, respectively. Our results also showed that the siRNA treatment attenuated M. smegmatis infection in macrophages at 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. by 94.8, 70.3, 98.9 and 93.4%, respectively. In conclusion, a mce4A siRNA molecular beacon was successfully delivered and stably expressed in macrophages which attenuated E. coli expressing mce4A (E. coli-4A and M. smegmatis infection in macrophages.

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans RSD-2 and RSD-6 promote germ cell immortality by maintaining small interfering RNA populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Aisa; Sarkies, Peter; Simon, Matt; Doebley, Anna-Lisa; Goldstein, Leonard D; Hedges, Ashley; Ikegami, Kohta; Alvares, Stacy M; Yang, Liwei; LaRocque, Jeannine R; Hall, Julie; Miska, Eric A; Ahmed, Shawn

    2014-10-14

    Germ cells are maintained in a pristine non-aging state as they proliferate over generations. Here, we show that a novel function of the Caenorhabditis elegans RNA interference proteins RNAi spreading defective (RSD)-2 and RSD-6 is to promote germ cell immortality at high temperature. rsd mutants cultured at high temperatures became progressively sterile and displayed loss of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target spermatogenesis genes, simple repeats, and transposons. Desilencing of spermatogenesis genes occurred in late-generation rsd mutants, although defective spermatogenesis was insufficient to explain the majority of sterility. Increased expression of repetitive loci occurred in both germ and somatic cells of late-generation rsd mutant adults, suggesting that desilencing of many heterochromatic segments of the genome contributes to sterility. Nuclear RNAi defective (NRDE)-2 promotes nuclear silencing in response to exogenous double-stranded RNA, and our data imply that RSD-2, RSD-6, and NRDE-2 function in a common transgenerational nuclear silencing pathway that responds to endogenous siRNAs. We propose that RSD-2 and RSD-6 promote germ cell immortality at stressful temperatures by maintaining transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of endogenous siRNA populations that promote genome silencing.

  10. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  11. Low molecular weight chitosan conjugated with folate for siRNA delivery in vitro: optimization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Q

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Fernandes,1 Xingping Qiu,2 Francoise M Winnik,2 Mohamed Benderdour,1 Xiaoling Zhang,3 Kerong Dai,3 Qin Shi11Orthopaedics Research Laboratory, Research Centre, Sacré-Coeur Hospital, 2Department of Physical Chemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 3Orthopaedic Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratories, Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: The low transfection efficiency of chitosan is one of its drawbacks as a gene delivery carrier. Low molecular weight chitosan may help to form small-sized polymer-DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA complexes. Folate conjugation may improve gene transfection efficiency because of the promoted uptake of folate receptor-bearing cells. In the present study, chitosan was conjugated with folate and investigated for its efficacy as a delivery vector for siRNA in vitro. We demonstrate that the molecular weight of chitosan has a major influence on its biological and physicochemical properties, and very low molecular weight chitosan (below 10 kDa has difficulty in forming stable complexes with siRNA. In this study, chitosan 25 kDa and 50 kDa completely absorbed siRNA and formed nanoparticles (≤220 nm at a chitosan to siRNA weight ratio of 50:1. The introduction of a folate ligand onto chitosan decreased nanoparticle toxicity. Compared with chitosan-siRNA, folate-chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles improved gene silencing transfection efficiency. Therefore, folate-chitosan shows potential as a viable candidate vector for safe and efficient siRNA delivery.Keywords: nonviral vector, chitosan, gene delivery, folate-targeted, siRNA

  12. Constructionof the recombinant adenovirus vectors of CALB2 gene and small interfering RNA, and application in testicular Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Jian; Wang Jing; Liu Shan; Sun Xue-ping; Gao Chao; Gao Li; Yang Xiao-yu; Liu Jia-yin; Cui Yu-gui

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To construct the recombinant adenovirus vectors of calretinin (CALB2) gene and small interfering RNA (siRNA),for over-expression or knock-down of CALB2,as the basis of functional investigation of CALB2 in testicular Leydig cells.Methods:The cDNA sequence of CALB2 was cloned by the reverse transcriptive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).A CALB2 gene fragment was sub-cloned into adenovirus shuttle plasmid pAdTrack-CMV to construct the shuttle plasmid pAdTrack-CALB2.Then it was transformed into BJ5183 cells with the adenoviral backbone pAdEasy-1 to obtain the homologous recombinant AdCMV-CALB2.The recombinant AdCMV-CALB2 was further packaged and amplificated in AD293 cells.The expression of CALB2 protein in AD293 cells was detected by Western blotting.CALB2 protein was over-expressed in mouse Leydig cell line (MLTC-1 cells) by the constructed AdCMVCALB2.CALB2 gene siRNA recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-H1-siRNA/CALB2 was also constructed simultaneously.Its efficacy was detected in AD293 cells by Western blotting.Results:The CALB2 gene recombinant adenovirus vector AdCMV-CALB2 and the CALB2 gene siRNA recombinant adenovirus vector Ad-H1-siRNA/CALB2 were constructed successfully by endonulease digestion and sequencing.AD293 cells infected with AdCMV-CALB2 or Ad-H1-SiRNA/CALB2 significantly expressed GFP protein.The expression of CALB2 protein was significantly up-regulated in AD293 cells infected with AdCMV-CALB2 plasmids,while the expression of CALB2 protein was down-regulated by 60% in the CALB2 cells infected with Ad-H1SiRNA/CALB2.MLTC-1 cells did not markedly express CALLB2 protein,while MLTC-1 cells infected with AdCMV-CALB2 expressed CALB2 protein at a high level.Conclusions:The recombinant adenovirus vectors of AdCMV-CALB2 and Ad-H1-SiRNA/CALB2 were successfully constructed.Both vectors effectively expressed in AD293.CALB2 protein was over-expressed in the cultured MLTC-1 cells by AdCMV-CALB2.These vectors of CALB2 gene and Leydig cell line are

  13. Functional RNA delivery targeted to dendritic cells by synthetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Kenneth C; Bassi, Isabelle; Démoulins, Thomas; Thomann-Harwood, Lisa J; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential to many aspects of immune defense development and regulation. They provide important targets for prophylactic and therapeutic delivery. While protein delivery has had considerable success, RNA delivery is still expanding. Delivering RNA molecules for RNAi has shown particular success and there are reports on successful delivery of mRNA. Central, therein, is the application of cationic entities. Following endocytosis of the delivery vehicle for the RNA, cationic entities should promote vesicular membrane perturbation, facilitating cytosolic release. The present review explains the diversity of DC function in immune response development and control. Promotion of delivered RNA cytosolic release is discussed, relating to immunoprophylactic and therapeutic potential, and DC endocytic machinery is reviewed, showing how DC endocytic pathways influence the handling of internalized material. The potential advantages for application of replicating RNA are presented and discussed, in consideration of their value and development in the near future.

  14. Construction of a PLGA based, targeted siRNA delivery system for treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezlev Bilecen, Deniz; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Uludag, Hasan; Hasirci, Vasif

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis, a systemic skeletal disorder, occurs when bone turnover balance is disrupted. With the identification of the genes involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, studies on development of new treatments has intensified. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is used to knockdown disease related gene expressions. Targeting siRNA in vivo is challenging. The maintenance of therapeutic plasma level is hampered by clearance of siRNA from the body. Targeted systems are useful in increasing the drug concentration at the target site and decreasing side effects. Aim of the present study was to develop an injectable siRNA delivery system to protect siRNA during systemic distribution and target the siRNA to bone tissue using a thermoresponsive, genetically engineered, elastin-like recombinamer (ELR), designed to interact with the mineral component of bone. The delivery system consisted of DNAoligo as a siRNA substitute complexed with the cationic polymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI), at N/P ratio of 20. The complex was encapsulated in poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocapsules. PLGA capsules were characterized by SEM, TEM and XPS. FTIR was used to show the preferential attachment of ELR to HAp. Encapsulation efficiency of the complex in PLGA nanocapsules was 48%. The release kinetics of the complex fits the Higuchi release kinetics.

  15. Drug delivery of siRNA therapeutics: potentials and limits of nanosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Daniela; Zimmer, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of human diseases that cannot be cured by rational therapies. The major limitation for the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA), both in vitro and in vivo, is the inability of naked siRNA to passively diffuse through cellular membranes due to the strong anionic charge of the phosphate backbone and consequent electrostatic repulsion from the anionic cell membrane surface. Therefore, the primary success of siRNA applications depends on suitable vectors to deliver therapeutic genes. Cellular entrance is further limited by the size of the applied siRNA molecule. Multiple delivery pathways, both viral and nonviral, have been developed to bypass these problems and have been successfully used to gain access to the intracellular environment in vitro and in vivo, and to induce RNA interference (RNAi). This review focuses on different pathways for siRNA delivery and summarizes recent progress made in the use of vector-based siRNA technology.

  16. Current advances in Phi29 pRNA biology and its application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Hemida, Maged; Zhang, Huifang M; Hanson, Paul; Ye, Qiu; Yang, Decheng

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage 29 (Phi29) packaging RNA (pRNA) is one of the key components in the viral DNA-packaging motor. It contains two functional domains facilitating the translocation of DNA into the viral capsid by interacting with other elements in the motor and promoting adenosine triphosphates hydrolysis. Through the connection between interlocking loops in adjacent pRNA monomers, pRNA functions in the form of multimer ring in the motor. Previous studies have addressed the unique structure and conformation of pRNA. However, there are different DNA-packaging models proposed for the viral genome transportation mechanism. The DNA-packaging ability and the unique features of pRNA have been attracting efforts to study its potential applications in nanotechnology. The pRNA has been proved to be a promising tool for delivering nucleic acid-based therapeutic molecules by covalent linkage with ribozymes, small interfering RNAs, aptamers, and artificial microRNAs. The flexibility in constructing dimers, trimers, and hexamers enables the assembly of polyvalent nanoparticles to carry drug molecules for therapeutic purposes, cell ligands for target delivery, image detector for drug entry monitoring, and endosome disrupter for drug release. Besides these fascinating pharmacological advantages, pRNA-based drug delivery has also been demonstrated to prolong the drug half life with minimal induction of immune response and toxicity.

  17. Bioreducible polymers for efficient gene and siRNA delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jere, Dhananjay; Arote, Rohidas; Jiang Hulin; Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing, E-mail: chocs@plaza.snu.ac.k [College of Veterinary Medicines, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Bioreducible disulfide linkage-employing drug conjugate has already been approved for drug delivery application, and also has shown immense potential in gene and siRNA transfection. This paper will focus on the recent developments in bioreducible polymeric systems for gene and siRNA delivery application, and will discuss the advantages and challenges associated with reducible polymeric carriers.

  18. Targeted siRNA Delivery and mRNA Knockdown Mediated by Bispecific Digoxigenin-binding Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs that bind to cell surface antigens and to digoxigenin (Dig were used for targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery. They are derivatives of immunoglobulins G (IgGs that bind tumor antigens, such as Her2, IGF1-R, CD22, and LeY, with stabilized Dig-binding variable domains fused to the C-terminal ends of the heavy chains. siRNA that was digoxigeninylated at its 3′end was bound in a 2:1 ratio to the bsAbs. These bsAb–siRNA complexes delivered siRNAs specifically to cells that express the corresponding antigen as demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The complexes internalized into endosomes and Dig-siRNAs separated from bsAbs, but Dig-siRNA was not released into the cytoplasm; bsAb-targeting alone was thus not sufficient for effective mRNA knockdown. This limitation was overcome by formulating the Dig-siRNA into nanoparticles consisting of dynamic polyconjugates (DPCs or into lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs. The resulting complexes enabled bsAb-targeted siRNA-specific messenger RNA (mRNA knockdown with IC50 siRNA values in the low nanomolar range for a variety of bsAbs, siRNAs, and target cells. Furthermore, pilot studies in mice bearing tumor xenografts indicated mRNA knockdown in endothelial cells following systemic co-administration of bsAbs and siRNA formulated in LNPs that were targeted to the tumor vasculature.

  19. NIR-to-visible upconversion nanoparticles for fluorescent labeling and targeted delivery of siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Yong; Lim, Kian Meng; Sim, Eugene K. W.; Ye, Lei

    2009-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized and used for imaging and targeted delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to cancer cells. Silica-coated NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) co-doped with lanthanide ions (Yb/Er) were synthesized. Folic acid and anti-Her2 antibody conjugated UCNs were used to fluorescently label the folate receptors of HT-29 cells and Her2 receptors of SK-BR-3 cells, respectively. The intracellular uptake of the folic acid and antibody conjugated UCNs was visualized using a confocal fluorescence microscope equipped with an NIR laser. siRNA was attached to anti-Her2 antibody conjugated UCNs and the delivery of these nanoparticles to SK-BR-3 cells was studied. Meanwhile, a luciferase assay was established to confirm the gene silencing effect of siRNA. Upconversion nanoparticles can serve as a fluorescent probe and delivery system for simultaneous imaging and delivery of biological molecules.

  20. NIR-to-visible upconversion nanoparticles for fluorescent labeling and targeted delivery of siRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Shan; Zhang Yong [Division of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Lim, Kian Meng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore); Sim, Eugene K W [Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117597 (Singapore); Ye Lei [National University Medical Institutes, National University of Singapore, 117597 (Singapore)], E-mail: biezy@nus.edu.sg

    2009-04-15

    Near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized and used for imaging and targeted delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to cancer cells. Silica-coated NaYF{sub 4} upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) co-doped with lanthanide ions (Yb/Er) were synthesized. Folic acid and anti-Her2 antibody conjugated UCNs were used to fluorescently label the folate receptors of HT-29 cells and Her2 receptors of SK-BR-3 cells, respectively. The intracellular uptake of the folic acid and antibody conjugated UCNs was visualized using a confocal fluorescence microscope equipped with an NIR laser. siRNA was attached to anti-Her2 antibody conjugated UCNs and the delivery of these nanoparticles to SK-BR-3 cells was studied. Meanwhile, a luciferase assay was established to confirm the gene silencing effect of siRNA. Upconversion nanoparticles can serve as a fluorescent probe and delivery system for simultaneous imaging and delivery of biological molecules.

  1. Lipidoid mRNA Nanoparticles for Myocardial Delivery in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Irene C; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Anderson, Daniel G; Costa, Kevin D

    2017-01-01

    An area of active research in the field of cardiac gene therapy aims to achieve high transfection efficiency without eliciting immune or inflammatory reactions. Nanomedicine offers an attractive alternative to traditional viral delivery vehicles because nanoparticle technology can enable safer and more controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. Here we describe the use of lipidoid nanoparticles for delivery of modified mRNA (modRNA) to the myocardium in vivo, with a focus on rodent models that represent a first step toward preclinical studies. Three major procedures are discussed in this chapter: (1) preparation of lipid modRNA nanoparticles, (2) intramyocardial delivery of the lipid modRNA nanoparticles by direct injection with an open chest technique in rats, and (3) intracoronary delivery of the lipid modRNA nanoparticles with open chest and temporary aortic cross clamping in rats.

  2. Genome-wide screening for components of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H-J; Chen, T; Ma, X-F; Xue, J; Pan, P-L; Zhang, X-C; Cheng, J-A; Zhang, C-X

    2013-12-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a major rice pest in Asia, and accumulated evidence indicates that this species is susceptible to RNA interference (RNAi); however, the mechanism underlying RNAi and parental RNAi has not yet been determined. We comprehensively investigated the repertoire of core genes involved in small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the BPH by comparing its newly assembled transcriptome and genome with those of Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Caenorhabditis elegans. Our analysis showed that the BPH possesses one drosha and two Dicer (dcr) genes, three dsRNA-binding motif protein genes, two Argonaute (ago) genes, two Eri-1-like genes (eri-1), and a Sid-1-like gene (sid-1). Additionally, we report for first time that parental RNAi might occur in this species, and siRNA pathway and Sid-1 were required for high efficiency of systemic RNAi triggered by exogenous dsRNA. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that the miRNA pathway was involved in BPH metamorphosis as depletion of the ago1 or dcr1 gene severely impaired ecdysis. The BPH might be a good model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in hemimetabolous insects, and RNAi has potential to be developed to control this pest in agricultural settings. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  3. [Expression silence of Physarum polycephalum serine/arginine protein kinase by small interfering RNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sheng Li; Zheng, Shuo; Liu, Shi De; Zhang, Jian Hua; Xing, Miao

    2008-04-01

    Serine/arginine protein kinases are specific kinase family for phosphorylating SR protein regulating alternative splicing of SR protein and its distribution, localization in the nucleus. However, it is unclear how Physarum Polycephalum Serine/Arginine Protein Kinase(PSRPK) functions in the cells. In order to study its function, Oligonucleotides for transcribing siRNAs were designed and inserted into pSIREN-RetroQ vector to construct pSIREN-PSRPK-1, pSIREN-PSRPK-2, pSIREN-PSRPK-3, pSIREN-PSRPK-4, pSIREN-PSRPK-5 for expressing siRNAs targeting at PSRPK, as well as the negative control pSIREN-PSRPK-Neg. The PSRPK cDNA amplified by PCR was inserted into the pDsRed-N1 vector to construct a pPSRPK-DsRed plasmid. After the pPSRPK-DsRed was co-transfected into HEK293 cell with recombinant siRNA expression plasmids respectively, the PSRPK-DsRed fusion fluorescent protein was observed under fluorescent microscope after 72 hours co-transfection. The results indicated that pSIREN-PSRPK-2 and pSIREN-PSRPK-5 were able to inhibit the expression of PSRPK-DsRed fusion fluorescent protein efficiently. RT-PCR and Northern dot blot analysis further demonstrated that pSIREN-PSRPK-2 and pSIREN-PSRPK-5 can effectively inhibit PSRPK expression, which accorded with the results under the fluorescent microscope.

  4. Comprehensive Annotation of Physcomitrella patens Small RNA Loci Reveals That the Heterochromatic Short Interfering RNA Pathway Is Largely Conserved in Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Ceyda; Cho, Sung Hyun; Shahid, Saima; Liu, Qikun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Axtell, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Many plant small RNAs are sequence-specific negative regulators of target mRNAs and/or chromatin. In angiosperms, the two most abundant endogenous small RNA populations are usually 21-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide heterochromatic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heterochromatic siRNAs are derived from repetitive regions and reinforce DNA methylation at targeted loci. The existence and extent of heterochromatic siRNAs in other land plant lineages has been unclear. Using small RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the moss Physcomitrella patens, we identified 1090 loci that produce mostly 23- to 24-nucleotide siRNAs. These loci are mostly in intergenic regions with dense DNA methylation. Accumulation of siRNAs from these loci depends upon P. patens homologs of DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2, and the largest subunit of DNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IV, with the largest subunit of a Pol V homolog contributing to expression at a smaller subset of the loci. A MINIMAL DICER-LIKE (mDCL) gene, which lacks the N-terminal helicase domain typical of DCL proteins, is specifically required for 23-nucleotide siRNA accumulation. We conclude that heterochromatic siRNAs, and their biogenesis pathways, are largely identical between angiosperms and P. patens, with the notable exception of the P. patens-specific use of mDCL to produce 23-nucleotide siRNAs. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Covalently Functionalized of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by DSPE-PEG-PEI for SiRNA Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, King Sun; Zhang, Yujuan; Zheng, Xiufen; Koropatnick, James; Min, Wei-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The expression of a gene can be specifically downregulated by small interfering RNA (SiRNA). Modified carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be used to protect SiRNA and facilitate its entry into cells. Regardless of that, simple and efficient functionalization of CNT is lacking. Effective SiRNA delivery can be carried out using non-covalently functionalized CNT, where non-covalent (versus covalent) functionalization is simpler and more expeditious. Non-covalently functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) that include a lipopolymer are described here. Polyethylenimine (PEI) conjugated to 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG) was generated and the products used to disperse CNT to form DSPE-PEG-PEI/CNT (DGI/C), an agent capable of facilitating SiRNA delivery to cells in vitro and organs and cells in vivo.

  6. Lipid nanoparticles for targeted siRNA delivery - going from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, Timofei S; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Koteliansky, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the basic aspects of small interfering RNA delivery by lipid nano-particles (LNPs) and elaborates on the current status of clinical trials for these systems. We briefly describe the roles of all LNP components and possible strategies for their improvement. We also focus on the current clinical trials using LNP-formulated RNA and the possible outcomes for therapy in the near future. Also, we present a critical analysis of selected clinical trials that reveals the common logic behind target selection. We address this review to a wide audience, especially to medical doctors who are interested in the application of RNA interference-based treatment platforms. We anticipate that this review may spark interest in this particular audience and generate new ideas in target selection for the disorders they are dealing with.

  7. Enhancing endosomal escape for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Da

    2014-05-01

    Gene therapy with siRNA is a promising biotechnology to treat cancer and other diseases. To realize siRNA-based gene therapy, a safe and efficient delivery method is essential. Nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery is of great importance to overcome biological barriers for systemic delivery in vivo. Based on recent discoveries, endosomal escape is a critical biological barrier to be overcome for siRNA delivery. This feature article focuses on endosomal escape strategies used for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery, including cationic polymers, pH sensitive polymers, calcium phosphate, and cell penetrating peptides. Work has been done to develop different endosomal escape strategies based on nanoparticle types, administration routes, and target organ/cell types. Also, enhancement of endosomal escape has been considered along with other aspects of siRNA delivery to ensure target specific accumulation, high cell uptake, and low toxicity. By enhancing endosomal escape and overcoming other biological barriers, great progress has been achieved in nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery.

  8. Ultrasound assisted siRNA delivery using PEG-siPlex loaded microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Lentacker, Ine; Demeester, Joseph; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Sanders, Niek N

    2008-03-20

    Short interfering RNA (siRNA) attracts much attention for the treatment of various diseases. However, its delivery, especially via systemic routes, remains a challenge. Indeed, naked siRNAs are rapidly degraded, while complexed siRNAs massively aggregate in the blood or are captured by macrophages. Although this can be circumvented by PEGylation, we found that PEGylation had a strong negative effect on the gene silencing efficiency of siRNA-liposome complexes (siPlexes). Recently, ultrasound combined with microbubbles has been used to deliver naked siRNA but the gene silencing efficiency is rather low and very high amounts of siRNA are required. To overcome the negative effects of PEGylation and to enhance the efficiency of ultrasound assisted siRNA delivery, we coupled PEGylated siPlexes (PEG-siPlexes) to microbubbles. Ultrasound radiation of these microbubbles resulted in massive release of unaltered PEG-siPlexes. Interestingly, PEG-siPlexes loaded on microbubbles were able to enter cells after exposure to ultrasound, in contrast to free PEG-siPlexes, which were not able to enter cells rapidly. Furthermore, these PEG-siPlex loaded microbubbles induced, in the presence of ultrasound, much higher gene silencing than free PEG-siPlexes. Additionally, the PEG-siPlex loaded microbubbles only silenced the expression of genes in the presence of ultrasound, which allows space and time controlled gene silencing.

  9. Lipid nanoparticles for targeted siRNA delivery – going from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatsepin TS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Timofei S Zatsepin,1–3 Yuri V Kotelevtsev,1 Victor Koteliansky1,2 1Center of Functional Genomics, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 2Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 3Production Department, Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia Abstract: This review covers the basic aspects of small interfering RNA delivery by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs and elaborates on the current status of clinical trials for these systems. We briefly describe the roles of all LNP components and possible strategies for their improvement. We also focus on the current clinical trials using LNP-formulated RNA and the possible outcomes for therapy in the near future. Also, we present a critical analysis of selected clinical trials that reveals the common logic behind target selection. We address this review to a wide audience, especially to medical doctors who are interested in the application of RNA interference–based treatment platforms. We anticipate that this review may spark interest in this particular audience and generate new ideas in target selection for the disorders they are dealing with. Keywords: RNA therapeutics, siRNA, mRNA, lipid nanoparticle, targeted delivery, clinical trial

  10. siRNA delivery targeting to the lung via agglutination-induced accumulation and clearance of cationic tetraamino fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kosuke; Okamoto, Koji; Doi, Kent; Harano, Koji; Noiri, Eisei; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2014-05-01

    The efficient treatment of lung diseases requires lung-selective delivery of agents to the lung. However, lung-selective delivery is difficult because the accumulation of micrometer-sized carriers in the lung often induces inflammation and embolization-related toxicity. Here we demonstrate a lung-selective delivery system of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by controlling the size of carrier vehicle in blood vessels. The carrier is made of tetra(piperazino)fullerene epoxide (TPFE), a water-soluble cationic tetraamino fullerene. TPFE and siRNA form sub-micrometer-sized complexes in buffered solution and these complexes agglutinate further with plasma proteins in the bloodstream to form micrometer-sized particles. The agglutinate rapidly clogs the lung capillaries, releases the siRNA into lung cells to silence expression of target genes, and is then cleared rapidly from the lung after siRNA delivery. We applied our delivery system to an animal model of sepsis, indicating the potential of TPFE-based siRNA delivery for clinical applications.

  11. Bolaamphiphiles as carriers for siRNA delivery: From chemical syntheses to practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Afonin, Kirill A; Viard, Mathias; Herrero, Virginia; Kasprzak, Wojciech; Kagiampakis, Ioannis; Kim, Taejin; Koyfman, Alexey Y; Puri, Anu; Stepler, Marissa; Sappe, Alison; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Grinberg, Sarina; Linder, Charles; Heldman, Eliahu; Blumenthal, Robert; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2015-09-10

    In this study we have investigated a new class of cationic lipids--"bolaamphiphiles" or "bolas"--for their ability to efficiently deliver small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to cancer cells. The bolas of this study consist of a hydrophobic chain with one or more positively charged head groups at each end. Recently, we reported that micelles of the bolas GLH-19 and GLH-20 (derived from vernonia oil) efficiently deliver siRNAs, while having relatively low toxicities in vitro and in vivo. Our previous studies validated that; bolaamphiphiles can be designed to vary the magnitude of siRNA shielding, its delivery, and its subsequent release. To further understand the structural features of bolas critical for siRNAs delivery, new structurally related bolas (GLH-58 and GLH-60) were designed and synthesized from jojoba oil. Both bolas have similar hydrophobic domains and contain either one, in GLH-58, or two, in GLH-60 positively charged head groups at each end of the hydrophobic core. We have computationally predicted and experimentally validated that GLH-58 formed more stable nano sized micelles than GLH-60 and performed significantly better in comparison to GLH-60 for siRNA delivery. GLH-58/siRNA complexes demonstrated better efficiency in silencing the expression of the GFP gene in human breast cancer cells at concentrations of 5μg/mL, well below the toxic dose. Moreover, delivery of multiple different siRNAs targeting the HIV genome demonstrated further inhibition of virus production.

  12. Anti-VCAM-1 and anti-E-selectin SAINT-O-Somes for selective delivery of siRNA into inflammation-activated primary endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalski, Piotr S; Lintermans, Lucas L; Morselt, Henriëtte W M; Leus, Niek G J; Ruiters, Marcel H J; Molema, Grietje; Kamps, Jan A A M

    2013-01-01

    Activated endothelial cells play a pivotal role in the pathology of inflammatory diseases and present a rational target for therapeutic intervention by endothelial specific delivery of short interfering RNAs (siRNA). This study demonstrates the potential of the recently developed new generation of l

  13. A mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer carrier for adriamycin and siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peifeng; Yu, Hui; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Mingjie; Duan, Yourong

    2012-06-01

    A amphiphilic block copolymer composed of conventional monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (l-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL) was synthesized. The chemical structure of this copolymer and its precursors was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The copolymer was used to prepare nanoparticles (NPs) that were then loaded with either the anti-cancer drug adriamycin or small interfering RNA-negative (siRNA) using a double emulsion method. MTT assays used to study the in vitro cytotoxicity of mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs showed that these particles were not toxic in huh-7 hepatic carcinoma cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometer analysis results demonstrated efficient mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs-mediated delivery of both adriamycin and siRNA into the cells. In vivo the targeting delivery of adriamycin or siRNA mediated by mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs in the huh-7 hepatic carcinoma-bearing mice was evaluated using a fluorescence imaging system. The targeting delivery results and froze section analysis confirmed that drug or siRNA is deliver to tumor more efficiently by mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs than free drug or Lipofectamine™2000. The high efficiency delivery of mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs mainly due to the enhancement of cellular uptake. These results imply that mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs have a great potential to be used as an effective carriers for adriamycin or siRNA. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Silencing of focal adhesion kinase by tumor direct injection of small interfering RNA decreases in vivo tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Kae; Yamaura, Takeshi; Nakajima, Motowo; Honda, Toshiyuki; Kasaoka, Tatsuhiko

    2009-07-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is shown to be frequently correlated with malignancy of the tumor and poor prognosis of the diseases.Because FAK resides immediately downstream of the interaction of cell surface adhesion molecules and extracellular matricies, it is considered to be critical to regulate several cellular processes including growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility and apoptosis. However, the studies on the role of FAK related to cell proliferation have been limited even in vitro. Here, in order to validate the role of FAK in in vivo tumor formation and proliferation, we employed direct intratumoral injection of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting FAK with cationic liposome. Using shRNAs targeting FAK selected from the constructed shRNA library for FAK and by optimization of in vivo delivery conditions, we demonstrated different patterns of the association of FAK inhibition with in vivo tumor formation/proliferation inhibition in two models, PC3M heterotopic xenograft and 4T1 orthotopic syngraft models. These observations indicated that the roles of FAK in tumorigenesis are different among the tumor species. In addition, we showed that ERK is the critical MAP kinase in the signaling pathway down stream of FAK in in vivo proliferation of 4T1 tumor cells.

  15. Cell transcytosing poly-arginine coated magnetic nanovector for safe and effective siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Omid; Kievit, Forrest M; Mok, Hyejung; Ayesh, Joseph; Clark, Cassra; Fang, Chen; Leung, Matthew; Arami, Hamed; Park, James O; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-08-01

    Lack of safe and effective carriers for delivery of RNA therapeutics remains a barrier to its broad clinical application. We report the development of a cell tanscytosing magnetic nanovector engineered as an siRNA carrier. Iron oxide nanoparticles were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and a cationic polymer layer. Three nanovector formulations with cationic polymer coatings of poly-arginine (pArg), polylysine (pLys), and polyethylenimine (PEI), respectively, were prepared. The three nanovector formulations where evaluated for safety and ability to promote gene silencing in three types of cancer cells C6/GFP(+), MCF7/GFP(+), and TC2/GFP(+), mimicking human cancers of the brain, breast, and prostate, respectively. Cell viability and fluorescence quantification assays revealed that pArg-coated nanovectors were most effective in promoting gene knockdown and least toxic of the three nanovector formulations tested. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of nanovector treated cells further demonstrated that pArg-coated nanovectors enter cells through cell transcytosis, while pLys and PEI coated nanovectors enter cells endocytosis. Our findings suggest that NPs engineered to exploit the cell transcytosis intracellular trafficking pathway may offer a more safe and efficient route for siRNA delivery.

  16. siRNA delivery with lipid-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    in vivo, toxicity and non-specific stimulation of the immune system. To optimally design and tailor the lipidic systems for siRNA delivery, better insight is needed into the mechanisms of cell delivery. More specifically, further clarification is need regarding the nature of cell surface interactions...

  17. NBS1 knockdown by small interfering RNA increases ionizing radiation mutagenesis and telomere association in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lim, Chang U K.; Williams, Eli S.; Zhou, Junqing; Zhang, Qinming; Fox, Michael H.; Bailey, Susan M.; Liber, Howard L.

    2005-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations which lead to decreased function of the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that imparts an increased predisposition to development of malignancy. The NBS1 protein is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex that plays a critical role in cellular responses to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Using small interfering RNA transfection, we have knocked down NBS1 protein levels and analyzed relevant phenotypes in two closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different p53 status, namely wild-type TK6 and mutated WTK1. Both TK6 and WTK1 cells showed an increased level of ionizing radiation-induced mutation at the TK and HPRT loci, impaired phosphorylation of H2AX (gamma-H2AX), and impaired activation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulating kinase, Chk2. In TK6 cells, ionizing radiation-induced accumulation of p53/p21 and apoptosis were reduced. There was a differential response to ionizing radiation-induced cell killing between TK6 and WTK1 cells after NBS1 knockdown; TK6 cells were more resistant to killing, whereas WTK1 cells were more sensitive. NBS1 deficiency also resulted in a significant increase in telomere association that was independent of radiation exposure and p53 status. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that NBS1 deficiency in human cells leads to hypermutability and telomere associations, phenotypes that may contribute to the cancer predisposition seen among patients with this disease.

  18. Hybrid pulmonary surfactant-coated nanogels mediate efficient in vivo delivery of siRNA to murine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Lynn; Naessens, Thomas; De Koker, Stefaan; Zagato, Elisa; Demeester, Jo; Grooten, Johan; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen

    2015-11-10

    The local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs may provide a therapeutic solution to a range of pulmonary disorders. Resident alveolar macrophages (rAM) in the bronchoalveolar lumen play a critical role in lung inflammatory responses and therefore constitute a particularly attractive target for siRNA therapeutics. However, achieving efficient gene silencing in the lung while avoiding pulmonary toxicity requires appropriate formulation of siRNA in functional nanocarriers. In this study, we evaluated pulmonary surfactant-coated dextran nanogels for the delivery of siRNA to rAM upon pharyngeal aspiration in BALB/c mice. Both the surfactant-coated and uncoated nanogels achieved high levels of siRNA uptake in rAM, yet only the surfactant-coated formulation could significantly reduce gene expression on the protein level. Surfactant-coated nanogels induced a profound downregulation of target mRNA levels, reaching 70% knockdown with ~1mgkg(-1) siRNA dose. In addition, only mild acute pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses were detected one day after nanoparticle aspiration, accompanied by a moderate neutrophil infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lumen. The latter could be substantially reduced by removal of excess surfactant from the formulation. Overall, our hybrid core-shell nanoparticles have demonstrated safe and effective siRNA delivery to rAM, providing a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory pathologies in the lung.

  19. Novel and Recently Evolved MicroRNA Clusters Regulate Expansive F-BOX Gene Networks through Phased Small Interfering RNAs in Wild Diploid Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rui; Ye, Songqing; Liu, Zongrang; Meyers, Blake C; Liu, Zhongchi

    2015-09-01

    The wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has recently emerged as an excellent model for cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) as well as other Rosaceae fruit crops due to its short seed-to-fruit cycle, diploidy, and sequenced genome. Deep sequencing and parallel analysis of RNA ends were used to identify F. vesca microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes, respectively. Thirty-eight novel and 31 known miRNAs were identified. Many known miRNAs targeted not only conserved mRNA targets but also developed new target genes in F. vesca. Significantly, two new clusters of miRNAs were found to collectively target 94 F-BOX (FBX) genes. One of the miRNAs in the new cluster is 22 nucleotides and triggers phased small interfering RNA production from six FBX genes, which amplifies the silencing to additional FBX genes. Comparative genomics revealed that the main novel miRNA cluster evolved from duplications of FBX genes. Finally, conserved trans-acting siRNA pathways were characterized and confirmed with distinct features. Our work identified novel miRNA-FBX networks in F. vesca and shed light on the evolution of miRNAs/phased small interfering RNA networks that regulate large gene families in higher plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Degradable polymer-coated gold nanoparticles for co-delivery of DNA and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Corey J; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Green, Jordan J

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have utility for in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo imaging applications as well as for serving as a scaffold for therapeutic delivery and theranostic applications. Starting with gold nanoparticles as a core, layer-by-layer degradable polymer coatings enable the simultaneous co-delivery of DNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA). To engineer release kinetics, polymers which degrade through two different mechanisms can be utilized to construct hybrid inorganic/polymeric particles. During fabrication of the nanoparticles, the zeta potential reverses upon the addition of each oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer and the final nanoparticle size reaches approximately 200nm in diameter. When the hybrid gold/polymer/nucleic acid nanoparticles are added to human primary brain cancer cells in vitro, they are internalizable by cells and reach the cytoplasm and nucleus as visualized by transmission electron microscopy and observed through exogenous gene expression. This nanoparticle delivery leads to both exogenous DNA expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown, with the knockdown efficacy superior to that of Lipofectamine® 2000, a commercially available transfection reagent. These gold/polymer/nucleic acid hybrid nanoparticles are an enabling theranostic platform technology capable of delivering combinations of genetic therapies to human cells.

  1. Paclitaxel tumor priming promotes delivery and transfection of intravenous lipid-siRNA in pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Ze; Wang, Junfeng; Cui, Minjian; Yeung, Bertrand Z; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2015-10-28

    The major barrier for using small interfering RNA (siRNA) as cancer therapeutics is the inadequate delivery and transfection in solid tumors. We have previously shown that paclitaxel tumor priming, by inducing apoptosis, expands the tumor interstitial space, improves the penetration and dispersion of nanoparticles and siRNA-lipoplexes in 3-dimensional tumor histocultures, and promotes the delivery and transfection efficiency of siRNA-lipoplexes under the locoregional setting in vivo (i.e., intraperitoneal treatment of intraperitoneal tumors). The current study evaluated whether tumor priming is functional for systemically delivered siRNA via intravenous injection, which would subject siRNA to several additional delivery barriers and elimination processes. We used the same pegylated cationic (PCat)-siRNA lipoplexes as in the intraperitoneal study to treat mice bearing subcutaneous human pancreatic Hs766T xenograft tumors. The target gene was survivin, an inducible chemoresistance gene. The results show single agent paclitaxel delayed tumor growth but also significantly induced the survivin protein level in residual tumors, whereas addition of PCat-siSurvivin completely reversed the paclitaxel-induced survivin and enhanced the paclitaxel activity (p<0.05). In comparison, PCat-siSurvivin alone did not yield survivin knockdown or antitumor activity, indicating the in vivo effectiveness of intravenous siRNA-mediated gene silencing requires paclitaxel cotreatment. Additional in vitro studies showed that paclitaxel promoted the cytoplasmic release of siGLO, a 22 nucleotide double-stranded RNA that has no mRNA targets, from its PCat lipoplex and/or endosomes/lysosomes. Taken together, our earlier and current data show paclitaxel tumor priming, by promoting the interstitial transport and cytoplasmic release, is critical to promote the delivery and transfection of siRNA in vivo. In addition, because paclitaxel has broad spectrum activity and is used to treat multiple types

  2. Human DMBT1-Derived Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Intracellular siRNA Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tuttolomondo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNA (siRNA is a promising molecule for gene therapy, but its therapeutic administration remains problematic. Among the recently proposed vectors, cell-penetrating peptides show great promise in in vivo trials for siRNA delivery. Human protein DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 is a pattern recognition molecule that interacts with polyanions and recognizes and aggregates bacteria. Taking advantage of these properties, we investigated whether specific synthetic DMBT1-derived peptides could be used to formulate nanoparticles for siRNA administration. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and UV spectra, we identified two DMBT1 peptides that could encapsulate the siRNA with a self- and co-assembly mechanism. The complexes were stable for at least 2 hr in the presence of either fetal bovine serum (FBS or RNase A, with peptide-dependent time span protection. ζ-potential, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy revealed negatively charged nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10–800 nm, depending on the reaction conditions, and a spherical or rice-shaped morphology, depending on the peptide and β-helix conformation. We successfully transfected human MCF7 cells with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-DMBT1-peptide-Cy3-siRNA complexes. Finally, DMBT1 peptides encapsulating an siRNA targeting a fluorescent reporter gene showed efficient gene silencing in MCF7-recombinant cells. These results lay the foundation for a new research line to exploit DMBT1-peptide nanocomplexes for therapeutic siRNA delivery.

  3. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Na Wu,1,2,* Xinxin Zhang,2,* Feifei Li,2 Tao Zhang,2 Yong Gan,2 Juan Li1 1School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5–15 µm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery. Keywords: siRNA delivery, vaginal administration, spray-dried powders, mucus penetration, molecular sieve effect

  4. Efficient oncogene silencing and metastasis inhibition via systemic delivery of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shyh-Dar; Chono, Sumio; Huang, Leaf

    2008-05-01

    The selective delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to metastatic tumors remains a challenging task. We have developed a nanoparticle (NP) formulation composed of siRNA, a carrier DNA, a polycationic peptide, and cationic liposomes. The NP was obtained by a self-assembling process, followed by surface modification with a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated ligand, anisamide. The NP was PEGylated and a ligand was presented to target sigma receptor-expressing murine melanoma cells, B16F10. The lung metastasis model was established by intravenous (i.v.) injection of the B16F10 cells into C57BL/6 mice. A mixture of siRNA against MDM2, c-myc, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) co-formulated in the targeted NP caused simultaneous silencing of each of the oncogenes in the metastatic nodules. Two consecutive i.v. injections of siRNA in the targeted NP significantly reduced the lung metastasis (approximately 70-80%) at a relatively low dose (0.45 mg/kg), whereas free siRNA and the nontargeted NP showed little effect. This targeted NP formulation significantly prolonged the mean survival time of the animals by 30% as compared to the untreated controls. At the therapeutic dose, the targeted NP showed little local and systemic immunotoxicity and did not decrease the body weight or damage the major organs.

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans RIG-I Homolog Mediates Antiviral RNA Interference Downstream of Dicer-Dependent Biogenesis of Viral Small Interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Stephanie R.; Lu, Jinfeng; Guo, Xunyang; Zhong, Jing; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Li, Wan-Xiang; Lu, Rui; Maduro, Morris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection. However, it remains unclear if DRH-1 acts analogously to initiate antiviral RNAi in C. elegans. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen to characterize antiviral RNAi in C. elegans. Using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy, we uncovered four loss-of-function alleles of drh-1, three of which caused mutations in the helicase and C-terminal domains conserved in RLRs. Deep sequencing of small RNAs revealed an abundant population of Dicer-dependent virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in drh-1 single and double mutant animals after infection with Orsay virus, a positive-strand RNA virus. These findings provide further genetic evidence for the antiviral function of DRH-1 and illustrate that DRH-1 is not essential for the sensing and Dicer-mediated processing of the viral dsRNA replicative intermediates. Interestingly, vsiRNAs produced by drh-1 mutants were mapped overwhelmingly to the terminal regions of the viral genomic RNAs, in contrast to random distribution of vsiRNA hot spots when DRH-1 is functional. As RIG-I translocates on long dsRNA and DRH-1 exists in a complex with Dicer, we propose that DRH-1 facilitates the biogenesis of vsiRNAs in nematodes by catalyzing translocation of the Dicer complex on the viral long dsRNA precursors. PMID:28325765

  6. Microfluidic Synthesis of Highly Potent Limit-size Lipid Nanoparticles for In Vivo Delivery of siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Belliveau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles (LNP are the leading systems for in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA for therapeutic applications. Formulation of LNP siRNA systems requires rapid mixing of solutions containing cationic lipid with solutions containing siRNA. Current formulation procedures employ macroscopic mixing processes to produce systems 70-nm diameter or larger that have variable siRNA encapsulation efficiency, homogeneity, and reproducibility. Here, we show that microfluidic mixing techniques, which permit millisecond mixing at the nanoliter scale, can reproducibly generate limit size LNP siRNA systems 20 nm and larger with essentially complete encapsulation of siRNA over a wide range of conditions with polydispersity indexes as low as 0.02. Optimized LNP siRNA systems produced by microfluidic mixing achieved 50% target gene silencing in hepatocytes at a dose level of 10 µg/kg siRNA in mice. We anticipate that microfluidic mixing, a precisely controlled and readily scalable technique, will become the preferred method for formulation of LNP siRNA delivery systems.

  7. Impact of CHK2-small interfering RNA on CpG ODN7909-enhanced radiosensitivity in lung cancer A549 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen W; Liu XQ; Qiao TK; Yuan SJ

    2012-01-01

    Wei Chen,* Xiaoqun Liu,* Tiankui Qiao, Sujuan Yuan Department of Oncology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To investigate the impact of checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2)-small interfering RNA (CHK2-siRNA) on the enhancement of radiosensitivity by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) 7909 in lung cancer A549 cells.Methods: The A549 cells were randomly divided into five groups: control, CpG, X-ray, CpG ...

  8. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for survivin targeted siRNA delivery in breast tumor therapy and preventing its metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming; Fan, Bo; Kang, Lin; Gao, Zhonggao

    Nanoparticle-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a promising therapeutic strategy in various cancers. However, it is difficult to deliver degradative siRNA to tumor tissue, and thus a safe and efficient vector for siRNA delivery is essential for cancer therapy. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-modified chitosan (PEG-CS) was synthesized successfully for delivering nucleic acid drug. We deemed that PEGylated CS could improve its solubility by forming a stable siRNA loaded in nanoparticles, and enhancing transfection efficiency of siRNA-loaded CS nanoparticles in cancer cell line. The research results showed that siRNA loaded in PEGylated CS (PEG-CS/siRNA) nanoparticles with smaller particle size had superior structural stability in the physical environment compared to CS nanoparticles. The data of in vitro antitumor activity revealed that 4T1 tumor cell growth was significantly inhibited and cellular uptake of PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles in 4T1 cells was dramatically enhanced compared to naked siRNA groups. The results from flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles were more easily taken up than naked siRNA. Importantly, PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors of 4T1 cells in vivo. It has been demonstrated that the PEG-CS is a safe and efficient vector for siRNA delivery, and it can effectively reduce tumor growth and prevent metastasis.

  9. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for survivin targeted siRNA delivery in breast tumor therapy and preventing its metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming; Fan, Bo; Kang, Lin; Gao, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a promising therapeutic strategy in various cancers. However, it is difficult to deliver degradative siRNA to tumor tissue, and thus a safe and efficient vector for siRNA delivery is essential for cancer therapy. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-modified chitosan (PEG-CS) was synthesized successfully for delivering nucleic acid drug. We deemed that PEGylated CS could improve its solubility by forming a stable siRNA loaded in nanoparticles, and enhancing transfection efficiency of siRNA-loaded CS nanoparticles in cancer cell line. The research results showed that siRNA loaded in PEGylated CS (PEG-CS/siRNA) nanoparticles with smaller particle size had superior structural stability in the physical environment compared to CS nanoparticles. The data of in vitro antitumor activity revealed that 4T1 tumor cell growth was significantly inhibited and cellular uptake of PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles in 4T1 cells was dramatically enhanced compared to naked siRNA groups. The results from flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles were more easily taken up than naked siRNA. Importantly, PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors of 4T1 cells in vivo. It has been demonstrated that the PEG-CS is a safe and efficient vector for siRNA delivery, and it can effectively reduce tumor growth and prevent metastasis. PMID:27729789

  10. Multifunctional polymeric micelles for delivery of drugs and siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi M. Jhaveri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric micelles, self-assembling nano-constructs of amphiphilic copolymers with a core-shell structure have been used as versatile carriers for delivery of drugs as well as nucleic acids. They have gained immense popularity owing to a host of favorable properties including their capacity to effectively solubilize a variety of poorly soluble pharmaceutical agents, biocompatibility, longevity, high stability in vitro and in vivo and the ability to accumulate in pathological areas with compromised vasculature. Moreover, additional functions can be imparted to these micelles by engineering their surface with various ligands and cell-penetrating moieties to allow for specific targeting and intracellular accumulation, respectively, to load them with contrast agents to confer imaging capabilities, and incorporating stimuli-sensitive groups that allow drug release in response to small changes in the environment. Recently, there has been an increasing trend towards designing polymeric micelles which integrate a number of the above functions into a single carrier to give rise to smart, multifunctional polymeric micelles. Such multifunctional micelles can be envisaged as key to improving the efficacy of current treatments which have seen a steady increase not only in hydrophobic small molecules, but also in biologics including therapeutic genes, antibodies and small interfering RNA (siRNA. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the development of multifunctional polymeric micelles specifically for delivery of drugs and siRNA. In spite of the tremendous potential of siRNA, its translation into clinics has been a significant challenge because of physiological barriers to its effective delivery and the lack of safe, effective and clinically suitable vehicles. To that end, we also discuss the potential and suitability of multifunctional polymeric micelles, including lipid-based micelles, as promising vehicles for both siRNA and drugs.

  11. The synergistic therapeutic effect of cisplatin with Human papillomavirus E6/E7 short interfering RNA on cervical cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun Soon; Erkin, Ozgur Cem; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Kim, Seok Hyung; Jung, Jae In; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Her, Song Wook; Ju, Woong; Choi, Yoon-La; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Joong Kyu; Kim, Young Deug; Shim, Ga Yong; Shin, Young Kee

    2012-04-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are the major etiologic factors in the development of cervical epithelial neoplasia. Our study was designed to validate antiviral short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the E6 and E7 oncogenes as a potential chemosensitizer of cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) in cervical carcinoma. Specifically, the therapeutic efficacy of combination of CDDP and E6/E7-specific siRNA was assessed in an in vivo cervical cancer xenograft models. The combination of CDDP and E6/E7-specific siRNA had greater efficacy than the combination of CDDP and E6-specific siRNA especially in terms of inducing cellular senescence. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, the mechanism of synergy between these two treatments was revealed, demonstrating that the combination of E6/E7-specific siRNA and CDDP therapy was significantly superior to either modality alone. In vitro, long-term exposure of HeLa cells to the combination of CDDP and E6/E7-specific siRNA induced apoptosis and cellular senescence. In vivo, E6/E7-specific siRNA potentiated the antitumor efficacy of CDDP via induction of apoptosis, senescence and antiangiogenesis. Our results suggest that E6/E7-specific siRNA may be an effective sensitizer of CDDP chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  12. Bio-inspired pulmonary surfactant-modified nanogels: A promising siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Lynn; Braeckmans, Kevin; Stuart, Marc C A; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen

    2015-05-28

    Inhalation therapy with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach in the treatment of pulmonary disorders. However, clinical translation is severely limited by the lack of suitable delivery platforms. In this study, we aim to address this limitation by designing a novel bioinspired hybrid nanoparticle with a core-shell nanoarchitecture, consisting of a siRNA-loaded dextran nanogel (siNG) core and a pulmonary surfactant (Curosurf®) outer shell. The decoration of siNGs with a surfactant shell enhances the colloidal stability and prevents siRNA release in the presence of competing polyanions, which are abundantly present in biofluids. Additionally, the impact of the surfactant shell on the biological efficacy of the siNGs is determined in lung cancer cells. The presence of the surfactants substantially reduces the cellular uptake of siNGs. Remarkably, the lowered intracellular dose does not impede the gene silencing effect, suggesting a crucial role of the pulmonary surfactant in the intracellular processing of the nanoparticles. In order to surmount the observed reduction in cellular dose, folate is incorporated as a targeting ligand in the pulmonary surfactant shell to incite receptor-mediated endocytosis. The latter substantially enhances both cellular uptake and gene silencing potential, achieving efficient knockdown at siRNA concentrations in the low nanomolar range.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of amino acid-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles for siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Feray; Kara, Goknur; Cokol Cakmak, Melike; Cokol, Murat; Denkbas, Emir Baki

    2017-06-27

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are short nucleic acid fragments of about 20-27 nucleotides, which can inhibit the expression of specific genes. siRNA based RNAi technology has emerged as a promising method for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, a major limitation in the therapeutic use of siRNA is its rapid degradation in plasma and cellular cytoplasm, resulting in short half-life. In addition, as siRNA molecules cannot penetrate into the cell efficiently, it is required to use a carrier system for its delivery. In this work, chemically and morphologically different calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles, including spherical-like hydroxyapatite (HA-s), needle-like hydroxyapatite (HA-n) and calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel technique and the effects of particle characteristics on the binding capacity of siRNA were investigated. In order to enhance the gene loading efficiency, the nanoparticles were functionalized with arginine and the morphological and their structural characteristics were analyzed. The addition of arginine did not significantly change the particle sizes; however, it provided a significantly increased binding of siRNA for all types of CaP nanoparticles, as revealed by spectrophotometric measurements analysis. Arginine functionalized HA-n nanoparticles showed the best binding behavior with siRNA among the other nanoparticles due to its high, positive zeta potential (+18.8mV) and high surface area of Ca(++) rich "c" plane. MTT cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that all the nanoparticles tested herein were biocompatible. Our results suggest that high siRNA entrapment in each of the three modified non-toxic CaP nanoparticles make them promising candidates as a non-viral vector for delivering therapeutic siRNA molecules to treat cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemosensitization of cancer cells by siRNA using targeted nanogel delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackburn William H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Targeted therapies that enhance cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase drug efficacy while reducing toxic effects on untargeted cells. Targeted cancer therapy by RNA interference (RNAi is a relatively new approach that can be used to reversibly silence genes in vivo by selectively targeting genes such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, which has been shown to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to taxane chemotherapy. However, delivery represents the main hurdle for the broad development of RNAi therapeutics. Methods We report here the use of core/shell hydrogel nanoparticles (nanogels functionalized with peptides that specially target the EphA2 receptor to deliver small interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting EGFR. Expression of EGFR was determined by immunoblotting, and the effect of decreased EGFR expression on chemosensitization of ovarian cancer cells after siRNA delivery was investigated. Results Treatment of EphA2 positive Hey cells with siRNA-loaded, peptide-targeted nanogels decreased EGFR expression levels and significantly increased the sensitivity of this cell line to docetaxel (P 0.05. Conclusion This study suggests that targeted delivery of siRNAs by nanogels may be a promising strategy to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In addition, EphA2 is a viable target for therapeutic delivery, and the siRNAs are effectively protected by the nanogel carrier, overcoming the poor stability and uptake that has hindered clinical advancement of therapeutic siRNAs.

  15. Evaluation of carrier-mediated siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    RNA delivered by use of carriers remains an analytical challenge. The purpose of the present study was to optimize and validate an analytical protocol based on stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR) to quantitatively monitor the carrier-mediated intracellular si......RNA delivery. An in vitro cell culture model system expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used to develop the assay, which was based on the intracellular quantification of a full-length double-stranded Dicer substrate siRNA by stem-loop RT qPCR. The result is a well-documented protocol...

  16. Potential crosstalk of Ca2+-ROS-dependent mechanism involved in apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells mediated by heme oxygenase-1 small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sixi; Wang, Yating; Chai, Qixiang; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Yaming; Wang, Jishi

    2014-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requires new therapies on the molecular level. Downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by gene silencing improves the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapy drugs and promotes apoptosis. For the first time, we verified that endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways were activated by small interfering RNA that targeted-silenced the expression of HO-1 in AML-M2 Kasumi-1 cells. Ca2+ was prone to accumulation and reactive oxygen species were easily generated, while mitochondrial transmembrane potential was reduced. Thus, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and caspases were activated for the following cascade to facilitate apoptosis.

  17. Method for Confirming Cytoplasmic Delivery of RNA Aptamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, David D; Dassie, Justin P; Giangrande, Paloma H

    2016-01-01

    RNA aptamers are single-stranded RNA oligos that represent a powerful emerging technology with potential for treating numerous diseases. More recently, cell-targeted RNA aptamers have been developed for delivering RNA interference (RNAi) modulators (siRNAs and miRNAs) to specific diseased cells (e.g., cancer cells or HIV infected cells) in vitro and in vivo. However, despite initial promising reports, the broad application of this aptamer delivery technology awaits the development of methods that can verify and confirm delivery of aptamers to the cytoplasm of target cells where the RNAi machinery resides. We recently developed a functional assay (RIP assay) to confirm cellular uptake and subsequent cytoplasmic release of an RNA aptamer which binds to a cell surface receptor expressed on prostate cancer cells (PSMA). To assess cytoplasmic delivery, the aptamer was chemically conjugated to saporin, a ribosome inactivating protein toxin that is toxic to cells only when delivered to the cytoplasm (where it inhibits the ribosome) by a cell-targeting ligand (e.g., aptamer). Here, we describe the chemistry used to conjugate the aptamer to saporin and discuss a gel-based method to verify conjugation efficiency. We also detail an in vitro functional assay to confirm that the aptamer retains function following conjugation to saporin and describe a cellular assay to measure aptamer-mediated saporin-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26472453

  18. Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway Constitutively Activated in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines and Inhibition of Growth of Cells by Small Interfering RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang TIAN; Wei-Dong ZANG; Wei-Hong HOU; Hong-Tao LIU; Le-Xun XUE

    2006-01-01

    Although constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation has been reported in many human tumors, the role of the NF-κB pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been known.In this study, NF-κB pathway in two ESCC cell lines was investigated using immunocytochemistry, Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The activation of NF-κB DNA binding was determined by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. RNA interference was used to specifically inhibit the expression of p65. Growth of cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.The results showed that p50, p65, Iκ Bα, p-Iκ Bα and Iκ B kinase β were expressed and mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed the constitutive expressions of p50, p65 and Iκ Bα mRNA in the two ESCC cell lines. Furthermore, the nuclear extracts revealed that p50 and p65 translocated to the nucleus had DNA-binding activity. Finally, small interfering RNA of p65 decreased the expression of p65, and the viability of cells transfected with p65 small interfering RNA was significantly suppressed at the same concentration of 5-fluorouracil (P<0.05) compared to untransfected cells. The results of this study showed that there was the constitutively activated NF-κB signaling pathway in the ESCC cell lines. RNA interference targeting at p65 increased the sensitivity of the ESCC cell lines to 5-fluorouracil,suggesting that NF-κB might be a good target for cancer treatment.

  19. The spacer arm length in cell-penetrating peptides influences chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle delivery for pulmonary inflammation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Jangwook; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2015-11-01

    Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of R9Gn-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. Increasing the spacing arm length did not significantly affect the complex formation between R9Gn-chitosan and siRNA. However, R9G10-chitosan was much more effective in delivering genes both in vitro and in vivo compared with non-modified chitosan (without the peptide) and R9-chitosan (without the spacer arm). Chitosan derivatives modified with oligoarginine containing a spacer arm can be considered as potential delivery vehicles for various genes.Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of

  20. Role of generation, architecture, pH and ionic strength on successful siRNA delivery and transfection by hybrid PPV-PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, G M; Monteagudo, S; Guerra, J; Carrión, B; Ocaña, V; Rodríguez-Lopez, J; Danani, A; Pérez-Martínez, F C; Ceña, V

    2012-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) constitutes an excellent way of knocking down genes. However, it requires the use of delivery systems to reach the target cells, especially to neuronal cells. Dendrimers are one of the most widely used synthetic nanocarriers for siRNA delivery. However, due to the complexity of the dendrimer-siRNA interactions, when a new dendritic carrier is designed it is difficult to predict its efficiency to bind and to deliver siRNA. At the same time it is not easy to understand the origin of eventual limited functionalities. We have modeled the interactions between two dendrimers (TDG-G1 and TDG-G2) and siRNA using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results were compared to experimental physico-chemical parameters such as siRNA complexation, complex stability, size, and zeta potentials and biological effects such as down-regulation of a specific RNA expression in cortical neurons in culture. Data indicate that the combination of rigid core and flexible branches guarantees strong siRNA binding, which is important to have a good transfection profile. However, the successful nanocarrier for siRNA delivery (TDG-G1) is identified not only by a high affinity for siRNA, but by a favorable equilibrium between a strong binding and the ability to release siRNA to exert its biological action. The conditions under which the dendriplex is formed are also relevant for transfection efficiency and biological activity.

  1. Development of a simple, biocompatible and cost-effective Inulin-Diethylenetriamine based siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, C; Farra, R; Licciardi, M; Dapas, B; Scialabba, C; Giammona, G; Grassi, M; Grassi, G; Cavallaro, G

    2015-07-30

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have the potential to be of therapeutic value for many human diseases. So far, however, a serious obstacle to their therapeutic use is represented by the absence of appropriate delivery systems able to protect them from degradation and to allow an efficient cellular uptake. In this work we developed a siRNA delivery system based on inulin (Inu), an abundant and natural polysaccharide. Inu was functionalized via the conjugation with diethylenetriamine (DETA) residues to form the complex Inu-DETA. We studied the size, surface charge and the shape of the Inu-DETA/siRNA complexes; additionally, the cytotoxicity, the silencing efficacy and the cell uptake-mechanisms were studied in the human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) and in the hepatocellular carcinoma derived cells (JHH6). The results presented here indicate that Inu-DETA copolymers can effectively bind siRNAs, are highly cytocompatible and, in JHH6, can effectively deliver functional siRNAs. Optimal delivery is observed using a weight ratio Inu-DETA/siRNA of 4 that corresponds to polyplexes with an average size of 600nm and a slightly negative surface charge. Moreover, the uptake and trafficking mechanisms, mainly based on micropinocytosis and clatrin mediated endocytosis, allow the homogeneous diffusion of siRNA within the cytoplasm of JHH6. Notably, in 16 HBE where the trafficking mechanism (caveolae mediated endocytosis) does not allow an even distribution of siRNA within the cell cytoplasm, no significant siRNA activity is observed. In conclusion, we developed a novel inulin-based siRNA delivery system able to efficiently release siRNA in JHH6 with negligible cytotoxicity thus opening the way for further testing in more complex in vivo models.

  2. Versatile RNA interference nanoplatform for systemic delivery of RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Silvestre, Oscar F; Huang, Xinglu; Min, Kyung Hyun; Howard, Gregory P; Hida, Naoki; Jin, Albert J; Carvajal, Nicole; Lee, Sang Wook; Hong, Jong-In; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-05-27

    Development of nontoxic, tumor-targetable, and potent in vivo RNA delivery systems remains an arduous challenge for clinical application of RNAi therapeutics. Herein, we report a versatile RNAi nanoplatform based on tumor-targeted and pH-responsive nanoformulas (NFs). The NF was engineered by combination of an artificial RNA receptor, Zn(II)-DPA, with a tumor-targetable and drug-loadable hyaluronic acid nanoparticle, which was further modified with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating by in situ mineralization. The NF can encapsulate small-molecule drugs within its hydrophobic inner core and strongly secure various RNA molecules (siRNAs, miRNAs, and oligonucleotides) by utilizing Zn(II)-DPA and a robust CaP coating. We substantiated the versatility of the RNAi nanoplatform by demonstrating effective delivery of siRNA and miRNA for gene silencing or miRNA replacement into different human types of cancer cells in vitro and into tumor-bearing mice in vivo by intravenous administration. The therapeutic potential of NFs coloaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and multidrug resistance 1 gene target siRNA (siMDR) was also demonstrated in this study. NFs loaded with Dox and siMDR could successfully sensitize drug-resistant OVCAR8/ADR cells to Dox and suppress OVCAR8/ADR tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This gene/drug delivery system appears to be a highly effective nonviral method to deliver chemo- and RNAi therapeutics into host cells.

  3. Laser-Triggered Small Interfering RNA Releasing Gold Nanoshells against Heat Shock Protein for Sensitized Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Min; Ma, Yi; Liu, Yuxi; Gao, Weidong; Zhang, Jiaqi; Gu, Yueqing

    2017-02-01

    The resistance of cancer cells to photothermal therapy is closely related to the overexpression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are abnormally upregulated when cells are under lethal stresses. Common strategies that use small molecule inhibitors against HSPs to enhance hyperthermia effect lack spatial and temporal control of drug release, leading to unavoidable systemic toxicity. Herein, a versatile photothermal platform is developed which is composed of a hollow gold nanoshell core densely packed with small interfering RNAs against heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Upon near infrared light irradiation, the small interfering RNAs can detach from gold surface specifically and escape from endosomes for Hsp70 silencing. Meanwhile, the temperature increases for hyperthermia therapy due to the high photothermal efficiency of the nanoshells. Efficient downregulation of Hsp70 after light activation is achieved in vitro and in vivo. Ultimately, the light-controlled dual functional nanosystem, with the effects of Hsp70 silencing and temperature elevation, results in sensitized photothermal therapy in nude mice model under mild temperature. This strategy smartly combines the localized photothermal therapy with controlled Hsp70 silencing, and has great potential for clinical translation with a simple and easily controlled structure.

  4. Linear polyethylenimine produced by partial acid hydrolysis of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline for DNA and siRNA delivery in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes JC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Fernandes,1 Xingping Qiu,2 Françoise M Winnik,2,5 Mohamed Benderdour,1 Xiaoling Zhang,3,4 Kerong Dai,3,4 Qin Shi1 1Orthopaedics Research Laboratory, Research Centre, Sacré-Coeur Hospital, 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Chemistry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 3Orthopaedic Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratories, Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5WPI International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, Tsukuba, Japan Abstract: Polyethylenimines (PEIs are the most efficient synthetic vectors for gene delivery available to date. With its high charge density and strong proton-buffering effect, PEI has an ability to condense DNA and small interfering RNA at physiologic pH. However, the polymer suffers from the disadvantage of high cellular toxicity. To reduce its cellular toxicity, we synthesized linear PEIs by partial hydrolysis of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline. Three linear PEIs with different hydrolysis percentages (30%, 70%, and 96%, respectively were produced as PEI30, PEI70, and PEI96. PEI30 and PEI96 cannot be considered as suitable transfection agents because of low transfection efficiency (PEI30 or high cellular toxicity (PEI96. PEI70 displayed very weak cell toxicity. The charge density of this polymer (PEI70 was strong enough to condense DNA and small interfering RNA at a physiologic pH of 7.4. Our results also show that PEI70 was highly efficient in DNA delivery and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of target genes. Thus, polymers such as PEI70 appear to be very promising vectors for gene delivery. Keywords: nonviral vector, polyethylenimine, gene delivery, DNA, small interfering RNA

  5. Silencing tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) with short interfering RNA reveals a role for TIMP-1 in hepatic stellate cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowell, Andrew J., E-mail: ajf2@soton.ac.uk [Liver and Pancreas Group, University of Southampton, Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Collins, Jane E.; Duncombe, Dale R.; Pickering, Judith A. [Liver and Pancreas Group, University of Southampton, Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Rosenberg, William M.C. [Centre for Hepatology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Benyon, R. Christopher [Liver and Pancreas Group, University of Southampton, Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Myofibroblastic, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis. {yields} We used short interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the effects of autocrine TIMP-1 and -2 on HSC proliferation. {yields} Specific silencing of TIMP-1, but not TIMP-2, significantly reduces HSC proliferation and is associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation. {yields} TIMP-1 is localised in part to the HSC nucleus. {yields} TIMP-1 might promote liver fibrosis by means other than its previously described anti-apoptotic effect on HSC. -- Abstract: Myofibroblastic, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis through the secretion of fibrillar collagens and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2. TIMPs are believed to promote hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting both matrix degradation and apoptosis of HSC. In other cell types, there is evidence that TIMP-1 has effects on proliferation, however the role of TIMPs in the regulation of HSC proliferation remains unexplored. Therefore, we have used short interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the effects of autocrine TIMP-1 and -2 on HSC proliferation. TIMP-1 and -2 siRNA were highly effective, producing peak target protein knockdown compared to negative control siRNA of 92% and 63%, respectively. Specific silencing of TIMP-1, using siRNA, significantly reduced HSC proliferation. TIMP-1 was localised in part to the HSC nucleus and TIMP-1 siRNA resulted in loss of both cytoplasmic and nuclear TIMP-1. Attenuated proliferation was associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation and was partially rescued by addition of recombinant TIMP-1. We have revealed a novel autocrine mitogenic effect of TIMP-1 on HSC, which may involve Akt-dependent and specific nuclear mechanisms of action. We suggest that TIMP-1 might promote liver fibrosis by means other than its previously described anti-apoptotic effect on HSC. Moreover

  6. Design, synthesis and evaluation of VEGF-siRNA/CRS as a novel vector for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao W

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhao, Yifan Zhang, Xueyun Jiang, Chunying Cui School of Chemical Biology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: Small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy. The biological activities were evaluated using cell viability assay, gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and antitumor tests in vivo. The mean nanoparticle size of VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 121.4±0.3 nm with positive ζ potential of 7.69±4.47 mV. The release rate of VEGF-siRNA from VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 82.50% sustained for 48 h in Tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer (pH 8.0. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the efficiency of the transfection, and the result showed that VEGF mRNA expression had been knocked down by 82.36%. The expression of VEGF protein was also recorded to be downregulated to 14.83% using ELISA. The results of cytotoxicity measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that VEGF-siRNA/CRS had significant inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. The results of antitumor assays indicated that VEGF-siRNA/CRS exhibited tumor cell growth inhibition in vivo. The results demonstrated that VEGF-siRNA could be delivered and transported by the designed carrier, while siRNA could be released constantly and led to an increasing gene-silencing effect against VEGF gene. In conclusion, VEGF-siRNA/CRS is a promising carrier for siRNA

  7. Silencing of myeloid cell leukemia-1 by small interfering RNA improves chemosensitivity to etoposide in u-937 leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarlou, M; Baradaran, B; Shanehbandi, D; Saedi, T A; Jafarlou, V; Karimi, P; Othman, F

    2016-01-01

    A key issue in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the development of drug resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Overexpression of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), an anti-apoptotic protein, is associated with tumor progression and drug resistance in leukemia and several cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of specific Mcl-1 small interference RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation and chemosensitivity of U-937 AML cell to etoposide. The siRNA transfection was conducted using Lipofectamine™ 2000. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were employed to measure the expression levels of mRNA and protein, respectively. To evaluate tumor cell growth after siRNA transfection, Trypan blue exclusion assay was conducted. The cytotoxic effects of siRNA and etoposide were determined using MTT assay on their own and in combination. DNA-histone ELISA and annexin-V/FITC assays were performed to study the apoptosis. Mcl-1 siRNA transfection significantly blocked the expression of Mcl-1 mRNA and protein in a time-dependent manner, leading to a strong growth inhibition and enhanced apoptosis (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, pretreatment with Mcl-1 siRNA, synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of etoposide (P less than 0.05). Our results demonstrated that Mcl-1 plays a fundamental role in the survival and resistance of U-937 cells to etoposide. Therefore, Mcl-1 can be considered an attractive target in gene therapy of AML patients and siRNA-mediated silencing of this gene may be a novel strategy in AML treatment.

  8. Dendrosome-based delivery of siRNA against E6 and E7 oncogenes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tathagata; Burgess, Melinda; McMillan, Nigel A J; Parekh, Harendra S

    2010-06-01

    Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment holds great promise for the treatment of cancers, the field has been held back by the availability of suitable delivery vehicles. For cervical cancer the E6 and E7 oncogenes are ideal siRNA targets for treatment. The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential of dendrosomes for the delivery of siRNA targeting E6 and E7 proteins of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Optimization of dendrimer generation and nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio was carried out using dendrimer-fluorescein isothiocyanate oligo complexes. The optimized N/P ratios were used in formulating complexes between dendrimers and siRNA targeting green fluorescence protein (siGFP). Although formulation 4D100 (dendrimer-siRNA complex) displayed the highest GFP knockdown, it was also found to be highly toxic to cells. In the final formulation 4D100 was encapsulated into dendrosomes so as to mask these toxic effects. The optimized dendrosomal formulation (DF), DF3 was found to possess a siGFP-entrapment efficiency of 49.76% +/- 1.62%, vesicle size of 154 +/- 1.73 nm, and zeta potential of +3.21 +/- 0.07 mV. The GFP knockdown efficiency of DF3 (dendrosome) was found to be almost identical to that of 4D100, but the former was completely nontoxic to the cells. DF3 containing siRNA against E6 and E7 was found to knock down the target genes considerably, as compared with the other formulations tested. Our results imply that dendrosomes hold potential for the delivery of siRNA and that a suitable targeting strategy could be useful for applications in vivo. siRNA treatment holds great promise for the treatment of cancers, but overall, the availability of suitable delivery vehicles remains a major issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of dendrosomes for the delivery of siRNA targeting specific proteins in cervical cancer cells in vitro. The results suggest that dendrosomes hold potential for the delivery of siRNA and a suitable

  9. Local delivery of siRNA using a biodegradable polymer application to enhance BMP-induced bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Akinobu; Takayama, Kazushi; Imai, Yuuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Takaoka, Kunio

    2011-12-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is useful tool for specific and efficient knockdown of disease-related genes. However, in vivo applications of siRNA are limited due to difficulty in its efficient delivery to target cells. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a biodegradable hydrogel, poly-d,l-lactic acid-p-dioxanone-polyethylene glycol block co-polymer (PLA-DX-PEG), as a siRNA carrier. PLA-DX-PEG pellets with or without fluorescein-labeled dsRNA were implanted into mouse dosal muscle pouches. The cellular uptake of dsRNA surround the polymer was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. The fluorescence intensity was dose-dependent of the dsRNA, and exhibited a time-dependent decrease. To investigate its biological efficiency, noggin (antagonoist to BMPs) gene-silencing with siRNA (siRNA/Noggin) was examined by the amount of suppression of BMP-2-induced noggin expression and the level of performance of BMP, indicated by ectopic bone formation. Noggin gene expression induced by BMP-2 was suppressed by addition of siRNA/Noggin to the implant, and the ectopic bone formation induced by implants with both BMP-2 and siRNA/Noggin was significantly greater than those induced by implants with BMP-2 alone. These results indicate the efficacy of local delivery of siRNAs by PLA-DX-PEG polymer, which intensified bone-inducing effects of BMP and promoted new bone formation by suppressing gene expression of Noggin.

  10. Small interfering RNAs targeting peste des petits ruminants virus M mRNA increase virus-mediated fusogenicity and inhibit viral replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Zou, Yanli; Li, Lin; Liu, Shan; Chi, Tianying; Wang, Zhiliang

    2015-11-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), is an acute or subacute, highly contagious and economically important disease of small ruminants. The PPRV is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The PPRV matrix (M) protein possesses an intrinsic ability to bind to lipid membranes, and plays a crucial role in viral assembly and further budding. In this study, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNA) were designed on the basis of translated region for PPRV Nigeria 75/1M mRNA, and were subsequently synthesized for their transfection into Vero-SLAM cells, followed by infection with PPRVs. The results showed that two out of three siRNAs robustly induced cell-to-cell fusion as early as 36h post-infection with PPRVs, effectively suppressed expression of the M protein by interference for the M mRNA, and eventually inhibited viral replication in vitro. These findings led us to speculate that siRNA-mediated knockdown of the M protein would alter its interaction with viral glycoproteins, thus exacerbating intercellular fusion but hampering virus release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cancer-targeted MDR-1 siRNA delivery using self-cross-linked glycol chitosan nanoparticles to overcome drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhee, Ji Young; Song, Seungyong; Lee, So Jin; Park, Sung-Gurl; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Myung Goo; Son, Sejin; Koo, Heebeom; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jeong, Seo Young; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-01-28

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of failure in chemotherapy. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) for Pgp down-regulation was delivered to tumors to overcome MDR in cancer. To achieve an efficient siRNA delivery in vivo, self-polymerized 5'-end thiol-modified siRNA (poly-siRNA) was incorporated in tumor targeting glycol chitosan nanoparticles. Pgp-targeted poly-siRNA (psi-Pgp) and thiolated glycol chitosan polymers (tGC) formed stable nanoparticles (psi-Pgp-tGC NPs), and the resulting nanoparticles protected siRNA molecules from enzymatic degradation. The psi-Pgp-tGC NPs could release functional siRNA molecules after cellular delivery, and they were able to facilitate siRNA delivery to Adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). After intravenous administration, the psi-Pgp-tGC NPs accumulated in MCF-7/ADR tumors and down-regulated P-gp expression to sensitize cancer cells. Consequently, chemo-siRNA combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth without systemic toxicity. These psi-Pgp-tGC NPs showed great potential as a supplementary therapeutic agent for drug-resistant cancer.

  12. Small interfering RNA technology and its applications in pulmonary fibrosis%小干扰RNA技术及其在肺纤维化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡科迪; 赵静; 马小兵; 王献华

    2011-01-01

    @@ 近年来随着RNA干扰(RNA interference,RNAi)技术研究的进一步深入,利用该技术可以产生相关基因功能沉默,因此被广泛应用到基因调控的研究中.RNAi技术不仅为疾病发病机制的基础研究提供新的发展道路,而且为在基因水平上对疾病的治疗提供了可能.自从1998年美国科学家Fire和Mello第一次对RNAi进行了明确的描述,它就成为最热门的课题之一.RNAi可以使几乎所有生物体中一个特定的基因开启、关闭、更活跃或更不活跃,从而影响生物的体型和发育等,而且重要的是它提供了潜在的治疗及开关某些疾病的致病基因[1].简单地说,RNAi划分为二个主要分支,即小干扰RNA (small interfering RNA ,siRNA)和微小RNA(micro-RNA ,miRNA),其中关键的RNAi途径是siRNA,其需要双链RNA裂解,在3′端产生20-30bp的寡核苷酸,所产生的siRNA片段是由双链RNA的 Dicer酶前体构成的.siRNA 与蛋白结合形成无活性的RNA诱导沉默复合物,复合物中的解旋酶将siRNA 双链解开,形成活化的形式,然后由反义siRNA 介导该活化复合物识别并靶向切割同源靶RNA而发挥作用[2].

  13. Small interfering RNA targeting ILK inhibits metastasis in human tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yu [College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Laboratory of Forensic Medicine and Biomedical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Qi, Jin [The Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University (China); Deng, Shixiong [College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Laboratory of Forensic Medicine and Biomedical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wang, Cheng [Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhang, Luyu [Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chen, Junxia, E-mail: chjunxia@126.com [Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2013-08-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. Accumulating evidences suggest that ILK are involved in cell–matrix interactions, cell proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. EMT has been postulated as a prerequisite for metastasis. The reports have demonstrated that EMT was implicated in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, here we further postulate that ILK might participate in EMT of tongue cancer. We showed that ILK siRNA inhibited EMT with low N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as high E-cadherin expression in vivo and in vitro. We found that knockdown of ILK inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as changed cell morphology. We also demonstrated that ILK siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets Akt and GSK3β as well as reduced expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, we found that the tongue tumor with high metastasis capability showed higher ILK, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as lower E-cadherin expression in clinical specimens. Finally, ILK siRNA led to the suppression for tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest that ILK could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for tongue cancer. Highlights: • ILK siRNA influences cell morphology, cell cycle, migration and invasion. • ILK siRNA affects the expression of proteins associated with EMT. • ILK expression is related to EMT in clinical human tongue tumors. • ILK siRNA inhibits metastasis of the tongue cancer cells through suppressing EMT.

  14. Influence of various stressors on the expression of core genes of the small interfering RNA pathway in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yang, Wen-Jia; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based technology has emerged as a potential tool for controlling insect pests, however, previous studies found that the efficiency of RNAi in Bactrocera dorsalis was variable. In nature, insects often meet various challenges, such as pathogen infections, extreme temperatures, lack of nutrition and heavy metals. To better understand the association of the stressors with efficiency of RNAi, in the current study we tested the expression of three core genes, dicer2 (Bddcr2), r2d2 (Bdr2d2) and argonaute2 (Bdago2), of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway of B. dorsalis upon various stressors. Our results showed that all three genes were upregulated by the infection of invertebrate iridescent virus 6, which suggested a function of the siRNA pathway against viral infection. The loading of FeCl3 could also increase the expression of Bddcr2. The treatments of Escherichia coli, extremely high (40°C) and low (0°C) temperatures, as well as starvation, could negatively influence the expression of Bddcr2 and/or Bdago2. In total, our results showed that various stressors could influence the expression of core components of B. dorsalis siRNA pathway. This highlights further speculation on the RNAi efficiency upon these stressors. Considering the complexity and variation of RNAi efficiency in different conditions, these results provide initial aspects in possible environmental stressors to influence the activity of the siRNA pathway, but the real impact of RNAi efficiency posed by these stressors requires further studies. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Gene silencing in non-model insects: Overcoming hurdles using symbiotic bacteria for trauma-free sustainable delivery of RNA interference: Sustained RNA interference in insects mediated by symbiotic bacteria: Applications as a genetic tool and as a biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda; Dyson, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Insight into animal biology and development provided by classical genetic analysis of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was an incentive to develop advanced genetic tools for this insect. But genetic systems for the over one million other known insect species are largely undeveloped. With increasing information about insect genomes resulting from next generation sequencing, RNA interference is now the method of choice for reverse genetics, although it is constrained by the means of delivery of interfering RNA. A recent advance to ensure sustained delivery with minimal experimental intervention or trauma to the insect is to exploit commensal bacteria for symbiont-mediated RNA interference. This technology not only offers an efficient means for RNA interference in insects in laboratory conditions, but also has potential for use in the control of human disease vectors, agricultural pests and pathogens of beneficial insects.

  16. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of drosha and pasha in undifferentiated Meloidogyne incognita eggs leads to irregular growth and embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; Warnock, Neil D; Stevenson, Michael A; Mousley, Angela; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2010-09-01

    Micro-(mi)RNAs play a pivotal role in the developmental regulation of plants and animals. We reasoned that disruption of normal heterochronic activity in differentiating Meloidogyne incognita eggs may lead to irregular development, lethality and by extension, represent a novel target for parasite control. On silencing the nuclear RNase III enzyme drosha, a critical effector of miRNA maturation in animals, we found a significant inhibition of normal development and hatching in short interfering (si)RNA-soaked M. incognita eggs. Developing juveniles presented with highly irregular tissue patterning within the egg, and we found that unlike our previous gene silencing efforts focused on FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2))-like peptides (FLPs), there was no observable phenotypic recovery following removal of the environmental siRNA. Aberrant phenotypes were exacerbated over time, and drosha knockdown proved embryonically lethal. Subsequently, we identified and silenced the drosha cofactor pasha, revealing a comparable inhibition of normal embryonic development within the eggs to that of drosha-silenced eggs, eventually leading to embryonic lethality. To further probe the link between normal embryonic development and the M. incognita RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, we attempted to examine the impact of silencing the cytosolic RNase III enzyme dicer. Unexpectedly, we found a substantial up-regulation of dicer transcript abundance, which did not impact on egg differentiation or hatching rates. Silencing of the individual transcripts in hatched J2s was significantly less successful and resulted in temporary phenotypic aberration of the J2s, which recovered within 24h to normal movement and posture on washing out the siRNA. Soaking the J2s in dicer siRNA resulted in a modest decrease in dicer transcript abundance which had no observable impact on phenotype or behaviour within 48h of initial exposure to siRNA. We propose that drosha, pasha and their ancillary factors may

  17. SiRNA delivery with functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkouhi, Amir Khashayar; Foillard, Stéphanie; Lammers, Twan; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Doris, Eric; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert

    2011-09-20

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied for drug, antigen and nucleic acid delivery both in vitro and in vivo. Due to their nano-needle structure, they are supposed to cross the plasma membrane and enter directly into the cytoplasm likely upon an endocytosis-independent mechanism without inducing cell death. In this study, two cationically functionalized CNTs (CNT-PEI and CNT-pyridinium) were investigated for siRNA delivery. Both functionalized CNTs complexed siRNA and showed 10-30% silencing activity and a cytotoxicity of 10-60%. However, in terms of reduced toxicity or increased silencing activity, CNT-PEI and CNT-pyridinium did not show an added value over PEI and other standard transfection systems. Probably, the type of functionalization of carbon nanotubes might be a key parameter to obtain an efficient and non-cytotoxic CNT-based delivery system. Nevertheless, in view of the present results and importantly also of the non-degradability of CNTs, preference should currently be given to designing biodegradable carriers which mimic the needle structure of CNTs.

  18. Local and systemic delivery of VEGF siRNA using polyelectrolyte complex micelles for effective treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Sung Wan; Park, Tae Gwan

    2008-07-14

    For efficient cancer therapy, small interfering RNA (siRNA) should be stably and efficiently delivered into the target tissue and readily taken up by cancer cells. To address these needs, a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) micelle-based siRNA delivery system was developed for anti-angiogenic gene therapy. The interaction between poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated vascular endothelial growth factor siRNA (VEGF siRNA-PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) led to the spontaneous formation of nanoscale polyelectrolyte complex micelles (VEGF siRNA-PEG/PEI PEC micelles), having a characteristic siRNA/PEI PEC inner core with a surrounding PEG shell layer. Intravenous as well as intratumoral administration of the PEC micelles significantly inhibited VEGF expression at the tumor tissue and suppressed tumor growth in an animal tumor model without showing any detectable inflammatory responses in mice. Upon examination of the PEC micelle distribution and in vivo optical imaging following intravenously injection, enhanced accumulation of the PEC micelles was also observed in the tumor region. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using PEC micelles as a potential carrier for therapeutic siRNAs in local and systemic treatment of cancer.

  19. An Artificially Designed Interfering lncRNA Expressed by Oncolytic Adenovirus Competitively Consumes OncomiRs to Exert Antitumor Efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoya; Su, Yinghan; Sun, Bin; Ji, Weidan; Peng, Zhangxiao; Xu, Yang; Wu, Mengchao; Su, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous miRNAs, especially oncogenic miRNAs (OncomiR), have been molecular targets for cancer therapy. We generated an artificially designed interfering long noncoding RNA (lncRNAi), which contains the sequences that can complementarily bind to multiple OncomiRs and is expressed by cancer-selectively replicating adenovirus. The adenovirus-expressed lncRNAi with high levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells competes with OncomiR target genes to bind to and consume OncomiRs, thereby achieving the targeted anti-HCC efficacy. With the targeting replication of adenovirus in HCC cells, lncRNAi was highly expressed and resulted in decreased abilities of proliferation, migration, and invasion, induced cell-cycle changes and apoptosis, and markedly changed the cellular mRNA and miRNA expression profiles in HCC cells. The optimal antitumor effect was also demonstrated on HCC cell line xenograft models and HCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models in nude mice. This strategy has established a technology platform with a reliable therapeutic effect for HCC therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1436-51. ©2016 AACR.

  20. Electroporation Knows No Boundaries: The Use of Electrostimulation for siRNA Delivery in Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Christin; Ketteler, Robin

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) has enabled several breakthrough discoveries in the area of functional genomics. The RNAi technology has emerged as one of the major tools for drug target identification and has been steadily improved to allow gene manipulation in cell lines, tissues, and whole organisms. One of the major hurdles for the use of RNAi in high-throughput screening has been delivery to cells and tissues. Some cell types are refractory to high-efficiency transfection with standard methods such as lipofection or calcium phosphate precipitation and require different means. Electroporation is a powerful and versatile method for delivery of RNA, DNA, peptides, and small molecules into cell lines and primary cells, as well as whole tissues and organisms. Of particular interest is the use of electroporation for delivery of small interfering RNA oligonucleotides and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 plasmid vectors in high-throughput screening and for therapeutic applications. Here, we will review the use of electroporation in high-throughput screening in cell lines and tissues.

  1. Small interfering RNA targeted to IGF-IR delays tumor growth and induces proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphanie Durfort

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and its type I receptor (IGF-IR play significant roles in tumorigenesis and in immune response. Here, we wanted to know whether an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be used for specific antitumor immunostimulation in a breast cancer model. For that, we evaluated short interfering RNA (siRNAs for inhibition of in vivo tumor growth and immunological stimulation in immunocompetent mice. We designed 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNAs to inhibit expression of IGF-IR in two murine breast cancer cell lines (EMT6, C4HD. Cell transfection of IGF-IR siRNAs decreased proliferation, diminished phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathway proteins, AKT and ERK, and caused a G0/G1 cell cycle block. The IGF-IR silencing also induced secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF- α and IFN-γ. When we transfected C4HD cells with siRNAs targeting IGF-IR, mammary tumor growth was strongly delayed in syngenic mice. Histology of developing tumors in mice grafted with IGF-IR siRNA treated C4HD cells revealed a low mitotic index, and infiltration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, suggesting activation of an antitumor immune response. When we used C4HD cells treated with siRNA as an immunogen, we observed an increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity and the presence of cytotoxic splenocytes against wild-type C4HD cells, indicative of evolving immune response. Our findings show that silencing IGF-IR using synthetic siRNA bearing 2'-O-methyl nucleotides may offer a new clinical approach for treatment of mammary tumors expressing IGF-IR. Interestingly, our work also suggests that crosstalk between IGF-I axis and antitumor immune response can mobilize proinflammatory cytokines.

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Delivery of siRNA and a Chemotherapeutic Drug by Using Microbubble Complexes: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations in a Prostate Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Yoon, Young Il; Yoon, Tae-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Results Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Conclusion Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27390541

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Delivery of siRNA and a Chemotherapeutic Drug by Using Microbubble Complexes: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations in a Prostate Cancer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Il [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Nano Science and Technology, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 16229 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae-Jong [Department of Applied Bioscience, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pocheon 11160 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak Jong [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Nano Science and Technology, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 16229 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Ultrasound-guided delivery of siRNA and a chemotherapeutic drug by using microbubble complexes: In vitro and in vivo evaluations in a prostate cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Yoon, Young Il; Lee, Hak Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Jong [Dept. of Applied Bioscience, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Phenotypic silencing of cytoplasmic genes using sequence-specific double-stranded short interfering RNA and its application in the reverse genetics of wild type negative-strand RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS by short interfering RNA has opened up new directions in the phenotypic mutation of cellular genes. However, its efficacy on non-nuclear genes and its effect on the interferon pathway remain unexplored. Since directed mutation of RNA genomes is not possible through conventional mutagenesis, we have tested sequence-specific 21-nucleotide long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs for their ability to silence cytoplasmic RNA genomes. Results Short dsRNAs were generated against specific mRNAs of respiratory syncytial virus, a nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA virus with a cytoplasmic life cycle. At nanomolar concentrations, the dsRNAs specifically abrogated expression of the corresponding viral proteins, and produced the expected mutant phenotype ex vivo. The dsRNAs did not induce an interferon response, and did not inhibit cellular gene expression. The ablation of the viral proteins correlated with the loss of the specific mRNAs. In contrast, viral genomic and antigenomic RNA, which are encapsidated, were not directly affected. Conclusions Synthetic inhibitory dsRNAs are effective in specific silencing of RNA genomes that are exclusively cytoplasmic and transcribed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. RNA-directed RNA gene silencing does not require cloning, expression, and mutagenesis of viral cDNA, and thus, will allow the generation of phenotypic null mutants of specific RNA viral genes under normal infection conditions and at any point in the infection cycle. This will, for the first time, permit functional genomic studies, attenuated infections, reverse genetic analysis, and studies of host-virus signaling pathways using a wild type RNA virus, unencumbered by any superinfecting virus.

  6. Small interfering RNA against transcription factor STAT6 leads to increased cholesterol synthesis in lung cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Dubey

    Full Text Available STAT6 transcription factor has become a potential molecule for therapeutic intervention because it regulates broad range of cellular processes in a large variety of cell types. Although some target genes and interacting partners of STAT6 have been identified, its exact mechanism of action needs to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to further characterize the molecular interactions, networks, and functions of STAT6 by profiling the mRNA expression of STAT6 silenced human lung cells (NCI-H460 using microarrays. Our analysis revealed 273 differentially expressed genes after STAT6 silencing. Analysis of the gene expression data with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA software revealed Gene expression, Cell death, Lipid metabolism as the functions associated with highest rated network. Cholesterol biosynthesis was among the most enriched pathways in IPA as well as in PANTHER analysis. These results have been validated by real-time PCR and cholesterol assay using scrambled siRNA as a negative control. Similar findings were also observed with human type II pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells, A549. In the present study we have, for the first time, shown the inverse relationship of STAT6 with the cholesterol biosynthesis in lung cancer cells. The present findings are potentially significant to advance the understanding and design of therapeutics for the pathological conditions where both STAT6 and cholesterol biosynthesis are implicated viz. asthma, atherosclerosis etc.

  7. Down-regulation of STAT3 expression by vector-based small interfering RNA inhibits pancreatic cancer growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Huang; Guang Yang; Tao Jiang; Jun Cao; Ke-Jian Huang; Zheng-Jun Qiu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of RNA interference (RNAi) mediated silence of signal transduction and activation of transcription (STAT)3 on the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo . METHODS: STAT3 specific shRNA was used to silence the expression of STAT3 in pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990. The anti-growth effects of RNAi against STAT3 were studied in vitro and in experimental cancer xenografts in nude mice. The potential pathways involved in STAT3 signaling were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. RESULTS: The expression of the STAT3 was inhibited using RNAi in SW1990 cells. RNAi against STAT3 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and significantly reduced the levels of CyclinD1 and Bcl-xL when compared with parental and control vector-transfected cells. In vivo experiments showed that RNAi against STAT3 inhibited the tumorigenicity of SW1990 cells and significantly suppressed tumor growth when it was directly injected into tumors. CONCLUSION: STAT3 signaling pathway plays an important role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, and silence of STAT3 gene using RNAi technique may be a novel therapeutic option for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Silencing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro from small interfering RNA-decorated titanium nanotube array can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuo, Mengchuan; Cheng, Jiwei; Xu, Xingping; Xing, Yongming; Fan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are known for their bone bonding ability. However, the osseointegration may be severely disturbed in the inflammation environment. In order to enhance osseointegration of the implant in an inflamed environment, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was used to functionalize titanium surface for gene silencing. The chitosan-tripolyphosphate-hyaluronate complexes were used to formulate nanoparticles (NPs) with siRNA, which were adsorbed directly by the anodized titanium surface. The surface characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, as well as contact angle measurement. The fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the degradation of the layer. The coculture system was established with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown directly on functionalized titanium surface and RAW264.7 cells (preactivated by lipopolysaccharide) grown upside in a transwell chamber. The transfection and knockdown efficiency of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells were determined by fluorescence microscope, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cytoskeleton and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were also analyzed. Regular vertical aligned nanotubes (~100 nm diameter and ~300 nm length) were generated after anodization of polished titanium. After loading with NPs, the nanotubes were filled and covered by a layer of amorphous particles. The surface topography changed and wettability decreased after covering with NPs. As expected, a burst degradation of the film was observed, which could provide sufficient NPs in the released supernatant and result in transfection and knockdown effects in RAW264.7 cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement of MSCs was elongated and the osteogenic differentiation was also significantly improved on NPs loading surface. In conclusion, the siRNA decorated titanium implant could simultaneously suppress inflammation and improve

  9. Small interfering RNA targeting mcl-1 enhances proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in various solid malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a promising approach for anticancer strategies. Recently, we found Bik accumulation in cancer cell lines after they were treated with bortezomib. However, recent evidence indicates that proteasome inhibitors may also induce the accumulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The current study was designed to analyze the levels of several anti-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family in different human cancer cell lines after they were treated with proteasome inhibitors. Methods Different human cancer cell lines were treated with proteasome inhibitors. Western blot were used to investigate the expression of Mcl-1 and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. Cell viability was investigated using SRB assay, and induction of apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry. Results We found elevated Mcl-1 level in human colon cancer cell lines DLD1, LOVO, SW620, and HCT116; human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3; and human lung cancer cell line H1299, but not in human breast cancer cell line MCF7 after they were treated with bortezomib. This dramatic Mcl-1 accumulation was also observed when cells were treated with other two proteasome inhibitors, MG132 and calpain inhibitor I (ALLN. Moreover, our results showed Mcl-1 accumulation was caused by stabilization of the protein against degradation. Reducing Mcl-1 accumulation by Mcl-1 siRNA reduced Mcl-1 accumulation and enhanced proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death and apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. Conclusions Our results showed that it was not only Bik but also Mcl-1 accumulation during the treatment of proteasome inhibitors, and combining proteasome inhibitors with Mcl-1 siRNA would enhance the ultimate anticancer effect suggesting this combination might be a more effective strategy for cancer therapy.

  10. Impact of CHK2-small interfering RNA on CpG ODN7909-enhanced radiosensitivity in lung cancer A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Chen,* Xiaoqun Liu,* Tiankui Qiao, Sujuan Yuan Department of Oncology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To investigate the impact of checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2-small interfering RNA (CHK2-siRNA on the enhancement of radiosensitivity by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN 7909 in lung cancer A549 cells.Methods: The A549 cells were randomly divided into five groups: control, CpG, X-ray, CpG + X-ray, and CHK2-siRNA + CpG + X-ray. Cell colonization was observed using inverted microscopy. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. CHK2 expression was detected by Western blot. CHK2-siRNA was adopted to silence the expression of CHK2.Results: The level of CHK2 phosphorylation was higher in the CpG + X-ray group than in the X-ray group. Increases in G2/mitotic (M phase arrest and apoptosis and a decrease of cell survival rate in the CpG + X-ray group were statistically significant (P < 0.05 when compared with the CHK2-siRNA + CpG + X-ray group in which the expression of CHK2 was obviously inhibited. The combination of CpG ODN7909 and X-ray irradiation was found to enhance the mitotic death of A549 cells. The sensitization enhancement ratio of mean death dose (D0 was 1.42 in the CpG + X-ray group, which was higher than that of the CHK2-siRNA + CpG + X-ray group, in which D0 was 1.05.Conclusion: To a certain extent, the impact of a combination of CpG ODN7909 and X-ray on G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis, and rate of cell survival was attenuated by CHK2-siRNA in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, indicating that increased phosphorylation of CHK2 might be a radiosensitive pathway.Keywords: oligodeoxynucleotide, checkpoint kinase 2, mitotic death, apoptosis, X-ray

  11. [Study on the effect of Klotho gene interferred by plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on sinoatrial node pacing channel gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yingying; Wang, Han; Hou, Yanbin; Fang, Chenli; Tian, Peng; Wang, Guihua; Li, Lu; Deng, Juelin

    2013-06-01

    The study was aimed to assess the effect of Klotho gene and sinoatrial node pacing channel gene (HCN4 and HCN2) for studying sick sinus syndrome, with Klotho gene under the interference of Plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA. Twenty-five C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups, i. e, plasmid shRNA 24h group, plasmid shRNA 12h group, sodium chloride 24h group and sodium chloride 12h group. Plasmid shRNA 50microL (1microg/microL) and sodium chloride 50microl were respectively injected according to mice vena caudalis into those in plasmid shRNA group and sodium chloride group. After 12h or 24h respectively, all mice were executed and their sinoatrial node tissues were cut. The mRNA of Klotho, HCN4 and HCN2 gene were detected by RT-PCR. The results of RT-PCR showed that Klotho, HCN4 and HCN2 mRNA levels were lower compared with those in sodium chloride 12h group after 12h interference interval. The results indicated that there might be the a certain relationship between Klotho gene and sinoatrial node pacing channel gene.

  12. 外泌体在小 RNA 基因治疗中的研究进展%Exosome-Mediated Small RNA Delivery For Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙武; 曹风娟; 王楠; 周榆; 巴一; 张辰宇

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs,including small interfering RNAand microRNA,are emerging as promising ther-apeutic drugs against a wide array of diseases.Current techniques for small RNA transfer use viruses or synthetic agents as delivery vehicles,however,these kinds of vehicles have a high toxicity and low target-specific.Exosomes ,natural nanocarriers derived from endogenous cells ,have the intrinsic ability to trav-erse biological barriers and to naturally transport functional small RNAs between cells.Exosome-based de-livery of small RNAs may provide an untapped source of effective delivery strategy to overcome impedi-ments such as inefficiency,unspecificity and immunogenic reactions,and exosomes potentially represent a novel and exciting delivery vehicle.In this review,we provide an update and overview of the new find-ings that reveal the potential applications of exosome-based small RNA delivery as therapeutics in clinical settings.%小 RNA,包括小干扰 RNA 以及微小 RNA,已成为多种疾病的潜在治疗药物。目前,小 RNA的运输载体主要是病毒或者合成试剂。然而这类载体往往毒性高且特异性低。外泌体是由内源细胞分泌出来的天然纳米材料,本身能够穿越生物膜并在细胞间传递小 RNA。以外泌体为基础的小RNA 递送作为一种新的转运方式,能够克服低效率,低特异性以及免疫反应等缺陷,有望成为新型载体。本文简要论述了以外泌体为载体的小 RNA 递送系统在临床治疗研究中的前沿进展。

  13. Therapeutic silence of pleiotrophin by targeted delivery of siRNA and its effect on the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Lisha; He, Lichun; Xie, Weidong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Tong; Mohsen, Mona O; Lei, Fan; Storni, Federico; Bachmann, Martin; Chen, Hongquan; Zhang, Yaou

    2017-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted cytokine that is expressed in various cancer cell lines and human tumor such as colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and melanoma. It plays significant roles in angiogenesis, metastasis, differentiation and cell growth. The expression of PTN in the adult is limited to the hippocampus in an activity-dependent manner, making it a very attractive target for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi) offers great potential as a new powerful therapeutic strategy based on its highly specific and efficient silencing of a target gene. However, efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a significant hurdle for its successful therapeutic application. In this study, we first identified, on a cell-based experiment, applying a 1:1 mixture of two PTN specific siRNA engenders a higher silencing efficiency on both mRNA and protein level than using any of them discretely at the same dose. As a consequence, slower melanoma cells growth was also observed for using two specific siRNA combinatorially. To establish a robust way for siRNA delivery in vivo and further investigate how silence of PTN affects tumor growth, we tested three different methods to deliver siRNA in vivo: first non-targeted in-vivo delivery of siRNA via jetPEI; second lung targeted delivery of siRNA via microbubble coated jetPEI; third tumor cell targeted delivery of siRNA via transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI). As a result, we found that all three in-vivo siRNAs delivery methods led to an evident inhibition of melanoma growth in non-immune deficiency C57BL/6 mice without a measureable change of ALT and AST activities. Both targeted delivery methods showed more significant curative effect than jetPEI. The lung targeted delivery by microbubble coated jetPEI revealed a comparable therapeutic effect with Tf-PEI, indicating its potential application for target delivery of siRNA in vivo.

  14. Therapeutic silence of pleiotrophin by targeted delivery of siRNA and its effect on the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Tong; Mohsen, Mona O.; Lei, Fan; Storni, Federico; Bachmann, Martin; Chen, Hongquan; Zhang, Yaou

    2017-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted cytokine that is expressed in various cancer cell lines and human tumor such as colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and melanoma. It plays significant roles in angiogenesis, metastasis, differentiation and cell growth. The expression of PTN in the adult is limited to the hippocampus in an activity-dependent manner, making it a very attractive target for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi) offers great potential as a new powerful therapeutic strategy based on its highly specific and efficient silencing of a target gene. However, efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a significant hurdle for its successful therapeutic application. In this study, we first identified, on a cell-based experiment, applying a 1:1 mixture of two PTN specific siRNA engenders a higher silencing efficiency on both mRNA and protein level than using any of them discretely at the same dose. As a consequence, slower melanoma cells growth was also observed for using two specific siRNA combinatorially. To establish a robust way for siRNA delivery in vivo and further investigate how silence of PTN affects tumor growth, we tested three different methods to deliver siRNA in vivo: first non-targeted in-vivo delivery of siRNA via jetPEI; second lung targeted delivery of siRNA via microbubble coated jetPEI; third tumor cell targeted delivery of siRNA via transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI). As a result, we found that all three in-vivo siRNAs delivery methods led to an evident inhibition of melanoma growth in non-immune deficiency C57BL/6 mice without a measureable change of ALT and AST activities. Both targeted delivery methods showed more significant curative effect than jetPEI. The lung targeted delivery by microbubble coated jetPEI revealed a comparable therapeutic effect with Tf-PEI, indicating its potential application for target delivery of siRNA in vivo. PMID:28562667

  15. Cationic cell-penetrating peptides as vehicles for siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloor, Jagadish; Zeller, Skye; Choi, Chang Seon; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Kumar, Priti

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference mediated gene silencing has tremendous applicability in fields ranging from basic biological research to clinical therapy. However, delivery of siRNA across the cell membrane into the cytoplasm, where the RNA silencing machinery is located, is a significant hurdle in most primary cells. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), peptides that possess an intrinsic ability to translocate across cell membranes, have been explored as a means to achieve cellular delivery of siRNA. Approaches using CPPs by themselves or through incorporation into other siRNA delivery platforms have been investigated with the intent of improving cytoplasmic delivery. Here, we review the utilization of CPPs for siRNA delivery with a focus on strategies developed to enhance cellular uptake, endosomal escape and cytoplasmic localization of CPP/siRNA complexes.

  16. Mechanistic investigation of poly(ethylene imine)-based siRNA delivery: disulfide bonds boost intracellular release of the cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Miriam; Hozsa, Constantin; Lungwitz, Uta; Watanabe, Kazuo; Umeda, Isao; Kato, Hiroyuki; Goepferich, Achim

    2008-08-25

    Poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) has gained increasing attention in the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into cells. In order to further optimize PEI for this application, the first goal of this study was to examine particular steps of siRNA delivery with various PEI derivatives as carriers. Furthermore, the hypothesis that disulfide cleavable carrier systems are favorable for the release of siRNA into the cell cytoplasm was investigated. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to assess the cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of siRNA, which were then related to gene silencing efficacy. We observed a strong correlation between cellular uptake and RNAi activity. The cellular uptake of siRNA was more efficient with increasing branching of the polymer, i.e. linear PEI (lPEI) 5 kDa < lPEI cross-linked via disulfide bonds (ssPEI) < branched PEI (bPEI) 25 kDa. However, it was also evident that the siRNA release from the carrier, which was promoted by ssPEI, played an important role in the accessibility of siRNA for the gene silencing complex. Therefore, we suggest that a combination of a high branching density and reductively cleavable bonds within the PEI-based carrier system could be one possible step towards improving siRNA delivery.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-PEG-LAC-chitosan-PEI nanoparticle as a survivin siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, S; Rashidi, M R; Mahdavi, M; Fathi, M; Entezami, A A

    2017-03-01

    The limited effectiveness of the conventional methods for cancer treatment makes the researchers to find novel safe and effective therapeutic strategies. One of these strategies is to use small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A major challenge here is the siRNA delivery into the cells. The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible, biodegradable, and safe nanosized particle for siRNA delivery into human breast cancer MCF-7 and leukemia K562 cells. Chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles containing polyethyleneglycol-lactate polymer (PEG-LAC), chitosan, and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were successfully prepared and used as a gene delivery vehicle. The nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta potential. The Fe3O4-PEG-LAC-chitosan-PEI nanoparticle showed efficient and stable survivin siRNA loading in gel retardation assay. The cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticle was studied using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and was compared with that of mitoxantrone (MTX) in combination with the prepared siRNA delivery system to evaluate the possible synergic effect of MTX and survivin siRNA. The nanoparticles with and without noncomplementary siRNA showed low toxicity against both cell lines; however, a twofold decrease was observed in cell survival percent after MTX addition to MCF-7 cells treated with either nanoparticle itself or complexed with noncomplementary siRNA. While survivin siRNA nanoplex caused threefold decrease in the cell survival percent, its combination with MTX did not result in a significant increase in the cytotoxic effect. Therefore, Fe3O4-PEG-LAC-chitosan-PEI nanoparticle should be considered as a potential carrier for enhanced survivin siRNA delivery into MCF-7 and K562 cells.

  18. Silencing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro from small interfering RNA-decorated titanium nanotube array can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhenlin Wang,1,* Zhiqiang Hu,2,* Dawei Zhang,3 Mengchuan Zhuo,1 Jiwei Cheng,1 Xingping Xu,1 Yongming Xing,1 Jie Fan2 1Department of Orthopaedics, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, No 113 Hospital of PLA, Ningbo, 3Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital of PLA, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Titanium implants are known for their bone bonding ability. However, the osseointegration may be severely disturbed in the inflammation environment. In order to enhance osseointegration of the implant in an inflamed environment, the small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was used to functionalize titanium surface for gene silencing. The chitosan–tripolyphosphate–hyaluronate complexes were used to formulate nanoparticles (NPs with siRNA, which were adsorbed directly by the anodized titanium surface. The surface characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force micro­scopy, as well as contact angle measurement. The fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the degradation of the layer. The coculture system was established with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs grown directly on functionalized titanium surface and RAW264.7 cells (preactivated by lipopolysaccharide grown upside in a transwell chamber. The transfection and knockdown efficiency of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells were determined by fluorescence microscope, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cytoskeleton and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were also analyzed. Regular vertical aligned nanotubes (~100 nm diameter and ~300 nm length were generated after anodization of polished titanium. After loading with NPs, the nanotubes were filled and covered by a layer of amorphous particles. The surface topography changed and wettability decreased after covering with NPs. As expected, a burst degradation of the film was observed, which

  19. In Vivo siRNA Delivery Using JC Virus-like Particles Decreases the Expression of RANKL in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between formation and resorption. This complex process involves numerous factors that orchestrate a multitude of biochemical events. Among these factors are hormones, growth factors, vitamins, cytokines, and, most notably, osteoprotegerin (OPG and the receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL. Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in shifting the RANKL/OPG balance toward excessive RANKL, resulting in osteoclastogenesis, which in turn initiates bone resorption, which is frequently associated with osteoporosis. Rebalancing RANKL/OPG levels may be achieved through either upregulation of OPG or through transient silencing of RANKL by means of RNA interference. Here, we describe the utilization of a viral capsid-based delivery system for in vivo and in vitro RNAi using synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in rat osteoblasts. Polyoma JC virus-derived virus-like particles are capable of delivering siRNAs to target RANKL in osteoblast cells both in vitro and in a rat in vivo system. Expression levels were monitored using quantitative real-time polymerase reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after single and repeated injections over a 14-day period. Our data indicate that this is an efficient and safe route for in vivo delivery of gene modulatory tools to study important molecular factors in a rat osteoporosis model.

  20. Phase I clinical trial of SYL040012, a small interfering RNA targeting β-adrenergic receptor 2, for lowering intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Sádaba, Belén; Ruz, Verónica; Gómez-Guiu, Almudena; Zarranz, Javier; González, María Victoria; Pañeda, Covadonga; Jimenez, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ocular tolerance, safety, and effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of a topically administered small interfering RNA; SYL040012, on healthy volunteers. The study was an open-label, controlled, single-center study comprised of two intervals that enrolled 30 healthy subjects having IOP below 21 mmHg. SYL040012 was administered to one eye as a single dose to six subjects during interval 1. During interval 2 two different doses of SYL040012 were administered to one eye on a daily basis to two separate groups of 12 subjects each, over a period of 7 days. The contralateral eye was evaluated but not administered and served as control for the tolerance study. SYL040012 was well tolerated locally. No local or systemic adverse events related to the product developed in response to any of the doses studied. SYL040012 was not detected in plasma at any time point. Administration of SYL040012 over a period of 7 days reduced IOP values in 15 out of 24 healthy subjects regardless of the dose used. IOP decrease was statistically significant in response to one of the doses tested and responsiveness to SYL040012 seemed to be greater in individuals with higher baseline IOP.

  1. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles for siRNA delivery to down-regulate the expressions of exogenous and endogenous target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Lv, Ming; Gao, Zhong-Gao; Jin, Ming-Ji; Xu, Yuan-Ji; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jin, Zhe-Hu; Yin, Xue-Zhe

    2012-08-01

    Gene silencing induced by RNA interference using small interfering RNA (siRNA) provides a promising therapeutic approach for cancers. However, the lack of siRNA delivery vector has limited the development of siRNA therapy. The purpose of this study was to use the novel copolymer (mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEl10k to prepare siRNA-loaded nanoparticles for siRNA delivery. The results suggested that (mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEl10k could load siRNA to form nanoparticles with particle size less than 200 nm in a narrow distribution. Moreover, a certain density of positive charge existed onto the surfaces of nanoparticles. MTT assay results demonstrated that (mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEl10k/siRNA nanoparticles showed very low cytotoxicity. The gene silencing efficiency of (mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEl10k/siRNA nanoparticles was investigated through luciferase reporter gene assays. The expression of exogenous luciferase gene was significantly downregulated at a range of N/P ratio from 50 to 125, and was maximally inhibited at the N/P ratio of 125 with 54% and 59% reduction in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, respectively. In the 4T1-luc cell line expressing luciferase stably, the silencing of endogenous luciferase gene also has a similar overall profile with maximal 54% reduction of luciferase expression. These results suggested that (mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEI10k/SiRNA nanoparticles could serve as a kind of highly efficient siRNA delivery system for down-regulating the expression of exogenous and endogenous target genes.

  2. Shock-induced poration, cholesterol flip-flop and small interfering RNA transfection in a phospholipid membrane: Multimillion atom, microsecond molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Amit

    performing a 15 mus all-atom MD simulation of a DPPC-CHOL bilayer. We find that the CHOL flip-flop rates are on the sub microsecond timescale. These results are verified by performing various independent parallel replica (PR) simulations. Our PR simulations provide significant boost in sampling of the flip-flop events. We observe that the CHOL flip-flop can induce membrane order, regulate membrane-bending energy, and facilitate membrane relaxation. The rapid flip-flop rates reported here have important implications for the role of CHOL in mechanical properties of cell membranes, formation of domains, and maintaining CHOL concentration asymmetry in plasma membrane. Our PR approach can reach submillisecond time scales and bridge the gap between MD simulations and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments on CHOL flip-flop dynamics in membranes. The last project deals with transfection barriers encountered by a bare small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a phospholipid bilayer. SiRNA molecules play a pivotal role in therapeutic applications. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA-based therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. We have examined structural and mechanical barriers to siRNA passage across a phospholipid bilayer using all-atom MD simulations. We find that the electrostatic interaction between the anionic siRNA and head groups of phospholipid molecules induces a phase transformation from the liquid crystalline to ripple phase. Steered MD simulations reveal that the siRNA transfection through the ripple phase requires a force of ˜ 1.5 nN.

  3. Strategies and advances in nanomedicine for targeted siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimesh, Surendra; Gupta, Nidhi; Chandra, Ramesh

    2011-06-01

    siRNA are a rapidly emerging class of new therapeutic molecules for the treatment of inherited and acquired diseases. However, poor cellular uptake and instability in physiological conditions limits its therapeutic potential, hence a need to develop a delivery system that can protect and efficiently transport siRNA to the target cells has arisen. Nanoparticles have been proposed as suitable delivery vectors with reduced cytotoxicity and enhanced efficacy. These delivery vectors form condensed complexes with siRNA which, in turn, provides protection to siRNA against enzymatic degradation and further leads to tissue and cellular targeting. Nanoparticles derived from polymers, such as chitosan and polyethylenimine have found numerous applications owing to ease of manipulation, high stability, low cost and high gene carrying capability. This article focuses on various aspects of nanomedicine based siRNA delivery with emphasis on targeted delivery to tumors.

  4. Addition of poly (propylene glycol) to multiblock copolymer to optimize siRNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi; Arévalo, Maria T; Li, Junwei; Zeng, Mingtao

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have examined different strategies for siRNA delivery with varying degrees of success. These include use of viral vectors, cationic liposomes, and polymers. Several copolymers were designed and synthesized based on blocks of poly(ethylene glycol) PEG, poly(propylene glycol) PPG, and poly(l-lysine). These were designated as P1, P2, and P3. We studied the copolymer self-assembly, siRNA binding, particle size, surface potential, architecture of the complexes, and siRNA delivery. Silencing of GFP using copolymer P3 to deliver GFP-specific siRNA to Neuro-2a cells expressing GFP was almost as effective as using Lipofectamine 2000, with minimal cytotoxicity. Thus, we have provided a new copolymer platform for siRNA delivery that we can continue to modify for improved delivery of siRNA in vitro and eventually in vivo. PMID:24424156

  5. Development and characterization of chitosan-PEG-TAT nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Kahouli, Imen; Prakash, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Recently, cell-penetrating peptides have been proposed to translocate antibodies, proteins, and other molecules in targeted drug delivery. The proposed study presents the synthesis and characterization of a peptide-based chitosan nanoparticle for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery, in-vitro. Specifically, the synthesis included polyethylene glycol (PEG), a hydrophilic polymer, and trans-activated transcription (TAT) peptide, which were chemically conjugated on the chitosan polymer. The conjugation was achieved using N-Hydroxysuccinimide-PEG-maleimide (heterobifunctional PEG) as a cross-linker, with the bifunctional PEG facilitating the amidation reaction through its N-Hydroxysuccinimide group and reacting with the amines on chitosan. At the other end of PEG, the maleimide group was chemically conjugated with the cysteine-modified TAT peptide. The degree of substitution on chitosan with PEG and on PEG with TAT was confirmed using colorimetric assays. The resultant polymer was used to form nanoparticles complexing siRNA, which were then characterized for particle size, morphology, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity. The nanoparticles were tested in-vitro on mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro2a). Particle size and surface charge were characterized and an optimal pH condition and PEG molecular weight were determined to form sterically stable nanoparticles. Results indicate 7.5% of the amines in chitosan polymer were conjugated to the PEG and complete conjugation of TAT peptide was observed on the synthesized PEGylated chitosan polymer. Compared with unmodified chitosan nanoparticles, the nanoparticles formed at pH 6 were monodispersed and of <100 nm in size, exhibiting maximum cell transfection ability and very low cytotoxicity. Thus, this research may be of significance in translocating biotherapeutic molecules for intracellular delivery applications.

  6. Long dsRNA-mediated RNA interference and immunostimulation: a targeted delivery approach using polyethyleneimine based nano-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Lee, Tae Yeon; Hong, Sun Woo; Dua, Pooja; Choe, Jeong Yong; Kang, Aeyeon; Yun, Wan Soo; Song, Changsik; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Soyoun; Li, Chiang; Lee, Dong-Ki

    2014-03-03

    RNA oligonucleotides capable of inducing controlled immunostimulation combined with specific oncogene silencing via an RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism provide synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth. With this concept, we previously designed a potent immunostimulatory long double stranded RNA, referred to as liRNA, capable of executing RNAi mediated specific target gene silencing. In this study, we developed a highly effective liRNA based targeted delivery system to apply in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A stable nanocomplex was fabricated by complexing multimerized liRNA structures with cross-linked branched poly(ethylene imine) (bPEI) via electrostatic interactions. We show clear evidence that the cross-linked bPEI was quite effective in enhancing the cellular uptake of liRNA on U87MG cells. Moreover, the liRNA-PEI nanocomplex provided strong RNAi mediated target gene silencing compared to that of the conventional siRNA-PEI complex. Further, the bPEI modification strategy with specific ligand attachment assisted the uptake of the liRNA-PEI complex on the mouse brain endothelial cell line (b.End3). Such delivery systems combining the beneficial elements of targeted delivery, controlled immunostimulation, and RNAi mediated target silencing have immense potential in anticancer therapy.

  7. Systemic delivery of siRNA by aminated poly(α)glutamate for the treatment of solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Dina; Krivitsky, Adva; Scomparin, Anna; Eliyahu, Shay; Kalinski, Hagar; Avkin-Nachum, Sharon; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2016-06-26

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can silence the expression of a targeted gene in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). As a consequence, RNAi has immense potential as a novel therapeutic approach in cancer targeted therapy. However, successful application of siRNA for therapeutic purposes is challenging due to its rapid renal clearance, degradation by RNases in the bloodstream, poor cellular penetration, immunogenicity and aggregation in the blood. In addition, the few oligonucleotide-based nanomedicines that reached clinical trials either go to the liver following systemic administration or are applied topically. Treatment of solid tumors requires selective distribution of siRNA to the target tissue, hence there is an unmet medical need for an efficacious and safe nano-sized delivery system for their clinical use. To overcome these hurdles, we have designed, synthesized and physico-chemically characterized a novel nanocarrier based on aminated poly(α)glutamate (PGAamine). This cathepsin B-biodegradable polymer interacts electrostatically with the siRNA to form a nano-sized polyplex stable in plasma. Treatment with PGAamine-Rac1 siRNA polyplex (siRac1-polyplex) caused specific gene silencing by 80% in HeLa and SKOV-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells as opposed to PGAamine-control non-targeting siRNA polyplex (siCtrl-polyplex) leading to inhibition of cell migration and wound healing abilities. A stepwise dose escalation was performed in order to determine the in vivo maximum tolerated dose (MTD). This was followed by intraperitoneal administration of siRac1-polyplex to mCherry-labeled ovarian adenocarcinoma-bearing mice leading to preferred tumor accumulation of siRac1 (8-fold) which resulted in 38% Rac1 knockdown. Furthermore, the polyplex was administered intravenously to lung carcinoma-bearing mice in which it caused 33% Rac1 knockdown. These promising results led to efficacy studies administering systemic treatment with an anticancer siRNA, siPlk1

  8. siRNA脂质纳米输送载体的研究进展%Lipid-based siRNA Delivery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文娟; 周银键; 梁伟

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a specific gene-silencing mechanism triggered by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The application of RNAi in the clinic requires the development of safe and effective delivery systems. Efforts have been dedicated to the development of lipid-based systems in siRNA deliveries. Many of the lipid-based delivery vehicles' self-assemble with siRNA are through electrostatic interactions with charged amines. Electrostatic interactions must be stable enough to sustain the nucleic payload in the carrier en route, but must allow dissociation, to execute therapeutic activity, at the delivery site. Internalization of lipid-based siRNA delivery systems into cells typically occurs through endocytosis; accordingly, delivery requires materials that can facilitate endosomal escape. The size of the carrier is important as carriers <100 nm in diameter have been reported to have higher accumulation levels in tumours, hepatocytes and inflamed tissue. To reduce RES uptake and increase circulation time, carriers have been modified on the surface with polyethyleneglycol. Herein, we review basic requirements for building lipid-based siRNA delivery systems.%siRNA能高效且特异地阻断内源性同源基因的表达即RNA干涉(RNAi).RNAi在临床中的应用需要开发安全有效的输送系统,脂质纳米输送载体是一种具有发展潜力的siRNA输送系统.siRNA-脂质复合物的形成主要通过静电相互作用,静电作用必须足够强以至于载体在运输过程中不释放siRNA,而载体到达治疗部位时,解聚释放出siRNA.载体的粒径应小于100 nm,以利于细胞的摄取和透过特定部位的血管开窗.为了减少网状内皮系统(RES)的摄取和延长载体的循环时间,载体的表面由聚乙二醇修饰.本文主要综述了构建siRNA输送载体的基本要求.

  9. Anti-EphA10 antibody-conjugated pH-sensitive liposomes for specific intracellular delivery of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xinlong; Ding, Huaiwei; Zhao, Xiufeng; Li, Xiaowei; Du, Zhouqi; Hu, Haiyang; Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Deng, Yuihui; Zhao, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a major challenge that limits its potential clinical application. Here, a pH-sensitive cholesterol-Schiff base-polyethylene glycol (Chol-SIB-PEG)-modified cationic liposome-siRNA complex, conjugated with the recombinant humanized anti-EphA10 antibody (Eph), was developed as an efficient nonviral siRNA delivery system. Chol-SIB-PEG was successfully synthesized and confirmed with FTIR and (1)H-NMR. An Eph-PEG-SIB-Chol-modified liposome-siRNA complex (EPSLR) was prepared and characterized by size, zeta potential, gel retardation, and encapsulation efficiency. Electrophoresis results showed that EPSLR was resistant to heparin replacement and protected siRNA from fetal bovine serum digestion. EPSLR exhibited only minor cytotoxicity in MCF-7/ADR cells. The results of flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy suggested that EPSLR enhanced siRNA transfection in MCF-7/ADR cells. Intracellular distribution experiment revealed that EPSLR could escape from the endo-lysosomal organelle and release siRNA into cytoplasm at 4 hours posttransfection. Western blot experiment demonstrated that EPSLR was able to significantly reduce the levels of MDR1 protein in MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo study of DIR-labeled complexes in mice bearing MCF-7/ADR tumor indicated that EPSLR could reach the tumor site rather than other organs more effectively. All these results demonstrate that EPSLR has much potential for effective siRNA delivery and may facilitate its therapeutic application.

  10. Development of an Innovative Intradermal siRNA Delivery System Using a Combination of a Functional Stearylated Cytoplasm-Responsive Peptide and a Tight Junction-Opening Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Ibaraki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new category of therapeutics for skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD, nucleic acids are gaining importance in the clinical setting. Intradermal administration is noninvasive and improves patients′ quality of life. However, intradermal small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery is difficult because of two barriers encountered in the skin: intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum and tight junctions in the stratum granulosum. Tight junctions are the major barrier in AD; therefore, we focused on functional peptides to devise an intradermal siRNA delivery system for topical skin application. In this study, we examined intradermal siRNA permeability in the tape-stripped (20 times back skin of mice or AD-like skin of auricles treated with 6-carboxyfluorescein-aminohexyl phosphoramidite (FAM-labeled siRNA, the tight junction modulator AT1002, and the functional cytoplasm-responsive stearylated peptide STR-CH2R4H2C by using confocal laser microscopy. We found that strong fluorescence was observed deep and wide in the epidermis and dermis of back skin and AD-like ears after siRNA with STR-CH2R4H2C and AT1002 treatment. After 10 h from administration, brightness of FAM-siRNA was significantly higher for STR-CH2R4H2C + AT1002, compared to other groups. In addition, we confirmed the nontoxicity of STR-CH2R4H2C as a siRNA carrier using PAM212 cells. Thus, our results demonstrate the applicability of the combination of STR-CH2R4H2C and AT1002 for effective intradermal siRNA delivery.

  11. Suppression of tumor growth in lung cancer xenograft model mice by poly(sorbitol-co-PEI)-mediated delivery of osteopontin siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Young; Hong, Seong-Ho; Singh, Bijay; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Lee, Somin; Lee, Ah Young; Gankhuyag, Nomundelger; Kim, Ji-Eun; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Young-Chan; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-08-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a promising strategy for treating diseases such as cancer; however, specific gene silencing requires an effective delivery system to overcome the instability and low transfection efficiency of siRNAs. To address this issue, a polysorbitol-based transporter (PSOT) was prepared by low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) crosslinked with sorbitol diacrylate (SDA). Osteopontin (OPN) gene, which is highly associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was targeted by siRNA therapy using siRNA targeting OPN (siOPN). Characterization study confirmed that PSOT formed compact complexes with siOPN and protected siOPN against degradation by RNase. PSOT/siOPN complexes demonstrated low cytotoxicity and enhanced transfection efficiency in vitro, suggesting that this carrier may be suitable for gene silencing. In the A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines, PSOT/siOPN complexes demonstrated significant silencing efficiency at both RNA and protein levels. To study in vivo tumor growth suppression, two lung cancer cell-xenograft mouse models were prepared and PSOT/siOPN complexes were delivered into the mice through intravenous injection. The siOPN-treated groups demonstrated significantly reduced OPN expression at both the RNA and protein levels as well as suppression of tumor volume and weight. Taken together, siOPN delivery using PSOT may present an effective and novel therapeutic system for lung cancer treatment.

  12. Characterizing exogenous mRNA delivery, trafficking, cytoplasmic release and RNA-protein correlations at the level of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L; Bhosle, Sushma; Vanover, Daryll; Blanchard, Emmeline L; Loomis, Kristin H; Zurla, Chiara; Murray, Kathryn; Lam, Blaine C; Santangelo, Philip J

    2017-07-07

    The use of synthetic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to express specific proteins is a highly promising therapeutic and vaccine approach that avoids many safety issues associated with viral or DNA-based systems. However, in order to optimize mRNA designs and delivery, technology advancements are required to study fundamental mechanisms of mRNA uptake and localization at the single-cell and tissue level. Here, we present a single RNA sensitive fluorescent labeling method which allows us to label and visualize synthetic mRNA without significantly affecting function. This approach enabled single cell characterization of mRNA uptake and release kinetics from endocytic compartments, the measurement of mRNA/protein correlations, and motivated the investigation of mRNA induced cellular stress, all important mechanisms influencing protein production. In addition, we demonstrated this approach can facilitate near-infrared imaging of mRNA localization in vivo and in ex-vivo tissue sections, which will facilitate mRNA trafficking studies in pre-clinical models. Overall, we demonstrate the ability to study fundamental mechanisms necessary to optimize delivery and therapeutic strategies, in order to design the next generation of novel mRNA therapeutics and vaccines. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Simultaneous cytosolic delivery of a chemotherapeutic and siRNA using nanoparticle-stabilized nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Joseph; Jiang, Ying; Tetrault, Emily R.; Ghazi, Phaedra C.; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Farkas, Michelle E.; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on nanoparticle-stabilized capsules (NPSCs) as a platform for the co-delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and tamoxifen. These capsules feature an inner oil core that provides a carrier for tamoxifen, and is coated on the surface with positively charged nanoparticles self-assembled with siRNA. The multifaceted chemical nature of the NPSC system enables the simultaneous delivery of both payloads directly into the cytosol in vitro. The NPSC co-delivery of tamoxifen and survivin-targeted siRNA into breast cancer cells disables the pathways that inhibit apoptosis, resulting in enhanced breast cell death.

  14. Highly Efficient Transfection of Small Interfering RNA into Murine Primary Chondrocytes via Optimized Electroporation%电穿孔法介导 siRNA 高效转染小鼠原代软骨细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安军; 麻献华; 杨瑞; 高琳; 陈李斌佶; 章卫平; 谢志芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立小鼠原代软骨细胞高效电转siRNA的方法。方法常规分离得到的小鼠原代软骨细胞继续用链丝菌蛋白酶消化3h,然后应用高效电转缓冲液和优化的电转参数转染pCMV-EGFP表达质粒或siRNA,用台盼蓝检测细胞存活率;转染后48h分析转染效率和siRNA靶分子的mRNA和蛋白表达水平。结果电穿孔后原代软骨细胞的存活率>80%,质粒的转染效率达到37.3%±5.2%;siRNA靶分子的mRNA和蛋白表达水平分别下调了75%和66%。结论成功建立了通过电穿孔介导siRNA转染小鼠原代软骨细胞的方法,达到了很好的基因沉默效果且保持了较高的细胞存活率。%Objective To develop an efficient and reliable method to transfect murine primary chondrocytes with small interfering RNA ( siRNA) by electroporation.Methods Murine primary chondrocytes were isolated and treated with pronase for 3 hours.The cells were then electroporated with either pCMV-EGFP plasmid or siRNA using a high performance electroporation buffer and optimized condi-tions.Cell viability was determined by trypan blue.The transfection efficiency and expression levels of siRNA-targeted gene were evalua-ted 48 hours post-electroporation.Results By using proper electroporation condition, 37.3%±5.2%of cells were transfected by the plasmid with high cellular viability (>80%) .Transfection of siRNA using the same electroporation resulted in effective down-regulation of its targeted gene expression at both mRNA and protein levels (75% and 66% decrease, respectively).Conclusion Transfection of murine primary chondrocytes with siRNA in this optimized electroporation condition was successful and resulted in effective gene silencing and high cellular viability.

  15. A nova grande promessa da inovação em fármacos: RNA interferência saindo do laboratório para a clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Frederico Martins Menck

    2010-01-01

    A descoberta de que nossas células dispõem de um mecanismo de silenciamento gênico empregando RNA interferência ainda é muito recente. Apesar disso, em menos de uma década a investigação científica já alcançou progresso, suficiente para muito brevemente nos apropriarmos desse conhecimento com fins terapêuticos. Duplexes de RNA são potenciais fármacos e há investimentos altos nessa nova abordagem. Aparentemente, a promessa de terapia gênica parece finalmente atingir sua maturidade com essas no...

  16. Co-delivery of Doxorubicin Encapsulated PLGA Nanoparticles and Bcl-xL shRNA Using Alkyl-Modified PEI into Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Mahboubeh; Taghavi, Sahar; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, much effort has been focused on an appropriate combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and nucleic acids to exploit additive or synergistic therapeutic effects and overcome many obstacles such as the reduction of side effects and drug resistance. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) has designed to allow the production of small interfering RNA (siRNA) within the cells and offer long-lasting silencing of target genes. In this study, alkyl-modified polyethylenimine (PEI 10 kD) was used for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulated into poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and Bcl-xL shRNA (one class of molecules that block apoptosis of tumor cells) into breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that modification of PEI with alkyl chain could enhance the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by suppression of Bcl-xL gene using Bcl-xL shRNA more than PEI alone. On the other hand, DOX encapsulated into PLGA had more synergistic effect with shRNA in comparison with DOX alone. In conclusion, combination of PLGA-DOX NPs and alkyl-PEI/shRNA complexes may have promising applications in breast cancer therapy.

  17. Hybrid PET/CT for noninvasive pharmacokinetic evaluation of dynamic PolyConjugates, a synthetic siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sarah R; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Blokhin, Andrei V; Weichert, Jamey P; Wolff, Jon A

    2010-07-21

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging can be used to gain insights into a synthetic siRNA delivery system targeted to the liver. Either siRNA or the delivery vehicle was labeled with (64)Cu via 1, 4, 7, 10- tetraazacyclododecane- 1, 4, 7, 10- tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelation. This study confirmed that the siRNA delivery system was successfully targeted to the liver. Incorporation of the siRNA into the delivery system protected the siRNA from renal filtration long enough so that the siRNA could be delivered to the liver. PET/CT imaging was important for confirming biodistribution and for determining differences in the distribution of labeled siRNA, siRNA incorporated into the delivery system, and the delivery system without siRNA.

  18. Intracellular siRNA delivery dynamics of integrin-targeted, PEGylated chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles: A mechanistic insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Colombo, Stefano; Pourcelle, Vincent; Vanvarenberg, Kevin; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Bouzin, Caroline; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Feron, Olivier; Foged, Camilla; Préat, Véronique

    2015-08-10

    Integrin-targeted nanoparticles are promising for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumor cells or tumor endothelium in cancer therapy aiming at silencing genes essential for tumor growth. However, during the process of optimizing and realizing their full potential, it is pertinent to gain a basic mechanistic understanding of the bottlenecks existing for nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery. We designed αvβ3 integrin-targeted nanoparticles by coupling arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) or RGD peptidomimetic (RGDp) ligands to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted chitosan-poly(ethylene imine) hybrid nanoparticles. The amount of intracellular siRNA delivered by αvβ3-targeted versus non-targeted nanoparticles was quantified in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line H1299 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) approach. Data demonstrated that the internalization of αvβ3-targeted nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface concentration of the ligand. Above a certain threshold concentration, the use of targeted nanoparticles provided a two-fold increase in the number of siRNA copies/cell, subsequently resulting in as much as 90% silencing of EGFP at well-tolerated carrier concentrations. In contrast, non-targeted nanoparticles mediated low levels of gene silencing, despite relatively high intracellular siRNA concentrations, indicating that these nanoparticles might end up in late endosomes or lysosomes without releasing their cargo to the cell cytoplasm. Thus, the silencing efficiency of the chitosan-based nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the uptake and the intracellular trafficking in H1299 EGFP cells, which is critical information towards a more complete understanding of the delivery mechanism that can facilitate the future design of efficient siRNA delivery systems.

  19. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Dan; Li, Hui; Shu, Yi; Xiong, Gaofeng; Carson, William E; Haque, Farzin; Xu, Ren; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-10-27

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; "active" targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  20. Functional peptide nanocarriers for delivery of novel anti-RelA RNA interference agents as a topical treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Hamasaki, Tomohiro; Endo, Takahiro; Tamano, Kuniko; Sogabe, Kana; Seta, Yasuo; Ohgi, Tadaaki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2015-07-15

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a potential treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) because they can specifically silence the gene expression of AD-related factors. However, siRNA alone cannot exert a sufficiently strong therapeutic effect due to low delivery efficiency to the target tissues and cells; simply increasing the amount used is not possible due to the possibility of off-target effects. We previously reported a novel class of therapeutic RNA interference (RNAi) agents called nkRNA(®) and PnkRNA(®), which have been shown to be effective in several disease models, have greater resistance to nuclease degradation than canonical siRNAs, and do not induce any immunotoxicity. In the present study, we describe a non-invasive and effective transdermal RNAi therapeutic system for atopic dermatitis that uses the functional cell-penetrating stearoyl-oligopeptide OK-102 as a cytoplasm-responsive nanocarrier for nkRNA(®) and PnkRNA(®). The two RNAi agents were targeted against RelA, a subclass of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), and, as part of OK-102 complexes, they strongly silenced RelA mRNA in macrophage cells and demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect in a mouse model of AD. It was shown that OK-102-complexed RNAi agents were an efficient therapeutic system for AD and caused no adverse reactions.

  1. Inhibition of POLD1 Gene Expression by RNA Interfering in Human Liver Cancer Cells%RNA 干扰技术抑制人肝癌细胞 POLD1基因表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 黄文涛; 黄怡; 廖柳凤; 谭晓红; 徐恒

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用RNA干扰技术抑制人肝癌细胞SMMC-7721中POLD1基因的表达,探索该技术干预肝癌的可行性。方法制备4个针对人POLD1基因的shRNA表达质粒,转染SMMC-7721细胞48 h后,荧光定量PCR法检测POLD1基因的表达,CCK-8检测细胞生长情况。结果测序鉴定证实4个shRNA表达质粒构建成功,将其转染SMMC-7721细胞后,NEO-POLD1-1和NEO-POLD1-4表达质粒抑制效果明显,使SMMC-7721细胞的增殖受到抑制,并且使POLD1基因表达在mRNA水平抑制,NEO-POLD1-1相对表达量为(0.1425±0.0205), NEO-POLD1-4相对表达量为(0.209±0.009)。结论针对POLD1基因设计的shRNA在体外有效地抑制了POLD1基因mRNA的表达和肝癌细胞的增殖,且实现RNA干扰具有序列选择性。%Objective To investigate the feasibility of RNA interfering ( RNAi ) on liver cancer by using this technique to inhibit the expression of POLD 1 gene in human liver cancer cells SMMC-7721.Methods Four expression plasmids with shRNAs targeting POLD 1 gene were constructed ,and then the plasmids were transfected to SMMC-7721 for 48 hours.The expression of POLD1 gene was detected by real-time RT-PCR.CCK-8 assay was used to analyze the change of cell proliferation .Results The four expression plasmids were constructed successfully , confirmed by sequencing .After the plasmids were transfected to SMMC-7721 , the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in NEO-POLD1-1 and NEO-POLD1-4.The mRNA expression of POLD1 gene in NEO-POLD1-1 and NEO-POLD1-4 were significantly inhibited as (0.1425 ±0.0205) and (0.209 ±0.009).Conclusion shRNAs targeting the POLD1 gene can inhibit the mRNA expression of POLD1 gene and liver cancer cell proliferation in vitro ,and the RNA interfering is sequencing alternative .

  2. Systemic delivery of siRNA by actively targeted polyion complex micelles for silencing the E6 and E7 human papillomavirus oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Haruka; Matsumoto, Yoko; Kawana, Kei; Christie, R James; Naito, Mitsuru; Kim, Beob Soo; Toh, Kazuko; Min, Hyun Su; Yi, Yu; Matsumoto, Yu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Miyata, Kanjiro; Taguchi, Ayumi; Tomio, Kensuke; Yamashita, Aki; Inoue, Tomoko; Nakamura, Hiroe; Fujimoto, Asaha; Sato, Masakazu; Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Arimoto, Takahide; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes are essential for the immortalization and maintenance of HPV-associated cancer and are ubiquitously expressed in cervical cancer lesions. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) coding for E6 and E7 oncogenes is a promising approach for precise treatment of cervical cancer, yet a delivery system is required for systemic delivery to solid tumors. Here, an actively targeted polyion complex (PIC) micelle was applied to deliver siRNAs coding for HPV E6/E7 to HPV cervical cancer cell tumors in immune-incompetent tumor-bearing mice. A cell viability assay revealed that both HPV type 16 and 18 E6/E7 siRNAs (si16E6/E7 and si18E6/E7, respectively) interfered with proliferation of cervical cancer cell lines in an HPV type-specific manner. A fluorescence imaging biodistribution analysis further revealed that fluorescence dye-labeled siRNA-loaded PIC micelles efficiently accumulated within the tumor mass after systemic administration. Ultimately, intravenous injection of si16E6/E7 and si18E6/E7-loaded PIC micelles was found to significantly suppress the growth of subcutaneous SiHa and HeLa tumors, respectively. The specific activity of siRNA treatment was confirmed by the observation that p53 protein expression was restored in the tumors excised from the mice treated with si16E6/E7- and si18E6/E7-loaded PIC micelles for SiHa and HeLa tumors, respectively. Therefore, the actively targeted PIC micelle incorporating HPV E6/E7-coding siRNAs demonstrated its therapeutic potential against HPV-associated cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EGF receptor targeted lipo-oligocation polyplexes for antitumoral siRNA and miRNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katharina; Klein, Philipp M.; Heissig, Philipp; Roidl, Andreas; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-11-01

    Antitumoral siRNA and miRNA delivery was demonstrated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted oligoaminoamide polyplexes. For this purpose, the T-shaped lipo-oligomer 454 was used to complex RNA into a core polyplex, which was subsequently functionalized with the targeting peptide ligand GE11 via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker. To this end, free cysteines on the surface of 454 polyplex were coupled with a maleimide-PEG-GE11 reagent (Mal-GE11). Resulting particles with sizes of 120-150 nm showed receptor-mediated uptake into EGFR-positive T24 bladder cancer cells, MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells and Huh7 liver cancer cells. Furthermore, these formulations led to ligand-dependent gene silencing. RNA interference (RNAi) triggered antitumoral effects were observed for two different therapeutic RNAs, a miRNA-200c mimic or EG5 siRNA. Using polyplexes modified with a ratio of 0.8 molar equivalents of Mal-GE11, treatment of T24 or MDA-MB 231 cancer cells with miR-200c led to the expected decreased proliferation and migration, changes in cell cycle and enhanced sensitivity towards doxorubicin. Delivery of EG5 siRNA into Huh7 cells resulted in antitumoral activity with G2/M arrest, triggered by loss of mitotic spindle separation and formation of mono-astral spindles. These findings demonstrate the potential of GE11 ligand-containing RNAi polyplexes for cancer treatment.

  4. Multifunctional nanocarrier based on clay nanotubes for efficient intracellular siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shi, Yinfeng; Huang, Chusen; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Jiahui; Shen, Hebai; Jia, Nengqin

    2014-04-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing relating to disease has recently emerged as a powerful method in gene therapy. Despite the promises, effective transport of siRNA with minimal side effects remains a challenge. Halloysites are cheap and naturally available aluminosilicate clay nanotubes with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. In this study, a novel multifunctional nanocarrier based on functionalized halloysite nanotubes (f-HNTs) has been developed via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembling approach for loading and intracellular delivery of therapeutic antisurvivin siRNA and simultaneously tracking their intracellular transport, in which PEI-modified HNTs are used as gene vector, antisurvivin siRNA as gene therapeutic agent, and mercaptoacetic acid-capped CdSe quantum dots as fluorescent labeling probes. The successful assembly of the f-HNTs-siRNA complexes was systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, Zeta potential measurement, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy, biological TEM, and flow cytometry studies revealed that the complexes enabled the efficient intracellular delivery of siRNA for cell-specific gene silencing. MTT assays exhibited that the complexes can enhance antitumor activity. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that f-HNTs-mediated siRNA delivery effectively knocked down gene expression of survivin and thereby decreased the levels of target proteins of PANC-1 cells. Therefore, this study suggested that the synthesized f-HNTs were a new effective drug delivery system for potential application in cancer gene therapy.

  5. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B; Hunter, Wayne B; Park, Alexis L; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests.

  6. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Park, Alexis L.; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests. PMID:28182760

  7. Efficient delivery of RNA interference oligonucleotides to polarized airway epithelia in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Shyam; Krishnamurthy, Sateesh; Jacobi, Ashley M; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; Behlke, Mark A; Davidson, Beverly L; McCray, Paul B

    2013-07-01

    Polarized and pseudostratified primary airway epithelia present barriers that significantly reduce their transfection efficiency and the efficacy of RNA interference oligonucleotides. This creates an impediment in studies of the airway epithelium, diminishing the utility of loss-of-function as a research tool. Here we outline methods to introduce RNAi oligonucleotides into primary human and porcine airway epithelia grown at an air-liquid interface and difficult-to-transfect transformed epithelial cell lines grown on plastic. At the time of plating, we reverse transfect small-interfering RNA (siRNA), Dicer-substrate siRNA, or microRNA oligonucleotides into cells by use of lipid or peptide transfection reagents. Using this approach we achieve significant knockdown in vitro of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, IL-8, and CFTR expression at the mRNA and protein levels in 1-3 days. We also attain significant reduction of secreted IL-8 in polarized primary pig airway epithelia 3 days posttransfection and inhibition of CFTR-mediated Cl⁻ conductance in polarized air-liquid interface cultures of human airway epithelia 2 wk posttransfection. These results highlight an efficient means to deliver RNA interference reagents to airway epithelial cells and achieve significant knockdown of target gene expression and function. The ability to reliably conduct loss-of-function assays in polarized primary airway epithelia offers benefits to research in studies of epithelial cell homeostasis, candidate gene function, gene-based therapeutics, microRNA biology, and targeting the replication of respiratory viruses.

  8. Thermodynamically stable RNA three-way junction for constructing multifunctional nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Dan; Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Abdelmawla, Sherine; Guo, Peixuan

    2011-10-01

    RNA nanoparticles have applications in the treatment of cancers and viral infection; however, the instability of RNA nanoparticles has hindered their development for therapeutic applications. The lack of covalent linkage or crosslinking in nanoparticles causes dissociation in vivo. Here we show that the packaging RNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor can be assembled from 3-6 pieces of RNA oligomers without the use of metal salts. Each RNA oligomer contains a functional module that can be a receptor-binding ligand, aptamer, short interfering RNA or ribozyme. When mixed together, they self-assemble into thermodynamically stable tri-star nanoparticles with a three-way junction core. These nanoparticles are resistant to 8 M urea denaturation, are stable in serum and remain intact at extremely low concentrations. The modules remain functional in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the three-way junction core can be used as a platform for building a variety of multifunctional nanoparticles. We studied 25 different three-way junction motifs in biological RNA and found only one other motif that shares characteristics similar to the three-way junction of phi29 pRNA.

  9. BSA Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery: Coating Effects on Nanoparticle Properties, Plasma Protein Adsorption, and In Vitro siRNA Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haran Yogasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, like siRNA, is an area of active research. Nanoparticles composed of bovine serum albumin, stabilized via the adsorption of poly-L-lysine (PLL, have been shown to be potentially inert drug-delivery vehicles. With the primary goal of reducing nonspecific protein adsorption, the effect of using comb-type structures of poly(ethylene glycol (1 kDa, PEG units conjugated to PLL (4.2 and 24 kDa on BSA-NP properties, apparent siRNA release rate, cell viability, and cell uptake were evaluated. PEGylated PLL coatings resulted in NPs with ζ-potentials close to neutral. Incubation with platelet-poor plasma showed the composition of the adsorbed proteome was similar for all systems. siRNA was effectively encapsulated and released in a sustained manner from all NPs. With 4.2 kDa PLL, cellular uptake was not affected by the presence of PEG, but PEG coating inhibited uptake with 24 kDa PLL NPs. Moreover, 24 kDa PLL systems were cytotoxic and this cytotoxicity was diminished upon PEG incorporation. The overall results identified a BSA-NP coating structure that provided effective siRNA encapsulation while reducing ζ-potential, protein adsorption, and cytotoxicity, necessary attributes for in vivo application of drug-delivery vehicles.

  10. Nanocarriers for systemic siRNA delivery to tumor vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a high need for efficacious medicines in cancer therapy. The use of conventional medicines to treat cancer is often hampered by their unfavorable safety profile which limits their dosing. By using targeted delivery systems, toxicity in non-target tissues can be reduced. An

  11. Towards Defined DNA and RNA Delivery Vehicles Using Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Anders Hauge; Schaffert, David Henning; Kjems, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    an increasing interest to engineer-defined DNA and RNA vehicles for drug delivery. However, before this can be realized, key challenges must be overcome including structure integrity, efficient cell targeting, and drug release. The tunable nature of DNA and RNA assemblies allows for thorough investigations......Both DNA and RNA nanostructures show exceptional programmability, modularity, and self-assembly ability. Using DNA or RNA molecules it is possible to assemble monodisperse particles that are homogeneous in size and shape and with identical positioning of surface modifications. For therapeutic...... applications such nanoparticles are of particular interest as they can be tailored to target cells and reduce unwanted side effects due to particle heterogeneity. Recently, DNA and RNA nanostructures have demonstrated this potential by delivery of drugs to specific cells in vitro and in vivo. This has launched...

  12. Electrically assisted delivery of macromolecules into the corneal epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    HAO, JINSONG; Li, S. Kevin; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston W. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Electrically assisted delivery is noninvasive and has been investigated in a number of ocular drug delivery studies. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of electrically assisted delivery of macromolecules such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the corneal epithelium, to optimize the iontophoresis and electroporation methods, and to study the mechanisms of corneal iontophoresis for macromolecules. Anodal and cathodal iontophoresis, electroporation and their combina...

  13. Development and characterization of chitosan-PEG-TAT nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Meenakshi Malhotra,1 Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau,1 Shyamali Saha,2 Imen Kahouli,3 Satya Prakash11Biomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Dentistry, 3Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Recently, cell-penetrating peptides have been proposed to translocate antibodies, proteins, and other molecules in targeted drug delivery. The proposed study presents the synthesis and characterization of a peptide-based chitosan nanoparticle for small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, in-vitro. Specifically, the synthesis included polyethylene glycol (PEG, a hydrophilic polymer, and trans-activated transcription (TAT peptide, which were chemically conjugated on the chitosan polymer. The conjugation was achieved using N-Hydroxysuccinimide-PEG-maleimide (heterobifunctional PEG as a cross-linker, with the bifunctional PEG facilitating the amidation reaction through its N-Hydroxysuccinimide group and reacting with the amines on chitosan. At the other end of PEG, the maleimide group was chemically conjugated with the cysteine-modified TAT peptide. The degree of substitution on chitosan with PEG and on PEG with TAT was confirmed using colorimetric assays. The resultant polymer was used to form nanoparticles complexing siRNA, which were then characterized for particle size, morphology, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity. The nanoparticles were tested in-vitro on mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro2a. Particle size and surface charge were characterized and an optimal pH condition and PEG molecular weight were determined to form sterically stable nanoparticles. Results indicate 7.5% of the amines in chitosan polymer were conjugated to the PEG and complete conjugation of TAT peptide was observed on the synthesized PEGylated chitosan polymer. Compared with unmodified chitosan nanoparticles, the nanoparticles formed at pH 6 were

  14. Long chain microRNA conjugates in calcium phosphate nanoparticles for efficient formulation and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyosook; Kim, Seung An; Yang, Yong Geun; Yoo, Hyundong; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Mok, Hyejung

    2015-01-01

    A long chain microRNA-34a conjugate (lc-miRNA) was prepared by chemical crosslinking in order to improve entrapment efficiency into calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPs) and intracellular delivery. Thiol-modified miRNA at both terminal ends was chemically conjugated using crosslinkers to form lc-miRNA which was encapsulated within CaPs by a conventional co-precipitation method. Encapsulation efficiencies, physicochemical properties, and in vitro intracellular delivery efficiencies of the prepared linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI)-coated CaPs (LPEI-CaP) containing common miRNA and lc-miRNA were comparatively evaluated. The prepared lc-miRNA exhibited noticeably enhanced encapsulation efficiency during the CaP formulation process when compared to common miRNA. LPEI-CaP/lc-miRNAs consisted of nano-sized particles with great homogeneity and were observed to be successfully delivered into PC-3 cells. Fabricated LPEI-CaPs with duplex form of lc-miRNA (lc-miRNA-d) suppressed cancer cell proliferation as well as migration much more efficiently than those with duplex form of miRNA (miRNA-d). In addition, LPEI-CaP/lc-miRNA-d conferred negligible cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells. Chemical crosslinking of therapeutic miRNAs via a reducible linkage may allow more efficient encapsulation within CaPs as well as homogeneous particle formulation due to a higher spatial charge density than common miRNAs. The well-formulated LPEI-CaPs with lc-miRNA-d have the potential to provide superior miRNA transfection efficiency and inhibition of cancer proliferation.

  15. Suppression of Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Expression by Small Interfering RNA Inhibits A549 Human Lung Cancer Cell Invasion in vitro and Metastasis in Xenograft Nude Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfang QIAN; Aiqiang DONG; Minjian KONG; Zhiyuan MA; Junqiang FAN; Guanyu JIANG

    2007-01-01

    Cancer invasion and metastasis, involving a variety of pathological processes and cytophysiological changes, contribute to the high mortality of lung cancer. The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), associated with cancer progression and invasion, is a potential anti-invasion and anti-metastasis target in lung cancer. To inhibit the invasive properties of lung cancer cells, we successfully down-regulated IGF-1R gene expression in A549 human lung cancer cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA)technology, and evaluated its effects on invasion-related gene expression, tumor cell in vitro invasion, and metastasis in xenograft nude mice. A549 cells transfected with a plasmid expressing hairpin siRNA for IGF-1R showed a significantly decreased IGF-1R expression at the mRNA level as well as the protein level. In biological assays, transfected A549 cells showed a significant reduction of cell-matrix adhesion,migration and invasion. Consistent with these results, we found that down-regulation of IGR-1R concomitantly accompanied by a large reduction in invasion-related gene expressions, including MMP-2,MMP-9, u-PA, and IGF-1R specific downstream p-Akt. Direct tail vein injections of plasmid expressing hairpin siRNA for IGF-1R significantly inhibited the formation of lung metastases in nude mice. Our results showed the therapeutic potential of siRNA as a method for gene therapy in inhibiting lung cancer invasion and metastasis.

  16. Gene Silencing in Adult Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Through Oral Delivery of Double-Stranded RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    OR I GI N AL C ONTR I BUTI O N Gene silencing in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes through oral delivery of double-stranded RNA M. R. Coy1, N. D...we tested whether such an approach could be used in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Using a non-specific dsRNA construct, we found that...adult Ae. aegypti ingested dsRNA through this method and that the ingested dsRNA can be recovered from the mosquitoes post-feeding. Through the feeding of

  17. Effect of Small Interfering RNA on Nerve Growth Factor of Rats with Intervertebral Disc Inflammation%小干扰 RNA 对椎间盘炎症大鼠神经生长因子的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibition effect of small interfering RNA(siRNA)on nerve growth factor (NGF)induced by inflammatory factor IL - 6,IL - 1β,to provide novel targets for clinical treatment of discogenic low back pain(DLBP), Methods Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells isolated from 60 SPF SD rates were divided into groups control(n = 12),study(n = 48), IL - 6 and IL - 1β were added into group study,cultured 48 h,and divided into subgroups A(10 nmol/ L),B(20 nmol/ L),C(50 nmol/ L),D(100 nmol/ L),12 in each, NGF - siRNA was introduced into cul-tured cells,cell conversion rate was determined and NGF - siRNA conversion rate calculated by flow cytometer,NGF mRNA ex-pression by real - time Q - PCR,NGF mRNA relative expression calculated,NGF concentration detected by enzyme - linked im-munosorbent assay(ELISA)before and after the introduction, Results By the results of flow cytometry,the conversion rate of NGF - siRNA cells was 99, 8% , NGF mRNA relative expressions of subgroups A,B,C,D were higher by times 3, 4,3, 7, 4, 7,8, 0 than that of control group before NGF - siRNA introduction(P < 0, 05),and lower by 39, 5% ,45, 5% ,45, 3% , 39, 9% ,47, 8% after introduction than before(P < 0, 05), NGF concentration of subgroups A,B,C,D were higher by times 2, 9,3, 3,4, 5,7, 4 than that of control group before NGF - siRNA introduction(P < 0, 05),and lower by 47, 2% ,33, 8% , 35, 4% ,43, 0% ,54, 9% after introduction than before(P < 0, 05), Conclusion Inflammatory cytokines IL - 6 and IL - 1βcan induce the NGF expression of rats intervertebral disc cells cultured in vitro,and the inductive effect has dose - dependence, NGF - siRNA interference,which can inhibit the inductive effects of inflammatory cytokines on NGF,provides a new target for DLBP treatment.%目的:探讨小干扰 RNA(siRNA)对炎性因子 IL -6、IL -1β诱导椎间盘大鼠神经生长因子( NGF)的抑制效应,为椎间盘源性腰痛(DLBP)的治疗

  18. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery System for Biomedical Applications of RNAi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-strand RNA, including synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) and endogenous microRNA (miRNA). RNAi has attracted great attention for developing a new class of therapeutics, due to its capability to speci......RNA/miRNA and transport them to the action site in the target cells. This thesis describes the development of various nanocarriers for siRNA/miRNA delivery and investigate their potential biomedical applications including: anti-inflammation, tissue engineering and cancer...

  19. Intracellular delivery of RNA therapeutics with lipid nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Blenke, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic RNA molecules such as siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides have great potential to be used as future medicines in human patients, because they allow the modulation of virtually any protein in the body. Unfortunately, their application is hampered by their physicochemical properties that

  20. Intracellular delivery of RNA therapeutics with lipid nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Blenke, E.

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic RNA molecules such as siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides have great potential to be used as future medicines in human patients, because they allow the modulation of virtually any protein in the body. Unfortunately, their application is hampered by their physicochemical properties that

  1. Targeted Delivery of siRNA to Transferrin Receptor Overexpressing Tumor Cells via Peptide Modified Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuran Xie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of small interference RNA (siRNA to target oncogenes is a promising treatment approach for cancer. However, siRNA cancer therapies are hindered by poor delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Transferrin receptor (TfR is overexpressed in many types of tumor cells and therefore is a potential target for the selective delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Here, we used the TfR binding peptide HAIYPRH (HAI peptide conjugated to cationic polymer branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, optimized the coupling strategy, and the TfR selective delivery of siRNA was evaluated in cells with high (H1299 and low TfR expression (A549 and H460. The HAI-bPEI conjugate exhibited chemico-physical properties in terms of size, zeta-potential, and siRNA condensation efficiency similar to unmodified bPEI. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results revealed that HAI-bPEI selectively delivered siRNA to H1299 cells compared with A549 or H460 cells. Moreover, HAI-bPEI achieved more efficient glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene knockdown in H1299 cells compared with bPEI alone. However, despite optimization of the targeting peptide and coupling strategy, HAI-bPEI can only silence reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP at the protein level when chloroquine is present, indicating that further optimization of the conjugate is required. In conclusion, the HAI peptide may be useful to target TfR overexpressing tumors in targeted gene and siRNA delivery approaches.

  2. Delivery of dsRNA for RNAi in insects: an overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Christiaens, Olivier; Liu, Jisheng; Niu, Jinzhi; Cappelle, Kaat; Caccia, Silvia; Huvenne, Hanneke; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the process of exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing the complementary endogenous messenger RNA. RNAi has been widely used in entomological research for functional genomics in a variety of insects and its potential for RNAi-based pest control has been increasingly emphasized mainly because of its high specificity. This review focuses on the approaches of introducing dsRNA into insect cells or insect bodies to induce effective RNAi. The three most common delivery methods, namely, microinjection, ingestion, and soaking, are illustrated in details and their advantages and limitations are summarized for purpose of feasible RNAi research. In this review, we also briefly introduce the two possible dsRNA uptake machineries, other dsRNA delivery methods and the history of RNAi in entomology. Factors that influence the specificity and efficiency of RNAi such as transfection reagents, selection of dsRNA region, length, and stability of dsRNA in RNAi research are discussed for further studies.

  3. Exosome-mediated delivery of functionally active miRNA-155 inhibitor to macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Bala, Shashi; Bukong, Terence; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-10-01

    Exosomes, membranous nanovesicles, naturally carry bio-macromolecules and play pivotal roles in both physiological intercellular crosstalk and disease pathogenesis. Here, we showed that B cell-derived exosomes can function as vehicles to deliver exogenous miRNA-155 mimic or inhibitor into hepatocytes or macrophages, respectively. Stimulation of B cells significantly increased exosome production. Unlike in parental cells, baseline level of miRNA-155 was very low in exosomes derived from stimulated B cells. Exosomes loaded with a miRNA-155 mimic significantly increased miRNA-155 levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and the liver of miRNA-155 knockout mice. Treatment of RAW macrophages with miRNA-155 inhibitor loaded exosomes resulted in statistically significant reduction in LPS-induced TNFα production and partially prevented LPS-induced decrease in SOCS1 mRNA levels. Furthermore, exosome-mediated miRNA-155 inhibitor delivery resulted in functionally more efficient inhibition and less cellular toxicity compared to conventional transfection methods. Similar approaches could be useful in modification of target biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. From the clinical editor: In this study, exosome-based delivery of miRNA-155 mimicker or inhibitor was found to have significant biological response in hepatocytes and macrophages. Exosome-based approaches may be useful in the modification of other target biomolecules.

  4. Development of Therapeutic-Grade Small Interfering RNAs by Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsen, Jesper B; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Recent successes in clinical trials have provided important proof of concept that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) indeed constitute a new promising class of therapeutics. Although great efforts are still needed to ensure efficient means of delivery in vivo, the siRNA molecule itself has been successfully engineered by chemical modification to meet initial challenges regarding specificity, stability, and immunogenicity. To date, a great wealth of siRNA architectures and types of chemical modification are available for promoting safe siRNA-mediated gene silencing in vivo and, consequently, the choice of design and modification types can be challenging to individual experimenters. Here we review the literature and devise how to improve siRNA performance by structural design and specific chemical modification to ensure potent and specific gene silencing without unwarranted side-effects and hereby complement the ongoing efforts to improve cell targeting and delivery by other carrier molecules.

  5. Screening of siRNA nanoparticles for delivery to airway epithelial cells using high-content analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hibbitts, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aims: Delivery of siRNA to the lungs via inhalation offers a unique opportunity to develop a new treatment paradigm for a range of respiratory conditions. However, progress has been greatly hindered by safety and delivery issues. This study developed a high-throughput method for screening novel nanotechnologies for pulmonary siRNA delivery. Methodology: Following physicochemical analysis, the ability of PEI–PEG–siRNA nanoparticles to facilitate siRNA delivery was determined using high-content analysis (HCA) in Calu-3 cells. Results obtained from HCA were validated using confocal microscopy. Finally, cytotoxicity of the PEI–PEG–siRNA particles was analyzed by HCA using the Cellomics® multiparameter cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion: PEI–PEG–siRNA nanoparticles facilitated increased siRNA uptake and luciferase knockdown in Calu-3 cells compared with PEI–siRNA.

  6. Anti-EphA10 antibody-conjugated pH-sensitive liposomes for specific intracellular delivery of siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang X

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xinlong Zang,1 Huaiwei Ding,2 Xiufeng Zhao,3 Xiaowei Li,1 Zhouqi Du,1 Haiyang Hu,1 Mingxi Qiao,1 Dawei Chen,1 Yuihui Deng,1 Xiuli Zhao1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 3Hongqi Hospital affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Therapeutic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA is a major challenge that limits its potential clinical application. Here, a pH-sensitive cholesterol–Schiff base–polyethylene glycol (Chol–SIB–PEG-modified cationic liposome–siRNA complex, conjugated with the recombinant humanized anti-EphA10 antibody (Eph, was developed as an efficient nonviral siRNA delivery system. Chol–SIB–PEG was successfully synthesized and confirmed with FTIR and 1H-NMR. An Eph–PEG–SIB–Chol-modified liposome–siRNA complex (EPSLR was prepared and characterized by size, zeta potential, gel retardation, and encapsulation efficiency. Electrophoresis results showed that EPSLR was resistant to heparin replacement and protected siRNA from fetal bovine serum digestion. EPSLR exhibited only minor cytotoxicity in MCF-7/ADR cells. The results of flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy suggested that EPSLR enhanced siRNA transfection in MCF-7/ADR cells. Intracellular distribution experiment revealed that EPSLR could escape from the endo-lysosomal organelle and release siRNA into cytoplasm at 4 hours posttransfection. Western blot experiment demonstrated that EPSLR was able to significantly reduce the levels of MDR1 protein in MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo study of DIR-labeled complexes in mice bearing MCF-7/ADR tumor indicated that EPSLR could reach the tumor site rather than other organs more effectively. All these results demonstrate that EPSLR has much potential for effective siRNA delivery and may

  7. Low cytotoxicity fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer as gene carriers for monitoring the delivery of siRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Lingmei [Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences (China); Huang, Saipeng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China); Chen, Zhao [Xi’an Jiaotong University, School of Science (China); Li, Yanchao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China); Liu, Ke [Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yliu@iccas.ac.cn; Du, Libo, E-mail: dulibo@iccas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China)

    2015-09-15

    Visual detection of gene vectors has attracted a great deal of attention due to the application of these vectors in monitoring and evaluating the effect of gene carriers in living cells. A non-viral vector, the fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer (F-PAMAM), was synthesized through conjugation of PAMAM dendrimers and fluorescein. In vitro and ex vivo experiments show that F-PAMAM exhibits superphotostability, low cytotoxicity and facilitates endocytosis by A549 cells. The vector has a high siRNA binding affinity and it increases the efficiency of cy5-siRNA delivery in A549 cells, in comparison with a cy5-siRNA monomer. Our results provide a new method for simultaneously monitoring the delivery of siRNA and its non-viral carriers in living cells.

  8. Lipid-Modified Aminoglycoside Derivatives for In Vivo siRNA Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Rationally designed siRNA delivery materials that are enabled by lipid-modified aminoglycosides are demonstrated. Leading materials identified are able to self-assemble with siRNA into well-defined nanoparticles and induce efficient gene knockdown both in vitro and in vivo. Histology studies and liver function tests reveal that no apparent toxicity is caused by these nanoparticles at doses over two orders of magnitude.

  9. Lipid-modified aminoglycoside derivatives for in vivo siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Pelet, Jeisa M; Heller, Daniel A; Dong, Yizhou; Chen, Delai; Gu, Zhen; Joseph, Brian J; Wallas, Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel G

    2013-09-06

    Rationally designed siRNA delivery materials that are enabled by lipid-modified aminoglycosides are demonstrated. Leading materials identified are able to self-assemble with siRNA into well-defined nanoparticles and induce efficient gene knockdown both in vitro and in vivo. Histology studies and liver function tests reveal that no apparent toxicity is caused by these nanoparticles at doses over two orders of magnitude.

  10. Delivery of cationic polymer-siRNA nanoparticles for gene therapies in neural regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanran [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107, West Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, People' s Republic of China (China); Liu, Zhonglin, E-mail: zhonglinliu@126.com [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107, West Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, People' s Republic of China (China); Shuai, Xintao; Wang, Weiwei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, People' s Republic of China (China); Liu, Jun [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107, West Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, People' s Republic of China (China); Bi, Wei [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, No. 613, West Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510630, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Chuanming; Jing, Xiuna; Liu, Yunyun [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107, West Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, People' s Republic of China (China); Tao, Enxiang, E-mail: taoenxiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107, West Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nogo receptor can inhibit growth of injured axons, thus affecting neural regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The delivery of siRNA is crucial to inhibit NgR expression in NSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-viral vector PEG-PEI condensed siRNA targeting NgR into nanoscale particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG-PEI/siRNA at N/P = 15 displayed high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG-PEI has great potential in carrying siRNA to diminish the gene expression in NSCs. -- Abstract: The therapeutic applications of neural stem cells (NSCs) have potential to promote recovery in many obstinate diseases in central nervous system. Regulation of certain gene expressions using siRNA may have significant influence on the fate of NSC. To achieve the optimum gene silencing effect of siRNA, non-viral vector polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI) was investigated in the delivery of siRNA to NSCs. The characteristics of PEG-PEI/siRNA polyplexes were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of nanoparticles on cell viability were measured via CCK-8 assay. In addition, the transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, and real-time PCR and Western Blot were employed to detect the gene inhibition effect of siRNA delivered by PEG-PEI. The SEM micrographs showed that PEG-PEI could condense siRNA to form diffuse and spherical nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes (N/P = 15) was significantly lower when compared with that of Lipofectamine 2000/siRNA (P < 0.05). Moreover, the highest transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles was obtained at an N/P ratio of 15, which was better than that achieved in the transfection using Lipofectamine 2000 (P < 0.05). Finally, the gene knockdown effect of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles was verified at the levels of mRNA and protein. These results suggest that

  11. Combination of small interfering RNA and lamivudine on inhibition of human B virus replication in HepG2.2.15 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Qiu Li; Wei-Zhen Xu; Jing-Xia Wang; Wen-Wei Deng; Di Li; Hong-Xi Gu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To observe the inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and expression by combination of siRNA and lamivudine in HepG2.2.15 cells.METHODS: Recombinant plasmid psil-HBV was constructed and transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells. The transfected cells were cultured in lamivudine-containing medium (0.05 μmol/L) and harvested at 48, 72 and 96 h. The concentration of HBeAg and HBsAg was determined using ELISA. HBV DMA replication was examined by realtime PCR and the level of HBV mRNA was measured by RT-PCR.RESULTS: In HepG2.2.15 cells treated with combination of siRNA and lamivudine, the secretion of HBeAg and HBsAg into the supernatant was found to be inhibited by 91.80% and 82.40% (2.89 ± 0.48 vs 11.73±0.38,P<0.05;4.59±0.57 vs 16.25±O.48,P<0.05) at 96 h,respectively;the number of HBV DNA copies within culture medium was also significantly decreased at 96 h (1.04±0.26 vs 8.35±0.33,P<0.05).Moreover,mRNA concentration in HepG2.2.15 cells treated with combination of siRNA and lamivudine was obviously lower compared to those treated either with siRNA or lamivudine (19.44±0.17 vs 33.27±0.21 or 79.9±0.13,P<O.05).CONCLUSION:Combination of siRNA and lamivudine is more effective in inhibiting HBV replication as compared to the single use of siRNA or lamivudine in HepG2.2.15 cells.

  12. Delivery of Therapeutic RNAs Into Target Cells IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Ying; Hagen, Thilo

    2014-02-01

    RNA-based therapy is one of the most promising approaches to treat human diseases. Specifically, the use of short interfering RNA (siRNA) siRNA and microRNA (miRNA) mimics for in vivo RNA interference has immense potential as it directly lowers the expression of the therapeutic target protein. However, there are a number of major roadblocks to the successful implementation of siRNA and other RNA based therapies in the clinic. These include the instability of RNAs in vivo and the difficulty to efficiently deliver the RNA into the target cells. Hence, various innovative approaches have been taken over the years to develop effective RNA delivery methods. These methods include liposome-, polymeric nanoparticle- and peptide-mediated cellular delivery. In a recent innovative study, bioengineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles were used as vehicles for effective delivery of siRNA into cells in vivo.

  13. Myocardial Delivery of Lipidoid Nanoparticle Carrying modRNA Induces Rapid and Transient Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Irene C; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Fish, Kenneth M; Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Chen, Jiqiu; Hajjar, Roger J; Anderson, Daniel G; Costa, Kevin D

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of nucleotides offers an alternative to viral vectors for gene therapy. We report highly efficient in vivo delivery of modified mRNA (modRNA) to rat and pig myocardium using formulated lipidoid nanoparticles (FLNP). Direct myocardial injection of FLNP containing 1-10 μg eGFPmodRNA in the rat (n = 3 per group) showed dose-dependent enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) mRNA levels in heart tissue 20 hours after injection, over 60-fold higher than for naked modRNA. Off-target expression, including lung, liver, and spleen, was <10% of that in heart. Expression kinetics after injecting 5 μg FLNP/eGFPmodRNA showed robust expression at 6 hours that reduced by half at 48 hours and was barely detectable at 2 weeks. Intracoronary administration of 10 μg FLNP/eGFPmodRNA also proved successful, although cardiac expression of eGFP mRNA at 20 hours was lower than direct injection, and off-target expression was correspondingly higher. Findings were confirmed in a pilot study in pigs using direct myocardial injection as well as percutaneous intracoronary delivery, in healthy and myocardial infarction models, achieving expression throughout the ventricular wall. Fluorescence microscopy revealed GFP-positive cardiomyocytes in treated hearts. This nanoparticle-enabled approach for highly efficient, rapid and short-term mRNA expression in the heart offers new opportunities to optimize gene therapies for enhancing cardiac function and regeneration.

  14. Improvements in Rational Design Strategies of Inulin Derivative Polycation for siRNA Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Carla; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Porsio, Barbara; Giammona, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2016-07-11

    The advances of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated therapy provide a powerful option for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer, by silencing the expression of targeted genes involved in the progression of the pathology. On this regard, a new pH-responsive polycation derived from inulin, Inulin-g-imidazole-g-diethylenetriamine (INU-IMI-DETA), was designed and employed to produce INU-IMI-DETA/siRNA "Inulin COmplex Nanoaggregates" (ICONs). The experimental results showed that INU-IMI-DETA exhibited strong cationic characteristics and high solubility in the pH range 3-5 and self-aggregation triggered by pH increase and physiological salt concentration. INU-IMI-DETA showed as well a high buffering capacity in the endosomal pH range of 7.4-5.1. In the concentration range between 25 and 1000 μg/mL INU-IMI-DETA had no cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and no lytic effect on human red blood cells. ICONs were prepared by two-step procedure involving complexation and precipitation into DPBS buffer (pH 7.4) to produce siRNA-loaded nanoaggregates with minimized surface charge and suitable size for parenteral administration. Bafilomycin A1 inhibited transfection on MCF-7 cells, indicating that the protonation of the imidazole groups in the endolysosome pathway favors the escape of the system from endolysosomal compartment, increasing the amount of siRNA that can reach the cytoplasm.

  15. A nova grande promessa da inovação em fármacos: RNA interferência saindo do laboratório para a clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Martins Menck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta de que nossas células dispõem de um mecanismo de silenciamento gênico empregando RNA interferência ainda é muito recente. Apesar disso, em menos de uma década a investigação científica já alcançou progresso, suficiente para muito brevemente nos apropriarmos desse conhecimento com fins terapêuticos. Duplexes de RNA são potenciais fármacos e há investimentos altos nessa nova abordagem. Aparentemente, a promessa de terapia gênica parece finalmente atingir sua maturidade com essas novas ferramentas.The discovery of gene silencing mechanisms in our own cells using RNA interference is very recent. However, in less than a decade, the scientific investigation have progressed enough to make us see that, very soon, we will use this knowledge for therapeutic purposes. RNA duplexes are potential pharmaceutical drugs and there are high investments in this new strategy. The promising gene therapy seems to finally reach maturity with these new tools.

  16. Diagnosis-Therapy Integrative Systems Based on Magnetic RNA Nanoflowers for Co-drug Delivery and Targeted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingshu; Li, Shuang; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-02-21

    This study was to develop a codrug delivery system for targeting cancer therapy based on magnetic RNA nanoflowers (RNA NF). Compared with traditional nucleic acid structure, convenient separation can be achieved by introducing magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) into RNA NF. Folic acid (FA) modified MNP/RNA NF (FA/MNP/RNA NF) was used as a targeting nanocarrier with excellent biocompatibility to overcome the nonselectivity of MNP/RNA NF. And then, anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and photosensitizer 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (1-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin (TMPyP4) binding with RNA NF were used as codrug cargo models. RNA NF was first used for codrug delivery. So, imaging fluorescent tags, target recognition element, and drug molecules were all assembled together on the surface of MNP/RNA NF. The experimental results suggested that the treatment efficacy of codrug delivery platform (FA/MNP/RNA NF/D/T) was better than single-drug delivery platform (FA/MNP/RNA NF/D). Besides, the FA/MNP/RNA NF was used as a probe for cancer cell detection. The limit of detection was 50 HeLa cells. In conclusion, the codrug delivery platform based on FA/MNP/RNA NF was a promising approach for the intracellular quantification of other biomolecules, as well as a diagnosis-therapy integrative system.

  17. Polymers modified with double-tailed fluorous compounds for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bingwei; Wang, Yitong; Shao, Naimin; Chang, Hong; Cheng, Yiyun

    2015-08-01

    Cationic polymers are widely used as gene carriers, however, these polymers are usually associated with low transfection efficacy and non-negligible toxicity. Fluorination on polymers significantly improves their performances in gene delivery, but a high density of fluorous chains must be conjugated on a single polymer. Here we present a new strategy to construct fluorinated polymers with minimal fluorous chains for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery. A double-tailed fluorous compound 2-chloro-4,6-bis[(perfluorohexyl)propyloxy]-1,3,5-triazine (CBT) was conjugated on dendrimers of different generations and low molecular weight polyethylenimine via a facile synthesis. The yielding products with average numbers of 1-2 conjugated CBT moieties showed much improved EGFP and luciferase transfection efficacy compared to unmodified polymers. In addition, these polymers show high siRNA delivery efficacy on different cell lines. Among the synthesized polymers, generation 1 (G1) dendrimer modified with an average number of 1.9 CBT moieties (G1-CBT1.9) shows the highest efficacy when delivering both DNA and siRNA and its efficacy approaches that of Lipofectamine 2000. G1-CBT1.9 also shows efficient gene silencing in vivo. All of the CBT-modified polymers exhibit minimal toxicity on the cells at their optimal transfection conditions. This study provides a new strategy to design efficient fluorous polymers for DNA and siRNA delivery.

  18. Targeted transfection increases siRNA uptake and gene silencing of primary endothelial cells in vitro - A quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgeirsdottir, Sigridur A.; Talman, Eduard G.; de Graaf, Inge A.; Kamps, Jan A. A. M.; Satchell, Simon C.; Mathieson, Peter W.; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje

    2010-01-01

    Applications of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) call for specific and efficient delivery of siRNA into particular cell types. We developed a novel, non-viral targeting system to deliver siRNA specifically into inflammation-activated endothelial cells. This was achieved by conjugating the cationic amph

  19. Influence of the Internalization Pathway on the Efficacy of siRNA Delivery by Cationic Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in the Ewing Sarcoma Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaddad, Anna; Durieu, Catherine; Dantelle, Géraldine; Le Cam, Eric; Malvy, Claude; Treussart, François; Bertrand, Jean-Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are powerful tools commonly used for the specific inhibition of gene expression. However, vectorization is required to facilitate cell penetration and to prevent siRNA degradation by nucleases. We have shown that diamond nanocrystals coated with cationic polymer can be used to carry siRNAs into Ewing sarcoma cells, in which they remain traceable over long periods, due to their intrinsic stable fluorescence. We tested two cationic polymers, polyallylamine and polyethylenimine. The release of siRNA, accompanied by Ewing sarcoma EWS-Fli1 oncogene silencing, was observed only with polyethylenimine. We investigated cell penetration and found that the underlying mechanisms accounted for these differences in behavior. Using drugs selectively inhibiting particular pathways and a combination of fluorescence and electronic microscopy, we showed that siRNA gene silencing occurred only if the siRNA:cationic nanodiamond complex followed the macropinocytosis route. These results have potential implications for the design of efficient drug-delivery vectors. PMID:23284935

  20. Functional Assays for Specific Targeting and Delivery of RNA Nanoparticles to Brain Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Vieweger, Mario; Yoo, Ji Young; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative progress in nanoparticle development has opened a new era of targeted delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells and tissue. However, developing proper detection methods has lagged behind resulting in the lack of precise evaluation and monitoring of the systemically administered nanoparticles. RNA nanoparticles derived from the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor pRNA have emerged as a new generation of drugs for cancer therapy. Multifunctional RNA nanoparticles can be fabricated by bottom-up self-assembly of engineered RNA fragments harboring targeting (RNA aptamer or chemical ligand), therapeutic (siRNA, miRNA, ribozymes, and small molecule drugs), and imaging (fluorophore, radiolabels) modules. We have recently demonstrated that RNA nanoparticles can reach and target intracranial brain tumors in mice upon systemic injection with little or no accumulation in adjacent healthy brain tissues or in major healthy internal organs. Herein, we describe various functional imaging methods (fluorescence confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence whole body imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging) to evaluate and monitor RNA nanoparticle targeting to intracranial brain tumors in mice. Such imaging techniques will allow in-depth evaluation of specifically delivered RNA therapeutics to brain tumors. PMID:25896001

  1. Transfer and Expression of Small Interfering RNAs in Mammalian Cells Using Lentiviral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, T D; Spirin, P V; Prassolov, V S

    2013-04-01

    RNA interference is a convenient tool for modulating gene expression. The widespread application of RNA interference is made difficult because of the imperfections of the methods used for efficient target cell delivery of whatever genes are under study. One of the most convenient and efficient gene transfer and expression systems is based on the use of lentiviral vectors, which direct the synthesis of small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), the precursors of siRNAs. The application of these systems enables one to achieve sustainable and long-term shRNA expression in cells. This review considers the adaptation of the processing of artificial shRNA to the mechanisms used by cellular microRNAs and simultaneous expression of several shRNAs as potential approaches for producing lentiviral vectors that direct shRNA synthesis. Approaches to using RNA interference for the treatment of cancer, as well as hereditary and viral diseases, are under active development today. The improvement made to the methods for constructing lentiviral vectors and the investigation into the mechanisms of processing of small interfering RNA allow one to now consider lentiviral vectors that direct shRNA synthesis as one of the most promising tools for delivering small interfering RNAs.

  2. Gold nanostar-polymer hybrids for siRNA delivery: Polymer design towards colloidal stability and in vitro studies on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Carla; Bassi, Barbara; Craparo, Emanuela F; Scialabba, Cinzia; Cabrini, Elisa; Dacarro, Giacomo; D'Agostino, Agnese; Taglietti, Angelo; Giammona, Gaetano; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2017-03-15

    To overcome the low bioavailability of siRNA (small interfering RNA) and to improve their transfection efficiency, the use of non-viral delivery carriers is today a feasible approach to transform the discovery of these incredibly potent and versatile drugs into clinical practice. Polymer-modified gold nanoconstructs (AuNCs) are currently viewed as efficient and safe intracellular delivery carriers for siRNA, as they have the possibility to conjugate the ability to stably entrap and deliver siRNAs inside cells with the advantages of gold nanoparticles, which can act as theranostic agents and radiotherapy enhancers through laser-induced hyperthermia. In this study, AuNCs were prepared by coating Gold Nano Stars (GNS) with suitable functionalised polymers, to give new insight on the choice of the coating in order to obtain colloidal stability, satisfying in vitro transfection behaviour and reliability in terms of homogeneous results upon GNS type changing. For this goal, GNS synthesized with three different sizes and shapes were coated with two different polymers: i) α-mercapto-ω-amino polyethylene glycol 3000Da (SH-PEG3000-NH2), a hydrophilic linear polymer; ii) PHEA-PEG2000-EDA-LA (PPE-LA), an amphiphilic hydroxyethylaspartamide copolymer containing a PEG moiety. Both polymers contain SH or SS groups for anchoring on gold surface and NH2 groups, which can be protonated in order to obtain a positive surface for successive siRNA layering. The effect of the features of the coating polymers on siRNA layering, and the extent of intracellular uptake and luciferase gene silencing effect were evaluated for each of the obtained coated GNS. The results highlight that amphiphilic biocompatible polymers with multi-grafting function are more suitable for ensuring the colloidal stability and the effectiveness of these colloidal systems, compared to the coating with linear PEG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efifciency of Different Methods for dsRNA Delivery in Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; HAN Zhao-jun

    2014-01-01

    RNAi trigged by dsRNA not only facilitates the development of molecular biology, but also initiates a new way for pest control by silence of fatal genes. However, one of the key limitations in pest control is lack of the convenient and efifcient method for dsRNA delivery. In this study, different dsRNA delivery methods at their own optimum conditions were evaluated comparatively for their efifciency with Helicoverpa armigera as test animal. It was found that the popular one-time injection of larvae with dsRNA could reduce the pupation rate by 43.0%and enhance larva mortality by 11.7%. One-time ingestion of dsRNA did not result in any signiifcant effect on phenotype. Continuous ingestion of in vitro synthesized dsRNA by refreshing the bait diet every day caused 40.4% decrease in successful pupation and 10.0% increase in larval mortality, which was similar as one-time injection. The most efifcient method was found to be the continuous ingestion of the bacteria containing dsRNA expressed, which reduced the rate of pupation by 68.7%and enhanced the larval mortality by 34.1%. Further analysis found that dsRNA was degraded faster in midgut juice than in hemolymph. However, the cell of bacteria could protect dsRNA and delay the degradation in the midgut juice of H. armigera. These results throw light on the application of dsRNA in pest management with proper ways.

  4. 表达登革病毒prM基因小干扰RNA的Vero细胞系的建立%Establishment of Vero Cell Lines with Expression of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Dengue Virus prM Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 吴新伟; 伍业健; 罗兰; 蒋力云; 杨霞

    2011-01-01

    prM蛋白是登革病毒膜蛋白M的前体,膜蛋白M对病毒的组装与成熟有重要作用,针对prM基因设计的小干扰RNA(siRNA)可短期抑制登革病毒复制.为了达到长期抑制登革病毒的效果,本研究构建了插入prM siRNA序列的重组慢病毒,利用流式细胞术分选以及杀稻瘟霉素抗性,筛选出稳定表达prM siRNA的非洲绿猴肾细胞(Vero细胞)系.经逆转录PCR及测序验证siRNA序列表达正确.Vero细胞中prM siRNA的表达率约为97.6%.当受到登革病毒攻击时,表达prM siRNA的Vero细胞能够明显抑制登革病毒prM基因的表达,并抑制登革病毒在Vero细胞中的复制.建立的Vero细胞系可用于RNA干扰防治登革病毒感染的进一步应用研究.%PrM is the precursor of a membrane protein M that plays an important role in the assembling and maturation of dengue virus. Small interfering RNA ( siRNA) targeted to prM gene can transiently inhibit the replication of dengue viruses. In order to establish persistent inhibitory effect, recombinant lentiviruses with prM siRNA sequence were constructed and produced in 293FT cells, then transfected into African green monkey kidney cells ( Vero cells). Vero cells stably expressing of prM siRNA were selected by blasticitin resistance and fluorescence activating cell sorter (FACS) sorting. The sequence of expressed siRNA was confirmed by reverse transcript PCR and DNA sequencing. The prM siRNA expression was detected in about 97. 6% of the obtained Vero cells. When exposed to dengue viruses, prM siRNA expression Vero cells showed significant suppression on prM protein expression, and inhibition on the replication of dengue viruses. These cell lines can be used for future studies of RNA interference on the protection of dengue virus infection.

  5. Inhibition effect of small interfering RNA of connective tissue growth factor on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor in cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-you; FU Xiao; ZHU Jian-lian; XIAO Li; PENG You-ming; DUAN Shao-bin; LIU Hong; LIU Ying-hong; LING Gui-hui; YUAN Fang; CHEN Jun-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Background The peritoneum response to peritoneal dialysis can lead to fibrosis. The transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1) plays a key role in regulating tissue repair and remodelling after injury. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF),a downstream mediator of TGF-β1 inducing fibrosis, has been implicated in peritoneal fibrosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis that can hasten peritoneal fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) of CTGF by pRETRO-SUPER (PRS) retrovirus vector on the expression of CTGF and VEGF in human peritoneal mesothelial cells.Methods Retrovirus producing CTGF siRNA were constructed from the inverted oligonucleotides and transferred into packaging cell line PT67 with lipofectamine, and the virus supernatant was used to infect human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC). The cells were divided into seven groups: low glucose DMEM, low glucose DMEM + TGF-β1 5 ng/ml, low glucose DMEM + TGF-β1 5 ng/ml + PRS-CTGF-siRNA1-4 and low glucose DMEM + TGF-β1 5 ng/ml + PRS. The expression of CTGF and VEGF were measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot.Results Low levels of CTGF and VEGF were detected in confluent HPMCs. Following stimulation with TGF-β1, the levels of CTGF and VEGF were significantly upregulated (P<0.01). Introduction of PRS-CTGF-siRNA1-4 resulted in the significant reduction of CTGF mRNA and protein, and VEGF mRNA (P<0.01), especially in groups PRS-CTGF-siRNA1 and PRS-CTGF-siRNA4. The introduction of PRS void vector did not have these effects (P>0.05).Conclusions The expression of CTGF siRNA mediated by PRS retrovirus vector can effectively reduce the level of CTGF and VEGF induced by TGF-β1 in cultured HPMCs. This study may provide potential therapeutic strategies to prevent the peritoneal fibrosis.

  6. Chitosan nanoparticles for siRNA delivery: optimization of processing/formulation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh Gharehdaghi, Elina; Amani, Amir; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Banan, Mehdi; Esmaeilzadeh Gharehdaghi, Elika; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using ultrasonication methodology at specific amplitudes and times of sonication. Subsequently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was added to the solution at predetermined values of nitrogen to phosphorous ratio (N/P), and stirring time. Employing response surfaces generated from a statistical model, the effect of sonication time and amplitude, stirring time, and N/P ratio was studied on the particle size, polydispersity, and loading efficiency of prepared siRNA/chitosan nanoparticles. It was found that to obtain the smallest size, amplitude and time of sonication as well as stirring time should be kept at ∼45%, 165 seconds, and 50 minutes, respectively. Minimum polydispersity values were also obtained at similar values of sonication time/amplitude and stirring time in addition to N/P values of ∼28. Also, the maximum proportion of siRNA loading was observed at approximate values of 300 seconds, 80% and 280 for sonication time, amplitude, and N/P ratio, respectively. The optimum conditions (i.e., to prepare a sample with minimum values of particle size and polydispersity index and maximum values of loading efficiency) were determined as 60.6, 30.0 (seconds), 28.0, and 12.5 (minutes) for amplitude, time of sonication, N/P, and stirring time, respectively. In this scrutiny, the predicted values of optimum formulation were 456 nm size, 89.6% loading efficiency, and 0.4 polydispersity index.

  7. Silencing expression of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase by small interfering RNA sensitizes human cells for radiation-induced chromosome damage, cell killing, and mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Zhang, Qinming; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Liber, Howard L.; Bedford, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    Targeted gene silencing in mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was recently described by Elbashir et al. (S. M. Elbashir et al., Nature (Lond.), 411: 494-498, 2001). We have used this methodology in several human cell strains to reduce expression of the Prkdc (DNA-PKcs) gene coding for the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) that is involved in the nonhomologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. We have also demonstrated a radiosensitization for several phenotypic endpoints of radiation damage. In low-passage normal human fibroblasts, siRNA knock-down of DNA-PKcs resulted in a reduced capacity for restitution of radiation-induced interphase chromosome breaks as measured by premature chromosome condensation, an increased yield of acentric chromosome fragments at the first postirradiation mitosis, and an increased radiosensitivity for cell killing. For three strains of related human lymphoblasts, DNA-PKcs-targeted siRNA transfection resulted in little or no increase in radiosensitivity with respect to cell killing, a 1.5-fold decrease in induced mutant yield in TK6- and p53-null NH32 cells, but about a 2-fold increase in induced mutant yield in p53-mutant WTK1 cells at both the hypoxanthine quanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) and the thymidine kinase loci.

  8. Peptide- and Amine-Modified Glucan Particles for the Delivery of Therapeutic siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica L; Shen, Yuefei; Aouadi, Myriam; Vangala, Pranitha; Tencerova, Michaela; Amano, Shinya U; Nicoloro, Sarah M; Yawe, Joseph C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-03-07

    Translation of siRNA technology into the clinic is limited by the need for improved delivery systems that target specific cell types. Macrophages are particularly attractive targets for RNAi therapy because they promote pathogenic inflammatory responses in a number of important human diseases. We previously demonstrated that a multicomponent formulation of β-1,3-d-glucan-encapsulated siRNA particles (GeRPs) can specifically and potently silence genes in mouse macrophages. A major advance would be to simplify the GeRP system by reducing the number of delivery components, thus enabling more facile manufacturing and future commercialization. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of a simplified glucan-based particle (GP) capable of delivering siRNA in vivo to selectively silence macrophage genes. Covalent attachment of small-molecule amines and short peptides containing weak bases to GPs facilitated electrostatic interaction of the particles with siRNA and aided in the endosomal release of siRNA by the proton-sponge effect. Modified GPs were nontoxic and were efficiently internalized by macrophages in vitro. When injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), several of the new peptide-modified GPs were found to efficiently deliver siRNA to peritoneal macrophages in lean, healthy mice. In an animal model of obesity-induced inflammation, i.p. administration of one of the peptide-modified GPs (GP-EP14) bound to siRNA selectively reduced the expression of target inflammatory cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue macrophages. Decreasing adipose tissue inflammation resulted in an improvement of glucose metabolism in these metabolically challenged animals. Thus, modified GPs represent a promising new simplified system for the efficient delivery of therapeutic siRNAs specifically to phagocytic cells in vivo for modulation of inflammation responses.

  9. Synthesis of polyethylenimine grafted with copolymers of polyethylene glycol and polycaprolactone and its potential for siRNA delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Huang; Ming Lv; Zhong Gao Gao

    2011-01-01

    Copolymers mPEG-PCL were prepared and grafted onto polyethylenimine (PEI) to synthesize copolymers mPEG-PCL-g-PEI with low cytotoxicity. The mPEG-PCL-g-PEI could condense siRNA to form nanoparticles with positive zeta potential. These nanoparticles could delivery siRNA into cells to effectively inhibit the expression of target gene, which suggested that mPEG-PCL-g-PEl could serve as a highly efficient vector for siRNA delivery.

  10. Intranasal, siRNA Delivery to the Brain by TAT/MGF Tagged PEGylated Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration is characterized by progressive loss of structure and function of neurons. Several therapeutic methods and drugs are available to alleviate the symptoms of these diseases. The currently used delivery strategies such as implantation of catheters, intracarotid infusions, surgeries, and chemotherapies are invasive in nature and pose a greater risk of postsurgical complications, which can have fatal side effects. The current study utilizes a peptide (TAT and MGF tagged PEGylated chitosan nanoparticle formulation for siRNA delivery, administered intranasally, which can bypass the blood brain barrier. The study investigates the optimal dose, duration, biodistribution, and toxicity, of the nanoparticle-siRNA formulation, in-vivo. The results indicate that 0.5 mg/kg of siRNA is delivered successfully to the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum after 4 hrs of post intranasal delivery. The results indicate maximum delivery to the brain in comparison to other tissues with no cellular toxic effects. This study shows the potential of peptide-tagged PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles to be delivered intranasally and target brain tissue for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  11. Perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA inhibits injury-induced arterial remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Redmond

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy of perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA in preventing injury-induced arterial remodeling.Carotid artery ligation was performed to induce arterial remodeling. After 14 days, morphometric analysis confirmed increased vSMC growth and subsequent media thickening and neointimal formation. Laser capture microdissection, quantitative qRT-PCR and immunoblot analysis of medial tissue revealed a significant increase in Notch1 receptor and notch target gene, Hrt 1 and 2 expression in the injured vessels. Perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA by pluronic gel inhibited the injury-induced increase in Notch 1 receptor and target gene expression when compared to scrambled siRNA controls while concomitantly reducing media thickening and neointimal formation to pre-injury, sham-operated levels. Selective Notch 1 knockdown also reversed the injury-induced inhibition of pro-apoptotic Bax expression while decreasing injury-induced anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL expression to sham-operated control levels. In parallel experiments, proliferative cyclin levels, as measured by PCNA expression, were reversed to sham-operated control levels following selective Notch 1 knockdown.These results suggest that injury-induced arterial remodeling can be successfully inhibited by localized perivascular delivery of Notch 1 siRNA.

  12. Integrated hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles for target drug/siRNA co-delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing; Zhao, Yun; Ng, Kee Woei; Zhao, Yanli

    2013-11-11

    A hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticle (HMSNP) based drug/siRNA co-delivery system was designed and fabricated, aiming at overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells for targeted cancer therapy. The as-prepared HMSNPs have perpendicular nanochannels connecting to the internal hollow cores, thereby facilitating drug loading and release. The extra volume of the hollow core enhances the drug loading capacity by two folds as compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs). Folic acid conjugated polyethyleneimine (PEI-FA) was coated on the HMSNP surfaces under neutral conditions through electrostatic interactions between the partially charged amino groups of PEI-FA and the phosphate groups on the HMSNP surfaces, blocking the mesopores and preventing the loaded drugs from leakage. Folic acid acts as the targeting ligand that enables the co-delivery system to selectively bind with and enter into the target cancer cells. PEI-FA-coated HMSNPs show enhanced siRNA binding capability on account of electrostatic interactions between the amino groups of PEI-FA and siRNA, as compared with that of MSNPs. The electrostatic interactions provide the feasibility of pH-controlled release. In vitro pH-responsive drug/siRNA co-delivery experiments were conducted on HeLa cell lines with high folic acid receptor expression and MCF-7 cell lines with low folic acid receptor expression for comparison, showing effective target delivery to the HeLa cells through folic acid receptor meditated cellular endocytosis. The pH-responsive intracellular drug/siRNA release greatly minimizes the prerelease and possible side effects of the delivery system. By simultaneously delivering both doxorubicin (Dox) and siRNA against the Bcl-2 protein into the HeLa cells, the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was successfully suppressed, leading to an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Thus, the present multifunctional nanoparticles show promising potentials for controlled and

  13. Postexposure Application of Fas Receptor Small-Interfering RNA to Suppress Sulfur Mustard-Induced Apoptosis in Human Airway Epithelial Cells: Implication for a Therapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    pathogenic mechanisms, e.g., DNA damage, are initiated without much delay but the tissue injury is not seen until after a lag period of 12 to 24 hours...measured at 450 nm using a ThermoMax microplate reader (MDS Analytical Technologies, Sunnyvale, CA). The recombi - nant human FasL/TNFSF6 produced in CHO...alkylating form that reacts readily with cellular functional molecules (e.g., DNA , RNA, proteins, etc.) to initiate its toxic mecha- nisms. At body temperature

  14. Dual-functionalized graphene oxide for enhanced siRNA delivery to breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Rana; Shao, Wei; Taherkhani, Samira; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati; Prakash, Satya; Faghihi, Shahab

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to improve hydrocolloid stability and siRNA transfection ability of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based nano-carrier using a phospholipid-based amphiphilic polymer (PL-PEG) and cell penetrating peptide (CPPs). The dual functionalized nano-carrier is comprehensively characterized for its chemical structure, size, surface charge and morphology as well as thermal stability. The nano-carrier cytocompatibility, siRNA condensation ability both in the presence and absence of enzyme, endosomal buffering capacity, cellular uptake and intracellular localization are also assessed. The siRNA loaded nano-carrier is used for internalization to MCF-7 cells and its gene silencing ability is compared with AllStars Hs Cell Death siRNA as a model gene. The nano-carrier remains stable in biological solution, exhibits excellent cytocompatibility, retards the siRNA migration and protects it against enzyme degradation. The buffering capacity analysis shows that incorporation of the peptide in nano-carrier structure would increase the resistance to endo/lysosomal like acidic condition (pH 6-4) The functionalized nano-carrier which is loaded with siRNA in an optimal N:P ratio presents superior internalization efficiency (82±5.1% compared to HiPerFect(®)), endosomal escape quality and capable of inducing cell death in MCF-7 cancer cells (51±3.1% compared to non-treated cells). The success of siRNA-based therapy is largely dependent on the safe and efficient delivery system, therefore; the dual functionalized rGO introduced here could have a great potential to be used as a carrier for siRNA delivery with relevancy in therapeutics and clinical applications.

  15. Screening nylon-3 polymers, a new class of cationic amphiphiles, for siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadithe, Venkatareddy; Liu, Runhui; Killinger, Bryan A; Movassaghian, Sara; Kim, Na Hyung; Moszczynska, Anna B; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H; Merkel, Olivia M

    2015-02-02

    Amphiphilic nucleic acid carriers have attracted strong interest. Three groups of nylon-3 copolymers (poly-β-peptides) possessing different cationic/hydrophobic content were evaluated as siRNA delivery agents in this study. Their ability to condense siRNA was determined in SYBR Gold assays. Their cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assays, their efficiency of delivering Alexa Fluor-488-labeled siRNA intracellularly in the presence and absence of uptake inhibitors was assessed by flow cytometry, and their transfection efficacies were studied by luciferase knockdown in a cell line stably expressing luciferase (H1299/Luc). Endosomal release was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and colocalization with lysotracker. All polymers efficiently condensed siRNA at nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratios of 5 or lower, as reflected in hydrodynamic diameters smaller than that at N/P 1. Although several formulations had negative zeta potentials at N/P 1, G2C and G2D polyplexes yielded >80% uptake in H1299/Luc cells, as determined by flow cytometry. Luciferase knockdown (20-65%) was observed after transfection with polyplexes made of the high molecular weight polymers that were the most hydrophobic. The ability of nylon-3 polymers to deliver siRNA intracellularly even at negative zeta potential implies that they mediate transport across cell membranes based on their amphiphilicity. The cellular uptake route was determined to strongly depend on the presence of cholesterol in the cell membrane. These polymers are, therefore, very promising for siRNA delivery at reduced surface charge and toxicity. Our study identified nylon-3 formulations at low N/P ratios for effective gene knockdown, indicating that nylon-3 polymers are a new, promising type of gene delivery agent.

  16. Tumor priming enhances siRNA delivery and transfection in intraperitoneal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Ze; Yeung, Bertrand Z; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Cole, David J; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-03-28

    Cancers originating from the digestive system account for 290,000 or ~20% of all new cancer cases annually in the US. We previously developed paclitaxel-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) for intraperitoneal (IP) treatment of peritoneal tumors (Lu et al., 2008; Tsai et al., 2007; Tsai et al., 2013). TPM is undergoing NIH-supported IND-enabling studies for clinical evaluation. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that TPM, via inducing apoptosis and expanding the interstitial space, promotes the delivery and transfection of lipid vectors containing siRNA. The in vivo model was the metastatic human Hs766T pancreatic tumor that, upon IP injection, produced widely distributed solid tumors and ascites in the peritoneal cavity in 100% of animals. The target gene was survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein induced by chemotherapy and associated with metastases and poor prognosis of patients with gastric and colorectal cancers. The siRNA carrier was pegylated liposomes comprising cationic and neutral lipids plus a fusogenic lipid (PCat). PCat-loaded with survivin siRNA (PCat-siSurvivin) was active in cultured cells (decreased survivin mRNA and protein levels, reduced cell clonogenicity, enhanced paclitaxel activity), but lost its activity in vivo; this difference is consistent with the well-known problem of inadequate delivery and transfection of siRNA in vivo. In comparison, single agent TPM prolonged animal survival and, as expected, induced survivin expression in tumors. Addition of PCat-siSurvivin reversed the TPM-induced survivin expression and enhanced the antitumor activity of TPM. The finding that in vivo survivin knockdown by PCat-siSurvivin was successful only when it was given in combination with TPM provides the proof-of-concept that tumor priming promotes the delivery and transfection of liposomal siRNA. The data further suggest the TPM/PCat-siSurvivin combination as a potentially useful chemo-gene therapy for peritoneal cancer.

  17. Application of Target Peptide in siRNA Delivery 
for the Research of Lung Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin GAO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is considered a kind of malignant tumors of the world highest incidence. As it is not sensitive to chemotherapy and easy to produce drug resistance, improving effect of anticancer drug becomes a research focus recent years. siRNA, small interfering RNA, can silence complemenary mRNA which is a kind of gene therapy. Target peptides are small molecular peptides which specifically bind to tumor surface materials. When used with siRNA, target peptides can increase accumulation of siRNA in tumor cells and enhance the silencing effect. As result, drug resistance of lung cancer reduced and the effect of therapy can be improved. This method provides new direction and strategy for targeted therapy of lung cancer. This article will make a brief overview of target peptides applying in siRNA dilivery for the research of lung cancer treatment.

  18. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles encapsulated in PLGA nanofibers for siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Menglin; Gao, Shan; Dong, Mingdong

    2012-01-01

    Composite nanofibers of biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulating chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by electrospinning. Acidic/alkaline hydrolysis and a bulk/surface degradation mechanism were investigated in order to achieve an optimized release profile...

  19. Intraventricular Delivery of siRNA Nanoparticles to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishab Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease currently lacking effective treatment. Efficient delivery of siRNA via nanoparticles may emerge as a viable therapeutic approach to treat AD and other central nervous system disorders. We report here the use of a linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG copolymer-based micellar nanoparticle system to deliver siRNA targeting BACE1 and APP, two therapeutic targets of AD. Using LPEI-siRNA nanoparticles against either BACE1 or APP in cultured mouse neuroblastoma (N2a cells, we observe selective knockdown, respectively, of BACE1 or APP. The encapsulation of siRNA by LPEI-g-PEG carriers, with different grafting degrees of PEG, leads to the formation of micellar nanoparticles with distinct morphologies, including worm-like, rod-like, or spherical nanoparticles. By infusing these shaped nanoparticles into mouse lateral ventricles, we show that rod-shaped nanoparticles achieved the most efficient knockdown of BACE1 in the brain. Furthermore, such knockdown is evident in spinal cords of these treated mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that the shape of siRNA-encapsulated nanoparticles is an important determinant for their delivery and gene knockdown efficiency in the central nervous system.

  20. Delivery of Therapeutic siRNA to the CNS Using Cationic and Anionic Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Heather R; Kane, Sarah; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-07-23

    Prion diseases result from the misfolding of the normal, cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to an abnormal protease resistant isomer called PrP(Res). The emergence of prion diseases in wildlife populations and their increasing threat to human health has led to increased efforts to find a treatment for these diseases. Recent studies have found numerous anti-prion compounds that can either inhibit the infectious PrP(Res) isomer or down regulate the normal cellular prion protein. However, most of these compounds do not cross the blood brain barrier to effectively inhibit PrP(Res) formation in brain tissue, do not specifically target neuronal PrP(C), and are often too toxic to use in animal or human subjects. We investigated whether siRNA delivered intravascularly and targeted towards neuronal PrP(C) is a safer and more effective anti-prion compound. This report outlines a protocol to produce two siRNA liposomal delivery vehicles, and to package and deliver PrP siRNA to neuronal cells. The two liposomal delivery vehicles are 1) complexed-siRNA liposome formulation using cationic liposomes (LSPCs), and 2) encapsulated-siRNA liposome formulation using cationic or anionic liposomes (PALETS). For the LSPCs, negatively charged siRNA is electrostatically bound to the cationic liposome. A positively charged peptide (RVG-9r [rabies virus glycoprotein]) is added to the complex, which specifically targets the liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes (LSPCs) across the blood brain barrier (BBB) to acetylcholine expressing neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). For the PALETS (peptide addressed liposome encapsulated therapeutic siRNA), the cationic and anionic lipids were rehydrated by the PrP siRNA. This procedure results in encapsulation of the siRNA within the cationic or anionic liposomes. Again, the RVG-9r neuropeptide was bound to the liposomes to target the siRNA/liposome complexes to the CNS. Using these formulations, we have successfully delivered PrP siRNA to Ach

  1. Suppression of Melanin Formation of A375 Cells by Small Interfering RNA%siRNA抑制A375细胞中黑色素形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦克军; 孙春宝

    2007-01-01

    以小干扰RNA(siRNA)技术抑制恶性黑素瘤细胞株A375的黑素皮质素受体1(melanocortin-1-receptor,MC1R)、小眼球相关转录因子(microphthalmia-associated transcription factor,MITF)基因表达,从而抑制细胞黑色素的生成.通过RT-PCR检测MC1R、MITF、酪氨酸酶(tyrosinase,TYR)、酪氨酸酶相关蛋白l(tyrosinase related protein-1,TRP-1)基因mRNA水平的变化,通过测定黑色素含量的变化检测蛋白水平的改变.并用台盼蓝活细胞计数法检测其对细胞增殖的影响.经RT-PCR检测,特异性siRNA作用的靶基因显著下调,黑色素含量明显降低.细胞增殖的变化说明,脂质体包裹的siRNA对A375细胞的毒性远小于熊果苷等化学合成药物.结果显示,利用siRNA对A375细胞中靶基因的调控,有效的抑制了黑色素的生成,siRNA技术与传统的调控黑色素的方法(化学合成物--褪色剂)比较,具有用量小、抑制效率高、细胞毒性低等优点.同时,为进一步研究黑色素形成通路中各基因之间的的关系提供了新思路.

  2. Systemic delivery of factor IX messenger RNA for protein replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Suvasini; Tonnu, Nina; Tachikawa, Kiyoshi; Limphong, Pattraranee; Vega, Jerel B.; Karmali, Priya P.; Chivukula, Pad; Verma, Inder M.

    2017-01-01

    Safe and efficient delivery of messenger RNAs for protein replacement therapies offers great promise but remains challenging. In this report, we demonstrate systemic, in vivo, nonviral mRNA delivery through lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to treat a Factor IX (FIX)-deficient mouse model of hemophilia B. Delivery of human FIX (hFIX) mRNA encapsulated in our LUNAR LNPs results in a rapid pulse of FIX protein (within 4–6 h) that remains stable for up to 4–6 d and is therapeutically effective, like the recombinant human factor IX protein (rhFIX) that is the current standard of care. Extensive cytokine and liver enzyme profiling showed that repeated administration of the mRNA–LUNAR complex does not cause any adverse innate or adaptive immune responses in immune-competent, hemophilic mice. The levels of hFIX protein that were produced also remained consistent during repeated administrations. These results suggest that delivery of long mRNAs is a viable therapeutic alternative for many clotting disorders and for other hepatic diseases where recombinant proteins may be unaffordable or unsuitable. PMID:28202722

  3. 靶向siRNA抑制幽门螺杆菌vacA表达%Small interfering RNA targeted inhibition of vacA expression in Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵刚; 詹文华; 严燕国; 马晋平; 彭俊生; 董文广; 蔡世荣; 何裕隆

    2006-01-01

    目的:观察靶向siRNA能否抑制幽门螺杆菌(Hpylori)vacA基因表达.方法:合成靶向Hylori vacA基因5对特异siRNA(实验组:vacA-s1,vacA-s2,vacA-s3,vacA-s4,vacA-s5)和1对非特异siRNA(对照组).通过电穿孔法使siRNA转化至H pylori内,观察转化效率和转化1,6,12,24,48 h mRNA和蛋白表达的抑制率,并将PCR产物克隆和测序.结果:电穿孔转化效率平均为89%.vacA-s2、vacA-s4组在转化1 h vacA mRNA表达抑制率达最大值,1,6,12 h抑制率分别为65%和77%,43%和50%,17%和9%,24和48 h时vacA mRNA表达无抑制效应,与vacA-s1、vacA-s3、vacA-s5、vacA-s6组相比有显著差异(P<0.05),因为vacA-s1、vacA-3、vacA-s5、vacA-s6组转化后各时间点mRNA表达无变化.vacA-s2和vacA-s4组在转化1,6,12,24 h时vacA蛋白表达抑制率分别为26%和17%,47%和40%,70%和75%,33%和30%,与vacA-s1、vacA-s3、vacA-s5、vacA-s6组相比有显著差异(P<0.05);转化48 h则无抑制效应.PCR产物克隆和测序与相应报道序列比较,同源性为99%.结论:靶向siRNA可以通过电穿孔法转化并特异地抑制Hpylori vacA基因表达.

  4. 5-Formyluracil and its nucleoside derivatives confer toxicity and mutagenicity to mammalian cells by interfering with normal RNA and DNA metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungland, A; Paulsen, R; Rolseth, V; Yamada, Y; Ueno, Y; Wiik, P; Matsuda, A; Seeberg, E; Bjelland, S

    2001-02-03

    Oxidation of the methyl group of thymine yields 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (5-hmU) and 5-formyluracil (5-foU) as major products. Whereas 5-hmU appears to have normal base pairing properties, the biological effects of 5-foU are rather poorly characterised. Here, we show that the colony forming ability of Chinese hamster fibroblast (CHF) cells is greatly reduced by addition of 5-foU, 5-formyluridine (5-foUrd) and 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-fodUrd) to the growth medium. There are no toxic effects of 5-fodUrd on cells defective in thymidine kinase or thymidylate synthetase, suggesting that the toxicity may be caused by 5-fodUrd phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of thymidylate synthetase. Whereas 5-fodUrd was the most effective 5-foU derivative causing cell growth inhibition, the corresponding ribonucleoside 5-foUrd was more effective in inhibiting [3H]uridine incorporation in non-dividing rat nerve cells in culture, suggesting that 5-foUrd exerts its toxicity through interference with RNA rather than DNA synthesis. Addition of 5-foU and 5-fodUrd was also found to promote mutagenicity at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus of CHF cells; 5-fodUrd being three orders of magnitude more potent than 5-foU. In contrast, neither 5-hmU nor 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine induced HPRT mutations. The mutation induction indicates that 5-foU will be incorporated into DNA and has base pairing properties different from that of thymine. These results suggest that 5-foU residues, originating from incorporation of oxidised bases, nucleosides or nucleotides or by oxidation of DNA, may contribute significantly to the damaging effects of oxygen radical species in mammalian cells.

  5. Hypoxia-responsive ionizable liposome delivery siRNA for glioma therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Xie, Yan-Dong; Cai, Yi-Fan; Li, Bai-Yang; Li, Wen; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Li, Yu-Ling; Yu, Ru-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the hypoxia-responsive ionizable liposomes to deliver small interference RNA (siRNA) anticancer drugs, which can selectively enhance cellular uptake of the siRNA under hypoxic and low-pH conditions to cure glioma. For this purpose, malate dehydrogenase lipid molecules were synthesized, which contain nitroimidazole groups that impart hypoxia sensitivity and specificity as hydrophobic tails, and tertiary amines as hydrophilic head groups. These malate dehydrogenase molecules, together with DSPE-PEG2000 and cholesterol, were self-assembled into O′1,O1-(3-(dimethylamino)propane-1,2-diyl) 16-bis(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl) di(hexadecanedioate) liposomes (MLP) to encapsulate siRNA through electrostatic interaction. Our study showed that the MLP could deliver polo-like kinase 1 siRNA (siPLK1) into glioma cells and effectively enhance the cellular uptake of MLP/siPLK1 because of increased positive charges induced by hypoxia and low pH. Moreover, MLP/siPLK1 was shown to be very effective in inhibiting the growth of glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the MLP is a promising siRNA delivery system for tumor therapy.

  6. 携带DREAM基因小分子干扰RNA重组质粒的构建%Construction of recombinant DREAM-targeting small interfering RNA expressing plasmids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 项红兵; 田玉科

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:DREAM is a multi-functional protein, which combine with different target proteins at different sites in cells. In vitro cultivate tests and animal experiments confirmed that DREAM is involving in onset mechanism of many different diseases.OBJECTIVE:To construct recombinant DREAM-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) expressing plasmids.METHODS:Oligonucleotide containing the small hairpin of DREAM was designed and synthesized, which was inserted into the pDC316-EGFP-U6 plasmid double digested by BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ. The liation product was transformed competence E.coli DH5α. Positive clones were identified by PCR and sequencing.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The result of PCR and gene sequencing confirmed that the pDC316-EGFP-DREAMshRNA-U6 recombinant plasmid with 473 bp had been constructed successfully.%背景:DREAM是一种多功能蛋白,在细胞中不同位置与不同靶蛋白结合,体外细胞培养和动物实验均证明DREAM参与了许多疾病的发病机制.目的:构建携带DREAM基因的小分子干扰RNA重组质粒.方法:设计并合成shRNA对应的两条互补的寡核苷酸链,pDC316-EGFP-U6质粒经BamHⅠ和HindⅢ双酶切与退火后的寡核苷酸连接,转化感受态E.coli DH5α,获得阳性克隆进行PCR和测序鉴定.结果与结论:经PCR、酶切及测序证实,重组质粒pDC316-EGFP-DREAM-shRNA-U6片段大小为473 bp,其中插入的片断序列和位点与预期完全一致,说明pDC316-EGFP-DREAM-shRNA-U6重组质粒构建成功.

  7. Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Lena M.; Diken, Mustafa; Haas, Heinrich; Kreiter, Sebastian; Loquai, Carmen; Reuter, Kerstin C.; Meng, Martin; Fritz, Daniel; Vascotto, Fulvia; Hefesha, Hossam; Grunwitz, Christian; Vormehr, Mathias; Hüsemann, Yves; Selmi, Abderraouf; Kuhn, Andreas N.; Buck, Janina; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Rae, Richard; Attig, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Jabulowsky, Robert A.; Heesch, Sandra; Hassel, Jessica; Langguth, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-06-01

    Lymphoid organs, in which antigen presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to T cells, are the ideal microenvironment for efficient priming and amplification of T-cell responses. However, the systemic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells (DCs) is hampered by various technical challenges. Here we show that DCs can be targeted precisely and effectively in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX) based on well-known lipid carriers by optimally adjusting net charge, without the need for functionalization of particles with molecular ligands. The LPX protects RNA from extracellular ribonucleases and mediates its efficient uptake and expression of the encoded antigen by DC populations and macrophages in various lymphoid compartments. RNA-LPX triggers interferon-α (IFNα) release by plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages. Consequently, DC maturation in situ and inflammatory immune mechanisms reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated. We show that RNA-LPX encoding viral or mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens induce strong effector and memory T-cell responses, and mediate potent IFNα-dependent rejection of progressive tumours. A phase I dose-escalation trial testing RNA-LPX that encode shared tumour antigens is ongoing. In the first three melanoma patients treated at a low-dose level, IFNα and strong antigen-specific T-cell responses were induced, supporting the identified mode of action and potency. As any polypeptide-based antigen can be encoded as RNA, RNA-LPX represent a universally applicable vaccine class for systemic DC targeting and synchronized induction of both highly potent adaptive as well as type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms for cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Silencing by blasting: combination of laser pulse induced stress waves and magnetophoresis for siRNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babincová, M.; Babincová, N.; Durdík, S.; Bergemann, C.; Sourivong, P.

    2016-06-01

    A new method is developed for efficient delivery of short interference RNA into cells using combination of magnetophoresis for pre-concentration of siRNA-magnetic nanoparticle complex on the surface of cells with subsequent nanosecond laser pulse generating stress waves in transfection chamber, which is able to permeabilize cell membrane for the facilitated delivery of siRNA into the cell interior. As has been shown using siRNA inducing cell apoptosis, combination of these two physical factors increased the efficiency of three different human carcinoma cells transfection to 93%, 89%, and 84%, for HeLa (cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), and UCI-107 (ovarian carcinoma) cells, respectively. This new physical method of siRNA delivery may have therefore far reaching applications in biotechnology and functional genomics.

  9. Layered gadolinium-based nanoparticle as a novel delivery platform for microRNA therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Shannon S.; Razzak, Rene; Bédard, Eric; Guo, Linghong; Shaw, Andrew R.; Moore, Ronald B.; Roa, Wilson H.

    2014-10-01

    Specific expression patterns of microRNA (miRNA) molecules have been linked to cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. The accumulating evidence for the role of oncogenic or tumor-suppressing miRNAs identified the need for nano-scaled platform that can help deliver nucleotides to modulate miRNAs. Here we report the synthesis of novel layered gadolinium hydroxychloride (LGdH) nanoparticles, a member of the layered double hydroxide (LDH) family, with physiochemical properties suitable for cell uptake and tracing via magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the inhibition of mature miRNA-10b in metastatic breast cancer cell line using LGdH nanoparticle as a delivery platform. Through characterization analysis, we show that nanoparticles are easily and stably loaded with anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMO) and efficiently penetrate cell membranes. We demonstrate that AMOs delivered by LGdH nanoparticles remain functional by inducing changes in the expression of its downstream effector and by curbing the invasive properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate the traceability of LGdH nanoparticles via T1 weighted MR imaging. LGdH nanoparticles, which are biocompatible with cells in vitro, provide a promising multifunctional platform for microRNA therapeutics through their diagnostic, imaging, and therapeutic potentials.

  10. Polyphosphonium polymers for siRNA delivery: An efficient and nontoxic alternative to polyammonium carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia

    2012-02-01

    A water-soluble polyphosphonium polymer was synthesized and directly compared with its ammonium analog in terms of siRNA delivery. The triethylphosphonium polymer shows transfection efficiency up to 65% with 100% cell viability, whereas the best result obtained for the ammonium analog reaches only 25% transfection with 85% cell viability. Moreover, the nature of the alkyl substituents on the phosphonium cations is shown to have an important influence on the transfection efficiency and toxicity of the polyplexes. The present results show that the use of positively charged phosphonium groups is a worthy choice to achieve a good balance between toxicity and transfection efficiency in gene delivery systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Viral Delivery of dsRNA for Control of Insect Agricultural Pests and Vectors of Human Disease: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolliopoulou, Anna; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Smagghe, Guy; Swevers, Luc

    2017-01-01

    RNAi is applied as a new and safe method for pest control in agriculture but efficiency and specificity of delivery of dsRNA trigger remains a critical issue. Various agents have been proposed to augment dsRNA delivery, such as engineered micro-organisms and synthetic nanoparticles, but the use of viruses has received relatively little attention. Here we present a critical view of the potential of the use of recombinant viruses for efficient and specific delivery of dsRNA. First of all, it requires the availability of plasmid-based reverse genetics systems for virus production, of which an overview is presented. For RNA viruses, their application seems to be straightforward since dsRNA is produced as an intermediate molecule during viral replication, but DNA viruses also have potential through the production of RNA hairpins after transcription. However, application of recombinant virus for dsRNA delivery may not be straightforward in many cases, since viruses can encode RNAi suppressors, and virus-induced silencing effects can be determined by the properties of the encoded RNAi suppressor. An alternative is virus-like particles that retain the efficiency and specificity determinants of natural virions but have encapsidated non-replicating RNA. Finally, the use of viruses raises important safety issues which need to be addressed before application can proceed. PMID:28659820

  12. Cellular delivery of shRNA using aptamer-conjugated PLL-alkyl-PEI nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Saeedeh; Abnous, Khalil; Taghavi, Sahar; Oskuee, Reza Kazemi; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Introduction of an efficient gene delivery vector is still the main challenge of gene therapy. Both polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(l-lysine) (PLL) comprise disadvantages which limited their application. To explore whether their deficiencies could be compensated by preparing copolymers consisting of both PLL and PEI, we generated several combinations of PLL-alkyl-PEI copolymers conjugated to aptamer and evaluated their both gene delivery efficiency and down-regulation of Bcl-XL, an anti-apoptotic gene, in lung cancer cell line. PLL was conjugated to either 10% or 50% of PEI by grafting different percentages of PEI to alkylated-PLL as core. The properties of modified polymers including size, surface charge density, DNA condensation ability, buffering capacity and cytotoxicity were evaluated. According to transfection results, aptamer conjugated PLL-alkyl-10%-PEI (PLPE8%) was selected for further gene silencing study by plasmid shRNA. Decrease in Bcl-XL gene expression was estimated by both RT-PCR and western-blot experiments. The obtained results revealed that the new copolymers had appropriate nano-scale size (117-128 nm) even after aptamer conjugation (168-183 nm). Moreover, they exhibited increased transfection efficiencies by up to 1.8-5 folds and acceptable cytotoxicity. The apoptosis was induced in transfected cells by shRNA-aptamer-copolymer due to the down-regulation of mRNA and protein levels. This study suggested a new vector for targeted non-viral gene delivery with high transfection efficiency in lung cancer or pulmonary systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyphosphoester nanoparticles as biodegradable platform for delivery of multiple drugs and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzeny, Hadeel; Zhang, Fuwu; Ali, Esraa N; Fathi, Heba A; Zhang, Shiyi; Li, Richen; El-Mokhtar, Mohamed A; Hamad, Mostafa A; Wooley, Karen L; Elsabahy, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Delivery of multiple therapeutics and/or diagnostic agents to diseased tissues is challenging and necessitates the development of multifunctional platforms. Among the various strategies for design of multifunctional nanocarriers, biodegradable polyphosphoester (PPE) polymers have been recently synthesized via a rapid and simple synthetic strategy. In addition, the chemical structure of the polymer could be tuned to form nanoparticles with varying surface chemistries and charges, which have shown exceptional safety and biocompatibility as compared to several commercial agents. The purpose of this study was to exploit a mixture of PPE nanoparticles of cationic and neutral surface charges for multiple delivery of anticancer drugs (ie, sorafenib and paclitaxel) and nucleic acids (ie, siRNA). Cationic PPE polymers could efficiently complex siRNA, and the stability of the nanoparticles could be maintained in physiological solutions and upon freeze-drying and were able to deliver siRNA in vivo when injected intravenously in mice. Commercially available cationic polyethylenimine polymer had LD50 of ca. 61.7 mg/kg in mice, whereas no animal died after injection of the cationic PPE polymer at a dose of >130 mg/kg. Neutral PPE nanoparticles were able to encapsulate two hydrophobic drugs, namely, sorafenib and paclitaxel, which are commonly used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Mixing the neutral and cationic PPE nanoparticles did not result in any precipitation, and the size characteristics of both types of nanoparticles were maintained. Hence, PPE polymers might have potential for the delivery of multiple drugs and diagnostic agents to diseased tissues via simple synthesis of the individual polymers and assembly into nanoparticles that can host several drugs while being mixed in the same administration set, which is of importance for industrial and clinical development.

  14. Polyphosphoester nanoparticles as biodegradable platform for delivery of multiple drugs and siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzeny, Hadeel; Zhang, Fuwu; Ali, Esraa N; Fathi, Heba A; Zhang, Shiyi; Li, Richen; El-Mokhtar, Mohamed A; Hamad, Mostafa A; Wooley, Karen L; Elsabahy, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Delivery of multiple therapeutics and/or diagnostic agents to diseased tissues is challenging and necessitates the development of multifunctional platforms. Among the various strategies for design of multifunctional nanocarriers, biodegradable polyphosphoester (PPE) polymers have been recently synthesized via a rapid and simple synthetic strategy. In addition, the chemical structure of the polymer could be tuned to form nanoparticles with varying surface chemistries and charges, which have shown exceptional safety and biocompatibility as compared to several commercial agents. The purpose of this study was to exploit a mixture of PPE nanoparticles of cationic and neutral surface charges for multiple delivery of anticancer drugs (ie, sorafenib and paclitaxel) and nucleic acids (ie, siRNA). Cationic PPE polymers could efficiently complex siRNA, and the stability of the nanoparticles could be maintained in physiological solutions and upon freeze-drying and were able to deliver siRNA in vivo when injected intravenously in mice. Commercially available cationic polyethylenimine polymer had LD50 of ca. 61.7 mg/kg in mice, whereas no animal died after injection of the cationic PPE polymer at a dose of >130 mg/kg. Neutral PPE nanoparticles were able to encapsulate two hydrophobic drugs, namely, sorafenib and paclitaxel, which are commonly used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Mixing the neutral and cationic PPE nanoparticles did not result in any precipitation, and the size characteristics of both types of nanoparticles were maintained. Hence, PPE polymers might have potential for the delivery of multiple drugs and diagnostic agents to diseased tissues via simple synthesis of the individual polymers and assembly into nanoparticles that can host several drugs while being mixed in the same administration set, which is of importance for industrial and clinical development. PMID:28260861

  15. Mechanistic profiling of the siRNA delivery dynamics of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Cun, Dongmei; Remaut, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA......) nanocarriers modified with the cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethyl-ammoniumpropane (DOTAP). A library of siRNA-loaded LPNs was prepared by systematically varying the nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle X...

  16. Continuous cell electroporation for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery based on laminar microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zewen; Li, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation is a high-efficiency and low-toxicity physical gene transfer method. Traditional electroporation is limited to only low volume cell samples. Here we present a continuous cell electroporation method based on commonly used microfluidic chip fabrication technology. Using easily fabricated PDMS microfluidic chip, syringe pumps, and pulse generator, we show efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA into different cell lines. We describe the protocol of chip fabrication, apparatus setup, and cell electroporation assay. Typically, the fabrication of the devices takes 1 or 2 days and the continuous electroporation assay takes 1 h.

  17. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-05-19

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  18. Delivery of siRNA using ternary complexes containing branched cationic peptides: the role of peptide sequence, branching and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudsiova, Laila; Welser, Katharina; Campbell, Frederick; Mohammadi, Atefeh; Dawson, Natalie; Cui, Lili; Hailes, Helen C; Lawrence, M Jayne; Tabor, Alethea B

    2016-03-01

    Ternary nanocomplexes, composed of bifunctional cationic peptides, lipids and siRNA, as delivery vehicles for siRNA have been investigated. The study is the first to determine the optimal sequence and architecture of the bifunctional cationic peptide used for siRNA packaging and delivery using lipopolyplexes. Specifically three series of cationic peptides of differing sequence, degrees of branching and cell-targeting sequences were co-formulated with siRNA and vesicles prepared from a 1 : 1 molar ratio of the cationic lipid DOTMA and the helper lipid, DOPE. The level of siRNA knockdown achieved in the human alveolar cell line, A549-luc cells, in both reduced serum and in serum supplemented media was evaluated, and the results correlated to the nanocomplex structure (established using a range of physico-chemical tools, namely small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurement); the conformational properties of each component (circular dichroism); the degree of protection of the siRNA in the lipopolyplex (using gel shift assays) and to the cellular uptake, localisation and toxicity of the nanocomplexes (confocal microscopy). Although the size, charge, structure and stability of the various lipopolyplexes were broadly similar, it was clear that lipopolyplexes formulated from branched peptides containing His-Lys sequences perform best as siRNA delivery agents in serum, with protection of the siRNA in serum balanced against efficient release of the siRNA into the cytoplasm of the cell.

  19. Surface engineering of gold nanoparticles for in vitro siRNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Enyu; Zhao, Zhixia; Wang, Jiancheng; Yang, Chunhui; Chen, Chengjun; Gao, Lingyan; Feng, Qiang; Hou, Wenjie; Gao, Mingyuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    Cellular uptake, endosomal/lysosomal escape, and the effective dissociation from the carrier are a series of hurdles for specific genes to be delivered both in vitro and in vivo. To construct siRNA delivery systems, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and siRNA were alternately assembled on the surface of 11.8 +/- 0.9 nm Au nanoparticles (GNP), stabilized by denatured bovine serum albumin, by the ionic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. By manipulating the outmost PAH layer, GNP-PAH vectors with different surface electric potentials were prepared. Then, the surface potential-dependent cytotoxicity of the resultant GNP-PAH particles was evaluated via sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, while the surface potential-dependent cellular uptake efficiency was quantitatively analyzed by using the flow cytometry method based on carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled siRNA. It was revealed that the GNP-PAH particles with surface potential of +25 mV exhibited the optimal cellular uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity for human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Following these results, two more positively charged polyelectrolytes with different protonating abilities in comparison with PAH, i.e., polyethylenimine (PEI), and poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA), were chosen to fabricate similarly structured vectors. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies indicated that siRNA delivered by GNP-PAH and GNP-PEI systems was better released than that delivered by the GNP-PDDA system. Further flow cytometric assays based on immunofluorescence staining of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) revealed that EGFR siRNA delivered by GNP-PAH and GNP-PEI exhibited similar down-regulation effects on EGFR expression in MCF-7 cells. The following dual fluorescence flow cytometry assays by co-staining phosphatidylserine and DNA suggested the EGFR siRNA delivered by GNP-PAH exhibited an improved silencing effect in comparison with that delivered by the commercial transfection reagent

  20. Efficient delivery of Notch1 siRNA to SKOV3 cells by cationic cholesterol derivative-based liposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Chun; Zhang, Li; Feng, Shi-Sen; Hong, Lu; Zheng, Hai-Li; Chen, Li-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Ling; Ye, Yi-Qing; Zhao, Meng-Dan; Wang, Wen-Xi; Zheng, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A novel cationic cholesterol derivative-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference strategy was suggested to inhibit Notch1 activation in SKOV3 cells for the gene therapy of ovarian cancer. The cationic cholesterol derivative, N-(cholesterylhemisuccinoyl-amino-3-propyl)-N, N-dimethylamine (DMAPA-chems) liposome, was incubated with siRNA at different nitrogen-to-phosphate ratios to form stabilized, near-spherical siRNA/DMAPA-chems nanoparticles with sizes of 100–200 nm and zeta potentials of 40–50 mV. The siRNA/DMAPA-chems nanoparticles protected siRNA from nuclease degradation in 25% fetal bovine serum. The nanoparticles exhibited high cell uptake and Notch1 gene knockdown efficiency in SKOV3 cells at an nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio of 100 and an siRNA concentration of 50 nM. They also inhibited the growth and promoted the apoptosis of SKOV3 cells. These results may provide the potential for using cationic cholesterol derivatives as efficient nonviral siRNA carriers for the suppression of Notch1 activation in ovarian cancer cells.

  1. Co-injection of a targeted, reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer dramatically improves the efficacy of cholesterol-conjugated small interfering RNAs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, So C; Klein, Jason J; Hamilton, Holly L; Chu, Qili; Frey, Christina L; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Hegge, Julia; Wakefield, Darren; Rozema, David B; Lewis, David L

    2012-12-01

    Effective in vivo delivery of small interfering (siRNA) has been a major obstacle in the development of RNA interference therapeutics. One of the first attempts to overcome this obstacle utilized intravenous injection of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (chol-siRNA). Although studies in mice revealed target gene knockdown in the liver, delivery was relatively inefficient, requiring 3 daily injections of 50 mg/kg of chol-siRNA to obtain measurable reduction in gene expression. Here we present a new delivery approach that increases the efficacy of the chol-siRNA over 500-fold and allows over 90% reduction in target gene expression in mice and, for the first time, high levels of gene knockdown in non-human primates. This improved efficacy is achieved by the co-injection of a hepatocyte-targeted and reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer. We show that knockdown is absolutely dependent on the presence of hepatocyte-targeting ligand on the polymer, the cognate hepatocyte receptor, and the cholesterol moiety of the siRNA. Importantly, we provide evidence that this increase in efficacy is not dependent on interactions between the chol-siRNA with the polymer prior to injection or in the bloodstream. The simplicity of the formulation and efficacy of this mode of siRNA delivery should prove beneficial in the use of siRNA as a therapeutic.

  2. Ultrasound-guided delivery of microRNA loaded nanoparticles into cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Choe, Jung Woo; Pu, Kanyi; Devulapally, Rammohan; Bachawal, Sunitha; Machtaler, Steven; Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Luong, Richard; Tian, Lu; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus; Rao, Jianghong; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-04-10

    Ultrasound induced microbubble cavitation can cause enhanced permeability across natural barriers of tumors such as vessel walls or cellular membranes, allowing for enhanced therapeutic delivery into the target tissues. While enhanced delivery of small (100nm) therapeutic carriers into cancer remains unclear and may require a higher pressure for sufficient delivery. Enhanced delivery of larger therapeutic carriers such as FDA approved pegylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NP) has significant clinical value because these nanoparticles have been shown to protect encapsulated drugs from degradation in the blood circulation and allow for slow and prolonged release of encapsulated drugs at the target location. In this study, various acoustic parameters were investigated to facilitate the successful delivery of two nanocarriers, a fluorescent semiconducting polymer model drug nanoparticle as well as PLGA-PEG-NP into human colon cancer xenografts in mice. We first measured the cavitation dose produced by various acoustic parameters (pressure, pulse length, and pulse repetition frequency) and microbubble concentration in a tissue mimicking phantom. Next, in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the penetration depth of nanocarriers using various acoustic pressures, ranging between 1.7 and 6.9MPa. Finally, a therapeutic microRNA, miR-122, was loaded into PLGA-PEG-NP and the amount of delivered miR-122 was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results show that acoustic pressures had the strongest effect on cavitation. An increase of the pressure from 0.8 to 6.9MPa resulted in a nearly 50-fold increase in cavitation in phantom experiments. In vivo, as the pressures increased from 1.7 to 6.9MPa, the amount of nanoparticles deposited in cancer xenografts was increased from 4- to 14-fold, and the median penetration depth of extravasated nanoparticles was increased from 1.3-fold to 3-fold, compared to control conditions without ultrasound, as

  3. Targeting and Regulating of an Oncogene via Nanovector Delivery of MicroRNA using Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuyang; Wang, Yilong; Zhou, Rong; Deng, Zicheng; Han, Yong; Han, Xiao; Tao, Wenjie; Yang, Zi; Shi, Chaoji; Hong, Duo; Li, Jiang; Shi, Donglu; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    In precision cancer nanomedicine, the key is to identify the oncogenes that are responsible for tumorigenesis, based on which these genetic drivers can be each specifically regulated by a nanovector-directed, oncogene-targeted microRNA (miRNA) for tumor suppression. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) is such an oncogene. The molecular tumor-subtype harboring FGFR3 genomic alteration has been identified via genomic sequencing and referred to as the FGFR3-driven tumors. This genomics-based tumor classification provides further rationale for the development of the FGFR3-targeted miRNA replacement therapy in treating patients with FGFR3 gene abnormity. However, successful miRNA therapy has been hampered by lacking of an efficient delivery vehicle. In this study, a nanovector is developed for microRNA-100 (miR-100) -mediated FGFR3 regulation. The nanovector is composed of the mesoporous magnetic clusters that are conjugated with ternary polymers for efficient miRNA in-vivo delivery. The miRNA-loading capacity of the nanovector is found to be high due to the polycation polymer functionalized mesoporous structure, showing excellent tumor cell transfection and pH-sensitive miRNA release. Delivery of miR-100 to cancer cells effectively down-regulates the expression of FGFR3, inhibits cell proliferation, and induces cell apoptosis in vitro. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are used to evaluate the efficacy of miRNA delivery in the FGFR3-driven tumors. Notably, sharp contrasts are observed between the FGFR3-driven tumors and those without FGFR3 genomic alteration. Only the FGFR3-driven PDXs are significantly inhibited via miR-100 delivery while the non-FGFR3-driven PDXs are not affected, showing promise of precision cancer nanomedicine. PMID:28255359

  4. A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Leach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, was designed. A super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer-doxorubicin (SPIO-Apt-Dox was fabricated and employed as a targeted drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This DNA RNA hybridized aptamer antitumor agent was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of targeted cells while minimizing collateral damage to non-targeted cells. This SPIO-Apt-Dox nanoparticle has specificity to PSMA+ prostate cancer cells. Aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable doxorubic to the non-target cells, leading to reduced untargeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake while enhancing targeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake. The experimental results indicate that the drug delivery platform can yield statistically significant effectiveness being more cytotoxic to the targeted cells as opposed to the non-targeted cells.

  5. Synthesis and Preliminary Investigations of the siRNA Delivery Potential of Novel, Single-Chain Rigid Cationic Carotenoid Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Leopold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of nucleic acid delivery requires the development of safe and efficient delivery vectors that overcome cellular barriers for effective transport. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel, single-chain rigid cationic carotenoid lipids and a study of their preliminary in vitro siRNA delivery effectiveness and cellular toxicity. The efficiency of siRNA delivery by the single-chain lipid series was compared with that of known cationic lipid vectors, 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethanecarbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphoethanolamine (EPC as positive controls. All cationic lipids (controls and single-chain lipids were co-formulated into liposomes with the neutral co-lipid, 1,2-dioleolyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE. Cationic lipid-siRNA complexes of varying (+/− molar charge ratios were formulated for delivery into HR5-CL11 cells. Of the five single-chain carotenoid lipids investigated, lipids 1, 2, 3 and 5 displayed significant knockdown efficiency with HR5-CL11 cells. In addition, lipid 1 exhibited the lowest levels of cytotoxicity with cell viability greater than 80% at all (+/− molar charge ratios studied. This novel, single-chain rigid carotenoid-based cationic lipid represents a new class of transfection vector with excellent cell tolerance, accompanied with encouraging siRNA delivery efficiency.

  6. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Novel Zwitterionic Lipids for Drug and siRNA Delivery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Colin L.

    Lipid-based nanoparticles have long been used to deliver biologically active molecules such as drugs, proteins, peptides, DNA, and siRNA in vivo. Liposomes and lipoplexes alter the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and cellular uptake of their encapsulated or associated cargo. This can increase drug efficacy while reducing toxicity, resulting in an increased therapeutic index and better clinical outcomes. Unlike small molecule drugs, which passively diffuse through lipid membranes, nucleic acids and proteins require an active, carrier mediated escape mechanism to reach their site of action. As such, the therapeutic application and drug properties dictate the required biophysical characteristics of the lipid nanoparticle. These carrier properties depend on the structure and biophysical characteristics of the lipids and other components used to formulate them. This dissertation presents a series of studies related to the development of novel synthetic lipids for use in drug delivery systems. First, we developed a novel class of zwitterionic lipids with head groups containing a cationic amine and anionic carboxylate and ester-linked oleic acid tails. These lipids exhibit structure-dependent, pH-responsive biophysical properties, and may be useful components for next-generation drug delivery systems. Second, we extended the idea of amine/carboxylate containing zwitterionic head groups and synthesized a series of acetate terminated diacyl lipids containing a quaternary amine. These lipids have an inverted headgroup orientation compared to naturally occurring zwitterionic lipids, and show interesting salt-dependent biophysical properties. Third, we synthesized and characterized a focused library of ionizable lysine-based lipids, which contain a lysine head group linked to a long-chain dialkylamine. A focused library was synthesized to determine the impact of hydrophobic fluidity, lipid net charge, and lipid pKa on the biophysical and siRNA transfection characteristics

  7. Reductively Responsive Hydrogel Nanoparticles with Uniform Size, Shape, and Tunable Composition for Systemic siRNA Delivery in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Da; Tian, Shaomin; Baryza, Jeremy; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    To achieve the great potential of siRNA based gene therapy, safe and efficient systemic delivery in vivo is essential. Here we report reductively responsive hydrogel nanoparticles with highly uniform size and shape for systemic siRNA delivery in vivo. "Blank" hydrogel nanoparticles with high aspect ratio were prepared using continuous particle fabrication based on PRINT (particle replication in nonwetting templates). Subsequently, siRNA was conjugated to "blank" nanoparticles via a disulfide linker with a high loading ratio of up to 18 wt %, followed by surface modification to enhance transfection. This fabrication process could be easily scaled up to prepare large quantity of hydrogel nanoparticles. By controlling hydrogel composition, surface modification, and siRNA loading ratio, siRNA conjugated nanoparticles were highly tunable to achieve high transfection efficiency in vitro. FVII-siRNA conjugated nanoparticles were further stabilized with surface coating for in vivo siRNA delivery to liver hepatocytes, and successful gene silencing was demonstrated at both mRNA and protein levels.

  8. Non-Invasive Delivery of dsRNA into De-Waxed Tick Eggs by Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Newton; de Abreu, Leonardo Araujo; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Kim, Tae Kwon; Mulenga, Albert; Braz, Gloria Regina Cardoso; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing was shown to be an efficient tool for validation of targets that may become anti-tick vaccine components. Here, we demonstrate the application of this approach in the validation of components of molecular signaling cascades, such as the Protein Kinase B (AKT) / Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) axis during tick embryogenesis. It was shown that heptane and hypochlorite treatment of tick eggs can remove wax, affecting corium integrity and but not embryo development. Evidence of AKT and GSK dsRNA delivery into de-waxed eggs of via electroporation is provided. Primers designed to amplify part of the dsRNA delivered into the electroporated eggs dsRNA confirmed its entry in eggs. In addition, it was shown that electroporation is able to deliver the fluorescent stain, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). To confirm gene silencing, a second set of primers was designed outside the dsRNA sequence of target gene. In this assay, the suppression of AKT and GSK transcripts (approximately 50% reduction in both genes) was demonstrated in 7-day-old eggs. Interestingly, silencing of GSK in 7-day-old eggs caused 25% reduction in hatching. Additionally, the effect of silencing AKT and GSK on embryo energy metabolism was evaluated. As expected, knockdown of AKT, which down regulates GSK, the suppressor of glycogen synthesis, decreased glycogen content in electroporated eggs. These data demonstrate that electroporation of de-waxed R. microplus eggs could be used for gene silencing in tick embryos, and improve the knowledge about arthropod embryogenesis. PMID:26091260

  9. A surface-mediated siRNA delivery system developed with chitosan/hyaluronic acid-siRNA multilayer films through layer-by-layer self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Wu, Changlin; Liu, Guangwan; Liao, Nannan; Zhao, Fang; Yang, Xuxia; Qu, Hongyuan; Peng, Bo; Chen, Li; Yang, Guang

    2016-12-01

    siRNA delivery remains highly challenging because of its hydrophilic and anionic nature and its sensitivity to nuclease degradation. Effective siRNA loading and improved transfection efficiency into cells represents a key problem. In our study, we prepared Chitosan/Hyaluronic acid-siRNA multilayer films through layer-by-layer self-assembly, in which siRNAs can be effectively loaded and protected. The construction process was characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR (CP/MAS), UV-vis spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We presented the controlled-release performance of the films during incubation in 1 M NaCl solution for several days through UV-vis spectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Additionally, we verified the stability and integrity of the siRNA loaded on multilayer films. Finally, the biological efficacy of the siRNA delivery system was evaluated via cells adhesion and gene silencing analyses in eGFP-HEK 293T cells. This new type of surface-mediated non-viral multilayer films may have considerable potential in the localized and controlled-release delivery of siRNA in mucosal tissues, and tissue engineering application.

  10. Galactosylated polyaspartamide copolymers for siRNA targeted delivery to hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Farra, Rossella; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Sardo, Carla; Porsio, Barbara; Giammona, Gaetano; Perrone, Francesca; Grassi, Mario; Pozzato, Gabriele; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2017-06-20

    The limited efficacy of available treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires the development of novel therapeutic approaches. We synthesized a novel cationic polymer based on α,β-poly-(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-d,L-aspartamide (PHEA) for drug delivery to HCC cells. The copolymer was synthesized by subsequent derivatization of PHEA with diethylene triamine (DETA) and with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative bearing galactose (GAL) molecules, obtaining the cationic derivative PHEA-DETA-PEG-GAL. PHEA-DETA-PEG-GAL has suitable chemical-physical characteristics for a potential systemic use and can effectively deliver a siRNA (siE2F1) targeted against the transcription factor E2F1, a gene product involved in HCC. The presence of GAL residues in the polyplexes allows the targeting of HCC cells that express the asialo-glycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R). In these cells, but not in ASGP-R non-expressing cells, PHEA-DETA-PEG-GAL/siE2F1 polyplexes induce the reduction of the mRNA and protein levels of E2F1 and of E2F1-regulated genes, all involved in the promotion of the G1/S phase transition. This results in a decrease of cell proliferation with a G1/G0 phase cells accumulation. Notably, removal of GAL residue almost completely abrogates the targeting capacity of the developed polyplexes. In conclusion, the generated polyplexes demonstrate the potential to effectively contributing to the development of novel anti-HCC therapeutic approaches via a siRNA-targeted delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ionization behavior of amino lipids for siRNA delivery: determination of ionization constants, SAR, and the impact of lipid pKa on cationic lipid-biomembrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingtao; Fan, Haihong; Levorse, Dorothy A; Crocker, Louis S

    2011-03-01

    Ionizable amino lipids are being pursued as an important class of materials for delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics, and research is being conducted to elucidate the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these lipids. The pK(a) of cationic lipid headgroups is one of the critical physiochemical properties of interest due to the strong impact of lipid ionization on the assembly and performance of these lipids. This research focused on developing approaches that permit the rapid determination of the relevant pK(a) of the ionizable amino lipids. Two distinct approaches were investigated: (1) potentiometric titration of amino lipids dissolved in neutral surfactant micelles; and (2) pH-dependent partitioning of a fluorescent dye to cationic liposomes formulated from amino lipids. Using the approaches developed here, the pK(a) values of cationic lipids with distinct headgroups were measured and found to be significantly lower than calculated values. It was also found that lipid-lipid interaction has a strong impact on the pK(a) values of lipids. Lysis of model biomembranes by cationic lipids was used to evaluate the impact of lipid pK(a) on the interaction between cationic lipids and cell membranes. It was found that cationic lipid-biomembrane interaction depends strongly on lipid pK(a) and solution pH, and this interaction is much stronger when amino lipids are highly charged. The presence of an optimal pK(a) range of ionizable amino lipids for siRNA delivery was suggested based on these results. The pK(a) methods reported here can be used to support the SAR screen of cationic lipids for siRNA delivery, and the information revealed through studying the impact of pK(a) on the interaction between cationic lipids and cell membranes will contribute significantly to the design of more efficient siRNA delivery vehicles.

  12. A novel HBV antisense RNA gene delivery system targeting hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hong Ma; Xiao-Hong Liang; Wen-Sheng Sun; Pei-Kun Tian; Li-Fen Gao; Su-Xia Liu; Xiao-Yan Wang; Li-Ning Zhang; Ying-Lin Cao; Li-Hui Han

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To construct a novel HBV antisense RNA delivery system targeting hapatocellular carcinoma and study its inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo.METHODS: GE7,a 16-peptide specific to EGFR, and HA20,a homologue of N-terminus of haemagglutinin of influenza viral envelope protein, were synthesized and conjugated with polylysin. The above conjugates were organized into the pEBAF-as-preS2, a hepatocarcinoma specific HBV antisense expression vector, to construct a novel HBV antisense RNA delivery system, named AFP-enhancing 4-element complex. Hepatocelluar carcinoma HepG2.2.15 cells was used to assay the in vitro inhibition of the complex on HBV. Expression of HBV antigen was assayed by ELISA. BALB/c nude mice bearing HepG2.2.15 cells were injected with AFP-enhancing 4-element complex. The expression of HBV antisense RNA was examined by RT-PCR and the size of tumor in nude mice were measured.RESULTS: The AFP-enhancing 4-element complex was constructed and DNA was completely trapped at the slot with no DNA migration when the ratio of polypeptide to plasmid was 1:1.The expression of HBsAg and HBeAg of HepG2.2.15 cells was greatly decreased after being transfected by AFP-enhancing 4-element complex. The inhibitory rates were 33.4 % and 58.5 % respectively. RTPCR showed HBV antisense RNA expressed specifically in liver tumor cells of tumor-bearing nude mice. After 4injections of AFP-enhancing 4-element complex containing 0.2 μg DNA, the diameter of the tumor was 0.995 cm±0.35,which was significantly smaller than that of the control groups (2.215 cm±0.25, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: AFP-enhancing 4-element complex could deliver HBV antisense RNA targeting on hepatocarcinoma and inhibit both HBV and liver tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.

  13. A novel HBV antisense RNA gene delivery system targeting hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-Hong; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Tian, Pei-Kun; Gao, Li-Fen; Liu, Su-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Li-Ning; Cao, Ying-Lin; Han, Li-Hui; Liang, Xiao-Hong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To construct a novel HBV antisense RNA delivery system targeting hapatocellular carcinoma and study its inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: GE7,a 16-peptide specific to EGFR, and HA20, a homologue of N-terminus of haemagglutinin of influenza viral envelope protein, were synthesized and conjugated with polylysin. The above conjugates were organized into the pEBAF-as-preS2, a hepatocarcinoma specific HBV antisense expression vector, to construct a novel HBV antisense RNA delivery system, named AFP-enhancing 4-element complex. Hepatocelluar carcinoma HepG2.2.15 cells was used to assay the in vitro inhibition of the complex on HBV. Expression of HBV antigen was assayed by ELISA. BALB/c nude mice bearing HepG2.2.15 cells were injected with AFP-enhancing 4-element complex. The expression of HBV antisense RNA was examined by RT-PCR and the size of tumor in nude mice were measured. RESULTS: The AFP-enhancing 4-element complex was constructed and DNA was completely trapped at the slot with no DNA migration when the ratio of polypeptide to plasmid was 1:1.The expression of HBsAg and HBeAg of HepG2.2.15 cells was greatly decreased after being transfected by AFP-enhancing 4-element complex. The inhibitory rates were 33.4% and 58.5% respectively. RT-PCR showed HBV antisense RNA expressed specifically in liver tumor cells of tumor-bearing nude mice. After 4 injections of AFP-enhancing 4-element complex containing 0.2 μg DNA, the diameter of the tumor was 0.995 cm ± 0.35, which was significantly smaller than that of the control groups (2.215 cm ± 0.25, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: AFP-enhancing 4-element complex could deliver HBV antisense RNA targeting on hepatocarcinoma and inhibit both HBV and liver tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:12632498

  14. SiRNA In Vivo-Targeted Delivery to Murine Dendritic Cells by Oral Administration of Recombinant Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhongtian; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    SiRNA therapeutics promise a future where any target in the transcriptome could be potentially addressed. However, the delivery of SiRNAs and targeting of particular cell types or organs are major challenges. A novel, efficient, and safe delivery system for promising the introduction of SiRNAs into particular cell types within living organisms is of great significance. Our previous studies have proved that recombinant protein (MSTN) and exogenous gene (EGFP) as vaccines, and furthermore functional CD40 shRNA expression can be delivered into dendritic cells (DCs) in mouse by oral administration of recombinant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we describe the details of the promising and innovative approach based on oral administration of recombinant yeast that allows in vivo-targeted delivery of functional SiRNA to murine intestinal DCs.

  15. Effects of the Lipophilic Core of Polymer Nanoassemblies on Intracellular Delivery and Transfection of siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rheiner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite effective gene silencing in vitro, in vivo delivery and transfection of siRNA remain challenging due to the lack of carriers that protect siRNA stably in the body. This study is focused to elucidate the correlation between complex stability and transfection efficiency of siRNA carriers. The carriers were prepared by using polymer nanoassemblies made of a cationic branched polymer [poly(ethylene imine: bPEI] to which hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol polymers were tethered covalently. These polymer tethered nanoassemblies (TNAs were further modified with lipophilic chains (palmitate: PAL in the core to stabilize siRNA TNAs complexes through ionic and hydrophobic interactions in combination. The effects of PAL in the core of TNAs were investigated with respect to in vitro transfection, intracellular gene delivery, and toxicity of the complexes, using a human colon cancer HT29 cell line stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene. A commercial transfection agent (RNAiMax was used as a control. TNAs entrapping siRNA showed the greatest complex stability in the absence of PAL although TNAs with a greater PAL content induced effective intracellular siRNA delivery, while luciferase expression decreased as the amount of PAL increased in the core of TNAs. These results demonstrate that lipophilic components in carriers affect not only complex stability but also intracellular distribution and transfection of siRNA in cancer cells.

  16. Multifunctional triblock Nanocarrier (PAMAM-PEG-PLL) for the efficient intracellular siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Mahesh L; Zhang, Min; Minko, Tamara

    2011-03-22

    A novel triblock poly(amido amine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-l-lysine (PAMAM-PEG-PLL) nanocarrier was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for the delivery of siRNA. The design of the nanocarrier is unique and provides a solution to most of the common problems associated with the delivery and therapeutic applications of siRNA. Every component in the triblock nanocarrier plays a significant role and performs multiple functions: (1) tertiary amine groups in the PAMAM dendrimer work as a proton sponge and play a vital role in the endosomal escape and cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA; (2) PEG, a linker connecting PLL and PAMAM dendrimers renders nuclease stability and protects siRNA in human plasma; (3) PLL provides primary amines to form polyplexes with siRNA through electrostatic interaction and also acts as penetration enhancer; and (4) conjugation to PEG and PAMAM reduced toxicity of PLL and the entire triblock nanocarrier PAMAM-PEG-PLL. The data obtained show that the polyplexes resulted from the conjugation of siRNA, and the proposed nanocarriers were effectively taken up by cancer cells and induced the knock down of the target BCL2 gene. In addition, triblock nanocarrier/siRNA polyplexes showed excellent stability in human plasma.

  17. Research of small interfering RNA targeting connective tissue growth factor in prevention and therapy of rats liver fibrosis%抗结缔组织生长因子小分子干扰RNA防治大鼠肝纤维化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小荣; 袁宏; 岳伟; 陈红; 薛苗; 朱俊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) can inhibit CTGF gene expression and prevent and treat hepatic fibrosis occurrence. Methods 30 male rats were divided into 5 groups randomly, and 6 rats in each group. Rats received intraperitoneally injection of 40% CCl4 together with tail vein injection of saline every 3 days for 8 weeks were served as model group; CCl4 together with tail vein delivery of siRNA as preventive group; CCl4 for 2 weeks followed by CCl4 and CTGF siRNA for 6 weeks as early treatment group; CCl4 for 4 weeks followed by CCl4 and CTGF siRNA for 4 weeks as advanced treatment group, and only tail vein injection of saline as control group. 3 days after the last CCl4 injection, the serum and hepatic tissue from rats were harvested. Serum transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin and hepatic fibrosis indices were measured. Expression of CTGF mRNA and protein in rats liver were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Inflammation and fibrosis in rats liver were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE). Results Compared with the model group, the liver function (ALT,AST, albumin, TBil), fibrosis in hepatic tissue(hyaluronic acid, laminin, human procollagen type Ⅲ , type Ⅳ collagen) and the expression of CTGF mRNA and protein in preventive, early treatment and advanced treatment groups were markedly down-regulated(F = 8.946-171.079, P < 0.05); inflammation, necrosis and fibrosis in hepatic tissue were also relative down-regulated. Compared with preventive and early treatment groups, the expression of CTGF mRNA and protein in liver in advanced treatment group were up-regulated(F = 9.075-1526.644, P < 0.05). Inflammation, necrosis and fibrosis in hepatic tissue increased. Conclusions Tail vein delivery of CTGF siRNA can significantly inhibit CTGF expression in rats liver, and prevent rats hepatic fibrosis effectively. The more earlier for injection, the more to prevent the

  18. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effecti...

  19. Novel guanidinylated bioresponsive poly(amidoamine)s designed for short hairpin RNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiankun; Zhang, Jinmin; Xing, Haonan; Sun, Yanping; Yang, Zhen; Yang, Tianzhi; Cai, Cuifang; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Yang, Li; Ding, Pingtian

    2016-01-01

    Two different disulfide (SS)-containing poly(amidoamine) (PAA) polymers were constructed using guanidino (Gua)-containing monomers (ie, arginine [Arg] and agmatine [Agm]) and N,N′-cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) by Michael-addition polymerization. In order to characterize these two Gua-SS-PAA polymers and investigate their potentials as short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-delivery carriers, pSilencer 4.1-CMV FANCF shRNA was chosen as a model plasmid DNA to form complexes with these two polymers. The Gua-SS-PAAs and plasmid DNA complexes were determined with particle sizes less than 90 nm and positive ζ-potentials under 20 mV at nucleic acid:polymer weight ratios lower than 1:24. Bioresponsive release of plasmid DNA was observed from both newly constructed complexes. Significantly lower cytotoxicity was observed for both polymer complexes compared with polyethylenimine and Lipofectamine 2000, two widely used transfection reagents as reference carriers. Arg-CBA showed higher transfection efficiency and gene-silencing efficiency in MCF7 cells than Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. In addition, the cellular uptake of Arg-CBA in MCF7 cells was found to be higher and faster than Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. Similarly, plasmid DNA transport into the nucleus mediated by Arg-CBA was more than that by Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. The study suggested that guanidine and carboxyl introduced into Gua-SS-PAAs polymers resulted in a better nuclear localization effect, which played a key role in the observed enhancement of transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Overall, two newly synthesized Gua-SS-PAAs polymers demonstrated great potential to be used as shRNA carriers for gene-therapy applications. PMID:27994462

  20. A geminivirus-based guide RNA delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas has emerged as potent genome editing technology and has successfully been applied in many organisms, including several plant species. However, delivery of genome editing reagents remains a challenge in plants. Here, we report a virus-based guide RNA (gRNA) delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing (VIGE) that can be used to precisely target genome locations and cause mutations. VIGE is performed by using a modified Cabbage Leaf Curl virus (CaLCuV) vector to expr...

  1. siRNA delivery into tumor cells by lipid-based nanoparticles composed of hydroxyethylated cholesteryl triamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Tsukasa; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka; Maitani, Yoshie

    2013-02-25

    Previously, we reported that cationic nanoparticles (NP) composed of cholesteryl diamine (OH-Chol, (3S)-N-(2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethyl)cholesteryl-3-carboxamide) and Tween 80 could deliver plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) with high transfection efficiency into various tumor cells. In this study, to facilitate the endosomal escape of siRNA transfected by lipid-based nanoparticles, we synthesized new cationic cholesteryl triamine (OH-N-Chol, (3S)-N-(2-(2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethylamino)ethyl)cholesteryl-3-carboxamide) with an ethylenimine extension and prepared cationic nanoparticles (NP-N) composed of cholesteryl triamine and Tween 80. Although NP-N/siRNA complex (NP-N nanoplex) after mixing NP-N with siRNA was >350 nm in size, the vortex-mixing during the nanoplex formation decreased it to about 200 nm, which was an injectable size. NP-N nanoplex was mainly internalized by macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, as was NP nanoplex, and showed higher gene knockdown efficiency than NP nanoplex in human cervical carcinoma SiHa cells. From these results, cationic nanoparticles composed of OH-N-Chol and Tween 80 may have potential as a gene vector for siRNA transfection to tumor cells.

  2. Interfering Satellite RNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV, the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of interfering satBaMV and BaMV. Like other satRNAs, satBaMV mimics the secondary structures of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs of BaMV as a molecular pretender. However, a conserved apical hairpin stem loop (AHSL in the 5′-UTR of satBaMV was found as the key determinant for downregulating BaMV replication. In particular, two unique nucleotides (C60 and C83 in the AHSL of satBaMVs determine the satBaMV interference ability by competing for the replication machinery. Thus, transgenic plants expressing interfering satBaMV could confer resistance to BaMV, and interfering satBaMV could be used as biological-control agent. Unlike two major anti-viral mechanisms, RNA silencing and salicylic acid-mediated immunity, our findings in plants by in vivo competition assay and RNA deep sequencing suggested replication competition is involved in this transgenic satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference. We propose how a single nucleotide of satBaMV can make a great change in BaMV pathogenicity and the underlying mechanism.

  3. Highly Efficient and Safe Delivery of VEGF siRNA by Bio-Reducible Fluorinated Peptide Dendrimers for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaojun; Zhu, Haofang; Zhang, Yanmei; Gu, Zhongwei

    2017-02-23

    RNA interference (RNAi) hold great promise in treating a wide range of diseases. However, it remains highly desirable to develop new delivery systems to circumvent complex extra- and intracellular barriers for successful clinical translation. Here, we report on a versatile polymeric vector, bio-reducible fluorinated peptide dendrimers (BFPD), for highly efficient and safe delivery of siRNA. In virtue of skillfully integrated all of the unique features of reversible cross-linking, fluorination and peptide dendrimers, this novel vector can surmount almost all extra- and intracellular barriers associated with local siRNA delivery through highly improved physiological stability and serum resistance, significantly increased intratumoral enrichment, cellular uptake, as well as successful facilitation of endosomal escape and cytosolic siRNA release. BFPD polyplexes, carrying siVEGF, demonstrated excellent VEGF silencing efficacy (~65%) and a strong capability for inhibiting HeLa cell proliferation. More importantly, these polyplexes showed superior performance in long-term enrichment in the tumor sites and had a high level of tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, these polyplexes not only exhibited excellent in vivo anti-tumor efficacy, but demonstrated superior biocompatibility, compared with LPF2000, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that BFPD is an efficient and safe siRNA delivery system and has remarkable potential for RNAi-based cancer therapy.

  4. Novel PEI/Poly-γ-Gutamic Acid Nanoparticles for High Efficient siRNA and Plasmid DNA Co-Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficient delivery of sufficient amounts of nucleic acids into target cells is critical for successful gene therapy and gene knockdown. The DNA/siRNA co-delivery system has been considered a promising approach for cancer therapy to simultaneously express and inhibit tumor suppressor genes and overexpressed oncogenes, respectively, triggering synergistic anti-cancer effects. Polyethylenimine (PEI has been identified as an efficient non-viral vector for transgene expression. In this study, we created a very high efficient DNA/siRNA co-delivery system by incorporating a negatively-charged poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA into PEI/nucleic acid complexes. Spherical nanoparticles with about 200 nm diameter were formed by mixing PEI/plasmid DNA/siRNA/γ-PGA (dual delivery nanoparticles; DDNPs with specific ratio (N/P/C ratio and the particles present positive surface charge under all manufacturing conditions. The gel retardation assay shows both nucleic acids were effectively condensed by PEI, even at low N/P ratios. The PEI-based DDNPs reveal excellent DNA/siRNA transfection efficiency in the human hepatoma cell line (Hep 3B by simultaneously providing high transgene expression efficiency and high siRNA silencing effect. The results indicated that DDNP can be an effective tool for gene therapy against hepatoma.

  5. Novel PEI/Poly-γ-Gutamic Acid Nanoparticles for High Efficient siRNA and Plasmid DNA Co-Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Hung-Kun; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Cheng, Ya-Ming; Hsu, Kuang-Hsing

    2017-01-04

    The efficient delivery of sufficient amounts of nucleic acids into target cells is critical for successful gene therapy and gene knockdown. The DNA/siRNA co-delivery system has been considered a promising approach for cancer therapy to simultaneously express and inhibit tumor suppressor genes and overexpressed oncogenes, respectively, triggering synergistic anti-cancer effects. Polyethylenimine (PEI) has been identified as an efficient non-viral vector for transgene expression. In this study, we created a very high efficient DNA/siRNA co-delivery system by incorporating a negatively-charged poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) into PEI/nucleic acid complexes. Spherical nanoparticles with about 200 nm diameter were formed by mixing PEI/plasmid DNA/siRNA/γ-PGA (dual delivery nanoparticles; DDNPs) with specific ratio (N/P/C ratio) and the particles present positive surface charge under all manufacturing conditions. The gel retardation assay shows both nucleic acids were effectively condensed by PEI, even at low N/P ratios. The PEI-based DDNPs reveal excellent DNA/siRNA transfection efficiency in the human hepatoma cell line (Hep 3B) by simultaneously providing high transgene expression efficiency and high siRNA silencing effect. The results indicated that DDNP can be an effective tool for gene therapy against hepatoma.

  6. Using a Novel MicroRNA Delivery System to Inhibit Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlan Yao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we developed a novel microRNA (miRNA delivery system based on bacteriophage MS2 virus-like particles (MS2 VLPs. In this current study, we used this system to transport miR-146a into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and demonstrated the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in precursors. Two cytokines, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF were used to induce osteoclastogenesis. MS2 VLPs were transfected into PBMCs. qRT-PCR was applied to measure expression levels of miR-146a and osteoclast (OC-specific genes. Western blot (WB was conducted to evaluate miR-146a downstream target proteins: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6. The formation and activity of OCs were assessed by cytochemical staining and bone resorption assay, respectively. In PBMCs treated with MS2-miR146a VLPs, qRT-PCR assays showed increased expression of miR-146a (p < 0.01 and decreased expression of all four OC-specific genes (p < 0.05. WB results indicated decreased expression of EGFR (p < 0.01 and TRAF6 (p < 0.05. The number of OCs decreased markedly and bone resorption assay demonstrated inhibited activity. This miR-146a delivery system could be applied to induce overexpression of miR-146a and to inhibit the differentiation and function of OCs.

  7. Smart ligand: aptamer-mediated targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and siRNA for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Qinghe; Qiu, Liyan

    2013-10-28

    Aptamers are a class of oligonucleotides that can specifically bind to different targets with high affinity. Since their discovery in 1980s, aptamers have attracted considerable interests in medical applications. So far, initial research using aptamers as delivery systems has produced exciting results. In this review, we summarize recent progress in aptamer-mediated chemotherapeutic drug and siRNA delivery systems in tumor treatment. With regard to chemotherapeutic drugs, the 2 main methods for targeted delivery using aptamers are as follows: aptamer-drug systems (in which aptamers directly deliver the drug both as a carrier and as a ligand) and aptamer-nanoparticles systems (in which nanoparticles function together with aptamers for targeted delivery of drugs). For delivery of siRNA, aptamers can be utilized by the following ways to facilitate targeting: (1) linked by a connector; (2) form a chimera; and (3) combined with nanoparticles. In co-delivery system, the advantages associated with the use of aptamers are beginning to become apparent also. Here, the challenges and new perspectives in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery have been discussed.

  8. Delivery of microRNA-146a with polyethylenimine nanoparticles inhibits renal fibrosis in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishita Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiyuki Morishita,1 Toshimi Imai,1 Hiromichi Yoshizawa,1 Minami Watanabe,1 Kenichi Ishibashi,2 Shigeaki Muto,1 Daisuke Nagata1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, 2Department of Medical Physiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway leading to end-stage renal disease. Although microRNA (miR was recently shown to be involved in the development of renal fibrosis, few studies have focused on the effects on renal fibrosis of exogenous miR delivered in an in vivo therapeutic setting. The study reported here investigated the effects of miR-146a delivery using polyethylenimine nanoparticles (PEI-NPs on renal fibrosis in vivo. PEI-NPs bearing miR-146 or control-miR (nitrogen/phosphate ratio: 6 were injected into the tail vein of a mouse model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. PEI-NPs bearing miR-146 significantly enhanced miR-146a expression in the obstructed kidney compared with the control group, while inhibiting the renal fibrosis area, expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, and infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages into the obstructed kidney. In addition, PEI-NPs bearing miR-146a inhibited the transforming growth factor beta 1–Smad and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6–nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways. Control-miR-PEI-NPs did not show any of these effects. These results suggest that the delivery of miR-146a attenuated renal fibrosis by inhibiting pro-fibrotic and inflammatory signaling pathways and that the delivery of appropriate miRs may be a therapeutic option for preventing renal fibrosis in vivo. Keywords: miR, end-stage renal disease, pro-fibrotic signaling pathway, inflammatory signaling pathway

  9. Self-replicating Replicon-RNA Delivery to Dendritic Cells by Chitosan-nanoparticles for Translation In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C McCullough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-amplifying replicon RNA (RepRNA possesses high potential for increasing antigen load within dendritic cells (DCs. The major aim of the present work was to define how RepRNA delivered by biodegradable, chitosan-based nanoparticulate delivery vehicles (nanogel-alginate (NGA interacts with DCs, and whether this could lead to translation of the RepRNA in the DCs. Although studies employed virus replicon particles (VRPs, there are no reports on biodegradable, nanoparticulate vehicle delivery of RepRNA. VRP studies employed cytopathogenic agents, contrary to DC requirements—slow processing and antigen retention. We employed noncytopathogenic RepRNA with NGA, demonstrating for the first time the efficiency of RepRNA association with nanoparticles, NGA delivery to DCs, and RepRNA internalization by DCs. RepRNA accumulated in vesicular structures, with patterns typifying cytosolic release. This promoted RepRNA translation, in vitro and in vivo. Delivery and translation were RepRNA concentration-dependent, occurring in a kinetic manner. Including cationic lipids with chitosan during nanoparticle formation enhanced delivery and translation kinetics, but was not required for translation of immunogenic levels in vivo. This work describes for the first time the characteristics associated with chitosan-nanoparticle delivery of self-amplifying RepRNA to DCs, leading to translation of encoded foreign genes, namely influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein.

  10. Synthesis of fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles for target-cell-specific delivery and intracellular microRNA imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Mu, Yawen; Qian, Shanshan; Lu, Jusheng; Wan, Yakun; Fu, Guodong; Liu, Songqin

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is found to be up-regulated in many kinds of cancer and therefore is classified as an oncomiR. Herein, we design a multifunctional fluorescent nanoprobe (FSiNP-AS/MB) with the AS1411 aptamer and a molecular beacon (MB) co-immobilized on the surface of the fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles (FSiNPs) for target-cell-specific delivery and intracellular miRNA imaging. The FSiNPs were prepared by a facile reverse microemulsion method from tetraethoxysilane and silane derivatized coumarin that was previously synthesized by click chemistry. The as-prepared FSiNPs possess uniform size distribution, good optical stability and biocompatibility. In addition, there is a remarkable affinity interaction between the AS1411 aptamer and the nucleolin protein on the cancer cell surface. Thus, a target-cell-specific delivery system by the FSiNP-AS/MB is proposed for effectively transferring a MB into the cancer cells to recognize the target miRNA. Using miRNA-21 in MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line) as a model, the proposed multifunctional nanosystems not only allow target-cell-specific delivery with the binding affinity of AS1411, but also can track simultaneously the transfected cells and detect intracellular miRNA in situ. The proposed multifunctional nanosystems are a promising platform for a highly sensitive luminescent nonviral vector in biomedical and clinical research.

  11. A cytometry microparticle platform approach for screening tobacco microRNA changes after agrobacterium delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-08-01

    Abstract Key message nta-miR-398 is significantly up-regulated while nta-miR-428d is significantly down-regulated in tobacco after agroinfiltration AbstractMicroRNAs are a class of non-coding regulatory RNAs that can modulate development as well as alter innate antiviral defenses in plants. In this study we explored host changes at the microRNA level within tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after expression of a recombinant anti-Ebola GP1 antibody through Agrobacterium tumefaciens agroinfiltration delivery. A multiplex nanoparticle-based cytometry assay tracked the host expression changes of 53 tobacco microRNAs. Our results revealed that the most abundant microRNAs in actively growing leaves corresponded to nanoparticle probes specific to nta-mir-6149 and nta-miR-168b. After agroinfiltration, probes targeting nta-mir-398 and nta-mir-482d were significantly altered in their respective expression levels and were further verified through RT-qPCR analysis. To our knowledge this study is the first to profile microRNA expression in tobacco after agroinfiltration using a multiplex nanoparticle approach.

  12. Novel guanidinylated bioresponsive poly(amidoamines designed for short hairpin RNA delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiankun Yu,1 Jinmin Zhang,1 Haonan Xing,1 Yanping Sun,1 Zhen Yang,1 Tianzhi Yang,2 Cuifang Cai,1 Xiaoyun Zhao,3 Li Yang,1 Pingtian Ding1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China; 2Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Husson University, Bangor, ME, USA; 3Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, School of Life Science and Biopharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China Abstract: Two different disulfide (SS-containing poly(amidoamine (PAA polymers were constructed using guanidino (Gua-containing monomers (ie, arginine [Arg] and agmatine [Agm] and N,N'-cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA by Michael-addition polymerization. In order to characterize these two Gua-SS-PAA polymers and investigate their potentials as short hairpin RNA (shRNA-delivery carriers, pSilencer 4.1-CMV FANCF shRNA was chosen as a model plasmid DNA to form complexes with these two polymers. The Gua-SS-PAAs and plasmid DNA complexes were determined with particle sizes less than 90 nm and positive ζ-potentials under 20 mV at nucleic acid:polymer weight ratios lower than 1:24. Bioresponsive release of plasmid DNA was observed from both newly constructed complexes. Significantly lower cytotoxicity was observed for both polymer complexes compared with polyethylenimine and Lipofectamine 2000, two widely used transfection reagents as reference carriers. Arg-CBA showed higher transfection efficiency and gene-silencing efficiency in MCF7 cells than Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. In addition, the cellular uptake of Arg-CBA in MCF7 cells was found to be higher and faster than Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. Similarly, plasmid DNA transport into the nucleus mediated by Arg-CBA was more than that by Agm-CBA and the reference carriers. The study suggested that guanidine and carboxyl introduced into Gua-SS-PAAs polymers resulted in a better nuclear localization effect, which played a key role in the

  13. Comparison of anti-EGFR-Fab’ conjugated immunoliposomes modified with two different conjugation linkers for siRNA delivery in SMMC-7721 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng L

    2013-08-01

    no significant difference in siRNA encapsulation efficiency, cell viability, or serum stability between TLPD-FPM and TLPD-FPC, cellular uptake of TLPD-FPM was significantly greater than that of TLPD-FPC in EGFR-overexpressing SMMC-7721 cells. The luciferase gene silencing efficiency of TLPD-FPM was approximately three-fold high than that of TLPD-FPC. Conclusion: Different conjugation linkers whereby antibodies are conjugated with LPD can affect the physicochemical properties of LPD and antibody conjugation efficiency, thus directly affecting the gene silencing effect of TLPD. Immunoliposomes prepared by DSPE-PEG-MAL conjugation with anti-EGFR Fab’ are more effective than TLPD containing DSPE-PEG-COOH in targeting hepatocellular carcinoma cells for siRNA delivery. Keywords: liposome-polycation-DNA, anti-EGFR Fab’, immunoliposomes, small interfering RNA delivery, conjugation technology, hepatocellular carcinoma

  14. Systemic delivery of siRNA by hyaluronan-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles for tumor-targeted therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chong; Wei, Wei; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Ding, Jing-Song; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, hyaluronan (HA)-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs) were developed for an injectable and targetable delivery of siRNA, which were prepared by coating the alendronate-hyaluronan graft polymer (AHA) around the surface of calcium phosphate-siRNA co-precipitates. The prepared CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs had a uniform spherical core-shell morphology with an approximate size of 170 nm and zeta potential of -12 mV. The coating of hydrophilic HA improved the physical stability of nanoparticles over one month due to the strong interactions between phosphonate and calcium. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs could effectively deliver EGFR-targeted siRNA into A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis and significantly down-regulate the level of EGFR expression. Also, the internalized CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs exhibited a pH-responsive release of siRNA, indicating that the acidification of lysosomes probably facilitated the disassembling of nanoparticles and the resultant ions sharply increased the inner osmotic pressure and thus expedited the release of siRNA from late lysosomes into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, in vivo tumor therapy demonstrated that high accumulation of CaP-AHA/siEGFR NPs in tumor led to a significant tumor growth inhibition with a specific EGFR gene silencing effect after intravenous administration in nude mice xenografted with A549 tumor, along with a negligible body weight loss. These results suggested that the CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs could be an effective and safe systemic siRNA delivery system for a RNAi-based tumor targeted therapy strategy.In this study, hyaluronan (HA)-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs) were developed for an injectable and targetable delivery of siRNA, which were prepared by coating the alendronate-hyaluronan graft polymer (AHA) around the surface of calcium phosphate-siRNA co-precipitates. The prepared CaP-AHA/siRNA NPs had a uniform

  15. Photoluminescent and biodegradable polycitrate-polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine polymers as highly biocompatible and efficient vectors for bioimaging-guided siRNA and miRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Guo, Yi; Yu, Meng; Ma, Peter X; Mao, Cong; Lei, Bo

    2017-02-20

    Development of biodegradable and biocompatible non-viral vectors with intrinsical multifunctional properties such as bioimaging ability for highly efficient nucleic acids delivery still remains a challenge. Here, a biodegradable poly (1,8-octanedio-citric acid)-co-polyethylene glycol grafted with polyethyleneimine (PEI) (POCG-PEI) polymers with the photoluminescent capacity were synthesized for nucleic acids delivery (siRNA and miRNA). POCG-PEI polymers can efficiently bind various nucleic acids, protect them against enzymatic degradation and release the genes in the presence of polyanionic heparin. POCG-PEI also showed a significantly low cytotoxicity, enhanced cellular uptake and high transfection efficiency of nucleic acids, as compared to commercial transfection agents, lipofectamine 2000 (Lipo) and polyethylenimine (PEI 25K). POCG-PEI polymers demonstrate an excellent photostability, which allows for imaging the cells and real-time tracking the nucleic acids delivery. The photoluminescent property, low cytotoxicity, biodegradation, good gene binding and protection ability and high genes delivery efficiency make POCG-PEI highly competitive as a non-virus vector for genes delivery and real-time bioimaging applications. Our results may be also an important step for designing biodegradable biomaterials with multifunctional properties towards bioimaging-guided genes therapeutic applications.

  16. Polyphosphoester nanoparticles as biodegradable platform for delivery of multiple drugs and siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzeny H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hadeel Elzeny,1,* Fuwu Zhang,2,* Esraa N Ali,1 Heba A Fathi,1 Shiyi Zhang,3 Richen Li,2 Mohamed A El-Mokhtar,4 Mostafa A Hamad,5 Karen L Wooley,2,6 Mahmoud Elsabahy1,6–8 1Assiut International Center of Nanomedicine, Al-Rajhy Liver Hospital, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Departments of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, 5Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 6Laboratory for Synthetic-Biologic Interactions, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 7Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, 8Misr University for Science and Technology, 6th of October City, Egypt *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Delivery of multiple therapeutics and/or diagnostic agents to diseased tissues is challenging and necessitates the development of multifunctional platforms. Among the various strategies for design of multifunctional nanocarriers, biodegradable polyphosphoester (PPE polymers have been recently synthesized via a rapid and simple synthetic strategy. In addition, the chemical structure of the polymer could be tuned to form nanoparticles with varying surface chemistries and charges, which have shown exceptional safety and biocompatibility as compared to several commercial agents. The purpose of this study was to exploit a mixture of PPE nanoparticles of cationic and neutral surface charges for multiple delivery of anticancer drugs (ie, sorafenib and paclitaxel and nucleic acids (ie, siRNA. Cationic PPE polymers could efficiently complex siRNA, and the stability of the nanoparticles could be maintained in physiological solutions and upon freeze-drying and were able to deliver siRNA

  17. Folic Acid Conjugated Chitosan for Targeted Delivery of siRNA to Activated Macrophages in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Gao, Shan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    was conjugated to chitosan (FA–CS) and used to formulate siRNA into nanoparticles capable of cell specific delivery. The physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles, including size, zeta-potential and encapsulation efficiency, were characterized and the intracellular uptake and gene silencing efficiency were...

  18. RNA interference-mediated simultaneous silencing of four genes using cross-shaped RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Yeon; Chang, Chan Il; Lee, Dooyoung; Hong, Sun Woo; Shin, Chanseok; Li, Chiang J; Kim, Soyoun; Haussecker, Dirk; Lee, Dong-Ki

    2013-04-01

    The structural flexibility of RNA interference (RNAi)-triggering nucleic acids suggests that the design of unconventional RNAi trigger structures with novel features is possible. Here, we report a cross-shaped RNA duplex structure, termed quadruple interfering RNA (qiRNA), with multiple target gene silencing activity. qiRNA triggers the simultaneous down-regulation of four cellular target genes via an RNAi mechanism. In addition, qiRNA shows enhanced intracellular delivery and target gene silencing over conventional siRNA when complexed with jetPEI, a linear polyethyleneimine (PEI). We also show that the long antisense strand of qiRNA is incorporated intact into an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). This novel RNA scaffold further expands the repertoire of RNAi-triggering molecular structures and could be used in the development of therapeutics for various diseases including viral infections and cancer.

  19. Enhanced endosomal/lysosomal escape by distearoyl phosphoethanolamine-polycarboxybetaine lipid for systemic delivery of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Cheng, Qiang; Jiang, Qian; Huang, Yuanyu; Liu, Hongmei; Zhao, Yuliang; Cao, Weipeng; Ma, Guanghui; Dai, Fengying; Liang, Xingjie; Liang, Zicai; Zhang, Xin

    2014-02-28

    Cationic liposome based siRNA delivery system has improved the efficiencies of siRNA. However, cationic liposomes are prone to be rapidly cleared by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Although modification of cationic liposomes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) could prolong circulation lifetime, PEG significantly inhibits siRNA entrapment efficiency, cellular uptake and endosomal/lysosomal escape process, resulting in low gene silencing efficiency of siRNA. In this study, we report the synthesis of zwitterionic polycarboxybetaine (PCB) based distearoyl phosphoethanolamine-polycarboxybetaine (DSPE-PCB) lipid for cationic liposome modification. The DSPE-PCB20 cationic liposome/siRNA complexes (lipoplexes) show an excellent stability in serum medium. The siRNA encapsulation efficiency of DSPE-PCB20 lipoplexes could reach 92% at N/P ratio of 20/1, but only 73% for DSPE-PEG lipoplexes. The zeta potential of DSPE-PCB20 lipoplexes is 8.19±0.53mV at pH 7.4, and increases to 24.6±0.87mV when the pH value is decreased to 4.5, which promotes the endosomal/lysosomal escape of siRNA. The DSPE-PCB20 modification could enhance the silencing efficiency of siRNA by approximately 20% over the DSPE-PEG 2000 lipoplexes at the same N/P ratio in vitro. Furthermore, DSPE-PCB20 lipoplexes could efficiently mediate the down-regulation of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) mRNA in the liver and consequently decrease the total cholesterol in the serum in vivo, suggesting therapeutic potentials for siRNA delivery in hypercholesterolemia-related diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nose-to-brain delivery of BACE1 siRNA loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles for Alzheimer's therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassu, Giovanna; Soddu, Elena; Posadino, Anna Maria; Pintus, Gianfranco; Sarmento, Bruno; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2017-04-01

    We designed a delivery system to obtain an efficient and optimal nose-to-brain transport of BACE1 siRNA, potentially useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We selected a cell-penetrating peptide, the short peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein known as RVG-9R, to increase the transcellular pathway in neuronal cells. The optimal molar ratio between RVG-9R and BACE1 siRNA was elucidated. The complex between the two was then encapsulated. We propose chitosan-coated and uncoated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as a nasal delivery system capable of exploiting both olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways. The coating process had an effect on the zeta potential, obtaining positively-charged nanoparticles, and on siRNA protection. The positive charge of the coating formulation ensured mucoadhesiveness to the particles and also prolonged residence time in the nasal cavity. We studied the cellular transport of siRNA released from the SLNs using Caco-2 as a model of epithelial-like phenotypes. We found that siRNA permeates the monolayer to a greater extent when released from any of the studied formulations than from bare siRNA, and primarily from chitosan-coated SLNs.

  1. Novel polyacrylate-based cationic nanoparticles for survivin siRNA delivery combined with mitoxantrone for treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, Sanam; Mahdavi, Majid; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Fathi, Marziyeh; Hejazi, Mohammad-Saeid; Samadi, Nasser

    2016-11-01

    As a gene delivery method in breast cancer therapy, knocking down the undesired genes in the cancerous cells would be promising. Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family genes are some of the genes whose responsibility is inhibition of apoptosis in cells. Silencing these genes seems to be helpful directing the tumor cells to death. siRNA sequence designed against survivin anti-apoptotic gene can play this role if carried to the cytoplasm. Here we prepared a positive charged biocompatible nano-sized particle made up of a Fe3O4 core covered respectively by polyacrylate (PA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer, which could successfully deliver the siRNA into the MCF-7 cells. The particle structure was checked and having less than 50 nm diameter in size, positive charge and, safety towards MCF-7 cells besides being able to form nanoplexes with the siRNA strand helps it entering into the biologic assays part. The siRNA delivery evaluated via flowcytometry. Apoptosis induction was determined by DAPI staining. The efficiency of survivin gene knockdown was evaluated in mRNA and protein levels using Real time PCR and western blotting methods. Overall, the Fe3O4-PA-PEI nanoparticles can deliver siRNA effectively into the cytoplasm of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells and induce apoptosis.

  2. Development of edge-activated liposomes for siRNA delivery to human basal epidermis for melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrani, Mania; Garbuzenko, Olga B; Minko, Tamara; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2016-04-28

    Delivery of macromolecules such as siRNA into cells that reside in the basal epidermis of the skin is a major challenge due to the transport barriers that need to be overcome. siRNAs have potential therapeutic applications in various dermatological diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and cancer. Unfortunately, a low permeability of siRNA through the stratum corneum and epidermis has significantly limited its use for topical application. The objective of this study was to develop a topical siRNA delivery system that can permeate through the stratum corneum and viable epidermis and efficiently deposit therapeutic levels of siRNA to the basal epidermis/upper dermis where melanoma cells reside. To achieve this objective, a series of liposome compositions that contained various concentrations of edge activator in their structures were prepared and then complexed with siRNA at different ratios to generate a small library of liposome-siRNA complexes (lipoplexes) with different physicochemical properties. In this study we used melanoma as a disease model. Through use of quantitative imaging analysis, we identified the necessary design parameters for effective permeation of lipoplexes through the skin layers and deposition at the upper dermis. The ability of the formulated lipoplexes to internalize into melanoma cells, knockdown the expression of the BRAF protein and induce cell death in melanoma cells was studied by fluorescent microscopy, in-cell immunofluorescence assay and WST-1 cell proliferation assay. By providing direct quantitative and qualitative microscopy evidence, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that the passive delivery of an edge-activated liposomal formulation can effectively carry siRNA through the stratum corneum and deposit it at the lower epidermis/upper dermis.

  3. Intravenous Delivery of pDNA and siRNA into Muscle with Bubble Liposomes and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Yoichi; Sekine, Shohko; Endo, Yoko; Nishijima, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is an attractive target tissue for numerous gene therapy strategies. Gene delivery into muscle has been extensively studied. Of the strategies, intravascular delivery of naked pDNA is desirable. Muscle has a high density of capillaries that are in close contact with myofibers. Previously, we developed polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes entrapping echo-contrast gas, known as ultrasound (US) imaging gas. We called the liposomes "Bubble liposomes" (BLs). It has been reported that BLs improve the tissue permeability by cavitation on US exposure. Here, we modified the naked pDNA or siRNA transfer method into hind limb muscle through blood vessels using BLs and US. The intravenous delivery of pDNA into muscle can be markedly enhanced when the pDNA is delivered in combination with BLs and US. In addition, the expression of pDNA is high in the US-focused site. Moreover, efficient gene delivery can be achieved by the intravenous delivery of pDNA into muscle with BLs and US. Expression is also down-regulated by delivering siRNA with BLs and US. Thus, this US-mediated BL technique involving veins may be an effective method for gene therapy.

  4. siRNA Delivery Improvement by Co-formulation of Different Modified Polymers in Erythroleukemic Cell Line K562

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazdak Ganjalikhani hakemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: siRNA may be a very promising tool for treatment of various diseases especially in cancer therapy due to high specificity. One of the main hurdles applications of siRNAs in vivo is optimization of the delivery strategy, especially the carrier systems. The aim of this study was to optimize siRNA delivery into suspended erythroleukemic cell line K562. Materials and Methods: We applied polyethyleneimine (PEI and oligoethyleneimine (OEI derivatives alone or their co-formulation with different agents such as chloroquine (a drug known to alter lysosomal pH and thus to inhibit lysosomal degradation of macromolecules, DOPE (lipophilic agent, succinic acid (introduction of negatively charged to polymer and transferrin (the ligand of transferring receptor which is over-expressed in many types of tumors and hematopoietic cells. Results: In this study it was shown that utilizing a combination of 70% OEI-HA10 (ten hexyl acrylate residues per one OEI chain plus 30% of transferin-PEI with Luc-siRNA was highly effective for transfecting K562 cell. This co-formulation silenced luciferase activity up to 70% after short time without any significant inhibition in the luciferase activity in siCONTROL wells. Conclusion: In conclusion, the combination of modified PEI with transferrin and OEI by hexyl acrylate may increase siRNA delivery and reduce toxicity in hematopoietic suspended cells.

  5. Development of Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Stable Drug Delivery System for Protein/siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Katas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs exhibit good physicochemical properties as drug delivery systems. The aim of this study is to determine the modulation of preparative parameters on the physical characteristics and colloidal stability of CS NPs. CS NPs were fabricated by ionic interaction with dextran sulphate (DS prior to determination of their storage stability. The smallest CS NPs of 353±23 nm with a surface charge of +56.2±1.5 mV were produced when CS and DS were mixed at pH 4 and with a DS : CS mass ratio of 0.5 : 1. An entrapment efficiency of 98% was achieved when BSA/siRNA was loaded into the nanoparticles. The results also showed that particle size and surface charge of CS NPs were slightly changed up to 2 weeks when stored at 4°C. Greater particle size and surface charge were obtained with increasing the concentration of DS. In conclusion, NPs were sufficiently stable when kept at 4°C and able to carry and protect protein.

  6. Efficient inhibition of the formation of joint adhesions by ERK2 small interfering RNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fengfeng; Ruan, Hongjiang [Department of Orthopaedics, The Sixth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Fan, Cunyi, E-mail: fancunyi888@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedics, The Sixth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zeng, Bingfang; Wang, Chunyang; Wang, Xiang [Department of Orthopaedics, The Sixth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 play very important roles in fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. These processes lead to the formation of joint adhesions through the SMAD and MAPK pathways, in which extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2 is considered to be crucial. Based on these theories, we examined the effects of a lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ERK2 on the suppression of joint adhesion formation in vivo. The effects were assessed in vivo from different aspects including the adhesion score, histology and joint contracture angle. We found that the adhesions in the ERK2 siRNA group became soft and weak, and were easily stretched. Accordingly, the flexion contracture angles in the ERK2 siRNA group were also reduced (P < 0.05 compared with the control group). The animals appeared healthy, with no signs of impaired wound healing. In conclusion, local delivery of a lentivirus-mediated siRNA targeting ERK2 can ameliorate joint adhesion formation effectively and safely.

  7. Water-soluble lipopolymer delivery of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B siRNA relieves chronic neuropathic pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Lu; Yuanxiang Tao; Xue Yang; Weifeng Tu; Hao Chen; Jiaxiang Xiong; Chungui Hu

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dorsal horn N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) overexpression plays an important role in the production and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Because small interfering RNA (siRNA) can inhibit NR2B expression, siRNA may provide a novel approach to treat neuropathic pain and possibly nerve injury. However, an efficient and safe vector for NR2B siRNA has not been discovered. This study shows that a water soluble lipopolymer (WSLP) comprised of low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) and cholesterol can deliver siRNA targeting NR2B for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Results show that intrathecal injection of WSLP/siRNA complexes for 3 days inhibit NR2B gene expression with reductions in mRNA and protein levels by 59% and 54%, respectively, compared with control rats (P < 0.01). Injection of WSLP complexed with scrambled siRNA, or PEI with siRNA did not show this inhibitory effect. Moreover, injection of WSLP/siRNA complexes significantly relieved neuropathic pain at 3, 7, 12, and 21 days, while injection of WSLP with scrambled siRNA or PEI with siRNA did not. These results demonstrate that WSLP can efficiently deliver siRNA targeting NR2B in vivo and relieve neuropathic pain.

  8. Lipoprotein-biomimetic nanostructure enables efficient targeting delivery of siRNA to Ras-activated glioblastoma cells via macropinocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Lin; Jiang, Gan; Song, Qing-Xiang; Gu, Xiao; Hu, Meng; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Song, Hua-Hua; Chen, Le-Pei; Lin, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Di; Chen, Jun; Feng, Jun-Feng; Qiu, Yong-Ming; Jiang, Ji-Yao; Jiang, Xin-Guo; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Gao, Xiao-Ling

    2017-05-01

    Hyperactivated Ras regulates many oncogenic pathways in several malignant human cancers including glioblastoma and it is an attractive target for cancer therapies. Ras activation in cancer cells drives protein internalization via macropinocytosis as a key nutrient-gaining process. By utilizing this unique endocytosis pathway, here we create a biologically inspired nanostructure that can induce cancer cells to `drink drugs' for targeting activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5), an overexpressed anti-apoptotic transcription factor in glioblastoma. Apolipoprotein E3-reconstituted high-density lipoprotein is used to encapsulate the siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate core and facilitate it to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, thus targeting the glioblastoma cells in a macropinocytosis-dependent manner. The nanostructure carrying ATF5 siRNA exerts remarkable RNA-interfering efficiency, increases glioblastoma cell apoptosis and inhibits tumour cell growth both in vitro and in xenograft tumour models. This strategy of targeting the macropinocytosis caused by Ras activation provides a nanoparticle-based approach for precision therapy in glioblastoma and other Ras-activated cancers.

  9. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanocarriers and their aerosol formulations for siRNA delivery to the lung epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Denise S; Brewer, Daniel; Grashik, Jordan; Avasarala, Sumant; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2014-06-02

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapies have great promise in the treatment of a number of prevalent pulmonary disorders including lung cancer, asthma and cystic fibrosis. However, progress in this area has been hindered due to the lack of carriers that can efficiently deliver siRNA to lung epithelial cells, and also due to challenges in developing oral inhalation (OI) formulations for the regional administration of siRNA and their carriers to the lungs. In this work we report the ability of generation four, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer (G4NH2)-siRNA complexes (dendriplexes) to silence the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene on A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells stably expressing eGFP. We also report the formulation of the dendriplexes and their aerosol characteristics in propellant-based portable OI devices. The size and gene silencing ability of the dendriplexes was seen not to be a strong function of the N/P ratio. Silencing efficiencies of up to 40% are reported. Stable dispersions of the dendriplexes encapsulated in mannitol and also in a biodegradable and water-soluble co-oligomer were prepared in hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-based pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs). Their aerosol characteristics were very favorable, and conducive to deep lung deposition, with respirable fractions of up to 77%. Importantly, siRNA formulated as dendriplexes in pMDIs was shown to keep its integrity after the particle preparation processes, and also after long-term exposures to HFA. The relevance of this study stems from the fact that this is the first work to report the formulation of inhalable siRNA with aerosol properties suitable to deep lung deposition using pMDIs devices that are the least expensive and most widely used portable inhalers. This study is relevant because, also for the first time, it shows that siRNA-G4NH2 dendriplexes can efficiently target lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells and silence genes even after siRNA has

  10. The Cellular Processing Capacity Limits the Amounts of Chimeric U7 snRNA Available for Antisense Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Many genetic diseases are induced by mutations disturbing the maturation of pre-mRNAs, often affecting splicing. Antisense oligoribonucleotides (AONs) have been used to modulate splicing thereby circumventing the deleterious effects of mutations. Stable delivery of antisense sequences is achieved by linking them to small nuclear RNA (snRNAs) delivered by viral vectors, as illustrated by studies where therapeutic exon skipping was obtained in animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)....

  11. Current progress of siRNA/shRNA therapeutics in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John C; Rossi, John J; Tiemann, Katrin

    2011-09-01

    Through a mechanism known as RNA interference (RNAi), small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules can target complementary mRNA strands for degradation, thus specifically inhibiting gene expression. The ability of siRNAs to inhibit gene expression offers a mechanism that can be exploited for novel therapeutics. Indeed, over the past decade, at least 21 siRNA therapeutics have been developed for more than a dozen diseases, including various cancers, viruses, and genetic disorders. Like other biological drugs, RNAi-based therapeutics often require a delivery vehicle to transport them to the targeted cells. Thus, the clinical advancement of numerous siRNA drugs has relied on the development of siRNA carriers, including biodegradable nanoparticles, lipids, bacteria, and attenuated viruses. Most therapies permit systemic delivery of the siRNA drug, while others use ex vivo delivery by autologous cell therapy. Advancements in bioengineering and nanotechnology have led to improved control of delivery and release of some siRNA therapeutics. Likewise, progress in molecular biology has allowed for improved design of the siRNA molecules. Here, we provide an overview of siRNA therapeutics in clinical trials, including their clinical progress, the challenges they have encountered, and the future they hold in the treatment of human diseases.

  12. Delivery of kinesin spindle protein targeting siRNA in solid lipid nanoparticles to cellular models of tumor vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Bo; Campbell, Robert B., E-mail: robert.campbell@mcphs.edu

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • siRNA-lipid nanoparticles are solid particles not lipid bilayers with aqueous core. • High, but not low, PEG content can prevent nanoparticle encapsulation of siRNA. • PEG reduces cellular toxicity of cationic nanoparticles in vitro. • PEG reduces zeta potential while improving gene silencing of siRNA nanoparticles. • Kinesin spindle protein can be an effective target for tumor vascular targeting. - Abstract: The ideal siRNA delivery system should selectively deliver the construct to the target cell, avoid enzymatic degradation, and evade uptake by phagocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the importance of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on lipid-based carrier systems for encapsulating, and delivering, siRNA to tumor vessels using cellular models. Lipid nanoparticles containing different percentage of PEG were evaluated based on their physical chemical properties, density compared to water, siRNA encapsulation, toxicity, targeting efficiency and gene silencing in vitro. siRNA can be efficiently loaded into lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) when DOTAP is included in the formulation mixture. However, the total amount encapsulated decreased with increase in PEG content. In the presence of siRNA, the final formulations contained a mixed population of particles based on density. The major population which contains the majority of siRNA exhibited a density of 4% glucose, and the minor fraction associated with a decreased amount of siRNA had a density less than PBS. The inclusion of 10 mol% PEG resulted in a greater amount of siRNA associated with the minor fraction. Finally, when kinesin spindle protein (KSP) siRNA was encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles containing a modest amount of PEG, the proliferation of endothelial cells was inhibited due to the efficient knock down of KSP mRNA. The presence of siRNA resulted in the formation of solid lipid nanoparticles when prepared using the thin film and hydration method. LNPs with a relatively modest amount of

  13. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles for effective siRNA delivery to tobacco BY-2 protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verchot Jeanmarie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS is a mechanism harnessed by plant biologists to knock down gene expression. siRNAs contribute to PTGS that are synthesized from mRNAs or viral RNAs and function to guide cellular endoribonucleases to target mRNAs for degradation. Plant biologists have employed electroporation to deliver artificial siRNAs to plant protoplasts to study gene expression mechanisms at the single cell level. One drawback of electroporation is the extensive loss of viable protoplasts that occurs as a result of the transfection technology. Results We employed fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs to deliver siRNAs and knockdown a target gene in plant protoplasts. CPNs are non toxic to protoplasts, having little impact on viability over a 72 h period. Microscopy and flow cytometry reveal that CPNs can penetrate protoplasts within 2 h of delivery. Cellular uptake of CPNs/siRNA complexes were easily monitored using epifluorescence microscopy. We also demonstrate that CPNs can deliver siRNAs targeting specific genes in the cellulose biosynthesis pathway (NtCesA-1a and NtCesA-1b. Conclusions While prior work showed that NtCesA-1 is a factor involved in cell wall synthesis in whole plants, we demonstrate that the same gene plays an essential role in cell wall regeneration in isolated protoplasts. Cell wall biosynthesis is central to cell elongation, plant growth and development. The experiments presented here shows that NtCesA is also a factor in cell viability. We show that CPNs are valuable vehicles for delivering siRNAs to plant protoplasts to study vital cellular pathways at the single cell level.

  14. Targeted NGF siRNA delivery attenuates sympathetic nerve sprouting and deteriorates cardiac dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Hu

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is involved in nerve sprouting, hyper-innervation, angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and preservation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. Positively modulating NGF expression may represent a novel pharmacological strategy to improve post-infarction prognosis. In this study, lentivirus encoding NGF short interfering RNA (siRNA was prepared, and MI was modeled in the rat using left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats were randomly grouped to receive intramyocardial injection of lentiviral solution containing NGF-siRNA (n = 19, MI-SiNGF group, lentiviral solution containing empty vector (n = 18, MI-GFP group or 0.9% NaCl solution (n = 18, MI-control group, or to receive thoracotomy and pericardiotomy (n = 17, sham-operated group. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after transduction, rats in the MI-control group had higher levels of NGF mRNA and protein than those in the sham-operated group, rats in the MI-GFP group showed similar levels as the MI-control group, and rats in the MI-SiNGF group had lower levels compared to the MI-GFP group, indicating that MI model was successfully established and NGF siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of NGF. At 8 wk, echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies revealed a more severe cardiac dysfunction in the MI-siRNA group compared to the MI-GFP group. Moreover, rats in the MI-siRNA group had lower mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and growth-associated protein 43-positive nerve fibers (GAP-43 at both the infarcted border and within the non-infarcted left ventricles (LV. NGF silencing also reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and decreased the arteriolar and capillary densities at the infarcted border compared to the MI-GFP group. Histological analysis indicated a large infarcted size in the MI-SiNGF group. These findings suggested that endogenous NGF silencing attenuated sympathetic nerve sprouting

  15. Self-immolative nanoparticles for simultaneous delivery of microRNA and targeting of polyamine metabolism in combination cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Wang, Yazhe; Yu, Fei; Li, Jing; Marton, Laurence J; Casero, Robert A; Oupický, David

    2017-01-28

    Combination of anticancer drugs with therapeutic microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. However, the promise is hampered by a lack of desirable delivery systems. We report on the development of self-immolative nanoparticles capable of simultaneously delivering miR-34a mimic and targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism in cancer. The nanoparticles were prepared from a biodegradable polycationic prodrug, named DSS-BEN, which was synthesized from a polyamine analog N(1),N(11)-bisethylnorspermine (BENSpm). The nanoparticles were selectively disassembled in the cytoplasm where they released miRNA. Glutathione (GSH)-induced degradation of self-immolative linkers released BENSpm from the DSS-BEN polymers. MiR-34a mimic was effectively delivered to cancer cells as evidenced by upregulation of intracellular miR-34a and downregulation of Bcl-2 as one of the downstream targets of miR-34a. Intracellular BENSpm generated from the degraded nanoparticles induced the expression of rate-limiting enzymes in polyamine catabolism (SMOX, SSAT) and depleted cellular natural polyamines. Simultaneous regulation of polyamine metabolism and miR-34a expression by DSS-BEN/miR-34a not only enhanced cancer cell killing in cultured human colon cancer cells, but also improved antitumor activity in vivo. The reported findings validate the self-immolative nanoparticles as delivery vectors of therapeutic miRNA capable of simultaneously targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism in cancer, thereby providing an elegant and efficient approach to combination nanomedicines.

  16. RNA nanoparticles harboring annexin A2 aptamer can target ovarian cancer for tumor-specific doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Fengmei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Hui; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Gorenstein, David G; Sood, Anil K; Guo, Peixuan

    2017-04-01

    A novel modified nucleic acid nanoparticle harboring an annexin A2 aptamer for ovarian cancer cell targeting and a GC rich sequence for doxorubicin loading is designed and constructed. The system utilizes a highly stable three-way junction (3WJ) motif from phi29 packaging RNA as a core structure. A phosphorothioate-modified DNA aptamer targeting annexin A2, Endo28, was conjugated to one arm of the 3WJ. The pRNA-3WJ motif retains correct folding of attached aptamer, keeping its functions intact. It is of significant utility for aptamer-mediated targeted delivery. The DNA/RNA hybrid nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection in mice and strongly bound to tumors with little accumulation in healthy organs 6 h post-injection. The Endo28-3WJ-Sph1/Dox intercalates selectively enhanced toxicity to annexin A2 positive ovarian cancer cells in vitro. The constructed RNA/DNA hybrid nanoparticles can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficiency of doxorubicin at low doses for ovarian cancer treatment through annexin A2 targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cellular Processing Capacity Limits the Amounts of Chimeric U7 snRNA Available for Antisense Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenfelder, Agathe; Tordo, Julie; Babbs, Arran; Davies, Kay E; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Danos, Olivier

    2012-06-26

    Many genetic diseases are induced by mutations disturbing the maturation of pre-mRNAs, often affecting splicing. Antisense oligoribonucleotides (AONs) have been used to modulate splicing thereby circumventing the deleterious effects of mutations. Stable delivery of antisense sequences is achieved by linking them to small nuclear RNA (snRNAs) delivered by viral vectors, as illustrated by studies where therapeutic exon skipping was obtained in animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Yet, clinical translation of these approaches is limited by the amounts of vector to be administered. In this respect, maximizing the amount of snRNA antisense shuttle delivered by the vector is essential. Here, we have used a muscle- and heart-specific enhancer (MHCK) to drive the expression of U7 snRNA shuttles carrying antisense sequences against the human or murine DMD pre-mRNAs. Although antisense delivery and subsequent exon skipping were improved both in tissue culture and in vivo, we observed the formation of additional U7 snRNA by-products following gene transfer. These included aberrantly 3' processed as well as unprocessed species that may arise because of the saturation of the cellular processing capacity. Future efforts to increase the amounts of functional U7 shuttles delivered into a cell will have to take this limitation into account.

  18. Dermal delivery of HSP47 siRNA with NOX4-modulating mesoporous silica-based nanoparticles for treating fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morry, Jingga; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Gu, Shenda; Goodyear, Shaun M; Castro, David J; Reda, Moataz M; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Yantasee, Wassana

    2015-10-01

    Fibrotic diseases such as scleroderma have been linked to increased oxidative stress and upregulation of pro-fibrotic genes. Recent work suggests a role of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) in inducing excessive collagen synthesis, leading to fibrotic diseases. Herein, we elucidate the relationship between NOX4 and HSP47 in fibrogenesis and propose to modulate them altogether as a new strategy to treat fibrosis. We developed a nanoparticle platform consisting of polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating on a 50-nm mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNP) core. The nanoparticles effectively delivered small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HSP47 (siHSP47) in an in vitro model of fibrosis based on TGF-β stimulated fibroblasts. The MSNP core also imparted an antioxidant property by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently reducing NOX4 levels in the in vitro fibrogenesis model. The nanoparticle was far superior to n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) at modulating pro-fibrotic markers. In vivo evaluation was performed in a bleomycin-induced scleroderma mouse model, which shares many similarities to human scleroderma disease. Intradermal administration of siHSP47-nanoparticles effectively reduced HSP47 protein expression in skin to normal level. In addition, the antioxidant MSNP also played a prominent role in reducing the pro-fibrotic markers, NOX4, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen type I (COL I), as well as skin thickness of the mice.

  19. The intracellular pharmacodynamics of siRNA is responsible for the low gene silencing activity of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yuki; Warashina, Shota; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to dendritic cells (DCs) is a challenging issue for siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles. The cause of this difficulty is unknown. The findings reported herein indicate that the rate-limiting step in gene silencing using siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles in DCs, as evidenced by a quantitative analysis of each process in siRNA delivery between mouse bone marrow derived DC (BMDC) and other cell lines, was not associated with the actual delivery of siRNA. A gene silencing of only 50% was observed in BMDC, even when a high dose was used. Contrary to our expectation, the interval between cellular uptake and the delivery of siRNA to the cytosol was not responsible for the low gene silencing. Meanwhile, a drastic difference was found in the relationship between the efficiency of gene silencing and the amount of intracellular intact siRNA. This fact indicates that the processes after cytosolic delivery of siRNA, namely the intracellular pharmacodynamics (PD) of siRNA, appear to be the rate-limiting step in gene silencing in BMDC. The findings reported here demonstrate the importance of the intracellular PD of siRNA delivered to cytosol in the development of siRNA delivery systems for gene silencing in DCs.

  20. Non-Viral CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing In Vitro and In Vivo Enabled by Synthetic Nanoparticle Co-Delivery of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason B; Zhang, Shuyuan; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Zhou, Kejin; Perelman, Sofya S; Zhu, Hao; Siegwart, Daniel J

    2017-01-19

    CRISPR/Cas is a revolutionary gene editing technology with wide-ranging utility. The safe, non-viral delivery of CRISPR/Cas components would greatly improve future therapeutic utility. We report the synthesis and development of zwitterionic amino lipids (ZALs) that are uniquely able to (co)deliver long RNAs including Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs. ZAL nanoparticle (ZNP) delivery of low sgRNA doses (15 nm) reduces protein expression by >90 % in cells. In contrast to transient therapies (such as RNAi), we show that ZNP delivery of sgRNA enables permanent DNA editing with an indefinitely sustained 95 % decrease in protein expression. ZNP delivery of mRNA results in high protein expression at low doses in vitro (gene editing.

  1. Subtle changes to polymer structure and degradation mechanism enable highly effective nanoparticles for siRNA and DNA delivery to human brain cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Stephany Y.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric materials can be used to deliver nucleic acids such as DNA plasmids and siRNA, but often have low efficacy in human cells. To improve gene delivery, we synthesized an array of over 70 hydrolytically degradable and bioreducible poly(beta-amino ester)s and evaluated properties of over 200 nanoparticle formulations fabricated from these biomaterials. We determined the effect of different polymer structures on the delivery of nucleic acids of different structures and sizes, including siRNA, linear DNA, and circular DNAs (1.8–26 kb). Significantly, leading hydrolytically degradable polymeric nanoparticles delivered DNA to 90±2% of primary human glioblastoma cells with Polymer molecular weight was a driving factor of transfection efficacy for some polymer structures (correlation of r2=0.63) but had no influence on transfection for other structures (r2=0.01). Polymers with a reducible cystamine functional group dramatically improved siRNA delivery by facilitating quick release while generally decreasing DNA delivery compared with non-reducible counterparts (p<0.01). Other material properties facilitated DNA delivery compared to siRNA delivery or increased delivery of both DNA and siRNA. PMID:23184674

  2. Biodegradable Nanoparticles of mPEG-PLGA-PLL Triblock Copolymers as Novel Non-Viral Vectors for Improving siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Sheng Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of mRNA by RNA interference is one of the most powerful and specific mechanisms for gene silencing. However, insufficient cellular uptake and poor stability have limited its usefulness. Here, we report efficient delivery of siRNA via the use of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs made from monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-poly-l-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers. Various physicochemical properties of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs, including morphology, size, surface charge, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profile of siRNA from NPs, were characterized by scanning electron microscope, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and high performance liquid chromatography. The levels of siRNA uptake and targeted gene inhibition were detected in human lung cancer SPC-A1-GFP cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein. Examination of the cultured SPC-A1-GFP cells with fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry showed NPs loading Cy3-labeled siRNA had much higher intracellular siRNA delivery efficiencies than siRNA alone and Lipofectamine-siRNA complexes. The gene silencing efficiency of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs was higher than that of commercially available transfecting agent Lipofectamine while showing no cytotoxicity. Thus, the current study demonstrates that biodegradable NPs of mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers can be potentially applied as novel non-viral vectors for improving siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

  3. Biodegradable nanoparticles of mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers as novel non-viral vectors for improving siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiu-Sheng; Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Ming-Jie; Wang, Chun-Hui; Du, Lian-Fang; Duan, You-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of mRNA by RNA interference is one of the most powerful and specific mechanisms for gene silencing. However, insufficient cellular uptake and poor stability have limited its usefulness. Here, we report efficient delivery of siRNA via the use of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) made from monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly-l-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) triblock copolymers. Various physicochemical properties of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs, including morphology, size, surface charge, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profile of siRNA from NPs, were characterized by scanning electron microscope, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and high performance liquid chromatography. The levels of siRNA uptake and targeted gene inhibition were detected in human lung cancer SPC-A1-GFP cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein. Examination of the cultured SPC-A1-GFP cells with fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry showed NPs loading Cy3-labeled siRNA had much higher intracellular siRNA delivery efficiencies than siRNA alone and Lipofectamine-siRNA complexes. The gene silencing efficiency of mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs was higher than that of commercially available transfecting agent Lipofectamine while showing no cytotoxicity. Thus, the current study demonstrates that biodegradable NPs of mPEG-PLGA-PLL triblock copolymers can be potentially applied as novel non-viral vectors for improving siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of siRNA-Based Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Mori, Noriko; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is routinely used as a biological tool to silence specific genes, and is under active investigation in cancer treatment strategies. Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides the ability to assess the functional effects of siRNA-mediated gene silencing in cultured cancer cells, and following nanoparticle-based delivery in tumors in vivo. Here we describe the use of siRNA to downregulate choline kinase, a critical enzyme in choline phospholipid metabolism of cancer cells and tumors, and the use of 1H MRS of cells and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of tumors to assess the efficacy of the downregulation. PMID:26530913

  5. An MRI-visible non-viral vector for targeted Bcl-2 siRNA delivery to neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Min Shen,1,* Faming Gong,3,* Pengfei Pang,1,* Kangshun Zhu,1 Xiaochun Meng,1 Chun Wu,1 Jin Wang,1 Hong Shan,1,2 Xintao Shuai3,41Molecular Imaging Lab, Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 2Institute of Intervention Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 3PCFM Lab of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 4Center of Biomedical Engineering, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Polyethylene glycol-grafted polyethylenimine (PEG-g-PEI which was functionalized with a neuroblastoma cell-specific ligand, the GD2 single chain antibody (scAbGD2, was synthesized in order to effectively deliver Bcl-2 siRNA into neuroblastoma cells. This polymer was complexed first with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION to get a MRI-visible targeted non-viral vector (scAbGD2-PEG-g-PEI-SPION and then with Bcl-2 siRNA to form nanoparticles showing low cytotoxicity. The targeting capacity of scAbGD2-PEG-g-PEI-SPION was successfully verified in vivo and in vitro by magnetic resonance imaging. The single chain antibody encoded targeted polyplex was more effective in transferring Bcl-2 siRNA than the nontargeting one in SK-N-SH cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line, resulting in a 46.34% inhibition in the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA. Consequently, a high level of cell apoptosis up to 50.76% and a significant suppression of tumor growth were achieved, which indicates that scAbGD2-PEG-g-PEI-SPION is a promising magnetic resonance imaging-visible non-viral vector for targeted neuroblastoma siRNA therapy and diagnosis.Keywords: tumor targeting, GD2, non-viral vector, Bcl-2 small interfering RNA, magnetic resonance imaging

  6. Yeast-mediated mRNA delivery polarizes immuno-suppressive macrophages towards an immuno-stimulatory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Michelle; Hoppstädter, Jessica; Breinig, Frank; Kiemer, Alexandra K

    2017-08-01

    Macrophages have increasingly gained interest as a therapeutic target since they represent an integral component of the tumor microenvironment. In fact, M2 macrophage accumulation in solid tumors is associated with poor prognosis and therapy failure. Therefore, reprogramming M2 macrophages towards an M1 phenotype with anti-tumor activity by gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach. Herein, we describe recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a novel gene delivery vehicle for primary human macrophages. Opsonized S. cerevisiae was taken up efficiently by M2 macrophages and initiated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recombinant yeast delivered functional nucleic acids to macrophages, especially when constitutively biosynthesized mRNA was used as cargo. Interestingly, expression of the protein encoded for by the delivered nucleic acid was higher in M2 cells when compared to M1 macrophages. Finally, the delivery of mRNA coding for the pro-inflammatory regulators MYD88 and TNF to M2 macrophages induced a prolonged upregulation of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic cytokines in these cells, suggesting their successful re-education towards an anti-tumor M1 phenotype. Our results suggest the use of yeast-based gene delivery as a promising approach for the treatment of pathologic conditions that may benefit from the presence of M1-polarized macrophages, such as cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles containing dense polyethyleneimine shells for efficient delivery of microRNA to Kupffer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuojin; Niu, Dechao; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yao, Yuan; Li, Pei; Gong, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and targeted delivery approach to transfer exogenous genes into macrophages is still a great challenge. Current gene delivery methods often result in low cellular uptake efficiency in vivo in some types of cells, especially for the Kupffer cells (KCs). In this article, we demonstrate that amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of well-defined hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cores and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) shells (denoted as PEI@PMMA NPs) are efficient nanocarriers to deliver microRNA (miRNA)-loaded plasmid to the KCs. Average hydrodynamic diameter of PEI@ PMMA NPs was 279 nm with a narrow size distribution. The NPs also possessed positive surface charges up to +30 mV in water, thus enabling effective condensation of negatively charged plasmid DNA. Gel electrophoresis assay showed that the resultant PEI@PMMA NPs were able to completely condense miRNA plasmid at a weight ratio of 25:1 (N/P ratio equal to 45:1). The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry results showed that the PEI@PMMA/miRNA NPs displayed low cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis activity against the KCs. The maximum cell transfection efficiency reached 34.7% after 48 hours, which is much higher than that obtained by using the commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000 (1.7%). Bio-transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the PEI@PMMA NPs were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the KCs. Furthermore, when compared to the control groups, the protein expression of target nuclear factor κB P65 was considerably inhibited (P<0.05) both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that the PEI@PMMA NPs with a unique amphiphilic core-shell nanostructure are promising nanocarriers for delivering miRNA plasmid to KCs.

  8. Systemic delivery of siRNA down regulates brain prion protein and ameliorates neuropathology in prion disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Lehmann

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for neurodegenerative disorders that are principally incurable is the development of new therapeutic strategies, which raises important medical, scientific and societal issues. Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases are rare neurodegenerative fatal disorders which today remain incurable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the down-regulation of the prion protein (PrP expression using siRNA delivered by, a water-in-oil microemulsion, as a therapeutic candidate in a preclinical study. After 12 days rectal mucosa administration of Aonys/PrP-siRNA in mice, we observed a decrease of about 28% of the brain PrP(C level. The effect of Aonys/PrP-siRNA was then evaluated on prion infected mice. Several mice presented a delay in the incubation and survival time compared to the control groups and a significant impact was observed on astrocyte reaction and neuronal survival in the PrP-siRNA treated groups. These results suggest that a new therapeutic scheme based an innovative delivery system of PrP-siRNA can be envisioned in prion disorders.

  9. Highly efficient RNA-guided genome editing in human cells via delivery of purified Cas9 ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sojung; Kim, Daesik; Cho, Seung Woo; Kim, Jungeun; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2014-06-01

    RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) derived from the prokaryotic adaptive immune system known as CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) enable genome editing in human cell lines, animals, and plants, but are limited by off-target effects and unwanted integration of DNA segments derived from plasmids encoding Cas9 and guide RNA at both on-target and off-target sites in the genome. Here, we deliver purified recombinant Cas9 protein and guide RNA into cultured human cells including hard-to-transfect fibroblasts and pluripotent stem cells. RGEN ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) induce site-specific mutations at frequencies of up to 79%, while reducing off-target mutations associated with plasmid transfection at off-target sites that differ by one or two nucleotides from on-target sites. RGEN RNPs cleave chromosomal DNA almost immediately after delivery and are degraded rapidly in cells, reducing off-target effects. Furthermore, RNP delivery is less stressful to human embryonic stem cells, producing at least twofold more colonies than does plasmid transfection.

  10. RNA-based gene delivery system hidden in breast milk microvesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Emin Oztas; Yesim Oztas; M. Kemal Irmak

    2012-01-01

    Human milk samples contain microvesicles similar to the retroviruses. These microvesicles contain single-stranded RNA and possess reverse transcriptase activity. It has recently been reported that RNA content of the microvesicles could be transferred to other cells and be functional in their new location. These microvesicles may therefore transfer genetic signals from mother to neonate during breastfeeding. Moreover, transfer of wild type RNA from a healthy wet-nurse to the suckling neonate t...

  11. Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijmans SAA; Vader P; van Dommelen SM; van Solinge WW; Schiffelers RM

    2012-01-01

    Sander AA Kooijmans, Pieter Vader, Susan M van Dommelen, Wouter W van Solinge, Raymond M SchiffelersDepartment of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability...

  12. Smo siRNA对LoVo细胞Smo基因表达及细胞增殖与凋亡的影响%Effects of specific small interfering RNA on Smoothened expression and LoVo cell proliferation and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱达坚; 方驰华; 戎祯祥; 刘胜军

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究Smoothened (Smo)小干扰RNA(siRNA)对结直肠癌LoVo细胞Smo基因表达,以及LoVo细胞增殖与凋亡的影响.方法 设计针对目标基因的siRNA.阳性脂质体介导转染LoVo细胞,半定量RT-PCR检测转染后LoVo细胞的Smo mRNA水平,MTT法和流式细胞术检测转染后LoVo细胞的增殖水平及细胞凋亡率.结果 siRNA-1、siRNA-2均能抑制LoVo细胞Smo基因的表达,siRNA-1抑制作用最明显,达63.56%,siRNA-2抑制作用为46.54%,两组与隐性对照组相比.差异均具有显著性.siRNA-1转染LoVo细胞后,细胞增殖水平较隐性对照组显著降低(P<0.05);转染48 h后,细胞凋亡率较隐性对照组显著升高(P<0.05).结论 Smo siRNA能有效地抑制结直肠癌LoVo细胞Smo基因表达,可以降低LoVo细胞的增殖水平,诱导细胞的凋亡.

  13. Construction of CDH1 small interfering RNA enkaryotic vector ha rat immortalized neural progenitor cell and screening of the effective target site%大鼠永生化神经前体细胞CDH1小干扰RNA真核载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文龙; 张传汉; 柳璐; 祝畅; 邱瑾; 桂伶俐; 田玉科

    2008-01-01

    Objective To construct CDHI small interfering RNA eukaryofic vector in rat immortalized neural progenitor cell (INPC) and screen the effective target site. Methods Three hands of interfering sequences and one control sequence for CDHI small hairpin RNA were designed based on CDO1 coding sequence. Following the instructions on pENTR/H1/TO vector, the oligonuclcotides were synthesized, annealed and ligated into linearized pENTR/HI/TO vector, respectively. After confirmation by DNA sequencing, positive recombinant plasmids(CDO1 siRNAt, CDH1 siRNKz , CDH1 siRNA3 and CDH1 siRNA,)were transfected into INPCs respectively by the lipesome method. The pEGFP plasmid was transfected to evaluate the efficiency of transfection. Forty eight hours after transfection, total cellular RNA was extracted and the expression of CDH1 was analyzed by BT-PCR. Results The three eukaryotic vectors for CDHI siRNA and one control vector were successfully constructed and identified with DNA sequencing. The efficiency of cell transfection was (54 :t: 5) % at 24 h after transfection, (36 + 4) % at 48 h after transfection. The expression of CDH1 mRNA in INPC trandected with CDHI siRNA2 was lower than that of CDHI mRNA in INPC transfected with CDH1 siRNA~, and both the expression was lower than that of CDHI mRNA in INPC transfected with CDH1 siRNAs at 48 h after tmnsfectlon. Conclusion The effective small interfering RNA eukaryotic vector for CDH1 in INPC was successfully constructed and screened.%目的 构建大鼠永生化神经前体细胞(INPC)CDH1小干扰RNA(siRNA)真核载体.方法 根据大鼠CDH1基因的编码序列设计3个小发夹RNA(shRNA)干扰序列及1个阴性对照序列,根据pENTR/H1/TO中间载体说明书设计并合成相应的DNA单链,退火后分别连接到pENTR/H1/TO线性载体上,形成完整载体,提取CDH1 siRNA真核载体后(分别为CDH1 siRNA1、CDH1 siRNA2、CDH1siRNA3和CDH1 siRNA对照),进行DNA测序鉴定.采用Lipofectamine 2000

  14. Towards Defined DNA and RNA Delivery Vehicles Using Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Anders Hauge; Schaffert, David Henning; Kjems, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Both DNA and RNA nanostructures show exceptional programmability, modularity, and self-assembly ability. Using DNA or RNA molecules it is possible to assemble monodisperse particles that are homogeneous in size and shape and with identical positioning of surface modifications. For therapeutic app...

  15. Conjugation chemistry through acetals toward a dextran-based delivery system for controlled release of siRNA

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Lina

    2012-09-26

    New conjugation chemistry for polysaccharides, exemplified by dextran, was developed to enable the attachment of therapeutic or other functional moieties to the polysaccharide through cleavable acetal linkages. The acid-lability of the acetal groups allows the release of therapeutics under acidic conditions, such as that of the endocytic compartments of cells, regenerating the original free polysaccharide in the end. The physical and chemical behavior of these acetal groups can be adjusted by modifying their stereoelectronic and steric properties, thereby providing materials with tunable degradation and release rates. We have applied this conjugation chemistry in the development of water-soluble siRNA carriers, namely acetal-linked amino-dextrans, with various amine structures attached through either slow- or fast-degrading acetal linker. The carriers with the best combination of amine moieties and structural composition of acetals showed high in vitro transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity in the delivery of siRNA. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Oxime ether lipids containing hydroxylated head groups are more superior siRNA delivery agents than their nonhydroxylated counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Mattingly, Stephanie J; Knipp, Ralph J; Afonin, Kirill A; Viard, Mathias; Bergman, Joseph T; Stepler, Marissa; Nantz, Michael H; Puri, Anu; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the structure–activity relationship of oxime ether lipids (OELs) containing modifications in the hydrophobic domains (chain length, degree of unsaturation) and hydrophilic head groups (polar domain hydroxyl groups) toward complex formation with siRNA molecules and siRNA delivery efficiency of resulting complexes to a human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Materials & methods: Ability of lipoplex formation between oxime ether lipids with nucleic acids were examined using biophysical techniques. The potential of OELs to deliver nucleic acids and silence green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was analyzed using MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231/GFP cells, respectively. Results & conclusion: Introduction of hydroxyl groups to the polar domain of the OELs and unsaturation into the hydrophobic domain favor higher transfection and gene silencing in a cell culture system. PMID:26107486

  17. Amphiphilic core shell nanoparticles containing dense polyethyleneimine shells for efficient delivery of microRNA to Kupffer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Z

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuojin Liu,1,* Dechao Niu,2,3,* Junyong Zhang,1 Wenfeng Zhang,1 Yuan Yao,2 Pei Li,2 Jianping Gong1 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 3Lab of Low-Dimensional Materials Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Efficient and targeted delivery approach to transfer exogenous genes into macrophages is still a great challenge. Current gene delivery methods often result in low cellular uptake efficiency in vivo in some types of cells, especially for the Kupffer cells (KCs. In this article, we demonstrate that amphiphilic core–shell nanoparticles (NPs consisting of well-defined hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA cores and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI shells (denoted as PEI@PMMA NPs are efficient nanocarriers to deliver microRNA (miRNA-loaded plasmid to the KCs. Average hydrodynamic diameter of PEI@PMMA NPs was 279 nm with a narrow size distribution. The NPs also possessed positive surface charges up to +30 mV in water, thus enabling effective condensation of negatively charged plasmid DNA. Gel electrophoresis assay showed that the resultant PEI@PMMA NPs were able to completely condense miRNA plasmid at a weight ratio of 25:1 (N/P ratio equal to 45:1. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry results showed that the PEI@PMMA/miRNA NPs displayed low cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis activity against the KCs. The maximum cell transfection efficiency reached 34.7% after 48 hours, which is much higher than that obtained by using the commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000 (1.7%. Bio-transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the PEI@PMMA NPs were mainly distributed in

  18. Delivery of messenger RNA using poly(ethylene imine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-copolymer blends for polyplex formation: biophysical characterization and in vitro transfection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Heiko; Baumhof, Patrick; Probst, Jochen; Kissel, Thomas

    2010-12-20

    Nucleic acid based therapies have so far mainly been focused on plasmid DNA (pDNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), antisense and immunostimulatory oligonucleotides. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was the subject of only a few studies. The objective of this investigation was the preparation of new composite polyplexes with mRNA consisting of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(ethylene imine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-copolymers (PEI-PEG) as blends. These complexes were designed to increase the stability of mRNA, to improve transfection efficiency and to reduce cytotoxicity. Hydrodynamic diameters of the polyplexes were measured by dynamic light scattering, polyplex stability was analyzed by gel retardation assay and transfection efficiency of luciferase (Luc) encoding mRNA was evaluated under in vitro conditions. Most of the polyplexes generated showed small particle sizes application of mRNA merit further investigation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Peptide- and Amine-Modified Glucan Particles for the Delivery of Therapeutic siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Jessica L.; Shen, Yuefei; Aouadi, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    manufacturing and future commercialization. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of a simplified glucan-based particle (GP) capable of delivering siRNA in vivo to selectively silence macrophage genes. Covalent attachment of small-molecule amines and short peptides containing weak bases to GPs facilitated...... to efficiently deliver siRNA to peritoneal macrophages in lean, healthy mice. In an animal model of obesity-induced inflammation, i.p. administration of one of the peptide-modified GPs (GP-EP14) bound to siRNA selectively reduced the expression of target inflammatory cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue...

  20. Polymer nanoparticles for drug and small silencing RNA delivery to treat cancers of different phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devulapally, Rammohan; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have provided powerful and efficient tools in development of cancer diagnosis and therapy. There are numerous nanocarriers that are currently approved for clinical use in cancer therapy. In recent years, biodegradable polymer nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted a considerable attention for their ability to function as a possible carrier for target-specific delivery of various drugs, genes, proteins, peptides, vaccines, and other biomolecules in humans without much toxicity. This review will specifically focus on the recent advances in polymer-based nanocarriers for various drugs and small silencing RNA’s loading and delivery to treat different types of cancer. PMID:23996830

  1. Exogenous mRNA delivery and bioavailability in gene transfer mediated by piggyBac transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bire, Solenne; Gosset, David; Jégot, Gwenhael; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence

    2013-09-26

    Up to now, the different uptake pathways and the subsequent intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA have been largely explored. By contrast, the mode of internalization and the intracellular routing of an exogenous mRNA in transfected cells are poorly investigated and remain to be elucidated. The bioavailability of internalized mRNA depends on its intracellular routing and its potential accumulation in dynamic sorting sites for storage: stress granules and processing bodies. This question is of particular significance when a secure transposon-based system able to integrate a therapeutic transgene into the genome is used. Transposon vectors usually require two components: a plasmid DNA, carrying the gene of interest, and a source of transposase allowing the integration of the transgene. The principal drawback is the lasting presence of the transposase, which could remobilize the transgene once it has been inserted. Our study focused on the pharmacokinetics of the transposition process mediated by the piggyBac transposase mRNA transfection. Exogenous mRNA internalization and trafficking were investigated towards a better apprehension and fine control of the piggyBac transposase bioavailability. The mRNA prototype designed in this study provides a very narrow expression window of transposase, which allows high efficiency transposition with no cytotoxicity. Our data reveal that exogenous transposase mRNA enters cells by clathrin and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, before finishing in late endosomes 3 h after transfection. At this point, the mRNA is dissociated from its carrier and localized in stress granules, but not in cytoplasmic processing bodies. Some weaker signals have been observed in stress granules at 18 h and 48 h without causing prolonged production of the transposase. So, we designed an mRNA that is efficiently translated with a peak of transposase production 18 h post-transfection without additional release of the molecule. This confines the integration

  2. A geminivirus-based guide RNA delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kangquan; Han, Ting; Liu, Guang; Chen, Tianyuan; Wang, Ying; Yu, Alice Yunzi L; Liu, Yule

    2015-10-09

    CRISPR/Cas has emerged as potent genome editing technology and has successfully been applied in many organisms, including several plant species. However, delivery of genome editing reagents remains a challenge in plants. Here, we report a virus-based guide RNA (gRNA) delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing (VIGE) that can be used to precisely target genome locations and cause mutations. VIGE is performed by using a modified Cabbage Leaf Curl virus (CaLCuV) vector to express gRNAs in stable transgenic plants expressing Cas9. DNA sequencing confirmed VIGE of endogenous NbPDS3 and NbIspH genes in non-inoculated leaves because CaLCuV can infect plants systemically. Moreover, VIGE of NbPDS3 and NbIspH in newly developed leaves caused photo-bleached phenotype. These results demonstrate that geminivirus-based VIGE could be a powerful tool in plant genome editing.

  3. A flexible microneedle array as low-voltage electroporation electrodes for in vivo DNA and siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zewen; Zheng, Shuquan; Wang, Renxin; Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Wu, Yidi; Zhu, Ling; Hu, Zhiyuan; Liang, Zicai; Li, Zhihong

    2014-10-21

    In vivo electroporation is an appealing method to deliver nucleic acid into living tissues, but the clinical application of such a method was limited due to severe tissue damage and poor coverage of the tissue surface. Here we present the validation of a novel flexible microneedle array electrode (MNAE) chip, in which the microneedle array and the flexible substrate are integrated together to simultaneously facilitate low-voltage electroporation and accomplish good coverage of the tissue surface. The efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA was demonstrated on mice. Upon penetrating the high-resistance stratum corneum, the electroporation voltage was reduced to about 35 V, which was generally recognized safe for humans. Also, a pathological analysis of the microneedle-electroporated tissues was carried out to thoroughly assess the skin damage, which is an important consideration in pre-clinical studies of electroporation devices. This MNAE constitutes a novel way of in vivo delivery of siRNA and DNA to certain tissues or organs with satisfactory efficiency and good adaptation to the tissue surface profile as well as minimum tissue damage, thus avoiding the disadvantages of existing electroporation methods.

  4. Single-walled carbon nanotubes noncovalently functionalized with lipid modified polyethylenimine for siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, King S; Zheng, Xiufen; Liu, Yanling; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Xusheng; Chen, Di; Yuan, Ken; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Koropatnick, James; Min, Wei-Ping

    2014-10-15

    siRNA can downregulate the expression of specific genes. However, delivery to specific cells and tissues in vivo presents significant challenges. Modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to protect siRNA and facilitate its entry into cells. However, simple and efficient methods to functionalize CNTs are needed. Here, noncovalent functionalization of CNTs is performed and shown to effectively deliver siRNA to target cells. Specifically, single-walled CNTs were functionalized by noncovalent association with a lipopolymer. The lipopolymer (DSPE-PEG) was composed of a phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Three different ratios of polyethylenimine (PEI) to DSPE-PEG were synthesized and characterized and the products were used to disperse CNTs. The resulting materials were used for siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. The structural, biophysical, and biological properties of DGI/C and their complexes formed with siRNA were investigated. Cytotoxicity of the materials was low, and effective gene silencing in B16-F10 cells was demonstrated in vitro. In addition, significant uptake of siRNA as well as gene silencing in the liver was found following intravenous injection. This approach provides a new strategy for siRNA delivery and could provide insight for the development of noncovalently functionalized CNTs for siRNA therapy.

  5. Biodegradable polymer nanocarriers for therapeutic antisense microRNA delivery in living animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Sekar, Narayana M.; Sekar, Thillai V.

    2012-03-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression, deregulated in several cellular diseases including cancer. Altering the cellular microenvironment by modulating the microRNAs functions can regulate different genes involved in major cellular processes, and this approach is now being investigated as a promising new generation of molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapies. AntagomiRs (Antisense-miRNAs) are a novel class of chemically modified stable oligonucleotides used for blocking the functions of endogenous microRNAs, which are overexpressed. A key challenge in achieving effective microRNAbased therapeutics lies in the development of an efficient delivery system capable of specifically delivering antisense oligonucleotides and target cancer cells in living animals. We are now developing an effective delivery system designed to selectively deliver antagomiR- 21 and antagomiR-10b to triple negative breast cancer cells, and to revert tumor cell metastasis and invasiveness. The FDA-approved biodegradable PLGA-nanoparticles were selected as a carrier for antagomiRs delivery. Chemically modified antagomiRs (antagomiR-21 and antagomiR-10b) were co-encapsulated in PEGylated-PLGA-nanoparticles by using the double-emulsification (W/O/W) solvent evaporation method, and the resulting average particle size of 150-200nm was used for different in vitro and in vivo experiments. The antagomiR encapsulated PLGA-nanoparticles were evaluated for their in vitro antagomiRs delivery, intracellular release profile, and antagomiRs functional effects, by measuring the endogenous cellular targets, and the cell growth and metastasis. The xenografts of tumor cells in living mice were used for evaluating the anti-metastatic and anti-invasive properties of cells. The results showed that the use of PLGA for antagomiR delivery is not only efficient in crossing cell membrane, but can also maintain functional intracellular antagomiRs level for a extended period of time and achieve

  6. The chitosan-small interfering RNA suppressed the expression levels of multidrug resistant-associated protein 1 in C6 cells%壳聚糖-小干扰RNA下调C6细胞多药耐药相关蛋白1表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂晓奇; 徐海涛; 陈治标; 郭振涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chitosan-small interfering RNA (siRNA) NP ratio with maximum transfection efficiency and silence effect.Methods The diameter and Zeta potential of the chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles were measured by using laser particle size analyzer.Fluorescent-labeled siRNA was transfected into C6 cells for preliminary appraisal transfection efficiency.The transfected C6 cells were divided into 6 groups:three experimental groups,which were transfected with chitosan-siRNA nanoparticle ratio of 175∶ 1,88∶1 and 44∶ 1,the positive control group,which was transfected with multidrug resistantassociated protein 1 (MRP1)-siRNA by LipofectamineTM 2000 and MRP1 siRNA; the negative control group,which was transfected with chitosan-negative control siRNA nanoparticles,and the blank group,which was transfected with blank chitosan-nanoparticles.The expression levels of MRP1 mRNA and protein in C6 cells were assessed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting respectively.Results The chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles were successfully prepared.With decreases in NP ratio,the chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles had the diameters of 186.7 nm,209.5 nm,and 492.3 am,and the potentials were 18.57 mV,13.52 mV,and 48.58 mV,respectively.Target protein expression could be down-regulated to (23.2 ± 4.3)% when the NP ratio of nanoparticles was 175.Conclusion In C6 cells,MRP1 can be effectively suppressed when the chitosan-siRNA ratio was 175∶ 1.%目的 探讨具有最大转染效率和沉默效应时壳聚糖-小干扰RNA (siRNA)的壳聚糖与siRNA(NP)比值.方法 用激光粒度仪测定壳聚糖-siRNA纳米颗粒的直径和Zeta电位.荧光标记的siRNA转染到C6细胞并初步鉴定转染效率.分6组进行转染:分别加入不同NP比值的壳聚糖-siRNA(实验组)、LipofectamineTM 2000和多药耐药相关蛋白1(MRPl) siRNA(阳性对照组)、壳聚糖-阴性对照siRNA纳米粒(阴性对照组)和空白壳聚糖纳米粒(

  7. Gold nanoparticles electroporation enhanced polyplex delivery to mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuyan; Deshmukh, Harshavardhan; Rajagopalan, Kartik Kumar; Wang, Shengnian

    2014-07-01

    Nonviral methods have been explored as the replacement of viral systems for their low toxicity and immunogenicity. However, they have yet to reach levels competitive to their viral counterparts. In this paper, we combined physical and chemical methods to improve the performance of polyplex delivery of DNA and small interfering RNA. Specifically, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to carry polyplex (a chemical approach) while electroporation (a physical approach) was applied for fast and direct cytosolic delivery. In this hybrid approach, cationic polymer molecules condense and/or protect genetic probes as usual while AuNPs help fix polycations to reduce their cytotoxicity and promote the transfection efficiency of electroporation. AuNPs of various sizes were first coated with polyethylenimine, which were further conjugated with DNA plasmids or small interfering RNA molecules to form AuNPs-polyplex. The hybrid nanoparticles were then mixed with cells and introduced into cell cytosol by electroporation. The delivery efficiency was evaluated with both model anchor cells (i.e., NIH/3T3) and suspension cells (i.e., K562), together with their impact on cell viability. We found that AuNP-polyplex showed 1.5∼2 folds improvement on the transfection efficiency with no significant increase of toxicity when compared to free plasmid delivery by electroporation alone. Such a combination of physical and chemical delivery concept may stimulate further exploration in the delivery of various therapeutic materials for both in vitro and in vivo applications.

  8. Engineering of small interfering RNA-loaded lipidoid-poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticles for highly efficient and safe gene silencing: A quality by design-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Zeng, Xianghui; Justesen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    ), eventually resulting in the identification of a robust, highly efficacious and safe formulation. A 17-run design of experiment with an I-optimal approach was performed to systematically assess the effect of selected variables on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e. physicochemical properties...... formulation is highly challenging due to a strong interplay between several contributing factors. Hence, critical formulation variables, i.e. the lipidoid content and siRNA:lipidoid ratio, were initially identified, followed by a systematic quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space (OOS...... (hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, siRNA encapsulation/loading) and the biological performance (in vitro gene silencing and cell viability). Model fitting of the obtained data to construct predictive models revealed non-linear relationships for all CQAs, which can be readily overlooked in one...

  9. Inhibition of Avian Influenza Virus Replication via Short Interfering RNA Expressed by Plasmid%通过载体表达siRNAs抑制禽流感病毒复制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操胜; 刘光亮; 孟庆文; 杨增岐; 亓文宝; 于康震; 吴东来

    2006-01-01

    禽流感病毒是养禽业危害最严重的病原微生物之一.为探讨小干涉RNA(siRNA)对A型禽流感病毒复制的干扰作用,以H5亚型AIV PB2基因为靶序列,设计合成了4对编码siRNAs的DNA序列,将其克隆到psiRNA-hH1neo载体中,构建siRNAs表达载体,鉴定正确后将重组质粒转染MDCK细胞,采用G41 8筛选建立抗性细胞系,用血凝(HA)试验和real time RT-PCR试验检测抑制效果,在细胞水平筛选出具有高效抑制AIV复制的2个靶位点PB2-1154、PB2-342、为AIV的基因功能研究、抗病毒药物的开发和转基因动物的研究奠定了基础.

  10. Co-delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin to cancer cells from additively manufactured implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Andersen, Morten Østergaard; Dillschneider, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Tumors in load bearing bone tissue are a major clinical problem, in part because surgical resection invokes a dilemma whether to resect aggressively, risking mechanical failure, or to resect conservatively, risking cancer recurrence due to residual malignant cells. A chemo-functionalized implant......, capable of physically supporting the void while killing residual cancer cells, would be an attractive solution. Here we describe a novel additively manufactured implant that can be functionalized with chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. These induce long term gene silencing in adjacent cancer cells without...... showing toxicity to normal cells. When scaffolds are functionalized with siRNA/chitosan nanoparticles and doxorubicin in combination, their effects synergized leading to cancer cell death. This technology may be used to target resistance genes by RNA interference and thereby re-sensitizing the cancer...

  11. RNA-based gene delivery system hidden in breast milk microvesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oztas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human milk samples contain microvesicles similar to the retroviruses. These microvesicles contain single-stranded RNA and possess reverse transcriptase activity. It has recently been reported that RNA content of the microvesicles could be transferred to other cells and be functional in their new location. These microvesicles may therefore transfer genetic signals from mother to neonate during breastfeeding. Moreover, transfer of wild type RNA from a healthy wet-nurse to the suckling neonate through the milk microvesicles and its subsequent reverse transcription and integration into the neonate genome could result in permanent correction of the clinical manifestations in genetic diseases. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(2.000: 125-136

  12. An efficient and low immunostimulatory nanoparticle formulation for systemic siRNA delivery to the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio; Li, Shyh-Dar; Conwell, Christine C; Huang, Leaf

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a nanoparticle formulation [liposomes-protamine-hyaluronic acid nanoparticle (LPH-NP)] for systemically delivering siRNA into the tumor. The LPH-NP was prepared in a self-assembling process. Briefly, protamine and a mixture of siRNA and hyaluronic acid were mixed to prepare a negatively charged complex. Then, cationic liposomes were added to coat the complex with lipids via charge-charge interaction to prepare the LPH-NP. The LPH-NP was further modified by DSPE-PEG or DSPE-PEG-anisamide by the post-insertion method. Anisamide is a targeting ligand for the sigma receptor over-expressed in the B16F10 melanoma cells. The particle size, zeta potential and siRNA encapsulation efficiency of the formulation were approximately 115 nm, +25 mV and 90%, respectively. Luciferase siRNA was used to evaluate the gene silencing activity in the B16F10 cells, which were stably transduced with a luciferase gene. The targeted LPH-NP (PEGylated with ligand) silenced 80% of luciferase activity in the metastatic B16F10 tumor in the lung after a single i.v. injection (0.15 mg siRNA/kg). The targeted LPH-NP also showed very little immunotoxicity in a wide dose range (0.15-1.2 mg siRNA/kg), while the previously published formulation, LPD-NP (liposome-protamine-DNA nanoparticle), had a much narrow therapeutic window (0.15-0.45 mg/kg).

  13. Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Nonviral MicroRNA Delivery into Freshly Isolated CD105+ hMSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic modifications of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs using microRNAs (miRs may be used to improve their therapeutic potential and enable innovative strategies in tissue regeneration. However, most of the studies use cultured hMSCs, although these can lose their stem cell characteristics during expansion. Therefore, we aimed to develop a nonviral miR carrier based on polyethylenimine (PEI bound to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs for efficient miR delivery in freshly isolated hMSCs. MNP based transfection is preferable for genetic modifications in vivo due to improved selectivity, safety of delivery, and reduced side effects. Thus, in this study different miR/PEI and miR/PEI/MNP complex formulations were tested in vitro for uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity with respect to the influence of an external magnetic field. Afterwards, optimized magnetic complexes were selected and compared to commercially available magnetic vectors (Magnetofectamine, CombiMag. We found that all tested transfection reagents had high miR uptake rates (yielded over 60% and no significant cytotoxic effects. Our work may become crucial for virus-free introduction of therapeutic miRs as well as other nucleic acids in vivo. Moreover, in the field of targeted stem cell therapy nucleic acid delivery prior to transplantation may allowfor initial cell modulation in vitro.

  14. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and risk factors for positive HIV RNA at delivery: a single-cohort observational study (Brescia, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoni Michele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detectable HIV RNA in mothers at delivery is an important risk factor for HIV transmission to newborns. Our hypothesis was that, in migrant women, the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery is greater owing to late HIV diagnosis. Therefore, we examined pregnant women by regional provenance and measured variables that could be associated with detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Methods A observational retrospective study was conducted from January 1999 to May 2008. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses (generalized linear models were used, with detectable HIV RNA at delivery as dependent variable. Results The overall population comprised 154 women (46.8% migrants. Presentation was later in migrant women than Italians, as assessed by CD4-T-cell count at first contact (mean 417/mm3 versus 545/mm3, respectively; p = 0.003. Likewise, HIV diagnosis was made before pregnancy and HAART was already prescribed at the time of pregnancy in more Italians (91% and 75%, respectively than migrants (61% and 42.8%, respectively. A subgroup of women with available HIV RNA close to term (i.e., ≤30 days before labour was studied for risk factors of detectable HIV RNA (≥50 copies/ml at delivery. Among 93 women, 25 (26.9% had detectable HIV RNA. A trend toward an association between non-Italian nationality and detectable HIV RNA at delivery was demonstrated by univariate analysis (relative risk, RR = 1.86; p = 0.099. However, by multivariable regression analysis, the following factors appeared to be more important: lack of stable (i.e., ≥14 days antiretroviral therapy at the time of HIV RNA testing (RR = 4.3; p 3, RR = 0.94; p = 0.038. Conclusions These results reinforce the importance of extensive screening for HIV infection, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy and stricter monitoring of pregnant women to reduce the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Public health interventions should be particularly targeted to migrant

  15. Electrically assisted delivery of macromolecules into the corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston W Y

    2009-12-01

    Electrically assisted delivery is noninvasive and has been investigated in a number of ocular drug delivery studies. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of electrically assisted delivery of macromolecules such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the corneal epithelium, to optimize the iontophoresis and electroporation methods, and to study the mechanisms of corneal iontophoresis for macromolecules. Anodal and cathodal iontophoresis, electroporation and their combinations were the methods examined with mice in vivo. Cyanine 3 (Cy3)-labeled glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) siRNA and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran of different molecular weights (4-70 kDa) were the macromolecules studied. Microscopy and histology after cryostat sectioning were used to analyze and compare the delivery of the macromolecules to the cornea. Iontophoresis was effective in delivering siRNA and dextran up to 70 kDa into the cornea. The electroporation method studied was less effective than that of iontophoresis. Although both iontophoresis and electroporation alone can deliver the macromolecules into the cornea, these methods alone were not as effective as the combination of iontophoresis and electroporation (iontophoresis followed by electroporation). The significant enhancement of dextran delivery in anodal iontophoresis suggests that electroosmosis can be a significant flux-enhancing mechanism during corneal iontophoresis. These results illustrate the feasibility of electrically assisted delivery of macromolecules such as siRNA into the cornea.

  16. Brain tumor-targeted therapy by systemic delivery of siRNA with Transferrin receptor-mediated core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Guo, Xi-Ying; Yang, Ting; Yu, Min-Zhi; Chen, Da-Wei; Wang, Jian-Cheng

    2016-08-20

    Treatment of brain tumor remains a great challenge worldwide. Development of a stable, safe, and effective siRNA delivery system which is able to cross the impermeable blood-brain barrier (BBB) and target glioma cells is necessary. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of intravenous administration of T7 peptide modified core-shell nanoparticles (named T7-LPC/siRNA NPs) on brain tumors. Layer-by-layer assembling of protamine/chondroitin sulfate/siRNA/cationic liposomes followed by T7 peptide modification has been carried out in order to obtain a targeted siRNA delivery system. In vitro cellular uptake experiments demonstrated a higher intracellular fluorescence intensity of siRNA in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) and U87 glioma cells when treated with T7-LPC/siRNA NPs compared with PEG-LPC/siRNA NPs. In the co-culture model of BMVECs and U87 cells, a significant down-regulation of EGFR protein expression occurred in the U87 glioma cells after treatment with the T7-LPC/siEGFR NPs. Moreover, the T7-LPC/siRNA NPs had an advantage in penetrating into a deep region of the tumor spheroid compared with PEG-LPC/siRNA NPs. In vivo imaging revealed that T7-LPC/siRNA NPs accumulated more specifically in brain tumor tissues than the non-targeted NPs. Also, in vivo tumor therapy experiments demonstrated that the longest survival period along with the greatest downregulation of EGFR expression in tumor tissues was observed in mice with an intracranial U87 glioma treated with T7-LPC/siEGFR NPs compared with mice receiving other formulations. Therefore, we believe that these transferrin receptor-mediated core-shell nanoparticles are an important potential siRNA delivery system for brain tumor-targeted therapy.

  17. Oct-2 forms a complex with Oct-1 on the iNOS promoter and represses transcription by interfering with recruitment of RNA PolII by Oct-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentrari, Fatima; Chantôme, Aurelie; Knights, Andrew; Jeannin, Jean-François; Pance, Alena

    2015-11-16

    Oct-1 (POU2f1) and Oct-2 (POU2f2) are members of the POU family of transcription factors. They recognize the same DNA sequence but fulfil distinct functions: Oct-1 is ubiquitous and regulates a variety of genes while Oct-2 is restricted to B-cells and neurones. Here we examine the interplay and regulatory mechanisms of these factors to control the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2). Using two breast cancer cell lines as a comparative model, we found that MCF-7 express iNOS upon cytokine stimulation while MDA-MB-231 do not. Oct-1 is present in both cell lines but MDA-MB-231 also express high levels of Oct-2. Manipulation of Oct-2 expression in these cell lines demonstrates that it is directly responsible for the repression of iNOS in MDA-MB-231. In MCF-7 cells Oct-1 binds the iNOS promoter, recruits RNA PolII and triggers initiation of transcription. In MDA-MB-231 cells, both Oct-1 and Oct-2 bind the iNOS promoter, forming a higher-order complex which fails to recruit RNA PolII, and as a consequence iNOS transcription does not proceed. Unravelling the mechanisms of transcription factor activity is paramount to the understanding of gene expression patterns that determine cell behaviour.

  18. Inhibition of erythropoietin expression by small interfering RNA under normoxia and hypoxia condition%正常氧及低氧环境下小干扰RNA抑制促红细胞生成素表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊思齐; 夏晓波

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究促红细胞生成素(erythropoietin,EPO)的特异性小干扰RNA(siRNA)对EPO表达的抑制作用,为视网膜新生血管的治疗提供新的途径.方法:体外培养NIH/3T3细胞,分成正常氧状态培养组和低氧培养组.通过脂质体(LF2000)将EPO siRNA转染两组细胞.采用RT-PCR及Western blot技术观察正常氧及低氧环境下EPO siRNA对细胞内EPO表达的抑制效果.结果:正常氧及缺氧环境下,EPO siRNA能明显抑制NIH/3T3细胞内EPO mRNA及蛋白质的表达.结论:EPO siRNA能显著抑制EPO的表达,为视网膜新生血管的基因治疗提供了新途径.

  19. 小干扰RNA抑制Vimentin表达对反应性星形胶质细胞的影响及其在胶质瘢痕形成中的意义%Influence of small interfering RNA-mediated inhibiting Vimentin on reactive astrogliosis and its effect in formation of glial scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑锋; 冯世庆; 夏润福; 闫金玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibiting Vimentin on reactive astrogliosis and its effect in formation of glial scar during central nervous system injury.Methods Three different siRNA were designed and transfected astrogliosis,furthmore,Vimentin expression was silenced.We used Western blotting to search the most effective silence target.Reactive astrogliosis were tested by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) at 24,48,72 and 96 h.Results The transfection efficiency of siRNA-Vim was more than 80% when 24 h.siRNA-Vim-3 was the most efficient fragment that silenced Vimentin.Astrogliosis in siRNA-Vim group was obviously less than that of control group after transfection 48 h later (P < 0.05).Reactive astrogliosis were acted by siRNA-Vim 48 h later,its proliferation was Inhibited significantly.There are significant differences compared with other groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion siRNA could decrease the expression of Vimentin and inhibit the proliferation of rat astrogliosis in vitro.It was showed that Vimentin plays an important role in formation of glial scar during central nervous system injury.%目的 观察小干扰RNA (siRNA)干扰波形蛋白(Vimentin)表达对反应性星形胶质细胞的影响并探讨其在中枢神经系统损伤后胶质瘢痕形成中的意义.方法 利用siRNA干扰技术沉默Vimentin表达,转染“#”字法激活的星型胶质细胞,并利用Western blot分析寻找最有效的Vimentin沉默靶点,并采用噻唑蓝(MTT)法分别于24、48、72、96 h检测反应性星形胶质细胞.结果 转染效率最高的siRNA-Vim为24 h,细胞转染效率>80%;3条siRNA中siRNA-Vim-3对Vimentin的表达有明显的沉默效应.星形胶质细胞转染48 h后,siRNA-Vim组细胞数明显少于对照组(P<0.05).siRNA-Vim作用于反应性星形胶质细胞48 h后,反应性星形胶质细胞增殖受到明显抑制,与其他各组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Vimentin对体外

  20. 小干扰RNA抑制卵巢癌模型裸鼠移植瘤葡萄糖调节蛋白94的表达及意义%Small interfering RNA inhibits glucose regulated protein 94 expression in transplantable models of human ovarian carcinoma in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽颖; 徐爱丽; 李佩玲; 艾丽敏

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:After glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94) was knockout in model mice of transplanted tumor, cel ular adhesion is terminated, thus stimulating the proliferation of liver-derived cel s and promoting the development of liver cancer. We speculate that GRP94 plays a protective role against liver cancer. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the expression of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone GRP94 mRNA and protein with smal interfering RNA technique in nude mice model of transplantable human ovarian carcinoma, and to explore the effect of GRP94 mRNA and protein expression on the growth of transplanted tumor. METHODS:The gene sequences of human GRP94 were obtained from Gene Bank. psiSTRIKETM/GRP94 was constructed, which is eukaryotic expression vector control ed by the U6 promoter of human RNA polymerase Ⅲ. The transplantable model of human ovarian carcinoma in nude mice was established using human ovarian cancer HO-8910 cel line. The eukaryotic expression vector was transfected into the transplanted tumors in nude mice, and the growth of the tumor was observed. The nude mice models were divided into three groups, specific smal interfering RNA group, non-specific smal interfering RNA group and saline control group. The volumes of the subcutaneous tumor were determined. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of GRP94 respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The recombinant plasmid of RNA interference specific for GRP94 was successful y constructed. The subcutaneous tumors appeared in al the nude mice 5 days after transplantation. The diameter of subcutaneous tumors was 7-10 mm 14 days after transplantation. The growth of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice with interference specific for GRP94 treatment was significantly decreased as compared with non-specific smal interfering RNA group and control group (P  目的:应用小干扰RNA技术抑制裸鼠卵巢癌模型皮下移植瘤内质网分

  1. Magnet-Bead Based MicroRNA Delivery System to Modify CD133+ Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Müller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. CD133+ stem cells bear huge potential for regenerative medicine. However, low retention in the injured tissue and massive cell death reduce beneficial effects. In order to address these issues, we intended to develop a nonviral system for appropriate cell engineering. Materials and Methods. Modification of human CD133+ stem cells with magnetic polyplexes carrying microRNA was studied in terms of efficiency, safety, and targeting potential. Results. High microRNA uptake rates (~80–90% were achieved without affecting CD133+ stem cell properties. Modified cells can be magnetically guided. Conclusion. We developed a safe and efficient protocol for CD133+ stem cell modification. Our work may become a basis to improve stem cell therapeutical effects as well as their monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. RNA干扰沉默CD147基因对Jurkat细胞增殖及侵袭力的影响%Influence of Silencing CD147 Gene Interfered by RNA on Proliferation and Invasiveness of Jurkat Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱国; 胡群; 张耀东; 刘双又; 张柳清; 胡迎

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用小干扰RNA(siRNA)技术转染Jurkat细胞,探讨CD147基因沉默后对Jurkat细咆增殖、CD147的表达以及侵袭力的影响.方法 实验分3组:空白对照组即Jurkat细胞组,阴性对照组即转染阴性质粒的pGE-I-CD147(-)-shRNA组,实验组即转染重组质粒的pGE-I-CD147(+)-shRNA.RT-PCR检测转染前后细胞CD147 mRNA表达水平;流式细胞仪检测转染前后细胞周期变化;基质黏附试验检测转染后细胞基质黏附能力的变化.结果 pGE-I-CD147(+)-shRNA的Jurkat细胞CD147mRNA表达较空白对照组明显下降(CD147/β-actin灰度比:0.35±0.03vs0.92±0.13 P<0.05);pGE-I-CD147(+)-shRNA的Jurkat细胞G0+G1期细胞比例较空白对照组明显增多[(89.85±7.85)%vs(57.55±5.64)%P<0.05」;pGE-I-CD147(+)-shRNA的Jurkat细胞黏附率较空白对照组明显增多[(21.74±7.65)%vs(47.12±4.55)%P<0.05].结论 通过siRNA技术沉默CD147基因表达可抑制Jurkat细胞增殖,降低CD147表达及细胞的侵袭力,从而为以CD147为靶点的基因治疗非霍奇金淋巴瘤提供实验依据.

  3. Effect of small interfering RNA targeting transforming growth factor β receptor Ⅰ gene on the collagen synthesis of hepatic stellate cells in vitro%转化生长因子βⅠ型受体基因的靶向小干扰RNA抑制肝星状细胞合成胶原的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞富军; 楼迪栋; 林镯; 董培红; 陈永平

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠转化生长因子βⅠ型受体(TβR Ⅰ)基因的靶向小干扰RNA(siRNA)表达质粒对肝星状细胞(HSC)合成胶原的影响.方法 根据大鼠Tβ R Ⅰ的基因序列,设计并构建3个大鼠TβR Ⅰ基因的靶向siRNA表达质粒,以脂质体作转染试剂,将siRNA表达质粒分别转染至HSC-T6细胞中,RT-PCR和Western印迹技术分析TβRⅠ mRNA及蛋白表达水平,噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测细胞增殖,放射免疫法测HA、PCⅢ含量.采用LSD法进行统计学处理.结果 酶切证实siRNA的目的 基因片段已成功克隆入载体中.与空白对照组比较,转染siRNA表达质粒后,3组HSC-T6细胞TβR Ⅰ mRNA表达水平均抑制,其中以psiRNA2组抑制作用最强(psiRNA1组:t=7.354,P<0.01;psiRNA2组:t=9.214,P<0.01;psiRNA3组:t=5.967,P<0.01).3组TβRⅠ蛋白表达水平均降低,以psiRNA2组降低最明显(psiRNA1组:t=6.324,P<0.01;psiRNA2组:t=8.741,P<0.01;psiRNA3组:t=4.128,P<0.01).3组HSC-T6细胞增殖活性均下降,合成胶原均减少,以psiRNA2组最明显;而转染无关siRNA组无明显变化.结论 构建的TβR Ⅰ siRNA表达质粒可抑制HSC-T6细胞合成胶原,为肝纤维化基因治疗提供新的靶点.%Objective To observe the effect of small interfering RNA(siRNA)expression plasmids targeting transforming growth factor p receptor(TαR)Ⅰ gene on the collagen synthesis of hepatic stellate cells(HSCs).Methods Three siRNA expression plasmids were designed and constructed according to TBR Ⅰ sequence.Then the plasmids were transfected into HSC-T6 using 1ipofectamine2000 reagent. The mRNA and protein expressions of TβR Ⅰ were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and Western blot technique, respectively. The cell proliferation was detected using methylthiazo-lyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide(MTT)methods. Concentrations of haluronic acid and type Ⅲ pro-collagen in the supernatants were determined by radioimmunoassay. The data were analyzed using

  4. Systemic delivery of microRNA-101 potently inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo by repressing multiple targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy based on adjustment of microRNA (miRNAs activity takes great promise due to the ability of these small RNAs to modulate cellular behavior. However, the efficacy of miR-101 replacement therapy to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains unclear. In the current study, we first observed that plasma levels of miR-101 were significantly lower in distant metastatic HCC patients than in HCCs without distant metastasis, and down-regulation of plasma miR-101 predicted a worse disease-free survival (DFS, P<0.05. In an animal model of HCC, we demonstrated that systemic delivery of lentivirus-mediated miR-101 abrogated HCC growth in the liver, intrahepatic metastasis and distant metastasis to the lung and to the mediastinum, resulting in a dramatic suppression of HCC development and metastasis in mice without toxicity and extending life expectancy. Furthermore, enforced overexpression of miR-101 in HCC cells not only decreased EZH2, COX2 and STMN1, but also directly down-regulated a novel target ROCK2, inhibited Rho/Rac GTPase activation, and blocked HCC cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and angiogenesis, inducing a strong abrogation of HCC tumorigenesis and aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These results provide proof-of-concept support for systemic delivery of lentivirus-mediated miR-101 as a powerful anti-HCC therapeutic modality by repressing multiple molecular targets.

  5. Utilization of unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) to enhance siRNA performance in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maria B; Pakula, Malgorzata M; Gao, Shan;

    2010-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are now established as a favourite tool to reduce gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cell culture. However, limitations in potency, duration, delivery and specificity of the gene knockdown (KD) are still major obstacles that need further addres...... in a xenograft model of human pancreas cancer. Hereby UNA constitutes an important type of chemical modification for future siRNA designs....

  6. VEGFR-3 siRNA腺病毒表达载体对结肠癌细胞凋亡和侵袭的影响%Effects of the adenovirus expressing the small interfering RNA targeting vascular endothelia growth factor receptor-3 gene on apoptosis and invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志诚; 苏芝兰; 马强; 张鑫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the adenovirus expression vector of small interfering RNA ( siR-NA) targeting vascular endothelia growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) gene on apoptosis and invasion of human colon cancer LoVo cells. Methods VEGFR-3 siRNA adenovirus was transfected into the LoVo cells, and the expressions of VEGFR-3 were measured by Western blotting. The apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining and FCM ( flow cytometry) . The invasion ability was assayed by Transwell method. Results Compared with the blank control group and the negative control group, the expression level of VEGFR-3 protein in LoVo cells of experimental group was re-duced after transfection with pAd-VEGFR3-siRNA ( P <0 . 05 ) . The apoptosis rate was increased significantly ( P <0. 05). The proliferation of LoVo cells was inhibited, the invasion ability decreased sinificantly (P<0. 05). Conclu-sion VEGFR-3 siRNA can down-regulate the expression levels of VEGFR-3 protein in LoVo cells, inhibit the invasion abilities of LoVo cells, and induce the apoptosis of LoVo cells effectively. VEGFR-3 can be used as a potential aim of colon cancer targeted therapy.%目的:探讨靶向血管内皮细胞生长因子受体3(vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, VEGFR-3)基因的小干扰RNA ( small interfering RNA,siRNA)腺病毒载体对人结肠癌LoVo细胞系凋亡及侵袭的影响。方法将靶向VEGFR-3 siRNA腺病毒转染结肠癌LoVo细胞,以Western blotting检测VEGFR-3蛋白的表达,Hoechst 33342染色法和流式细胞仪检测LoVo细胞的凋亡情况,用Transwell小室测定LoVo细胞的侵袭力。结果实验组与空白对照组和阴性对照组比较,实验组中转染靶向VEGFR-3 siRNA腺病毒后结肠癌LoVo细胞中VEGFR-3蛋白的表达被下调(P<0.05)。 Hoechst 33342染色法和流式细胞仪检测LoVo细胞凋亡率明显升高(P<0.05),Transwell小室测定LoVo细胞侵袭能力下降(P<0.05)。结论靶向VEGFR-3 siRNA腺病毒能

  7. Pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts from marine sponges versus synthetic lipofection systems: distinct tools for intracellular delivery of cDNA and siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagbrough Ian S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haplosclerid marine sponges produce pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS, which can be used to deliver macromolecules into cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the delivery of DNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow into cells mediated by poly-APS and its potential mechanisms as compared with other lipofection systems (lipofectamine and N4,N9-dioleoylspermine (LipoGen. DNA condensation was evaluated and HEK 293 and HtTA HeLa cells were used to investigate pore formation and intracellular delivery of cDNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow. Results Poly-APS and LipoGen were both found to be highly efficient DNA condensing agents. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to measure calcium transients indicative of cell membrane pore forming activity. Calcium transients were evoked by poly-APS but not LipoGen and lipofectamine. The increases in intracellular calcium produced by poly-APS showed temperature sensitivity with greater responses being observed at 12°C compared to 21°C. Similarly, delivery of lucifer yellow into cells with poly-APS was enhanced at lower temperatures. Transfection with cDNA encoding for the expression enhanced green fluorescent protein was also evaluated at 12°C with poly-APS, lipofectamine and LipoGen. Intracellular delivery of siRNA was achieved with knockdown in beta-actin expression when lipofectamine and LipoGen were used as transfection reagents. However, intracellular delivery of siRNA was not achieved with poly-APS. Conclusion Poly-APS mediated pore formation is critical to its activity as a transfection reagent, but lipofection systems utilise distinct mechanisms to enable delivery of DNA and siRNA into cells.

  8. Targeted chimera delivery to ovarian cancer cells by heterogeneous gold magnetic nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Xu, Mengjiao; Guo, Yi; Tu, Keyao; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Jianjun; Tong, Xiaowen; Wu, Wenjuan; Qi, Lifeng; Shi, Donglu

    2017-01-01

    Efficient delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the targeted cells has remained a significant challenge in clinical applications. In the present study, we developed a novel aptamer-siRNA chimera delivery system mediated by cationic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The chimera constructed by VEGF RNA aptamer and Notch3 siRNA was bonded with heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles by electrostatic interaction. The obtained complex exhibited much higher silencing efficiency against Notch3 gene compared with chimera alone and lipofectamine-siRNA complex, and improved the antitumor effects of the loaded chimera. Moreover, the efficient delivery of the chimera by Au-Fe3O4 NPs could reverse multi-drug resistance (MDR) of ovarian cancer cells against the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin, indicating its potential capability for future targeted cancer therapy while overcoming MDR.

  9. Stabilization of Ostwald ripening in low molecular weight amino lipid nanoparticles for systemic delivery of siRNA therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindy, Marian E; Feuston, Brad; Glass, Angela; Arrington, Leticia; Haas, R Matthew; Schariter, Joseph; Stirdivant, Steven M

    2014-11-03

    Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) represent the most clinically advanced technology for the systemic delivery of therapeutic siRNA in vivo. Toward this end, a novel class of LNPs comprising low molecular weight (MW) ionizable amino lipids having asymmetric architecture was recently reported.1 LNPs of these amino lipids, termed asymmetric LNPs, were shown to be highly efficacious and well tolerated in vivo; advances were enabled by improved endosomal escape, coupled with enhanced amino lipid metabolism and clearance. In this work, we show that, in contrast to their desirable pharmacological performance, asymmetric LNPs present a significant pharmaceutical developability challenge, namely physical instability limiting extended shelf life. Using orthogonal characterization methods, we identify the mechanism of LNP instability as Ostwald ripening and establish it to be driven predominantly by the asymmetric amino lipid component. Through rational optimization of LNP physical and macromolecular properties, we are able to significantly attenuate or entirely eliminate the Ostwald ripening instability. Modulation of LNP size, for example, effectively halts particle growth. Similarly, optimization of LNP macromolecular packing through deliberate selection of structurally matched colipids significantly diminishes the rate of ripening. This later experimental observation is substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations of LNP self-assembly, which establish a quantitative dependence of LNP macromolecular order on colipid structure. In totality, the experimental and molecular dynamics outcomes of this work support the rational design of LNP physical and chemical properties leading to effective Ostwald ripening stabilization and enable the advance of asymmetric LNPs as a clinic-ready platform for siRNA therapeutics.

  10. Functionalized gold nanoparticles for the binding, stabilization, and delivery of therapeutic DNA, RNA, and other biological macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K DeLong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Robert K DeLong1, Christopher M Reynolds1, Yaneika Malcolm1, Ashley Schaeffer1, Tiffany Severs2, Adam Wanekaya21Department of Biomedical Science (Cell and Molecular Biology Program, 2Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USAAbstract: Nanotechnology has virtually exploded in the last few years with seemingly limitless opportunity across all segments of our society. If gene and RNA therapy are to ever realize their full potential, there is a great need for nanomaterials that can bind, stabilize, and deliver these macromolecular nucleic acids into human cells and tissues. Many researchers have turned to gold nanomaterials, as gold is thought to be relatively well tolerated in humans and provides an inert material upon which nucleic acids can attach. Here, we review the various strategies for associating macromolecular nucleic acids to the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs, the characterization chemistries involved, and the potential advantages of GNPs in terms of stabilization and delivery.Keywords: gold, nanoparticles, nanomaterials, RNA, nucleic acid

  11. Structure-property relationship for in vitro siRNA delivery performance of cationic 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: PEG-PPG-PEG polyrotaxane vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, Vivek D; Aicart, Emilio; Mondjinou, Yawo A; Johnson, Merrell A; Bowman, Valorie D; Thompson, David H

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery is a promising therapeutic approach, however, the processes required for transport of these materials across the numerous extracellular and intracellular barriers are poorly understood. Efficient delivery of siRNA-containing nanoparticles would ultimately benefit from an improved understanding of how parameters associated with these barriers relate to the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticle vectors. We report the synthesis of three Pluronic(®)-based, cholesterol end-capped cationic polyrotaxanes (PR(+)) threaded with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) for siRNA delivery. The biological data showed that PR(+):siRNA complexes were well tolerated (∼90% cell viability) and produced efficient silencing (>80%) in HeLa-GFP and NIH 3T3-GFP cell lines. We further used a multi-parametric approach to identify relationships between the PR(+) structure, PR(+):siRNA complex physical properties, and biological activity. Small angle X-ray scattering and cryoelectron microscopy studies reveal periodicity and lamellar architectures for PR(+):siRNA complexes, whereas the biological assays, ζ potential measurements, and imaging studies suggest that silencing efficiency is influenced by the effective charge ratio (ρeff), polypropylene oxide (PO) block length, and central PO block coverage (i.e., rigidity) of the PR(+) core. We infer from our findings that more compact PR(+):siRNA nanostructures arising from lower molecular weight, rigid rod-like PR(+) polymer cores produce improved silencing efficiency relative to higher molecular weight, more flexible PR(+) vectors of similar effective charge. This study demonstrates that PR(+):siRNA complex formulations can be produced having higher performance than Lipofectamine(®) 2000, while maintaining good cell viability and siRNA sequence protection in cell culture.

  12. Micro RNAs and Short-interfering RNAs in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramanjulu Sunkar; Jian-Kang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gene silencing can occur either at the transcriptional level or post-transcriptional level or both. Many instances of sequence-specific silencing requires small RNAs that can be divided into two major classes: microRNAs (miRNAs) and short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). miRNAs function in post-transcriptional gene silencing by guiding mRNA degradation or translational repression. Endogenous siRNAs are more diverse in plants than in animals and can direct post-transcriptional gene silencing through mRNA degradation or transcriptional gene silencing by triggering DNA methylation and histone modifications. This review discusses recent advances in the field of small RNA-guided gene silencing in plants including rice.

  13. Fractional thermolysis by bipolar radiofrequency facilitates cutaneous delivery of peptide and siRNA with minor loss of barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Suen, Shih-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to illustrate the utility of fractional radiofrequency (RF) that generated microchannels in the skin, allowing delivery of peptide and siRNA via the skin. The mechanisms involved in the correlation between macromolecule permeation and skin structure were also elucidated. The morphology of the skin was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), higher harmonic generation microscopy (HGM), and physiological factors. In vivo skin distribution of macromolecules was assessed by fluorescence and confocal microscopies. RF thermolysis selectively created an array of micropores deep into the epidermis without significant removal of the stratum corneum (SC). With energy of 30 mJ, a pore depth of 35 μm was achieved. The bipolar RF resulted in a 3-fold increase of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) compared with intact skin. The respective skin accumulation and flux of the peptide with a molecular weight (MW) of 2335 Da was 3- and 23-fold greater for the RF-treated group than for the non-treatment group. RF enhanced skin accumulation of siRNAs with MW of 10 and 15 kDa by 6.2- and 2.6-fold, respectively. Cutaneous penetration of the macromolecules with an MW of at least 40 kDa could be accomplished by RF. Confocal microscopy imaging revealed that RF could effectively deliver the peptide up to at least a 74-μm depth. The penetration depth of siRNA by RF irradiation was about 50 μm. The novel RF device efficiently delivered macromolecules into the skin while reserving SC layers to support some barrier functions. In this work, for the first time the assistance of fractional RF on peptide and siRNA transport was demonstrated.

  14. Inhibition of ABCB1 (MDR1 expression by an siRNA nanoparticulate delivery system to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiro Susa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in treating osteosarcoma has improved patients' average 5 year survival rate from 20% to 70% in the past 30 years. However, for patients who progress after chemotherapy, its effectiveness diminishes due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR after prolonged therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure resulting from MDR, we designed and evaluated a novel drug delivery system for MDR1 siRNA delivery. Novel biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles were used as the platform for MDR1 siRNA delivery; and the efficacy of combination therapy with this system was evaluated. In this study, multi-drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS(R2 and U-2OS(R2 were treated with the MDR1 siRNA nanocarriers and MDR1 protein (P-gp expression, drug retention, and immunofluoresence were analyzed. Combination therapy of the MDR1 siRNA loaded nanocarriers with increasing concentrations of doxorubicin was also analyzed. We observed that MDR1 siRNA loaded dextran nanoparticles efficiently suppresses P-gp expression in the drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. The results also demonstrated that this approach may be capable of reversing drug resistance by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in MDR cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles are a promising platform for siRNA delivery. Nanocarriers loaded with MDR1 siRNA are a potential treatment strategy for reversing MDR in osteosarcoma.

  15. [Cytological Study in vitro on Co-delivery of siRNA and Paclitaxel within Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Yao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Xun; Lin, Yunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains the major obstacle to the success of clinical cancer chemotherapy. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1, is an important part with complex mechanisms associated with the MDR. In order to overcome the MDR of tumors, we in the present experimental design incorporated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting MDR1 gene and anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) into the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to achieve the combinational therapeutic effects of genetherapy and chemotherapy. In this study, siRNA-PTX-SLNs were successfully prepared. The cytotoxicity of blank SLNs and siRNA-PTX-SLNs in MCF-7 cells and MCF-7/ADR cells were detected by MTT; and the uptake efficiency of PTX in MCF-7/ADR cells were detected via HPLC method; quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry were performed to investigate the silencing effect of siRNA-PTX- SLNs on MDR1 gene in MCF-7/ADR cells. The results showed that PTX loaded SLNs could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor cells, and more importantly, the MDR tumor cells treated with siRNA-PTX-SLNs showed the lowest viability. HPLC study showed that SLNs could enhance the cellular uptake for PTX. Meanwhile, siRNA delivered by SLNs significantly decreased the P-gp expression in MDR tumor cells, thus increased the cellular accumulation of rhodamine123 as a P-gp substrate. In conclusion, the MDR1 gene could be silenced by siRNA-PTX-SLNs, which could promote the growth inhibition efficiency of PTX on tumor cells, leading to synergetic effect on MDR tumor therapy.

  16. Investigation of enzyme-sensitive lipid nanoparticles for delivery of siRNA to blood–brain barrier and glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jonas; Larsen, Trine Bjørnbo; Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of siRNA for treating disorders in the central nervous system require development of systemic stable, safe, and effective delivery vehicles that are able to cross the impermeable blood–brain barrier (BBB). Engineering nanocarriers with low cellular interaction during systemi...

  17. A novel injectable thermoresponsive and cytocompatible gel of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with layered double hydroxides facilitates siRNA delivery into chondrocytes in 3D culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hsiao-yin; van Ee, Renz J; Timmer, Klaas; Craenmehr, Eric G M; Huang, Julie H; Oner, F. Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Kragten, Angela H M; Willems, Nicole; Grinwis, Guy C M; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Papen-Botterhuis, Nicole E; Creemers, Laura B

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid hydrogels composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAM) and layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are presented in this study as novel injectable and thermoresponsive materials for siRNA delivery, which could specifically target several negative regulators of tissue homeostasis in cartilaginou

  18. Construction of RNA Interfering Lentivirus Vector Targeting Uncoupling Protein 2%解偶联蛋白-2RNA干扰慢病毒载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万赤丹; 程锐; 王春友; 王宏博; 王帅; 刘涛

    2008-01-01

    目的:构建解偶联蛋白-2(UCP-2)基因的RNA干扰慢病毒载体.方法:根据RNA干扰序列设计原则,针对UCP-2mRNA(NM_011671)设计3个RNA干扰靶点序列,合成含干扰序列的DNA双链,酶切后连入慢病毒转移质粒pGCL-GFP中.连接产物转化感受态细胞,所获克隆行PCR鉴定和序列测定.构建成功的RNA干扰质粒与UCP-2表达质粒共转染293T细胞,荧光显微镜下观测转染效果,Western blot检测UCP-2蛋白表达,筛选出干扰效果最好RNA干扰质粒.将该质粒与两种辅助包装原件载体质粒pHelper 1.0(gag/pol元件)载体,Helper 2.0(VSVG元件)共转染293T细胞包装成慢病毒并检测滴度.结果:PCR和测序结果显示针对3个靶点的RNA干扰质粒均构建成功;通过Western blot检测获得最优干扰靶点,并成功包装成滴度为5×108TU/ml的慢病毒.结论:成功构建可供感染的解偶联蛋白-2 RNA干扰慢病毒载体,为后续靶向抑制该基因表达以提高脂肪肝移植成功率的研究莫定物质基础.

  19. Innovative Strategy for MicroRNA Delivery in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs show promising potential in regeneration of defective tissue. Recently, gene silencing strategies using microRNAs (miR emerged with the aim to expand the therapeutic potential of hMSCs. However, researchers are still searching for effective miR delivery methods for clinical applications. Therefore, we aimed to develop a technique to efficiently deliver miR into hMSCs with the help of a magnetic non-viral vector based on cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI bound to iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP. We tested different magnetic complex compositions and determined uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity by flow cytometry. Additionally, we monitored the release, processing and functionality of delivered miR-335 with confocal laser scanning microscopy, real-time PCR and live cell imaging, respectively. On this basis, we established parameters for construction of magnetic non-viral vectors with optimized uptake efficiency (~75% and moderate cytotoxicity in hMSCs. Furthermore, we observed a better transfection performance of magnetic complexes compared to PEI complexes 72 h after transfection. We conclude that MNP-mediated transfection provides a long term effect beneficial for successful genetic modification of stem cells. Hence, our findings may become of great importance for future in vivo applications.

  20. Efficient and Tumor Targeted siRNA Delivery by Polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (PEI-PCL-PEG-Fol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zheng, Mengyao; Librizzi, Damiano; Renette, Thomas; Merkel, Olivia M; Kissel, Thomas

    2016-01-04

    Efficient delivery of functional nucleic acids into specific cells or tissues is still a challenge for gene therapy and largely depends on targeted delivery strategies. The folate receptor (FR) is known to be overexpressed extracellularly on a variety of human cancers and is therefore an outstanding gate for tumor-targeted Trojan horse-like delivery of therapeutics. In this study, an amphiphilic and biodegradable ternary copolymer conjugated with folate as ligand, polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (PEI-PCL-PEG-Fol) was synthesized and evaluated for targeted siRNA delivery via folate-FR recognition. The amphiphilic character of similar polymers was shown previously to support endosomal release of endocytosed nanocarriers and to promote formation of long circulating micelles. The obtained PEI-PCL-PEG-Fol exhibited less cytotoxicity in comparison with the corresponding ternary copolymer without folate (PEI-PCL-PEG) and with unmodified PEI25kDa. Stable micelle-like polyplexes with hydrodynamic diameters about 100 nm were found to have a zeta potential of +8.6 mV, which was lower than that of micelleplexes without folate-conjugation (+13-16 mV). Nonetheless, increased cellular uptake and in vitro gene knockdown of PEI-PCL-PEG-Fol/siRNA micelleplexes were observed in SKOV-3 cells, an FR overexpressing cell line, in comparison with the nonfolate-conjugated ones. Moreover, PEI-PCL-PEG-Fol/siRNA micelleplexes exhibited excellent stability in vivo during the analysis of 120 min and a longer circulation half life than hyPEI25kDa/siRNA polyplexes. Most interestingly, the targeted delivery system yielded 17% deposition of the i.v. injected siRNA per gram in the tumor after 24 h due to the effective folate targeting and the prolonged circulation.

  1. Mono-arginine Cholesterol-based Small Lipid Nanoparticles as a Systemic siRNA Delivery Platform for Effective Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinju; Saw, Phei Er; Gujrati, Vipul; Lee, Yonghyun; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Sukmo; Choi, Minsuk; Kim, Jae-Il; Jon, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    Although efforts have been made to develop a platform carrier for the delivery of RNAi therapeutics, systemic delivery of siRNA has shown only limited success in cancer therapy. Cationic lipid-based nanoparticles have been widely used for this purpose, but their toxicity and undesired liver uptake after systemic injection owing to their cationic surfaces have hampered further clinical translation. This study describes the development of neutral, small lipid nanoparticles (SLNPs) made of a nontoxic cationic cholesterol derivative, as a suitable carrier of systemic siRNA to treat cancers. The cationic cholesterol derivative, mono arginine-cholesterol (MA-Chol), was synthesized by directly attaching an arginine moiety to cholesterol via a cleavable ester bond. siRNA-loaded SLNPs (siRNA@SLNPs) were prepared using MA-Chol and a neutral helper lipid, dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), as major components and a small amount of PEGylated phospholipid mixed with siRNA. The resulting nanoparticles were less than ~50 nm in diameter with neutral zeta potential and much lower toxicity than typical cationic cholesterol (DC-Chol)-based lipid nanoparticles. SLNPs loaded with siRNA against kinesin spindle protein (siKSP@SLNPs) exhibited a high level of target gene knockdown in various cancer cell lines, as shown by measurement of KSP mRNA and cell death assays. Furthermore, systemic injection of siKSP@SLNPs into prostate tumor-bearing mice resulted in preferential accumulation of the delivered siRNA at the tumor site and significant inhibition of tumor growth, with little apparent toxicity, as shown by body weight measurements. These results suggest that these SLNPs may provide a systemic delivery platform for RNAi-based cancer therapy.

  2. Cellular delivery of quantum dot-bound hybridization probe for detection of intracellular pre-microRNA using chitosan/poly(γ-glutamic acid complex as a carrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Geng

    Full Text Available A quantum dot (QD-bound hybridization probe was designed for detection of intracellular pre-miRNA using chitosan (CS/poly(γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA complex as a gene vector. The probe was prepared by assembling thiolated RNA to gold nanoparticle (Au NP via Au-S bond and then binding 3'-end amine of the RNA to the carboxy group capped on quantum dot surface. The QD-RNA-Au NP probe was assembled on the vector by mixing with aqueous γ-PGA solution and then CS solution to construct a gene delivery system for highly effective cellular uptake and delivery. After the probe was released from CS/γ-PGA complex to the cytoplasm by electrostatic repulsion at intracellular pH, it hybridized with pre-miRNA precursor as target. The formed product was then cleaved by RNase III Dicer, leading to the separation of QDs from Au NPs and fluorescence emission of QDs, which could be detected by confocal microscopic imaging to monitor the amount of the intracellular pre-miRNA precursor. The in vitro assays revealed that the QD-RNA-Au NP was a robust, sensitive and selective probe for quantitative detection of target pre-miRNA. Using MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells as models, the relative amount of pre-miRNA let-7a could be successfully compared. Since the amount of miRNA is related to the progress and prognosis of cancer, this strategy could be expected to hold promising application potential in medical research and clinical diagnostics.

  3. PEG-detachable cationic polyaspartamide derivatives bearing stearoyl moieties for systemic siRNA delivery toward subcutaneous BxPC3 pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Oba, Makoto; Pittella, Frederico; Nomoto, Takahiro; Cabral, Horacio; Matsumoto, Yu; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    For systemic siRNA delivery into tumor tissues, a safe and efficient vehicle is strongly required. Therefore, we designed a block copolymer of detachable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polycation bearing low pKa amines and hydrophobic moieties in the side chain to develop a smart siRNA complex possessing biocompatibility, high complex stability, and endosomal escaping functionality. A disulfide linkage (-SS-) was inserted as a linker between PEG and a cationic polyaspartamide derivative, poly{N-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PAsp(DET)), with a flanking stearoyl moiety, where PAsp(DET) segment provides the excellent ability of endosome destabilization by direct interaction with the membrane. The resulting polymer, stearoyl PEG-SS-PAsp(DET), was confirmed to form the siRNA complex with an environment-responsive PEG palisade, which was detached from the complex surface under reductive conditions mimicking tumor tissues and cytoplasm because of the disulfide cleavage. The smart siRNA complex allowed significant gene silencing against cultured pancreatic cancer cells without considerable cytotoxicity and erythrocyte disruption, whereas such significant gene silencing was not observed in a control siRNA complex without the disulfide linkage. This enhanced gene silencing activity might be because of the enhanced cellular uptake and subsequent translocation of siRNA into cytoplasm facilitated by PEG detachment around and/or in the cancer cells. Further, intravital real-time confocal laser scanning microscopic observation revealed the effect of hydrophobic stearoyl modification on the stabilization of the siRNA complex for longevity in the blood. Significant in vivo gene silencing of the smart siRNA complex was achieved by systemic administration of vascular endothelial growth factor siRNA in a mouse model bearing a subcutaneous pancreatic tumor, leading to 40% regression in tumor growth. These results demonstrate the strong potential of stearoyl PEG

  4. RNA interference of influenza A virus replication by microRNA-adapted lentiviral loop short hairpin RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Liu, Guanqun; Liu, Qiang; Zhou, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Limitations of the current vaccines and antivirals against influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic underscore the urgent need for developing novel anti-influenza strategies. RNA interference (RNAi) induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has become a powerful new means to inhibit viral infection in a gene-specific manner. However, the efficacy of the siRNA delivery platform and the relatively high cost of administration have hindered widespread application of siRNA. In this study, we developed a microRNA (miRNA)-30-based lentivirus delivery system by embedding a synthetic short hairpin RNA (shRNA) stem into the context of endogenous precursor of miRNA-30 (shRNAmir) to express a silencer of the influenza gene. We showed that the miRNA-based lentivirus vector was able to express and process a single nucleoprotein (NP)-targeting shRNAmir, which could potently inhibit IAV replication. We further showed that miRNA-based lentivirus vector carrying tandemly linked NP and polymerase PB1 shRNAmirs could express and process double shRNAmirs. Despite the relatively low levels of NP and PB1 miRNAs produced in the stably transduced cells, the combination of two miRNAs exerted a great degree of inhibition on influenza infection. Given the advantage of combinatorial RNAi in preventing emergence of mutant virus, miRNA-based lentiviral vectors are valuable tools for anitiviral activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that a miRNA-based RNAi strategy can be applied for better control of influenza virus infection.

  5. In vivo siRNA delivery system for targeting to the liver by poly-l-glutamic acid-coated lipoplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hattori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed anionic polymer-coated liposome/siRNA complexes (lipoplexes with chondroitin sulfate C (CS, poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA and poly-aspartic acid (PAA for siRNA delivery by intravenous injection, and evaluated the biodistribution and gene silencing effect in mice. The sizes of CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes were about 200 nm and their ζ-potentials were negative. CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes did not induce agglutination after mixing with erythrocytes. In terms of biodistribution, siRNAs after intravenous administration of cationic lipoplexes were largely observed in the lungs, but those of CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes were in both the liver and the kidneys, indicating that siRNA might be partially released from the anionic polymer-coated lipoplexes in the blood circulation and accumulate in the kidney, although the lipoplexes can prevent the agglutination with blood components. To increase the association between siRNA and cationic liposome, we used cholesterol-modified siRNA (siRNA-Chol for preparation of the lipoplexes. When CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes of siRNA-Chol were injected into mice, siRNA-Chol was mainly observed in the liver, not in the kidneys. In terms of the suppression of gene expression in vivo, apolipoprotein B (ApoB mRNA in the liver was significantly reduced 48 h after single intravenous injection of PGA-coated lipoplex of ApoB siRNA-Chol (2.5 mg siRNA/kg, but not cationic, CS- and PAA-coated lipoplexes. In terms of toxicity after intravenous injection, CS-, PGA- and PAA-coated lipoplexes did not increase GOT and GPT concentrations in blood. From these findings, PGA coatings for cationic lipoplex of siRNA-Chol might produce a systemic vector of siRNA to the liver.

  6. A novel siRNA-lipoplex technology for RNA interference in the mouse vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santel, A; Aleku, M; Keil, O; Endruschat, J; Esche, V; Fisch, G; Dames, S; Löffler, K; Fechtner, M; Arnold, W; Giese, K; Klippel, A; Kaufmann, J

    2006-08-01

    For the application of RNA interference (RNAi) in vivo the functional delivery of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is still the major obstacle. Therefore, delivery technologies need to be established for the systemic application of RNAi in vivo. Here we report uptake, biodistribution and in vivo efficacy of siRNA molecules formulated into siRNA-lipoplexes. The applied formulation is based on complex formation of positively charged liposomes, a mixture of cationic and fusogenic lipids complexed with the negatively charged siRNA. We determined by fluorescence microscopy the temporal and spatial distribution of fluorescently labeled siRNA-lipoplexes, the body clearance and endothelial cell type specific uptake after single intravenous injection. Furthermore, by using siRNA molecules for targeting endothelia-specifically expressed genes, such as CD31 and Tie2, we were able to demonstrate downregulation of the corresponding mRNA and protein in vivo. Taken together, we show the applicability of this non-viral delivery technology for inducing RNAi in the vasculature of mice after systemic application.

  7. Viral delivery of shRNA to amygdala neurons leads to neurotoxicity and deficits in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solis, Christopher A; Holehonnur, Roopashri; Banerjee, Anwesha; Luong, Jonathan A; Lella, Srihari K; Ho, Anthony; Pahlavan, Bahram; Ploski, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    knockdown of Egr1 and GluN2A compared to the other groups examined respectively, but Arc was not knocked down in the shArc group under these conditions. Differences in fear conditioning among the shLuc, shCntrl, shArc and shEgr1 groups were not detected under these circumstances; however, the shGluN2A group exhibited significantly impaired fear conditioning compared to most of the groups, indicating that gene specific deficits in fear conditioning could be observed utilizing viral mediated delivery of shRNA. Collectively, these data indicate that viral mediated shRNA expression was toxic to neurons in vivo, under all viral titers examined and this toxicity in some cases may be masking gene specific changes in learning. Therefore, the use of this technology in behavioral neuroscience warrants a heightened level of careful consideration and potential methods to alleviate shRNA induced toxicity are discussed.

  8. Co-delivery of hydrophobic paclitaxel and hydrophilic AURKA specific siRNA by redox-sensitive micelles for effective treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tingjie; Wang, Lei; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Huo, Meirong

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a novel redox-sensitive micellar system constructed from a hyaluronic acid-based amphiphilic conjugate (HA-ss-(OA-g-bPEI), HSOP) was successfully developed for tumor-targeted co-delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and AURKA specific siRNA (si-AURKA). HSOP exhibited excellent loading capacities for both PTX and siRNA with adjustable dosing ratios and desirable redox-sensitivity independently verified by morphological changes of micelles alongside in vitro release of both drugs in different reducing environments. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed that HSOP micelles were capable of simultaneously delivering PTX and siRNA into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via HA-receptor mediated endocytosis followed by rapid transport of cargoes into the cytosol. Successful delivery and transport amplified the synergistic effects between the drugs while leading to substantially greater antitumor efficacy when compared with single drug-loaded micelles and non-sensitive co-loaded micelles. In vivo investigation demonstrated that HSOP micelles could effectively accumulate in tumor sites and possessed the greatest antitumor efficacy over non-sensitive co-delivery control and redox-sensitive single-drug controls. These findings indicated that redox-sensitive HSOP co-delivery system holds great promise for combined drug/gene treatment for targeted cancer therapy.

  9. An inhalable β₂-adrenoceptor ligand-directed guanidinylated chitosan carrier for targeted delivery of siRNA to lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongfeng; Zhai, Xinyun; Ma, Chaonan; Sun, Peng; Fu, Zhiping; Liu, Wenguang; Xu, Jun

    2012-08-20

    SiRNA-based strategies appear to be an exciting new approach for the treatment of respiratory diseases. To extrapolate siRNA-mediated interventions from bench to bedside in this area, several aspects have to be jointly considered, including a safe and efficient gene carrier with pulmonary deposition efficiency, as well as in vivo method for siRNA/nanoparticles delivery. Accordingly, in this work, (i) a non-viral DNA vector, guanidinylated chitosan (GCS) that has been developed in our previous study [X.Y. Zhai, P. Sun, Y.F. Luo, C.N. Ma, J. Xu, W.G. Liu, 2011], was tested for siRNA delivery. We demonstrated that GCS was able to completely condense siRNA at weight ratio 40:1, forming nanosize particles of diameter ~100 nm, 15 mV in surface potential. Guanidinylation of chitosan not only decreased the cytotoxicity but also facilitated cellular internalization of siRNA nanoparticles, leading to an enhanced gene-silencing efficiency compared to the pristine chitosan (CS). (ii) We chemically coupled salbutamol, a β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, to GCS (SGCS), which successfully improved targeting specificity of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-siRNA carrier to lung cells harbored with β(2)-adrenergic receptor, and remarkably enhanced the efficacy of gene silence in vitro and in the lung of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-transgenic mice in vivo. (iii) It was proved that this chitosan-based polymer was able to provide both the pDNA and siRNA with the protection against destructive shear forces generated by the mesh-based nebulizers. Aerosol treatment improved the nanoparticle size distribution, which should be in favor of enhancing the transfection efficiency. We suggest a potential application of the chitosan-derived nanodelivery vehicle (SGCS) in RNA interference therapy for lung diseases via aerosol inhalation.

  10. Systemic siRNA Delivery via Peptide-Tagged Polymeric Nanoparticles, Targeting PLK1 Gene in a Mouse Xenograft Model of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanoparticles were developed from a series of chemical reactions using chitosan, polyethylene glycol, and a cell-targeting peptide (CP15. The nanoparticles were complexed with PLK1-siRNA. The optimal siRNA loading was achieved at an N : P ratio of 129.2 yielding a nanoparticle size of >200 nm. These nanoparticles were delivered intraperitoneally and tested for efficient delivery, cytotoxicity, and biodistribution in a mouse xenograft model of colorectal cancer. Both unmodified and modified chitosan nanoparticles showed enhanced accumulation at the tumor site. However, the modified chitosan nanoparticles showed considerably, less distribution in other organs. The relative gene expression as evaluated showed efficient delivery of PLK1-siRNA (0.5 mg/kg with 50.7±19.5% knockdown (P=0.031 of PLK1 gene. The in vivo data reveals no systemic toxicity in the animals, when tested for systemic inflammation and liver toxicity. These results indicate a potential of using peptide-tagged nanoparticles for systemic delivery of siRNA at the targeted tumor site.

  11. 应用RNA干扰抑制EB病毒潜伏膜蛋白-1表达对鼻咽癌细胞生长的影响%Effect of inhibition of EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 by small interfering RNA on EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李湘平; 彭英; 刘雄; 李晓华

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for selective inhibiting latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) expression in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line C611, and observe the effects of LMP1 gene silencing on the NPC cell growth. Methods Four synthesized double-strand siRNA were respectively transfected into NPC cells, using OligofectamineTM reagent. The subsequent changes in LMP1 mRNA level were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Flow cytometry and MTT assay were employed to examine the alterations in cell cycle and cell proliferation. Results The most effective sequence was identified among the 4 candidate siRNAs, and its single dose caused nearly 90% loss of LMP1 mRNA in C611 cells, with sustained specific inhibition for 96 h following a re-transfection. LMP1 siRNA treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase, accompanied by a reduction of cell proliferation by 33%, whereas EBV-negative NPC cells appeared unaffected. Conclusions EBV-encoded LMP-1 is vulnerable to RNA interference and selective inhibition of LMP1 suppresses the proliferation of EBV-positive NPC cells, a finding that sheds light on the possible use of RNA interference in further investigations of LMP1 and for therapeutic purposes of EBV-related NPC.%目的探讨能否通过siRNA人工诱导RNA干扰,在EB病毒阳性的鼻咽癌细胞株C611中,选择性抑制潜伏膜蛋白1(LMP1)的表达,并了解LMP1抑制对鼻咽癌细胞生长的影响.方法利用脂质体转染的方法,将人工合成的双链siRNA导入鼻咽癌细胞,通过半定量RT-PCR检测LMP1 muRNA水平的变化.并采用MTT法和流式细胞仪检测LMP1表达抑制后,鼻咽癌细胞增殖和细胞周期的变化.结果C611细胞转染siRNA可使LMP1 muRNA水平下降90%以上.LMP1基因抑制后,C611细胞增殖速度下降33%;流式细胞检测显示,C611细胞周期在G0-G1期受阻.结论本研究证明,全新

  12. RNA interference-based nanosystems for inflammatory bowel disease therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jian Guo,1 Xiaojing Jiang,1 Shuangying Gui1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Pharmaceutics, Anhui Academy of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is a chronic, recrudescent disease that invades the gastrointestinal tract, and it requires surgery or lifelong medicinal therapy. The conventional medicinal therapies for IBD, such as anti-inflammatories, glucocorticoids, and immunosuppressants, are limited because of their systemic adverse effects and toxicity during long-term treatment. RNA interference (RNAi precisely regulates susceptibility genes to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines related to IBD, which effectively alleviates IBD progression and promotes intestinal mucosa recovery. RNAi molecules generally include short interfering RNA (siRNA and microRNA (miRNA. However, naked RNA tends to degrade in vivo as a consequence of endogenous ribonucleases and pH variations. Furthermore, RNAi treatment may cause unintended off-target effects and immunostimulation. Therefore, nanovectors of siRNA and miRNA were introduced to circumvent these obstacles. Herein, we introduce non-viral nanosystems of RNAi molecules and discuss these systems in detail. Additionally, the delivery barriers and challenges associated with RNAi molecules will be discussed from the perspectives of developing efficient delivery systems and potential clinical use. Keywords: RNA interference, siRNA, miRNA, nanoparticles, inflammatory bowel disease, target therapy

  13. TRAIL based therapy: overview of mesenchymal stem cell based delivery and miRNA controlled expression of TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Rukset; Sajjad, Farhana; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Tahir, Fizza; Hussain, Ejaz; Fayyaz, Sundas; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly increasing number of outstanding developments in the field of TRAIL mediated signaling have revolutionized our current information about inducing and maximizing TRAIL mediated apoptosis in resistant cancer cells. Data obtained with high-throughput technologies have provided finer resolution of tumor biology and now it is known that a complex structure containing malignant cells strictly coupled with a large variety of surrounding cells constitutes the tumor stroma. Utility of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as cellular vehicles has added new layers of information. There is sufficient experimental evidence substantiating efficient gene deliveries into MSCs by retroviral, lentiviral and adenoviral vectors. Moreover, there is a paradigm shift in molecular oncology and recent high impact research has shown controlled expression of TRAIL in cancer cells on insertion of complementary sequences for frequently downregulated miRNAs. In this review we have attempted to provide an overview of utility of TRAIL engineered MSCs for effective killing of tumor and potential of using miRNA response elements as rheostat like switch to control expression of TRAIL in cancer cells.

  14. Inhalable delivery of AAV-based MRP4/ABCC4 silencing RNA prevents monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Claude

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-binding cassette transporter MRP4 (encoded by ABCC4 regulates membrane cyclic nucleotides concentrations in arterial cells including smooth muscle cells. MRP4/ABCC4 deficient mice display a reduction in smooth muscle cells proliferation and a prevention of pulmonary hypertension in response to hypoxia. We aimed to study gene transfer of a MRP4/ABCC4 silencing RNA via intratracheal delivery of aerosolized adeno-associated virus 1 (AAV1.shMRP4 or AAV1.control in a monocrotaline-induced model of pulmonary hypertension in rats. Gene transfer was performed at the time of monocrotaline administration and the effect on the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling was assessed 35 days later. AAV1.shMRP4 dose-dependently reduced right ventricular systolic pressure and hypertrophy with a significant reduction with the higher doses (i.e., >1011 DRP/animal as compared to AAV1.control. The higher dose of AAV1.shMRP4 was also associated with a significant reduction in distal pulmonary arteries remodeling. AAV1.shMRP4 was finally associated with a reduction in the expression of ANF, a marker of cardiac hypertrophy. Collectively, these results support a therapeutic potential for downregulation of MRP4 for the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension.

  15. The phenomenon of RNA interference in oncology: advances, problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Andreeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review describes the phenomenon of RNA interference – the recently discovered biological mechanism of the negative regulation of gene expression. The mechanism is based on the block of the translation and/or degradation of messenger RNA under short non-coding RNA, among them: microRNA and small interfering RNA. The paper reviews the molecular processes of the formation of small RNA, the mechanism of their action and the feasibility of small RNA implementation in the anti-tumor therapy. Specially, we analyze the approaches to in vivo delivery of small RNA, in particular – the liposome and exosome constructs, and perspective