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Sample records for intensive physical load

  1. The physical interpretation of the threshold-stress intensity range during fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marci, G.; Bazant, E.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the experimental results, the threshold-stress intensity range is given the physical interpretation that it characterizes a range of effective tensile stresses which need to be exceeded during a loading cycle for stage II fatigue crack growth to occur. The threshold stress intensity range is independent from its relative position in the range of effective tensile stress, has always the same magnitude and, furthermore, is independent of the Ksub(Imax) which produced the active plastic zone. The experimental results available from previous threshold stress intensity determinations are in good agreement with the concept developed. (orig.) [de

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  9. Material properties under intensive dynamic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Cherne, Frank J; Zhernokletov, Mikhail V; Glushak, B L; Zocher, Marvin A

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the physical and thermomechanical response of materials subjected to intensive dynamic loading is a challenge of great significance in engineering today. This volume assumes the task of gathering both experimental and diagnostic methods in one place, since not much information has been previously disseminated in the scientific literature.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  12. Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, PerfLoad®, Improves Physical Performance during High-Intensity Exercise: A Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Cases

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad®, was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation. The Wingate test, an inducer of an unbalanced metabolism associated to oxidative stress, was used to assess maximum anaerobic power during a high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Supplementation with PerfLoad® correlated with a significant increase in total power output (5%, maximal peak power output (3.7%, and average power developed (5%, without inducing more fatigue or greater heart rate. Instead, oxidative homeostasis was stabilized in supplemented subjects. Such results demonstrated that PerfLoad® is a natural and efficient solution capable of, similarly to training benefits, helping athletes to improve their physical performance, while balancing their metabolism and reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

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  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming ... miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  16. High-intensity laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohideen, U.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the effect of high intensity lasers on atoms, free electrons and the generation of X-rays from solid density plasmas. The laser produced 50 milli Joule 180 femto sec pulses at 5 Hz. This translates to a maximum intensity of 5 x 10 18 W/cm 2 . At such high fields the AC stark shifts of atoms placed at the focus is much greater than the ionization energy. The characteristics of multiphoton ionization of atoms in intense laser fields was studied by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Free electrons placed in high intensity laser fields lead to harmonic generation. This phenomenon of Nonlinear Compton Scattering was theoretically investigated. Also, when these high intensity pulses are focused on solids a hot plasma is created. This plasma is a bright source of a short X-ray pulse. The pulse-width of X-rays from these solid density plasmas was measured by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy

  17. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J.L.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Collar, J.; de Gouvea, A.; Essig, R.; Grossman, Y.; Haxton, W.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Pitts, K.; Ligeti, Z.; Patterson, J.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Ritchie, J.L.; Roodman, A.; Scholberg, K.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Zeller, G.P.; Aefsky, S.; Afanasev, A.; Agashe, K.; Albright, C.; Alonso, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Aoki, M.; Arguelles, C.A.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Armendariz, J.R.; Armendariz-Picon, C.; Arrieta Diaz, E.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.M.; Babu, K.S.; Bailey, K.; Baker, O.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Bass, M.; Batell, B.; Beacham, J.; Behr, J.; Berger, N.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Bernstein, R.; Bevan, A.J.; Bishai, M.; Blanke, M.; Blessing, S.; Blondel, A.; Blum, T.; Bock, G.; Bodek, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boyce, J.; Breedon, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Brice, S.J.; Briere, R.A.; Brodsky, S.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Browder, T.E.; Bryman, D.A.; Buckley, M.; Burnstein, R.; Caden, E.; Campana, P.; Carlini, R.; Carosi, G.; Castromonte, C.; Cenci, R.; Chakaberia, I.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, C.H.; Choudhary, B.; Christ, N.H.; Christensen, E.; Christy, M.E.; Chupp, T.E.; Church, E.; Cline, D.B.; Coan, T.E.; Coloma, P.; Comfort, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cowan, R.; Cowen, D.F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Datta, A.; Davies, G.S.; Demarteau, M.; DeMille, D.P.; Denig, A.; Dermisek, R.; Deshpande, A.; Dewey, M.S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, M.R.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dobbs, S.; Duraisamy, M.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Eads, M.; Echenard, B.; Elliott, S.R.; Escobar, C.; Fajans, J.; Farooq, S.; Faroughy, C.; Fast, J.E.; Feinberg, B.; Felde, J.; Feldman, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Filippone, B.; Fisher, P.; Flemming, B.T.; Flood, K.T.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.J.; Freyberger, A.; Friedland, A.; Gandhi, R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, F.G.; Gardner, S.; Garrison, L.; Gasparian, A.; Geer, S.; Gehman, V.M.; Gershon, T.; Gilchriese, M.; Ginsberg, C.; Gogoladze, I.; Gonderinger, M.; Goodman, M.; Gould, H.; Graham, M.; Graham, P.W.; Gran, R.; Grange, J.; Gratta, G.; Green, J.P.; Greenlee, H.; Group, R.C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gudkov, V.; Guenette, R.; Haas, A.; Hahn, A.; Han, T.; Handler, T.; Hardy, J.C.; Harnik, R.; Harris, D.A.; Harris, F.A.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnett, J.; He, B.; Heckel, B.R.; Heeger, K.M.; Henderson, S.; Hertzog, D.; Hill, R.; Hinds, E.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Holt, R.J.; Holtkamp, N.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huber, P.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imber, J.; Irastorza, I.; Jaeckel, J.; Jaegle, I.; James, C.; Jawahery, A.; Jensen, D.; Jessop, C.P.; Jones, B.; Jostlein, H.; Junk, T.; Kagan, A.L.; Kalita, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karle, A.; Katori, T.; Kayser, B.; Kephart, R.; Kettell, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.; Kneller, J.; Kobach, A.; Kohl, M.; Kopp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Korsch, W.; Kourbanis, I.; Krisch, A.D.; Krizan, P.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, K.S.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lamm, M.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Langacker, P.; Lazarevic, S.; Le, T.; Lee, K.; Lesko, K.T.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, M.; Lindner, A.; Link, J.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.S.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, C.Y.; Loinaz, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Louis, W.C.; Lozier, J.; Ludovici, L.; Lueking, L.; Lunardini, C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Machado, P.A.N.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Maloney, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Marsh, W.; Marshak, M.; Martin, J.W.; Mauger, C.; McFarland, K.S.; McGrew, C.; McLaughlin, G.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Meadows, B.T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Melconian, D.; Merkel, H.; Messier, M.; Miller, J.P.; Mills, G.; Minamisono, U.K.; Mishra, S.R.; Mocioiu, I.; Sher, S.Moed; Mohapatra, R.N.; Monreal, B.; Moore, C.D.; Morfin, J.G.; Mousseau, J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, P.; Muether, M.; Mumm, H.P.; Munger, C.; Murayama, H.; Nath, P.; Naviliat-Cuncin, O.; Nelson, J.K.; Neuffer, D.; Nico, J.S.; Norman, A.; Nygren, D.; Obayashi, Y.; O'Connor, T.P.; Okada, Y.; Olsen, J.; Orozco, L.; Orrell, J.L.; Osta, J.; Pahlka, B.; Paley, J.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papucci, M.; Parke, S.; Parker, R.H.; Parsa, Z.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Pati, J.C.; Patterson, R.B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Paz, Gil; Perdue, G.N.; Perevalov, D.; Perez, G.; Petti, R.; Pettus, W.; Piepke, A.; Pivovaroff, M.; Plunkett, R.; Polly, C.C.; Pospelov, M.; Povey, R.; Prakesh, A.; Purohit, M.V.; Raby, S.; Raaf, J.L.; Rajendran, R.; Rajendran, S.; Rameika, G.; Ramsey, R.; Rashed, A.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rebel, B.; Redondo, J.; Reimer, P.; Reitzner, D.; Ringer, F.; Ringwald, A.; Riordan, S.; Roberts, B.L.; Roberts, D.A.; Robertson, R.; Robicheaux, F.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Rott, C.; Rubin, P.; Saito, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schellman, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, D.W.; Schneps, J.; Schopper, A.; Schuster, P.; Schwartz, A.J.; Schwarz, M.; Seeman, J.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Seth, K.K.; Shafi, Q.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Sharpe, S.R.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Sigurdson, K.; Sikivie, P.; Singh, J.; Sivers, D.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Song, Y.H.; Soni, A.; Souder, P.; Sousa, A.; Spitz, J.; Stancari, M.; Stavenga, G.C.; Steffen, J.H.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoeckinger, D.; Stone, S.; Strait, J.; Strassler, M.; Sulai, I.A.; Sundrum, R.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tanedo, P.; Taneja, S.; Tang, J.; Tanner, D.B.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I.; Thomas, J.; Thorn, C.; Tian, X.; Tice, B.G.; Tobar, M.; Tolich, N.; Toro, N.; Towner, I.S.; Tsai, Y.; Tschirhart, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Tzanov, M.; Upadhye, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahsen, S.; Vainshtein, A.; Valencia, E.; Van de Water, R.G.; Van de Water, R.S.; Velasco, M.; Vogel, J.; Vogel, P.; Vogelsang, W.; Wah, Y.W.; Walker, D.; Weiner, N.; Weltman, A.; Wendell, R.; Wester, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitmore, J.; Widmann, E.; Wiedemann, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winter, W.; Wise, M.B.; Wodin, J.; Wojcicki, S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wongjirad, T.; Worcester, E.; Wurtele, J.; Xin, T.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yavin, I.; Yeck, J.; Yeh, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, E.; Zioutas, K.; Zisman, M.; Zupan, J.; Zwaska, R.; Intensity Frontier Workshop

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  18. Photonuclear physics with low intensity photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments in photonuclear physics are discussed that require a low intensity photon beam and large acceptance detectors. This combination is especially suitable for the investigation of photoprocesses on nucleons and light nuclei. A specific experimental setup for the electron stretcher ring ELSA is presented. (orig.)

  19. Particle physics in intense electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic field is reviewed giving a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. The possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by a strong electromagnetic environment are also discussed

  20. Shock enhancement of cellular materials subjected to intensive pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Fan, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Li, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Cellular materials can dissipate a large amount of energy due to their considerable stress plateau, which contributes to their extensive applications in structural design for crashworthiness. However, in some experiments with specimens subjected to intense impact loads, transmitted stress enhancement has been observed, leading to severe damage to the objects protected. Transmitted stress through two-dimensional Voronoi cellular materials as a protective device is qualitatively studied in this paper. Dimensionless parameters of material properties and loading parameters are defined to give critical conditions for shock enhancement and clarify the correlation between the deformations and stress enhancement. The effect of relative density on this amplifying phenomenon is investigated as well. In addition, local strain fields are calculated by using the optimal local deformation gradient, which gives a clear presentation of deformations and possible local non-uniformity in the crushing process. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of cellular materials as protective structures.

  1. Does intensity of physical activity moderate interrelationships among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine whether perceived intensity of training ... intensity of training and functional capacity with various measures of health. Perceived intensity of training had marginally moderating effects on physical ...

  2. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  3. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  4. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  5. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  6. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  7. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  8. Intensity versus duration of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....

  9. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  10. Hyperon and hypernuclear physics with intense beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    A brief examination of progress in the study of hypernuclear physics and the hyperon-nucleon interaction is presented. The use of #betta#-hypernuclei in the study of conventional (nonstrange) nuclei is explored. The status of the hyperon-nucleon force problem is reviewed. Anecdotal results are discussed for baryon numbers 4 and 13. μ-hypernuclei are discussed. Production of S = -2 hypernuclei is mentioned

  11. Physical load handling and listening comprehension effects on balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingda

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical load handling and listening comprehension effects on balance control. A total of 16 young and 16 elderly participants were recruited in this study. The physical load handling task required holding a 5-kg load in each hand with arms at sides. The listening comprehension task involved attentive listening to a short conversation. Three short questions were asked regarding the conversation right after the testing trial to test the participants' attentiveness during the experiment. Balance control was assessed by centre of pressure-based measures, which were calculated from the force platform data when the participants were quietly standing upright on a force platform. Results from this study showed that both physical load handling and listening comprehension adversely affected balance control. Physical load handling had a more deleterious effect on balance control under the listening comprehension condition vs. no-listening comprehension condition. Based on the findings from this study, interventions for the improvement of balance could be focused on avoiding exposures to physically demanding tasks and cognitively demanding tasks simultaneously. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Findings from this study can aid in better understanding how humans maintain balance, especially when physical and cognitive loads are applied. Such information is useful for developing interventions to prevent fall incidents and injuries in occupational settings and daily activities.

  12. Optimization of drug loading to improve physical stability of paclitaxel-loaded long-circulating liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vinayagam; Balabathula, Pavan; Divi, Murali K; Thoma, Laura A; Wood, George C

    2015-01-01

    The effect of formulation and process parameters on drug loading and physical stability of paclitaxel-loaded long-circulating liposomes was evaluated. The liposomes were prepared by hydration-extrusion method. The formulation parameters such as total lipid content, cholesterol content, saturated-unsaturated lipid ratio, drug-lipid ratio and process parameters such as extrusion pressure and number of extrusion cycles were studied and their impact on drug loading and physical stability was evaluated. A proportionate increase in drug loading was observed with increase in the total phospholipid content. Cholesterol content and saturated lipid content in the bilayer showed a negative influence on drug loading. The short-term stability evaluation of liposomes prepared with different drug-lipid ratios demonstrated that 1:60 as the optimum drug-lipid ratio to achieve a loading of 1-1.3 mg/mL without the risk of physical instability. The vesicle size decreased with an increase in the extrusion pressure and number of extrusion cycles, but no significant trends were observed for drug loading with changes in process pressure or number of cycles. The optimization of formulation and process parameters led to a physically stable formulation of paclitaxel-loaded long-circulating liposomes that maintain size, charge and integrity during storage.

  13. Compensation for Adolescents' School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudláček, Michal; Frömel, Karel; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota

    2016-03-09

    Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA) on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed-self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire), objective measurements-pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers). They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants' mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  14. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kudláček

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed—self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire, objective measurements—pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers. They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants’ mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. Results: The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Conclusions: Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  15. Applied Physics Education: PER focused on Physics-Intensive Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Physics education research is moving beyond classroom learning to study the application of physics education within STEM jobs and PhD-level research. Workforce-related PER is vital to supporting physics departments as they educate students for a diverse range of careers. Results from an on-going study involving interviews with entry-level employees, academic researchers, and supervisors in STEM jobs describe the ways that mathematics, physics, and communication are needed for workplace success. Math and physics are often used for solving ill-structured problems that involve data analysis, computational modeling, or hands-on work. Communication and collaboration are utilized in leadership, sales, and as way to transfer information capital throughout the organization through documentation, emails, memos, and face-to-face discussions. While managers and advisors think a physics degree typically establishes technical competency, communication skills are vetted through interviews and developed on the job. Significant learning continues after graduation, showing the importance of cultivating self-directed learning habits and the critical role of employers as educators of specialized technical abilities through on-the-job training. Supported by NSF DGE-1432578.

  16. Profiles of intensity loads in physical education classes in Poland Profily intenzivní zátěže v hodinách tělesné výchovy v Polsku

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Bronikowski

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research was to compare the health-related effectiveness of various types of physical education lessons on the cardio-respiratory system. The research was carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 in two junior high schools in Poznań. There were four types of classes examined: outdoor athletics, volleyball, basketball and fun games, each type lasting 45 minutes. Heart rates of two randomly selected pupils aged 15–16 were recorded during class, with the use of Polar heart rat...

  17. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  18. Loading intensity of jumping exercises in post-menopausal women: Implications for osteogenic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smale, K B; Hansen, L H; Kristensen, J K

    2018-01-01

    Post‐menopausal women frequently exhibit low bone mineral density, and therefore, evidence‐based exercises that induce osteogenic loading and prevent osteoporosis are often essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate the loading intensity of 3 different jumping exercises in post‐menop...

  19. Light-Intensity Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Few studies have examined the effects of light-intensity physical activity on mortality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured light-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality risk. Longitudinal. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 with follow-up through December 31, 2011. Five thousand five hundred seventy-five U.S. adults. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess sociodemographics and chronic disease information, with blood samples taken to assess biological markers. Follow-up mortality status was assessed via death certificate data from the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard model. After adjusting for accelerometer-determined MVPA, age, gender, race-ethnicity, cotinine, weight status, poverty level, C-reactive protein, and comorbid illness, for every 60-minute increase in accelerometer-determined light-intensity physical activity, participants had a 16% reduced hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = .84; 95% confidence interval: .78-.91; p physical activity was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk, independent of age, MVPA, and other potential confounders. In addition to MVPA, promotion of light-intensity physical activity is warranted.

  20. Summary for the WG4: physics with high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.

    2006-01-01

    There are many physics opportunities in laser-beam interactions and innovations in the laser- and the beam technologies expand them or even open new window in the field. Therefore, physics with high intense lasers is an attractive application of nanobeam technologies. The topics in the working group 4 covers fundamental physics based on technique related with nanobeam development aiming to encourage communication between physics and accelerator communities. Due to the limited time for the preparation, we did not try comprehensive coverage of the field but invited topics which are planed near future or can be studied at the ILC test facilities. (author)

  1. Profiles of intensity loads in physical education classes in Poland Profily intenzivní zátěže v hodinách tělesné výchovy v Polsku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bronikowski

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to compare the health-related effectiveness of various types of physical education lessons on the cardio-respiratory system. The research was carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 in two junior high schools in Poznań. There were four types of classes examined: outdoor athletics, volleyball, basketball and fun games, each type lasting 45 minutes. Heart rates of two randomly selected pupils aged 15–16 were recorded during class, with the use of Polar heart rate monitors. According to the findings of a cross-national study, Polish youth do not have enough moderate-to-vigorous activity on a daily basis (Cabak & Woynarowska, 2004. In our research the most effective in stimulating cardio-respiratory fitness appeared to be outdoor athletics classes in boys and girls, and basketball in boys. Our data support the earlier findings of other studies (Stratton, 1997; Fairclough & Stratton, 2005. Cílem průzkumu bylo srovnání zdravotní účinnosti různých typů hodin tělesné výchovy na kardio-respirační ústrojí. Průzkum byl prováděn v letech 2002 a 2003 na nižším stupni středních škol v Poznani. Zkoumány byly čtyři typy hodin: atletika, volejbal, basketbal a pohybové hry, přičemž každý typ měl trvání 45 minut. V průběhu hodiny byla u dvou náhodně zvolených 15–16letých žáků měřena srdeční frekvence, a to pomocí monitorů srdeční frekvence Polar. Podle výsledků celonárodního výzkumu nemá polská mládež dostatek každodenní střední až intenzivní aktivity (Cabak & Woynarowska, 2004. V našem průzkumu se hodiny atletiky, v případě chlapců a dívek, a basketbalu, v případě chlapců, jevily jako hodiny nejúčinněji stimulující kardio-respirační zdatnost. Naše údaje potvrzují dřívější výsledky jiných průzkumů (Stratton, 1997; Fairclough & Stratton, 2005.

  2. [Comparison of the effect of continuous and intermittent physical loading in type I diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusavý, Z; Lacigová, S; Holecek, T; Srámek, V; Novák, I; Tĕsínský, P

    1994-07-01

    In order to evaluate the optimal mode of physical loads the authors examined 19 diabetics type I without secondary complications. On the second day of an educational-rehabilitation camp the authors subjected the patients to a continuous load-a 40-minute endurance run at a heart rate equal to 60% of the maximal oxygen requirement. On the fifth day an intermittent load with a maximal intensity--training of 4 x 10 minutes with 5-minute intervals was administered. At the onset, during the 20th and 40th minute of the load the titrable acidity, lactate and blood sugar level were assessed. The intermittent load led already after 20 minutes to marked acidosis (titrable acidity = 12) which did not increase after 40 minutes of the load. The authors recorded a statistically significant rise of the lactate level (4.57 mmol/l) which after 40 minutes of the load rose further to 12.3 mmol/l, as compared with values of titrable acidity during the 20th and 40th minute (0.44 and 1.14) and lactate during the 20th and 40th minute (4.57 and 3.86 mmol/l) during a continuous load. After evaluation by the test of linear correlation it appears with regard to the stability of the blood sugar level during a load that an intermittent load is more favourable. The drop of the blood sugar level in time during a continuous load was at the 1 level of significance, in intermittent loads at the 5% of significance. Both types of loads did not lead to hypoglycaemia or other complications and thus both can be used in diabetics type I.

  3. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana C. Nogueira, Benjamin K. Weeks, Belinda R. Beck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was ‘vigorous’ to ‘very vigorous’ for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump. CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children.

  4. The effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelly C.

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to two groups of listeners without PD. Methods: Nineteen individuals with Parkinson's disease, ten healthy age- and hearing-matched adults, and ten healthy young adults were studied. All listeners participated in two intensity discrimination tasks differing in auditory memory load; a lower memory load, 4IAX task and a higher memory load, ABX task. Intensity discrimination performance was assessed using a bias-free measurement of signal detectability known as d' (d-prime). Listeners further participated in a continuous loudness scaling task where they were instructed to rate the loudness level of each signal intensity using a computerized 150mm visual analogue scale. Results: Group discrimination functions indicated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity (d') across tasks for the individuals with PD, as compared to the older and younger controls. No significant effect of aging on intensity discrimination was observed for either task. All three listeners groups demonstrated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity for the higher auditory memory load, ABX task, compared to the lower auditory memory load, 4IAX task. Furthermore, a significant effect of aging was identified for the loudness scaling condition. The younger controls were found to rate most stimuli along the continuum as significantly louder than the older controls and the individuals with PD. Conclusions: The persons with PD showed evidence of impaired auditory perception for intensity information, as compared to the older and younger controls. The significant effect of aging on loudness perception may indicate peripheral and/or central auditory involvement.

  5. [Convalescence and decline in physical function level following intensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, J.B.; Moller, K.; Perner, A.

    2009-01-01

    prolong convalescence after discharge. Thus, strategies to counteract neuromuscular dysfunction and to improve physical outcome may reduce the overall burden of critical illness. This review describes the most common predisposing factors and discusses preventative measures and interventions Udgivelsesdato......More patients survive critical illness, which emphasises the need to assess outcome measures other than mortality. A prolonged decline in physical function is frequently observed after discharge in the critically ill. Neuromuscular dysfunction and muscle atrophy incurred during intensive care may...

  6. [Convalescence and decline in physical function level following intensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, J.B.; Moller, K.; Perner, A.

    2009-01-01

    More patients survive critical illness, which emphasises the need to assess outcome measures other than mortality. A prolonged decline in physical function is frequently observed after discharge in the critically ill. Neuromuscular dysfunction and muscle atrophy incurred during intensive care may...... prolong convalescence after discharge. Thus, strategies to counteract neuromuscular dysfunction and to improve physical outcome may reduce the overall burden of critical illness. This review describes the most common predisposing factors and discusses preventative measures and interventions Udgivelsesdato...

  7. Performance in tactical decision making on the physical load in the game.

    OpenAIRE

    Navara, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Title: Performance in tactical decision-making on the physical load in the game. Objectives: Determine the relationship between the physical load and tactical decision making. Methods: Watching. Results: The greater the physical load, the smaller the rightness of tactical decision-making. Keywords: Tactical decision-making, soccer, physical load.

  8. Industrial applications of exoskeletons and their impact on physical loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, M.P.; Bosch, T.; Krause, F.; Stadler, K.; O'Sullivan, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide an overview of assistive exoskeletons that have specifically been developed for industrial purposes and to assess the potential effect of these exoskeletons on reduction of physical loading on the body. The search resulted in 40 papers describing 26 different

  9. Individuals underestimate moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karissa L Canning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the common physical activity (PA intensity descriptors used in PA guidelines worldwide align with the associated percent heart rate maximum method used for prescribing relative PA intensities consistently between sexes, ethnicities, age categories and across body mass index (BMI classifications. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine whether individuals properly select light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA using the intensity descriptions in PA guidelines and determine if there are differences in estimation across sex, ethnicity, age and BMI classifications. METHODS: 129 adults were instructed to walk/jog at a "light," "moderate" and "vigorous effort" in a randomized order. The PA intensities were categorized as being below, at or above the following %HRmax ranges of: 50-63% for light, 64-76% for moderate and 77-93% for vigorous effort. RESULTS: On average, people correctly estimated light effort as 51.5±8.3%HRmax but underestimated moderate effort as 58.7±10.7%HRmax and vigorous effort as 69.9±11.9%HRmax. Participants walked at a light intensity (57.4±10.5%HRmax when asked to walk at a pace that provided health benefits, wherein 52% of participants walked at a light effort pace, 19% walked at a moderate effort and 5% walked at a vigorous effort pace. These results did not differ by sex, ethnicity or BMI class. However, younger adults underestimated moderate and vigorous intensity more so than middle-aged adults (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: When the common PA guideline descriptors were aligned with the associated %HRmax ranges, the majority of participants underestimated the intensity of PA that is needed to obtain health benefits. Thus, new subjective descriptions for moderate and vigorous intensity may be warranted to aid individuals in correctly interpreting PA intensities.

  10. Psychosocial factors and mental work load: a reality perceived by nurses in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ceballos-Vásquez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyse the perception of psychosocial factors and mental workload of nurses who work in intensive care units. It is hypothesised that nurses in these units could perceive psychosocial risks, manifesting in a high mental work load. The psychosocial dimension related to the position's cognitive demands is hypothesised to mostly explain mental work load. METHOD: Quantitative study, with a descriptive, cross-sectional, and comparative design. A total of 91% of the intensive care unit populations of three Chilean hospitals was surveyed, corresponding to 111 nurses. The instruments utilised included (A a biosociodemographic history questionnaire; (b the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 questionnaire; and (c the Mental Work Load Subjective Scale (ESCAM, in Spanish. RESULTS: In total, 64% and 57% of participants perceived high levels of exposure to the psychosocial risks Psychosocial demands and Double shift, respectively. In addition, a medium-high level of overall mental load was observed. Positive and significant correlations between some of the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 and ESCAM dimensions were obtained. Using a regression analysis, it was determined that three dimensions of the psychosocial risk questionnaire helped to explain 38% of the overall mental load. CONCLUSION: Intensive care unit nurses felt that inadequate psychosocial factors and mental work overload existed in several of the tested dimensions.

  11. Particle Physics at the Cosmic, Intensity, and Energy Frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven

    2018-04-06

    Major efforts at the Intensity, Cosmic, and Energy frontiers of particle physics are rapidly furthering our understanding of the fundamental constituents of Nature and their interactions. The overall objectives of this research project are (1) to interpret and develop the theoretical implications of the data collected at these frontiers and (2) to provide the theoretical motivation, basis, and ideas for new experiments and for new analyses of experimental data. Within the Intensity Frontier, an experimental search for a new force mediated by a GeV-scale gauge boson will be carried out with the $A'$ Experiment (APEX) and the Heavy Photon Search (HPS), both at Jefferson Laboratory. Within the Cosmic Frontier, contributions are planned to the search for dark matter particles with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other instruments. A detailed exploration will also be performed of new direct detection strategies for dark matter particles with sub-GeV masses to facilitate the development of new experiments. In addition, the theoretical implications of existing and future dark matter-related anomalies will be examined. Within the Energy Frontier, the implications of the data from the Large Hadron Collider will be investigated. Novel search strategies will be developed to aid the search for new phenomena not described by the Standard Model of particle physics. By combining insights from all three particle physics frontiers, this research aims to increase our understanding of fundamental particle physics.

  12. Assessment physical load of dockers in a worker cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán D. Zapata

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Manual labourers are workers whose job consists of humping goods. Task commonly related to a varied level of mechanical stress due both to its mechanical stress demand and the workplace risk factors. Objectives: to determine the level of exposure to physical workload amongst a sample of manual labourers who work at the factory of food concentrate for animal. To propose general administrative control and working atmosphere measures. Methodology: a study of descriptive observational type by convenience was carried out. The sample consisted of 41 manual labourers who were administered a socio-demographic survey in order to know the population characteristics. To those fulfilling the inclusion criteria, a heart rate monitoring was used. Afterwards, the Frimat method was administered to determine the levels of exposure to physical work load according to workload rates. Statistical analysis favoured was descriptive and non-parametric (Chisquare χ Results: two out of the four work sites under study constitute the most representative workload to personnel. While the study, the three labourers (100% shoving and 14 (63.6% out of the 22 labourers loading goods up and down ranged from hard to extremely tough levels of workload. Conversely, 11(91.7% labourers carrying raw material and 4 (100% sewing sacks were placed under a low level ranging between a minimal and bearable workload. Discussion: the kinds of job as well as the activities related to it affect the level of physical workload. Personal factors can have an influence upon physical workload.

  13. A standardized approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis during low-intensity physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine eSarafian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of current methods: The assessment of human variability in various compartments of daily energy expenditure (EE under standardized conditions is well defined at rest (as basal metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding, and currently under validation for assessing the energy cost of low-intensity dynamic work. However, because physical activities of daily life consist of a combination of both dynamic and isometric work, there is also a need to develop standardized tests for assessing human variability in the energy cost of low-intensity isometric work.Experimental objectives: Development of an approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis by incorporating a protocol of intermittent leg press exercise of varying low-intensity isometric loads with measurements of EE by indirect calorimetry. Results: EE was measured in the seated position with the subject at rest or while intermittently pressing both legs against a press-platform at 5 low-intensity isometric loads (+5, +10, + 15, +20 and +25 kg force, each consisting of a succession of 8 cycles of press (30 s and rest (30 s. EE, integrated over each 8-min period of the intermittent leg press exercise, was found to increase linearly across the 5 isometric loads with a correlation coefficient (r > 0.9 for each individual. The slope of this EE-Load relationship, which provides the energy cost of this standardized isometric exercise expressed per kg force applied intermittently (30 s in every min, was found to show good repeatability when assessed in subjects who repeated the same experimental protocol on 3 separate days: its low intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV of ~ 10% contrasted with its much higher inter-individual CV of 35%; the latter being mass-independent but partly explained by height. Conclusion: This standardized approach to study isometric thermogenesis opens up a new avenue for research in EE phenotyping and metabolic predisposition to obesity

  14. Evaluation of low-intensity physical activity by triaxial accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Tanaka, Shigeho; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Futami, Jun; Tabata, Izumi

    2007-12-01

    To develop regression-based equations that estimate physical activity ratios [energy expenditure (EE) per minute/sleeping metabolic rate] for low-to-moderate intensity activities using total acceleration obtained by triaxial accelerometry. Twenty-one Japanese adults were fitted with a triaxial accelerometer while also in a whole-body human calorimeter for 22.5 hours. The protocol time was composed of sleep (8 hours), four structured activity periods totaling 4 hours (sitting, standing, housework, and walking on a treadmill at speeds of 71 and 95 m/min, 2 x 30 minutes for each activity), and residual time (10.5 hours). Acceleration data (milligausse) from the different periods and their relationship to physical activity ratio obtained from the human calorimeter allowed for the development of EE equations for each activity. The EE equations were validated on the residual times, and the percentage difference for the prediction errors was calculated as (predicted value - measured value)/measured value x 100. Using data from triaxial accelerations and the ratio of horizontal to vertical accelerations, there was relatively high accuracy in identifying the four different periods of activity. The predicted EE (882 +/- 150 kcal/10.5 hours) was strongly correlated with the actual EE measured by human calorimetry (846 +/- 146 kcal/10.5 hours, r = 0.94 p types of activities and estimate EE for low-intensity physical activities associated with modern lifestyles.

  15. Effects of the Physical Environment on Cognitive Load and Learning: Towards a New Model of Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan-Hee; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Although the theoretical framework of cognitive load theory has acknowledged a role for the learning environment, the specific characteristics of the physical learning environment that could affect cognitive load have never been considered, neither theoretically nor empirically. In this article, we argue that the physical learning environment, and…

  16. Parallelization and scheduling of data intensive particle physics analysis jobs on clusters of PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, S

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. Scheduling policies are proposed for parallelizing data intensive particle physics analysis applications on computer clusters. Particle physics analysis jobs require the analysis of tens of thousands of particle collision events, each event requiring typically 200ms processing time and 600KB of data. Many jobs are launched concurrently by a large number of physicists. At a first view, particle physics jobs seem to be easy to parallelize, since particle collision events can be processed independently one from another. However, since large amounts of data need to be accessed, the real challenge resides in making an efficient use of the underlying computing resources. We propose several job parallelization and scheduling policies aiming at reducing job processing times and at increasing the sustainable load of a cluster server. Since particle collision events are usually reused by several jobs, cache based job splitting strategies considerably increase cluster utilization and reduce job ...

  17. Sound-Intensity Feedback During Running Reduces Loading Rates and Impact Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jeremiah J; Milner, Clare E

    2017-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, within-session design. Background Gait retraining has been proposed as an effective intervention to reduce impact loading in runners at risk of stress fractures. Interventions that can be easily implemented in the clinic are needed. Objective To assess the immediate effects of sound-intensity feedback related to impact during running on vertical impact peak, peak vertical instantaneous loading rate, and vertical average loading rate. Methods Fourteen healthy, college-aged runners who ran at least 9.7 km/wk participated (4 male, 10 female; mean ± SD age, 23.7 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.67 ± 0.08 m; mass, 60.9 ± 8.7 kg). A decibel meter provided real-time sound-intensity feedback of treadmill running via an iPad application. Participants were asked to reduce the sound intensity of running while receiving continuous feedback for 15 minutes, while running at their self-selected preferred speed. Baseline and follow-up ground reaction force data were collected during overground running at participants' self-selected preferred running speed. Results Dependent t tests indicated a statistically significant reduction in vertical impact peak (1.56 BW to 1.13 BW, P≤.001), vertical instantaneous loading rate (95.48 BW/s to 62.79 BW/s, P = .001), and vertical average loading rate (69.09 BW/s to 43.91 BW/s, P≤.001) after gait retraining, compared to baseline. Conclusion The results of the current study support the use of sound-intensity feedback during treadmill running to immediately reduce loading rate and impact force. The transfer of within-session reductions in impact peak and loading rates to overground running was demonstrated. Decreases in loading were of comparable magnitude to those observed in other gait retraining methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(8):565-569. Epub 6 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7275.

  18. Effects of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loading in obese adults with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, J; Bliddal, H; Messier, S P

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).......To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)....

  19. Performance of plasma facing materials under intense thermal loads in tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Hirai, T.; Roedig, M.; Singheiser, L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Beside quasi-stationary plasma operation, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities in the order of several ten MJm{sup -2} are a serious concern for next step devices, in particular for tokamak devices such as ITER. The most serious of these transient events are plasma disruptions. Here a considerable fraction of the plasma energy is deposited on a localized surface area in the divertor strike zone region; the time scale of these events is typically in the order of 1 ms. In spite of the fact that a dense cloud of ablation vapour will form above the strike zone, only partial shielding of the divertor armour from incident plasma particles will occur. As a consequence, thermal shock induced crack formation, vaporization, surface melting, melt layer ejection, and particle emission induced by brittle destruction processes will limit the lifetime of the components. In addition, dust particles (neutron activated metals or tritium enriched carbon) are a serious concern form a safety point of view. Other transient heat loads which occasionally occur in magnetic confinement experiments such as instabilities in the plasma positioning (vertical displacement events) also may cause irreversible damage to plasma facing components (PFC), particularly to metals such as beryllium and tungsten. Another serious damage to PFCs is due to intense fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons in D-T-burning plasma devices. Integrated neutron fluence of several ten dpa in future thermonuclear fusion reactors will degrade essential physical properties of the components (e.g. thermal conductivity); another serious concern is the embrittlement of the heat sink and the plasma facing materials (PFM). (orig.)

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF AGE HENS ON THE INTENSITY LOAD CAPACITY FROM DIFFERENT WEIGHT GROUPS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pandurević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of hens on the intensity of load from different weight groups eggs. This paper presents the correlation connection, meaning and significance of differences connection for two weight classes (M - 53 to 63g and L – 63g to 73g, which make up the largest part of the total number of eggs produced during the entire production cycle, as well as for all of the eggs produced, as compared to age-laying hens. Between age and intensity of load to 53 weeks of age hens (SN53/34, there is a strong positive, medium and slight correlation coefficients determined and phenotypic correlation are statistically confirmed at the level of P 0.05. Between the age of hens and intensity of load hardest groups (classes eggs (L there is a complete and very strong connections and established correlation coefficients were statistically significant at P <0.001.

  1. Determination of strength exercise intensities based on the load-power-velocity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandačka, Daniel; Beremlijski, Petr

    2011-06-01

    The velocity of movement and applied load affect the production of mechanical power output and subsequently the extent of the adaptation stimulus in strength exercises. We do not know of any known function describing the relationship of power and velocity and load in the bench press exercise. The objective of the study is to find a function modeling of the relationship of relative velocity, relative load and mechanical power output for the bench press exercise and to determine the intensity zones of the exercise for specifically focused strength training of soccer players. Fifteen highly trained soccer players at the start of a competition period were studied. The subjects of study performed bench presses with the load of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% of the predetermined one repetition maximum with maximum possible speed of movement. The mean measured power and velocity for each load (kg) were used to develop a multiple linear regression function which describes the quadratic relationship between the ratio of power (W) to maximum power (W) and the ratios of the load (kg) to one repetition maximum (kg) and the velocity (m•s(-1)) to maximal velocity (m•s(-1)). The quadratic function of two variables that modeled the searched relationship explained 74% of measured values in the acceleration phase and 75% of measured values from the entire extent of the positive power movement in the lift. The optimal load for reaching maximum power output suitable for the dynamics effort strength training was 40% of one repetition maximum, while the optimal mean velocity would be 75% of maximal velocity. Moreover, four zones: maximum power, maximum velocity, velocity-power and strength-power were determined on the basis of the regression function.

  2. Physics Potential of Very Intense Conventional Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Burguet-Castell, J; Casper, David William; DOnega, M; Gilardoni, S S; Hernández, Pilar; Mezzetto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    The physics potential of high intensity conventional beams is explored. We consider a low energy super beam which could be produced by a proposed new accelerator at CERN, the Super Proton Linac. Water Cherenkov and liquid oil scintillator detectors are studied as possible candidates for a neutrino oscillation experiment which could improve our current knowledge of the atmospheric parameters and measure or severely constrain the parameter connecting the atmospheric and solar realms. It is also shown that a very large water detector could eventually observe leptonic CP violation. The reach of such an experiment to the neutrino mixing parameters would lie in-between the next generation of neutrino experiments (MINOS, OPERA, etc) and a future neutrino factory.

  3. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer. A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland–Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices. Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland–Altman analysis. Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a desired speed. PMID:26962822

  4. Mechanisms of adaptation to intensive loads of 400 meters’ hurdles runners at stage of initial basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Rovniy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is study of adaptation mechanisms of 400 meter’ hurdles-runners to intensive physical loads. Material: in the research 13 - 400 meters’ hurdles-runners and 13 - 400 meters’ runners participated. Results: it was found that physiological cost of sportsmen’s special workability has fragmentary character. We presented results of physiological and bio-chemical adaptation mechanisms to dozed work. The received results have no confident distinctions and can not objectively characterize mechanisms of sportsmen’s special workability. We did not detect definite differences in indicators of mechanisms, ensuring sportsmen’s special workability under dozed loads. We found, that level of anaerobic glycolysis is an objective criterion of 400 meter’ hurdles-runners’ special workability. It was shown that for determination of functional potentials for such kind of functioning it is necessary to apply special loads. Conclusions: the received results deepen information about mechanisms of adaptation to specific competition functioning. Correct approaches to processing and analysis of the research’s results permit to more specifically determine sportsmen’s functional potentials in different kinds of competition functioning.

  5. Experimental Simulation of Beryllium Armour Damage Under ITER-like Intense Transient Plasma Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.; Basaleev, E.; Nikolaev, G.; Kurbatova, L., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Material, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.; Zhitlukhin, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. L. [Project Centre of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material in the next generation of tokamaks such as ITER. During plasma operation in ITER, the plasma facing materials and components will be suffered by different kinds of loading which may affect their surface or their joint to the heat sink. In addition to quasi-stationary loadings which are caused by the normal cycling operation, the plasma facing components and materials may also be exposed to the intense short transient loads like disruptions, ELMs. All these events may lead to beryllium surface melting, cracking, evaporation and erosion. It is expected that the erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as ELMs and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. To obtain the experimental data for the evaluation of the beryllium armor lifetime and dust production under ITER-relevant transient loads, the advanced plasma gun QSPA-Be facility has been constructed in Bochvar Institute. This paper presents recent results of the experiments with Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade. The mock-ups of a special design armored with two beryllium targets (80 x 80 x 10 mm{sup 3}) were tested by hydrogen plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat load of 0.5 and 1.0 MJ/m{sup 2}. Experiments were performed at RT temperature. The evolution of surface microstructure and profile, cracks morphology and mass loss/gain under erosion process on the beryllium surface exposed to up to 250 shots will be presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Stress-intensity factors for cracks emanating from the loaded fastener hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, V.; Hsu, Y. C.

    1977-01-01

    Using a series approach and the Muskhelishvili formulation in the two-dimensional theory of elasticity, stress-intensity factors K are derived for problems in which cracks emanate radially from the boundary of an arbitrarily loaded internal circular hole in an infinite plate. Numerical values are obtained for K(I) and K(II) for radial cracks from a hole containing a loose-fitted pin or rivet that is pulled perpendicular to the crack direction in the plane of the plate. The method is a general one for determining K for a set of symmetrically emanating radial cracks for a variety of concentrated or distributed tractions on the circular hole.

  7. VALUE CHANGE DIAMETERRED BLOOD CELLS ATHLETES IN THE PHYSICAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Yurevna Rubtsova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: to study the nature of distribution of erythrocytes on diameter in the circulating blood of skiers-racers during achievement of a threshold of anaerobic threshold (AТ. Materials and methods: Professional Skiers racers (young men and men, girls and women at the age of 17–37 years (n = 33 are еxamined in the conditions of physical activity on the stationary bicycle. The research is conducted according to the protocol approved by local committee on bioethics in case of Institute of Physiology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Samples of blood were taken from an elbow vein on an empty stomach, then from finger capillaries to, - on a threshold of anaerobic exchange, after execution of loading “to the full” and in 5 min restoration. On the stained blood smears measured diameter of 50 erythrocytes. Results processed statistically with use of an application program package of Windows (Basic, 2011. Results: At stage AT at 36% of athletes defined increase in average diameter of erythrocytes from 7,46 ± 0,06 to 7,68 ± 0,08 µm (р<0,05, without changes at 12% (7,45 ± 0,04 – 7,43 ± 0,05 µm and reduction of the size of cells at 52% from 7,51± 0,04 to 7,35 ± 0,05 µm (р<0,05. In the conditions of a maximum load (men have 337,1 ± 12,4 W and women have 246,7 ± 10,8 W and during the 5-minute recovery diameter of erythrocytes returned to the original value. Conclusion: Thus, the individual nature of change of average diameter of erythrocytes at athletes is shown during achievement of ANSPs and probably corresponds to selective elimination preferentially macro- or microcytes.

  8. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Disha, E-mail: sawant@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: amati@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  9. Intense Ion Beams for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbucher, Lynn; Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K + ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons of

  10. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K+ ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally

  11. Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.; Chang, Y.-F.; Chen, Y.-M.; Shih, K.-C.

    2005-01-01

    A water treatment unit, mainly consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland cells, was integrated into a commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture system for intensive shrimp culture. This study investigated performance of the treatment wetlands for controlling water quality. The results showed that the FWS-SF cells effectively removed total suspended solids (55-66%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (37-54%), total ammonia (64-66%) and nitrite (83-94%) from the recirculating water under high hydraulic loading rates (1.57-1.95 m/day). This led to a water quality that was suitable for shrimp culture and effluent that always satisfied the discharge standards. The area ratios of wetlands to culture tank being demonstrated (0.43) and calculated (0.096) in this study were both significantly lower than the reported values. Accordingly, a constructed wetland was technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive aquaculture system. - A constructed wetland was found to be technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system

  12. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  13. Stress intensity factors of eccentric cracks in bi-materials plate under mode I loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A. E. [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Bi-material plates were generally used to joint electronic devices or mechanical components requiring dissimilar materials to be attached. During services, mechanical failure can be occurred due to the formation of cracks at the interfacial joint or away from the centre. Generally, linear elastic fracture mechanics approach is used to characterize these cracks based on stress intensity factors (SIF). Based on the literature survey, the SIFs for the central cracks were easily available. However, the SIFs for eccentric cracks were difficult to obtain. Therefore, this paper presented the SIFs for eccentric cracks subjected to mode I tension loading. Three important parameters were used such as relative crack depth, a/L, relative offset distance, b/L and elastic mismatch, E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} or α. It was found that such parameters significantly affected the characteristic of SIFs and it was depend on the location of cracks.

  14. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load : risk factors, consequences, and preventive action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Grinten, M.P. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Poel, E.G.T. van der

    1998-01-01

    Objectives - Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks,

  15. Effect of instruction, surface stability, and load intensity on trunk muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Thompson, Brennan; Fontana, Fabio E

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of verbal instruction, surface stability, and load intensity on trunk muscle activity levels during the free weight squat exercise. Twelve trained males performed a free weight squat under four conditions: (1) standing on stable ground lifting 50% of their 1-repetition maximum (RM), (2) standing on a BOSU balance trainer lifting 50% of their 1-RM, (3) standing on stable ground lifting 75% of their 1-RM, and (4) receiving verbal instructions to activate the trunk muscles followed by lifting 50% of their 1-RM. Surface EMG activity from muscles rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) were recorded for each condition and normalized for comparisons. Muscles RA, EO, and TA/IO displayed greater peak activity (39-167%) during squats with instructions compared to the other squat conditions (P=0.04-0.007). Peak EMG activity of muscle ES was greater for the 75% 1-RM condition than squats with instructions or lifting 50% of 1-RM (P=0.04-0.02). The results indicate that if the goal is to enhance EMG activity of the abdominal muscles during a multi-joint squat exercise then verbal instructions may be more effective than increasing load intensity or lifting on an unstable surface. However, in light of other research, conscious co-activation of the trunk muscles during the squat exercise may lead to spinal instability and hazardous compression forces in the lumbar spine.

  16. Light-intensity physical activity is associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women independent of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Yuko; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether light physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance, similar to moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship between the amount of light physical activity, as determined with a triaxial accelerometer, and insulin resistance. A total of 807 healthy men and women participated in this study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn for 28 days and summarized as light intensity (1.1-2.9 METs) or moderate to vigorous intensity (≥ 3.0 METs). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA_R (FPG [mg/dL] × IRI [μU/mL]/405). The daily time spent in light physical activity was inversely associated with HOMA_R (r = -0.173, P physical activity and HOMA_R remained statistically significant (β = -0.119, P physical activity remained significantly associated with HOMA_R following further adjustment for moderate to vigorous intensity activity (β = -0.125, P physical activity was modeled as quartiles, especially in elderly women. These cross-sectional data suggest that light-intensity physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women.

  17. Kinetic model for mechanical twinning and its application for intensive loading of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present our twinning model intended for simulation of the dynamic deformation of metals with low values of the stacking fault energy, as well as the results of application of the model to numerical simulation of intensive loading of metals. Generation of a twin is described as an appearance of a stacking fault with size more than some critical value, while growth of a twin is considered as a cooperative movement of partial dislocation along the stacking fault. The twin nucleation rate is expressed through the energy released due to annihilation of dislocations. Movement of partial dislocations in the course of twin growth passes under the action of elastic stress field and phonon drag. The surface energy of the growing twin continuously increases which leads to the appearance of an additional force. Application of this model allows us to investigate plastic response of metals at various dynamic loading conditions and initial defect structures. Influence of twinning at Taylor rod compaction experiments is analyzed including formation of the shape of the lateral surface.

  18. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  19. The effect of menstruation on chosen physiological and biochemical reactions caused by the physical effort with the submaximal intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Zieliński

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the menstruation phase on changes of respective indicators of the gas exchange and on biochemical parameters of blood during physical efforts with the sub-maximal intensity. Fifteen female students of the Academy of Physical Education took part in the study. Girls were aged from 19 to 22 years old and did not practice sports. The effort tests were conducted in the follicular and luteal phase of two succeeding menstrual cycles. As far the aerobic capacity determination is concerned, one cyclo-ergometric test with graded effort was conducted and it was performed till the “refusal”. It allowed to mark a threshold (TDMA and a maximal level of physiological and biochemical indicators. Basing on the results of the graded test individual loads were determined for every next effort trial (repeated 4 times in every phase of the two succeeding menstrual cycles. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the reaction of women’s constitution on work with the sub-maximal intensity. The above trial consisted on two 10 min efforts divided with the 2 min pause (the first effort with the intensity of 80% of the TDMA threshold, second with the intensity bigger about 30-40% of difference between TDMA and a maximal load established by the graded test. The research did not reveal statistically significant differentiation as considering effort changes of basic physiological and biochemical indicators, determining reaction of women’s organisms on work with the sub- and over- threshold intensity (TDMA. It showed that menstruation has not significant effect on the level of changes of analysed parameters caused by the physical effort with the sub-maximal intensity.

  20. Loading Intensity Prediction by Velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 Scale in Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-02-01

    Naclerio, F and Larumbe-Zabala, E. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale in bench press. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 323-329, 2017-This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press (BP) exercise. A total of 308 young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 men and 66 women) performed a progressive strength test up to the one repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity (AV) and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scales (OMNI-RES 0-10 scale), considering sets as the time-related variable. Load associated with the AV and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value expressed after performing a set of 1-3 repetitions were used to construct 2 adjusted predictive equations: Relative load = 107.75 - 62.97 × average velocity; and Relative load = 29.03 + 7.26 × OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value. The 2 models were capable of estimating the relative load with an accuracy of 84 and 93%, respectively. These findings confirm the ability of the 2 calculated regression models, using load-velocity and load-exertion from the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale, to accurately predict strength performance in BP.

  1. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  2. Physical Modelling of Bucket Foundations Subjected to Axial Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina

    Compared to oil and gas structures, marine renewable energy devices are usually much lighter, operate in shallower waters and are subjected to severe cyclic loading and dynamic excitations. These factors result in different structural behaviours. Bucket foundations are a potentially cost......-effective solution for various offshore structures, and not least marine renewables. The present thesis focuses on several critical design problems related to the behaviour of bucket foundations exposed to tensile loading. Among those are the soil-structure interface parameters, tensile loading under various...

  3. Temporal responses of coastal hypoxia to nutrient loading and physical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Kemp

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and intensity of hypoxic waters in coastal aquatic ecosystems has been expanding in recent decades coincident with eutrophication of the coastal zone. Worldwide, there is strong interest in reducing the size and duration of hypoxia in coastal waters, because hypoxia causes negative effects for many organisms and ecosystem processes. Although strategies to reduce hypoxia by decreasing nutrient loading are predicated on the assumption that this action would reverse eutrophication, recent analyses of historical data from European and North American coastal systems suggest little evidence for simple linear response trajectories. We review published parallel time-series data on hypoxia and loading rates for inorganic nutrients and labile organic matter to analyze trajectories of oxygen (O2 response to nutrient loading. We also assess existing knowledge of physical and ecological factors regulating O2 in coastal marine waters to facilitate analysis of hypoxia responses to reductions in nutrient (and/or organic matter inputs. Of the 24 systems identified where concurrent time series of loading and O2 were available, half displayed relatively clear and direct recoveries following remediation. We explored in detail 5 well-studied systems that have exhibited complex, non-linear responses to variations in loading, including apparent "regime shifts". A summary of these analyses suggests that O2 conditions improved rapidly and linearly in systems where remediation focused on organic inputs from sewage treatment plants, which were the primary drivers of hypoxia. In larger more open systems where diffuse nutrient loads are more important in fueling O2 depletion and where climatic influences are pronounced, responses to remediation tended to follow non-linear trends that may include hysteresis and time-lags. Improved understanding of hypoxia remediation requires that future studies use

  4. Physical activity intensity and subclinical atherosclerosis in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, Anders; Froberg, K

    2013-01-01

    intensity was assessed objectively (ActiGraph model GT3X) and CRF using a progressive maximal bicycle test. Carotid IMT and arterial stiffness were assessed using B-mode ultrasound. In a multivariate analysis (adjusted for pubertal development and smoking status), CRF was inversely associated with measures...

  5. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  6. Intensive physical activity and alexithymia: results from swimmers' discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, Benjamin; Noel-Jorand, Marie-Christine; Souville, Marc; Pellegrin, Liliane; Therme, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand the relationship of swimmers' practice intensity and alexithymia features in discourse. This study investigated psychological processes in two groups of male swimmers training at different intensities. The first group was composed of 10 Expert amateurs (M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.9), who were competing at the national or international level and trained 22 hours per week. The second group was composed of 10 Amateur swimmers (M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.4), who competed at the regional level and trained 6 hours per week. The discourse of swimmers was analysed using the ALCESTE (Analyse de Lexèmes Coocurents dans les Enoncés Simples d'un Texte) method of discourse analysis. Discourse analysis was performed on speech samples produced by swimmers. All the swimmers showed alexithymic verbal behaviour as regards both the means of expression used and the feelings and emotions expressed. This lack of articulateness was more pronounced in the Expert than in the Amateur group. The difference of alexithymic features in correlation with the intensity of sport practice raises the question of the health benefits of intense sports practice and the need for psychological assessment of athletes.

  7. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] i...

  8. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  9. Optimising technical skills and physical loading in small-sided basketball games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Foster, Carl; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Differences in physiological, physical, and technical demands of small-sided basketball games related to the number of players, court size, and work-to-rest ratios are not well characterised. A controlled trial was conducted to compare the influence of number of players (2v2/4v4), court size (half/full court) and work-to-rest ratios (4x2.5 min/2x5 min) on the demands of small-sided games. Sixteen elite male and female junior players (aged 15-19 years) completed eight variations of a small-sided game in randomised order over a six-week period. Heart rate responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured to assess the physiological load. Movement patterns and technical elements were assessed by video analysis. There were ∼60% more technical elements in 2v2 and ∼20% more in half court games. Heart rate (86 ± 4% & 83 ± 5% of maximum; mean ± SD) and RPE (8 ± 2 & 6 ± 2; scale 1-10) were moderately higher in 2v2 than 4v4 small-sided games, respectively. The 2v2 format elicited substantially more sprints (36 ±12%; mean ±90% confidence limits) and high intensity shuffling (75 ±17%) than 4v4. Full court games required substantially more jogging (9 ±6%) compared to half court games. Fewer players in small-sided basketball games substantially increases the technical, physiological and physical demands.

  10. Influence of buildings geometrical and physical parameters on thermal cooling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, C.

    1980-09-01

    A more accurate method to evaluate the thermal cooling load in buildings and to analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on air conditioning calculations is presented. The sensitivity of the cooling load, considering the thermal capacity of the materials, was simulated in a computer for several different situations. (Author) [pt

  11. The heart rate increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by central blood volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Ikuta, Komei; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Using a water immersion (WI) method, the combined effect of central blood volume (CBV) loading and work intensity on the time course of heart rate (HR) at the onset of upright dynamic exercise was investigated. Seven males cranked a cycle ergometer for 12 min using their un-immersed arms at low-, moderate- and high-work intensities, followed by a 12-min rest. For WI, the pre-exercise resting cardiac output increased by 36%, while HR decreased by 22% [from 76.8 (10.4) to 59.6 (9.8) beats/min]. WI also increased the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) component of the HR variability, suggesting an increased vagal activity. During the initial 2 min of the exercise period at low-work intensity, HR increased by 34.9 and 25.8% in the WI and control conditions, respectively. These were 117 and 73% at high-work intensity, indicating more accelerated HR with WI than the control. The plasma norepinephrine concentration increased less during high-work intensity exercise during WI, as compared to exercise during control conditions. In conclusion, the HR increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by CBV loading but not at low intensity, possibly reflecting vago-sympathetic interaction and reduced baroreflex sensitivity.

  12. Does δ 15N in river food webs reflect the intensity and origin of N loads from the watershed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Caroline; Cabana, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) were measured in invertebrates and fish collected from 82 river sites located in the Saint-Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, to examine the relationship between aquatic biota δ 15 N and anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads. Mean δ 15 N values of all three trophic levels examined (primary consumers, predatory invertebrates and invertebrate-feeding fish) were highly correlated with total anthropogenic N loads on the watershed (kg N km -2 year -1 ; r 2 > 0.61, p 2 > 0.62, p 2 > 0.45, p 2 > 0.29, p 15 N and N loads originating from each of the three livestock species examined (bovines, pigs and poultry; p 15 N (multiple r 2 = 0.67, p 15 N values increasing slowly over a wide range of low levels of N loads, but increasing much faster as N loads grew larger. The three anthropogenic N sources examined were highly correlated with one another, preventing us from statistically isolating their respective effects on δ 15 N. When these loads were expressed as a proportion of total N load, δ 15 N of aquatic biota was still highly correlated with N from livestock and fertilizers, but not with N from human population. Overall, these results suggest that δ 15 N values of aquatic consumers could be used as indicators of the intensity of anthropogenic N loading on watersheds, but not as tracers of the relative importance of individual N sources

  13. A Multi-Physics PWR Model for the Load Following

    OpenAIRE

    Muniglia , Mathieu; Do , Jean-Michel; Jean-Charles , Le Pallec; Grard , Hubert; Verel , Sébastien; David , S.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a new model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is described. This model includes the description of the core as well as a simplified secondary loop: the goal is to reproduce a load-following type transient, where the output power of the plant is controlled by the electric grid. Consequently, the control systems are also modeled, as the control rods or the soluble boron. The reference power plant is a 1300MW electrical PWR, managed with the french G mode.

  14. The intensity of physical activity influences bone mineral accrual in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene Søborg; Mølgaard, Christian; Husby, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies indicate genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to optimal bone development. In particular, the intensity level of physical activity may have an impact on bone health. This study aims to assess the relationship between physical activity at different intensities and Bone....... Physical activity (PA) was recorded by accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT3X). Percentages of different PA intensity levels were calculated and log odds of two intensity levels of activity relative to the third level were calculated. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the relationship...... between the categories of physical activity and bone traits. Results Of 800 invited children, 742 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow up. Complete datasets were obtained in 602/742 (81%) children. Mean (range) of age was 11.5 years (9.7-13.9). PA at different...

  15. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  16. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  17. Macrocrack propagation in concrete specimens under sustained loading: Study of the physical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.rossi@lcpc.fr; Boulay, Claude; Tailhan, Jean-Louis; Martin, Eric; Desnoyers, Dominic

    2014-09-15

    This study presents a series of 4-point bending tests performed to describe the delayed behavior of unreinforced pre-cracked beams under low, moderate and high sustained loading levels. The deflection creep rate, the failure time and the load level were assessed. A linear relation, in a semi-log scale, was found for the deflection creep rate at high load levels. In addition, a linear relation, in a log–log scale, between the secondary deflection creep rate and failure time was observed. Besides, it was shown that the secondary creep deflection rate increases with the sustained loading level and the macrocrack propagation rate when macrocrack propagation occurs during the sustained loading. Physical mechanisms are proposed to explain these results and may be summarized as follows: the delayed behavior of an unreinforced cracked concrete specimen under sustained loading is mainly due to the cracking evolution, thus the creation of microcracks and/or the propagation of a macrocrack.

  18. Macrocrack propagation in concrete specimens under sustained loading: Study of the physical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Pierre; Boulay, Claude; Tailhan, Jean-Louis; Martin, Eric; Desnoyers, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a series of 4-point bending tests performed to describe the delayed behavior of unreinforced pre-cracked beams under low, moderate and high sustained loading levels. The deflection creep rate, the failure time and the load level were assessed. A linear relation, in a semi-log scale, was found for the deflection creep rate at high load levels. In addition, a linear relation, in a log–log scale, between the secondary deflection creep rate and failure time was observed. Besides, it was shown that the secondary creep deflection rate increases with the sustained loading level and the macrocrack propagation rate when macrocrack propagation occurs during the sustained loading. Physical mechanisms are proposed to explain these results and may be summarized as follows: the delayed behavior of an unreinforced cracked concrete specimen under sustained loading is mainly due to the cracking evolution, thus the creation of microcracks and/or the propagation of a macrocrack

  19. School education, physical performance in late midlife and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse M.; Andersen, Lars L.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    , sagittal flexibility) and muscle strength (jump height, trunk extension and flexion, and handgrip strength). RESULTS: Among women, higher school education was associated with better performance in all physical performance tests. Among men, higher school education was associated with better performance only......, and to determine to what extent cumulative physiological stress mediated these associations. METHODS: The study is based on data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB; n=5467 participants, aged 48-62 years, 31.5% women). School education was measured as highest examination passed in primary...... in chair rise and jump height. AL partially mediated the association between school education and physical performance, and accounted only for 2-30% of the total effect among women. Similar results were observed among men for chair rise and jump height. CONCLUSIONS: These results might indicate that AL...

  20. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  1. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, A; Impey, R; Podaima, W; Agarwal, A; Anderson, M; Armstrong, P; Fransham, K; Gable, I; Harris, D; Leavett-Brown, C; Paterson, M; Sobie, R J; Vliet, M

    2012-01-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  2. Stress-intensity factor equations for cracks in three-dimensional finite bodies subjected to tension and bending loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Stress intensity factor equations are presented for an embedded elliptical crack, a semielliptical surface crack, a quarter elliptical corner crack, a semielliptical surface crack along the bore of a circular hole, and a quarter elliptical corner crack at the edge of a circular hole in finite plates. The plates were subjected to either remote tension or bending loads. The stress intensity factors used to develop these equations were obtained from previous three dimensional finite element analyses of these crack configurations. The equations give stress intensity factors as a function of parametric angle, crack depth, crack length, plate thickness, and, where applicable, hole radius. The ratio of crack depth to plate thickness ranged from 0 to 1, the ratio of crack depth to crack length ranged from 0.2 to 2, and the ratio of hole radius to plate thickness ranged from 0.5 to 2. The effects of plate width on stress intensity variation along the crack front were also included.

  3. Characteristics of physical loads endured by military officers of mechanized troops during field maneuvres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Shlyamar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: observation over influence of physical loads on military officers in process of acquiring and mastering of military applied skills during field maneuvers. Material: in experiment 120 military officers of 20-25 years old age with equal physical fitness participated. Results: it was determined that in period of field maneuvers the greatest load was endured by military officers in attack exercises and on the march. The least physical loads were in period of organization and fulfillment of combat shooting. It was also established that main part of motor actions was fulfilled in aerobic mode. Military officers’ functioning in field maneuvers was accompanied by heart beats rate of 120-150 b.p.m. and 60-90 b.p.m. during long time. Conclusions: We offered to practice physical training of mechanized units’ military officers in modes, close to field ones.

  4. Intensity, but not duration, of physical activities is related to cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Vanhees, Luc; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Aufdernkarnpe, Geert; Aleman, Andrie; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  5. Intensity, but not duration of physical activities is related to cognitive function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Aleman; Geert Aufdemkampe; H.J. Verhaar; W. Wendel-Vos; Drs. Maaike Angevaren; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; W.M. Verschuren

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  6. Relationship between Frequency and Intensity of Physical Activity and Health Behaviors of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Tony T.; Werch, Chudley E.; Wong, Alvin H.; Bian, Hui; Weiler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: While studies have determined the importance of physical activity in advancing health outcomes, relatively few have explored the relationship between exercise and various health behaviors of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and both health risk…

  7. From a quantum to a classical description of intense laser-atom physics with Bohmian trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, X Y; Cai Qingyu; Zhan, M S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Bohmian mechanics is applied to intense laser-atom physics. The motion of an atomic electron in an intense laser field is obtained from the Bohm-Newton equation. We find that the quantum potential that dominates the quantum effect of a physical system becomes negligible as the electron is driven far from the parent ion by the intense laser field, i.e. the behavior of the electron smoothly tends towards classical soon after the electron is ionized. Our numerical calculations present direct positive evidence for semiclassical trajectory methods in intense laser-atom physics where the motion of the ionized electron is treated by classical mechanics, while quantum mechanics is needed before the ionization.

  8. Light-intensity physical activity and cardiometabolic biomarkers in US adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The minimal physical activity intensity that would confer health benefits among adolescents is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of accelerometer-derived light-intensity (split into low and high physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity with cardiometabolic biomarkers in a large population-based sample. METHODS: The study is based on 1,731 adolescents, aged 12-19 years from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Low light-intensity activity (100-799 counts/min, high light-intensity activity (800 counts/min to <4 METs and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity (≥ 4 METs, Freedson age-specific equation were accelerometer-derived. Cardiometabolic biomarkers, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were measured. Triglycerides, LDL- cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessments of β-cell function (HOMA-%B and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S were also measured in a fasting sub-sample (n=807. RESULTS: Adjusted for confounders, each additional hour/day of low light-intensity activity was associated with 0.59 (95% CI: 1.18-0.01 mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure. Each additional hour/day of high light-intensity activity was associated with 1.67 (2.94-0.39 mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure and 0.04 (0.001-0.07 mmol/L higher HDL-cholesterol. Each additional hour/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity was associated with 3.54 (5.73-1.35 mmHG lower systolic blood pressure, 5.49 (1.11-9.77% lower waist circumference, 25.87 (6.08-49.34% lower insulin, and 16.18 (4.92-28.53% higher HOMA-%S. CONCLUSIONS: Time spent in low light-intensity physical activity and high light-intensity physical activity had some favorable associations with biomarkers. Consistent with current physical activity recommendations for adolescents, moderate- to

  9. The Influence of Creatine Monohydrate on Strength and Endurance After Doing Physical Exercise With Maximum Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrofi Shicas Nabawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was: (1 to analyze the effect of creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (2 to analyze the effect of non creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (3 to analyze the results of the difference by administering creatine and non creatine on strength and endurance after exercise with maximum intensity. This type of research used in this research was quantitative with quasi experimental research methods. The design of this study was using pretest and posttest control group design, and data analysis was using a paired sample t-test. The process of data collection was done with the test leg muscle strength using a strength test with back and leg dynamometer, sit ups test with 1 minute sit ups, push ups test with push ups and 30 seconds with a VO2max test cosmed quart CPET during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 series. The results showed: (1 There was the influence of creatine administration against the strength after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (2 There was the influence of creatine administration against the group endurance after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (3 There was the influence of non creatine against the force after exercise maximum intensity; (4 There was the influence of non creatine against the group after endurance exercise maximum intensity; (5 The significant difference with the provision of non creatine and creatine from creatine group difference delta at higher against the increased strength and endurance after exercise maximum intensity. Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that the increased strength and durability for each of the groups after being given a workout.

  10. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  11. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  12. Effects of manipulating the duration and intensity of aerobic training sessions on the physical performance of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Barbosa, Nicolas Henrique Santos; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Cordeiro, Letícia Maria de Souza; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Pires, Washington; Soares, Danusa Dias; Wanner, Samuel Penna

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of manipulating the load components of aerobic training sessions on the physical performance of rats. To achieve this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: an untrained control (CON) group and training groups with a predominant overload in intensity (INT) or duration (DUR) or alternating and similar overloads in intensity and duration (ID). Prior to, during, and after 8 weeks of the control or training protocols, the performance of the rats (evaluated by their workload) was determined during fatiguing, incremental-speed treadmill running. Two additional incremental running tests were performed prior to and at the end of the protocols to measure the peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak). As expected, the rats in the trained groups exhibited increased performance, whereas the untrained rats showed stable performance throughout the 8 weeks. Notably, the performance gain exhibited by the DUR rats reached a plateau after the 4th week. This plateau was not present in the INT or ID rats, which exhibited increased performance at the end of training protocol compared with the DUR rats. None of the training protocols changed the VO2peak values; however, these values were attained at faster speeds, which indicated increased running economy. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the training protocols improved the physical performance of rats, likely resulting from enhanced running economy. Furthermore, compared with overload in duration, overload in the intensity of training sessions was more effective at inducing performance improvements across the 8 weeks of the study.

  13. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg...... with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry....... A significant main effect of time was observed (P12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite...

  14. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  15. Physical Modelling of Bucket Foundation Under Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are a promising renewable energy source. The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a reliable and cost-effective concept for offshore wind turbines. The bucket foundation must be designed by accounting for the cyclic loading which might endanger the turbine...... functioning. In this article a 1g physical model of bucket foundation under horizontal and moment cyclic loading is described. A testing program including four tests was carried out. Every test was conducted for at least 30000 cycles, each with different loading features. The capability of the model...

  16. Physical and JIT Model Based Hybrid Modeling Approach for Building Thermal Load Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yutaka; Murai, Masahiko; Murayama, Dai; Motoyama, Ichiro

    Energy conservation in building fields is one of the key issues in environmental point of view as well as that of industrial, transportation and residential fields. The half of the total energy consumption in a building is occupied by HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems. In order to realize energy conservation of HVAC system, a thermal load prediction model for building is required. This paper propose a hybrid modeling approach with physical and Just-in-Time (JIT) model for building thermal load prediction. The proposed method has features and benefits such as, (1) it is applicable to the case in which past operation data for load prediction model learning is poor, (2) it has a self checking function, which always supervises if the data driven load prediction and the physical based one are consistent or not, so it can find if something is wrong in load prediction procedure, (3) it has ability to adjust load prediction in real-time against sudden change of model parameters and environmental conditions. The proposed method is evaluated with real operation data of an existing building, and the improvement of load prediction performance is illustrated.

  17. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  18. Vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity and risk of major chronic disease in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Cook, Nancy R; Flint, Alan J; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-10-01

    Although studies have shown health benefits for moderate-intensity physical activity, there is limited evidence to support beneficial effects for high amounts of vigorous activity among middle-age and older men. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity, compared with moderate-intensity activity, and risk of major chronic disease in men. We prospectively examined the associations between vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity and risk of major chronic disease among 44,551 men age 40-75 yr in 1986. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed biennially by questionnaire. During 22 yr of follow-up, we documented 14,162 incident cases of major chronic disease, including 4769 cardiovascular events, 6449 cancer events, and 2944 deaths from other causes. The HR of major chronic disease comparing ≥ 21 to 0 MET.h.wk(-1) of exercise was 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81-0.91) for vigorous-intensity activity and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.90) for moderate activity. For cardiovascular disease (CVD), the corresponding HRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.70-0.86) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72-0.88), respectively. When examined separately, running, tennis, and brisk walking were inversely associated with CVD risk. Furthermore, more vigorous activity was associated with lower disease risk; the HR comparing >70 to 0 MET.h.wk(-1) of vigorous-intensity exercise was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P < 0.0001 for trend) for major chronic disease and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.56-0.96; P < 0.0001 for trend) for CVD. Vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activities were associated with lower risk of major chronic disease and CVD. Increasing amounts of vigorous activity remained inversely associated with disease risk, even among men in the highest categories of exercise.

  19. THE FATIGUE DURABILITY OF THE MODIFIED ASPHALT CONCRETE UNDER THE EFFECT OF INTENSIVE TRAFFIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri KALGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prediction of the service life of asphalt concrete surface constructed with modified asphalt concrete application onto a traffic lane is examined. Asphalt concrete behaviour in road surface under the traffic loads was analysed. There were shown The results of experiments and their mathematical analysis of the assessment of standard and modified cold asphalt concrete fatigue life on road surface were shown. The service life of an asphalt concrete surface covered with standard and modified cold asphalt concrete is examined. The prediction has been received with an account of stress relaxation processes in asphalt concrete pavement and unevenness of traffic load application.

  20. Influence of overelastic loading on the stress intensity factor under thermal fatigue conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.; Munz, D.

    1983-10-01

    Thermal shock loading often creates high thermal stresses which may exceed yield strength of the material in a surface layer. In this report the application of the linear elastic ΔK-concept in the case of cyclic thermal loading within the shakedown region is discussed. To this K-factors for an edge crack in a linear elastic - perfectly plastic plate are calculated using the weight function method and are compared with results obtained with the Finite Element Method. It is shown, that rearrangement stresses during plastic flow in the first cycle must be taken into account developing conservative approximation procedures. (orig.) [de

  1. The relationship between intensity and duration of physical activity and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Frick, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Previous research documented a positive effect of physical activity on subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, mainly broad activity measures (e.g. resulting from yes-no questions) were used and the effect of different participation intensities and durations has been largely neglected. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of physical activity on SWB by focusing on participation intensity and duration. Survey data from 28 European countries are used for the analysis (n = 22 971). Two regression models (Generalized Method of Moments) are estimated which analyze the effect of participation intensity and duration on SWB (measured by life satisfaction). Given the endogeneity of the participation measures, instrumental variables are used (sport opportunities, club membership, time spent sitting). The models also control for other factors that could affect SWB (e.g. age, occupation). The results for participation intensity show that the number of days people practised at moderate intensity in the week prior to the interview have a significant and positive effect on SWB, while the number of days with vigorous-intensity activity has a significant and negative impact. Similarly, the models for duration indicate that the minutes spent on moderate-intensity activity significantly add to SWB, while the minutes spent on vigorous-intensity activity significantly reduce the level of SWB. The findings challenge the World Health Organization's recommendation in the sense that activity at moderate and vigorous intensity is not interchangeable if the aim is to also improve SWB (and not only physical health). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationships Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load and Intensity in Team Sports: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or

  3. Physics Based Model for Cryogenic Chilldown and Loading. Part I: Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Brown, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    We report the progress in the development of the physics based model for cryogenic chilldown and loading. The chilldown and loading is model as fully separated non-equilibrium two-phase flow of cryogenic fluid thermally coupled to the pipe walls. The solution follow closely nearly-implicit and semi-implicit algorithms developed for autonomous control of thermal-hydraulic systems developed by Idaho National Laboratory. A special attention is paid to the treatment of instabilities. The model is applied to the analysis of chilldown in rapid loading system developed at NASA-Kennedy Space Center. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The numerical predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the development of autonomous loading operation on the ground and space.

  4. Controlling internal phosphorus loading in lakes by physical methods to reduce cyanobacterial blooms: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bormans, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Jančula, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-422 ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : internal P loading * cyanobacterial control * physical in-lake restoration methods * adverse impacts on biota Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2016

  5. Effects of bud loading levels and nitrogen doses on yield, physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several bud loading levels in winter pruning and nitrogen doses on yield and physical and chemical properties of fresh vine-leaves of grape cultivar “Narince”. Vines trained with bilateral cordon system was pruned to yield 35000 to 53000 buds/ha (16 or 24 buds/vine) ...

  6. Lifetime Assessment of Load-Bearing Polymer Glasses: The Influence of Physical Ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Wolters, Mannes; Wismans, Joris G.F.; Govaert, Leon E.

    2010-01-01

    The timescale at which ductile failure occurs in loaded glassy polymers can be successfully predicted using the engineering approach presented in a previous publication. In this paper the influence of progressive physical ageing on the plastic deformation behaviour of unplasticised poly(vinyl

  7. Lifetime assessment of load-bearing polymer glasses : the influence of physical ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.A.; Bor, T.C.; Wolters, M.; Wismans, J.G.F.; Govaert, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The timescale at which ductile failure occurs in loaded glassy polymers can be successfullypredicted using the engineering approach presented in a previous publication.In this paper the influence of progressive physical ageing on the plastic deformationbehaviour of uPVC is characterised and

  8. Exoskeletons for industrial application and their potential effects on physical work load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Bosch, T.; Krause, F.; Stadler, K.S.; O'Sullivan, L.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide an overview of assistive exoskeletons that have specifically been developed for industrial purposes and to assess the potential effect of these exoskeletons on reduction of physical loading on the body. The search resulted in 40 papers describing 26 different

  9. High physical and psychological load at work and sickness absence due to neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Wal, G. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2002-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the relationship between physical and psychosocial load at work and sickness absence due to neck pain. Methods A prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 3 years (1994-1998) was performed among a working population. At the beginning of the study,

  10. The stress and stress intensity factors computation by BEM and FEM combination for nozzle junction under pressure and thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.; Cen, Z.; Zhu, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports linear elastic fracture analysis based upon the stress intensity factor evaluation successfully applied to safety assessments of cracked structures. The nozzle junction are usually subjected to high pressure and thermal loads simultaneously. In validity of linear elastic fracture analysis, K can be decomposed into K P (caused by mechanic loads) and K τ (caused by thermal loads). Under thermal transient loading, explicit analysis (say by the FEM or BEM) of K tracing an entire history respectively for a range of crack depth may be much more time consuming. The techniques of weight function provide efficient means for transforming the problem into the stress computation of the uncracked structure and generation of influence function (for the given structure and size of crack). In this paper, a combination of BE-FEM has been used for the analysis of the cracked nozzle structure by techniques of weight function. The influence functions are obtained by coupled BE-FEM and the uncracked structure stress are computed by finite element methods

  11. Stress Intensity Factors for Cracked Metallic Structures Under Rapid Thermal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    solution algorithm was developed based on the influence function method, and numerical results were generated to show the variation of K with flaw size and...numerical algorithms developed can be executed on a desktop microcomputer illustrating the efficient and powerful characteristic of the influence function method... Function Method 3-6 Superposition and Crack Face Loading Equivalence 3-7 Influence Function Generation 3-10 Influence Functions For Two Cracked Body

  12. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Kumar Ray, Binay

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO 2 emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: → The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. → It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. → The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO 2 emissions. → The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  13. Experimental modes of recovery loading for the first stage of recovery after intense impellent activity in the modern pentathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremenko A.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of training activity for sensitivity restoration cardio respiratory systems of the qualified athletes in modern pentathlon are presented. More high degree of activation and optimization of reactions of the cardio respiratory system is rotined. Kinetics and stability of reactions of frequency of heart-throbs and pulmonary ventilation was increased. Decline of «drift» of frequency of heart-throbs in the conditions of the standard loadings of middle intensity testify to the decline of tension of functions, optimization of activity of the cardio respiratory system.

  14. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  15. Moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A.; Frederiksen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...

  16. Request for Support for the Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd Ditmire

    2004-01-01

    The Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) was held in November 2003 in Dallas, Texas. The venue for the meeting was South Fork Ranch in the outskirts of Dallas. The topics of the meeting included high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse generation, strong field interactions with molecules and clusters, particle acceleration, and relativistic laser atom interactions

  17. Duration and intensity of physical activity and disability among European elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Carolien L.; Picavet, Hsusanj; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.; Giampaoli, Simona; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kromhout, Daan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between duration and intensity of physical activity and disability 10 years later, and to investigate the possible effect of selective mortality. Method. Longitudinal data of 560 men aged 70 - 89 years, without disability at baseline from the Finland, Italy

  18. Fiber-optical sensor with intensity compensation model in college teaching of physics experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liping; Zhang, Yang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Optical fiber sensor technology is one of the main contents of modern information technology, which has a very important position in modern science and technology. Fiber optic sensor experiment can improve students' enthusiasm and broaden their horizons in college physics experiment. In this paper the main structure and working principle of fiberoptical sensor with intensity compensation model are introduced. And thus fiber-optical sensor with intensity compensation model is applied to measure micro displacement of Young's modulus measurement experiment and metal linear expansion coefficient measurement experiment in the college physics experiment. Results indicate that the measurement accuracy of micro displacement is higher than that of the traditional methods using fiber-optical sensor with intensity compensation model. Meanwhile this measurement method makes the students understand on the optical fiber, sensor and nature of micro displacement measurement method and makes each experiment strengthen relationship and compatibility, which provides a new idea for the reform of experimental teaching.

  19. The effect of physical education intensive classes on social skills and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    野口, 和行; 村山, 光義; 村松, 憲; 板垣, 悦子; 東海林, 祐子

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the change of social skills and self-efficacy in the students who take physical education classes in university and difference among form of the classes ; physical education intensive course, physical education course conducting once a week and lecture course. We measured social skills and self-efficacy using Kikuchi's Social Skill Scale (KiSS-18) and the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSES). The results are as follows :1) Regardless of the kind of the c...

  20. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  1. Predicting lower body power from vertical jump prediction equations for loaded jump squats at different intensities in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn A; Pustina, Andrew A; Mikat, Richard P; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of estimating peak lower body power from a maximal jump squat using 3 different vertical jump prediction equations. Sixty physically active college students (30 men, 30 women) performed jump squats with a weighted bar's applied load of 20, 40, and 60% of body mass across the shoulders. Each jump squat was simultaneously monitored using a force plate and a contact mat. Peak power (PP) was calculated using vertical ground reaction force from the force plate data. Commonly used equations requiring body mass and vertical jump height to estimate PP were applied such that the system mass (mass of body + applied load) was substituted for body mass. Jump height was determined from flight time as measured with a contact mat during a maximal jump squat. Estimations of PP (PP(est)) for each load and for each prediction equation were compared with criterion PP values from a force plate (PP(FP)). The PP(est) values had high test-retest reliability and were strongly correlated to PP(FP) in both men and women at all relative loads. However, only the Harman equation accurately predicted PP(FP) at all relative loads. It can therefore be concluded that the Harman equation may be used to estimate PP of a loaded jump squat knowing the system mass and peak jump height when more precise (and expensive) measurement equipment is unavailable. Further, high reliability and correlation with criterion values suggest that serial assessment of power production across training periods could be used for relative assessment of change by either of the prediction equations used in this study.

  2. The influence of individualizing physical loads on speed, creatine kinase activity and lactate dehydrogenase in football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important training problems in: contemporary football is speed preparation of a player for the season and the ability of keeping it on the same, relatively high level throughout the starting period [1]. The main process used for re-synthesis ATP during single, short-lasting efforts of maximal intensity, is decomposition of phospho-creatine under the influence of creatine kinase enzyme. Physical loads imposed during speed trainings often exceed the possibility of producing energy from phosphogenic reserve through oxygen - lactate free processes, because the supply of phospho-creatine is used very quickly. In such circumstances the lacking energy is refilled through processes called oxygen free glicolise with the help of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. The aim of the work was to answer the question:

  3. INTENSITY, DURATION AND TYPE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY REQUIRED TO IMPROVE FUNCTION IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIRIHARA, RICARDO AKIHIRO; CATELAN, FELLIPE BRAVIM; FARIAS, FABIANE ELIZE SABINO DE; SILVA, CLEIDNÉIA APARECIDA CLEMENTE DA; CERNIGOY, CLAUDIA HELENA DE AZEVEDO; REZENDE, MÁRCIA UCHOA DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of physical activity intensity, type and duration in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: A retrospective study of 195 KOA patients who were followed for two years after receiving educational material about KOA with or without attending classes. The patients were evaluated at baseline and 24 months. At the evaluations, the patients answered questionnaires pertaining to pain and function (WOMAC, Lequesne, VAS and SF-36); reported the intensity, duration and type of exercise performed per week; and performed the Timed Up & Go (TUG) and Five Times Sit-to-Stand (FTSST) tests. Results: Increased age affected improvements in the TUG results (p=0.017). The type, intensity and duration of physical activity did not correlate with pain, function or quality of life improvements (p>0.05), but the TUG results were on average 4 seconds faster among the patients who practiced intense physical activity and/or exercised for more than 180 minutes per week and/or performed isolated weight training or swam compared with those who remained sedentary after 2 years (p=0.01; pbodybuilding) for relevant pain reduction and functional improvement.Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:28642646

  4. Validated measurements of microbial loads on environmental surfaces in intensive care units before and after disinfecting cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, H; Bachert, S; Warnke, P; Podbielski, A

    2018-03-01

    Preanalytic aspects can make results of hygiene studies difficult to compare. Efficacy of surface disinfection was assessed with an evaluated swabbing procedure. A validated microbial screening of surfaces was performed in the patients' environment and from hands of healthcare workers on two intensive care units (ICUs) prior to and after a standardized disinfection procedure. From a pure culture, the recovery rate of the swabs for Staphylococcus aureus was 35%-64% and dropped to 0%-22% from a mixed culture with 10-times more Staphylococcus epidermidis than S. aureus. Microbial surface loads 30 min before and after the cleaning procedures were indistinguishable. The quality-ensured screening procedure proved that adequate hygiene procedures are associated with a low overall colonization of surfaces and skin of healthcare workers. Unchanged microbial loads before and after surface disinfection demonstrated the low additional impact of this procedure in the endemic situation when the pathogen load prior to surface disinfection is already low. Based on a validated screening system ensuring the interpretability and reliability of the results, the study confirms the efficiency of combined hand and surface hygiene procedures to guarantee low rates of bacterial colonization. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  6. Comparison of amount of physical load in the Czech and Austrian footballers at the same level of performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bujnovský, David

    2011-01-01

    Title: Comparison of the size of the motor load in the Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level Objectives: The aim is to determine the size of the physical load of players during a football match. At the same time the next aim is to determinate the differences of physical load between Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level. Methods: The indirect (mediated) observations was used in this bachelor thesis, because the data were recorded by computer...

  7. Happiness, Pain Intensity, Pain Interference, and Distress in Individuals with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ravesloot, Craig; Ipsen, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how the construct of happiness is related to pain intensity, pain interference, and distress in individuals with physical disabilities. This study involves cross-sectional analyses of 471 individuals with a variety of health conditions reporting at least mild pain. The first hypothesis that happiness mediates the relationship between pain intensity and two outcomes, pain interference and distress, was not supported. The second hypothesis was supported by a good fitting model (χ2(10) = 12.83, P = 0.23, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.025) and indicated that pain intensity significantly mediated the effect of happiness on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.13, P Happiness showed a significant direct effect on pain intensity (β = -0.20, P happiness components meaning, pleasure, and engagement fitted well (χ2(4) = 9.65, P = 0.05, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.055). Pain intensity acted as a significant mediator but only mediated the effect of meaning on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.07, P = 0.05) and on distress (indirect effect via pain interference: β = -0.04, P = 0.05). Only meaning (β = -0.10, P = 0.05), but neither pleasure nor engagement, had a significant direct effect on pain intensity. Participants who reported greater happiness reported lower pain interference and distress through happiness' effects on pain intensity. Experiencing meaning and purpose in life seems to be most closely (and negatively) associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and distress. Findings from this study can lay the groundwork for intervention studies to better understand how to more effectively decrease pain intensity, pain interference, and distress.

  8. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  9. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  10. Real-Time Earthquake Intensity Estimation Using Streaming Data Analysis of Social and Physical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropivnitskaya, Yelena; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Qin, Jinhui; Bauer, Michael A.

    2017-06-01

    Earthquake intensity is one of the key components of the decision-making process for disaster response and emergency services. Accurate and rapid intensity calculations can help to reduce total loss and the number of casualties after an earthquake. Modern intensity assessment procedures handle a variety of information sources, which can be divided into two main categories. The first type of data is that derived from physical sensors, such as seismographs and accelerometers, while the second type consists of data obtained from social sensors, such as witness observations of the consequences of the earthquake itself. Estimation approaches using additional data sources or that combine sources from both data types tend to increase intensity uncertainty due to human factors and inadequate procedures for temporal and spatial estimation, resulting in precision errors in both time and space. Here we present a processing approach for the real-time analysis of streams of data from both source types. The physical sensor data is acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) seismic network in California and the social sensor data is based on Twitter user observations. First, empirical relationships between tweet rate and observed Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) are developed using data from the M6.0 South Napa, CAF earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. Second, the streams of both data types are analyzed together in simulated real-time to produce one intensity map. The second implementation is based on IBM InfoSphere Streams, a cloud platform for real-time analytics of big data. To handle large processing workloads for data from various sources, it is deployed and run on a cloud-based cluster of virtual machines. We compare the quality and evolution of intensity maps from different data sources over 10-min time intervals immediately following the earthquake. Results from the joint analysis shows that it provides more complete coverage, with better accuracy and higher

  11. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Influence of Disease Severity and Exercise Limitation on Exercise Training Intensity and Load and Health Benefits From Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with COPD: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia C; Fuhr, Desi P; Byers, Bradley W; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Moore, Linn E; Stickland, Michael K

    2018-04-11

    Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fail to achieve health benefits with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Exercise intensity and load represent stimulus for adaptation but it is unclear whether inappropriate exercise intensity and/or load are affected by severity of COPD, which may affect health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether COPD severity and/or the severity of pulmonary limitation to exercise (PLE) impacted exercising intensity or load and whether resultant intensity/load affected health outcomes derived from PR. Patients with COPD (n = 58, age = 67 ± 7 y, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] % predicted = 52 ± 21%) were recruited upon referral to PR. Primary health outcomes evaluated were 6-min walk distance and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Patients were stratified for disease severity using Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and PLE severity by change in inspiratory capacity during exercise. Exercise intensity and load were calculated from daily exercise records. Participants achieved comparable training duration and load regardless of GOLD severity. Patients with more severe PLE achieved greater training duration (more severe: 546 ± 143 min., less severe: 451 ± 109 min., P = .036), and relative training load (more severe: 2200.8 ± 595.3 kcal, less severe: 1648.3 ± 597.8 kcal, P = .007). Greater overall training load was associated with greater improvements in 6-min walk distance (r = 0.24, P = .035). No significant relationships were observed between PLE, GOLD severity, training parameters, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire response. Improvements in exercise tolerance can be explained by achieving greater training loads, demonstrating the importance of appropriate training load to maximize health outcomes in PR.

  13. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load: risk factors, consequences, and preventive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, I L; Goudswaard, A; Dhondt, S; van der Grinten, M P; Hildebrandt, V H; van der Poel, E G

    1998-02-01

    Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks, and (c) organisational and environmental variables that facilitate preventive actions. Information was gathered from employers, employees, and employees' representatives. The monitor was used with a nationally representative sample of companies in industry, wholesale trade, and banking and finance, 782 companies in total. The information from the employees, aggregated at the company level, was not found to be correlated with that from the employer from the same companies. Although many employers do recognise risk factors for both physical load and stress as a problem they often seem to underestimate the problem when compared with employees or their representatives. This is particularly the case for psychosocial risk factors. Also, the perception of outcome measures, especially employers who consider emotional exhaustion to be work related, were fewer than the employees' representatives of the same organisation. Preventive measures on physical load are much more popular than measures against stress. It is the responsibility of the employer to take more preventive action of all kinds. They need to recognise risk factors as problems and health outcomes to be related to work. Employees of larger companies should participate with employers to consider effective measures, and more use should be made of support at branch level. For specific preventive measures, specific predictors emerged. Except for measures to prevent work stress, information from employees did not sufficiently contribute to the initiation of preventive measures in the workplace.

  14. Methodological aspects of values for determining the physical load in sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernozub A.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the control system of training in sport and identified two methodological concepts determine the amount of physical activity during the training sessions. It is established that the physical training and sports activities in the course of employment estimate the value of physical activity mainly due to the reaction rates of the functional systems of the body to an external stimulus. Such an assessment, especially in a narrow range of controllable parameters (for the reaction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, is more theoretical in nature and does not allow to clearly define the critical load levels for a particular organism. This problem highlights the need to use a single, integrated, suitable for precise mathematical analysis of the universal, possibly conditional, indicator or criteria for evaluating physical activity. Development of this criterion will optimize the training process at different stages of training opportunities tailored to individual athletes.

  15. Influence of drug load and physical form of cinnarizine in new SNEDDS dosing regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Müllertz, Anette; Gräeser, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of drug load and physical form of cinnarizine (CIN) in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) on absorption in rats. Further, the predictivity of the dynamic in vitro lipolysis model was evaluated. The following dosing regimens were......, compared to the aqueous suspension. Since the drug level in the aqueous phase is traditionally considered as the fraction available for absorption, a lack of in vitro-in vivo relation was observed. This study revealed that the physical form of CIN in the current SNEDDS does not affect CIN absorption...

  16. Effects of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular adaptations in adults with poststroke hemiparesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R

    2011-01-01

    consisting of isokinetic muscle strength, neuromuscular activation measured with electromyography (EMG), electrically evoked muscle twitch contractile properties, and gait performance (10-m Walk Test and 6-min Walk Test). After the 12-week conditioning program, knee extensor and flexor strength increased...... the effect of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular and functional adaptations in outpatients suffering from hemiparesis after stroke. A within-subject repeated-measures design with the paretic leg as the experimental leg and the nonparetic leg as the control leg was used. Eleven outpatients...... observed in the nonparetic control leg. Gait performance increased 52-68%. In conclusion, intensive physical rehabilitation after stroke leads to clinically relevant neuromuscular improvements, leading to increased voluntary strength during a wide range of contraction modes and velocities, and improved...

  17. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...... lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training...

  18. Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Loaded Half Squat Exercise Executed at an Intensity Corresponding to the Lactate Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Raúl Domínguez, Manuel Barba, Antonio J. Monroy, Bárbara Rodríguez, Pedro Ruiz-Solano, Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the blood lactate threshold (LT2 for the half squat (HS and to examine cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables during a HS test performed at a work intensity corresponding to the LT2. Twenty-four healthy men completed 3 test sessions. In the first, their one-repetition maximum (1RM was determined for the HS. In the second session, a resistance HS incremental-load test was performed to determine LT2. Finally, in the third session, subjects performed a constant-load HS exercise at the load corresponding to the LT2 (21 sets of 15 repetitions with 1 min of rest between sets. In this last test, blood samples were collected for lactate determination before the test and 30 s after the end of set (S 3, S6, S9, S12, S15, S18 and S21. During the test, heart rate (HR was telemetrically monitored and oxygen consumption (VO2, carbon dioxide production (VCO2, minute ventilation (VE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE·VO2-1 and ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE·VCO2-1 were monitored using a breath-by-breath respiratory gas analyzer. The mean LT2 for the participants was 24.8 ± 4.8% 1RM. Blood lactate concentrations showed no significant differences between sets 3 and 21 of exercise (p = 1.000. HR failed to vary between S6 and S21 (p > 1.000. The respiratory variables VO2, VCO2, and VE·VCO2-1 stabilized from S3 to the end of the constant-load HS test (p = 0.471, p = 0.136, p = 1.000, while VE and VE·VO2-1 stabilized from S6 to S21. RER did not vary significantly across exercise sets (p = 0.103. The LT2 was readily identified in the incremental HS test. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables remained stable during this resistance exercise conducted at an exercise intensity corresponding to the LT2. These responses need to be confirmed for other resistance exercises and adaptations in these responses after a training program also need to be addressed.

  19. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals......Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had...

  20. Intensity of recreational physical activity throughout life and later life cognitive functioning in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Mary C; Moineddin, Rahim; Morra, Angela; Manson, Judith; Blake, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Long-term physical activity may affect risk of cognitive impairment but few studies have examined later life cognition in relation to intensity of life-long physical activity. We examined the associations between the intensity of long-term recreational physical activity and neuropsychological functioning in 90 healthy postmenopausal women on tests found to be useful in the early identification of dementia. Information was collected about their participation in strenuous and moderate activities between high school and menopause. Summary measures of long-term strenuous and moderate activity were constructed for each participant. All analyses were adjusted for relevant covariates. The six linear regression analyses showed significant positive associations between moderate activity and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R), Digit Span backward, WAIS-R Digit Symbol, and Trail Making Test Part B. Significant negative relationships were found between strenuous activity and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed verbal recall, Complex Figure Test delayed visual memory, WAIS-R Digit Span backward, category fluency, and WAIS-R Digit Symbol. The associations found in the present study suggest that while moderate activity may be protective, long-term strenuous activity before menopause may lower cognitive performance later in life. These results support further investigation of the effects of life-long exercise intensity on cognition in later life.

  1. An intensive combined training program modulates physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical parameters in women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Fatih

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.

  2. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  3. BASIC PARAMETERS FOR DESIGNING PHYSICAL SEPARATION TREATMENTS FROM AN INTENSIVE ON-SHORE FISH FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Bianchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollutant load was monitored in an intensive on-shore plant; evaluation especially concerned one basin,during a period of time in which the water temperature (21-23°c, the stocking density (25 kg/m3, the loading and unloading flow (40 dm3/s remained steady at the highest values. The results show that the maximum pollution levels are characterized by high concentrations of suspended organic materials, as well as by high BOD5/COD rates; moreover, more than 60% of the suspended solid waste consists of particles with a maximum dimension ranging from 200 μm to more than 500 μm. Tests show that an effluent channel is not efficient in reducing the pollutant load of waste water. The laboratory sedimentation trials showed – for a period of about 3 hours – minimum and maximum solid particle sedimentation speeds of 2.56 mm/s and 46.8 mm/s respectively, which should be considered when deciding the turbid speed and the dimensions of basins for this type of effluent. In any case, the sedimentation process carried out in the laboratory was only just sufficient to bring the farm effluent within the legal limits. Therefore a mechanical filtration treatment may suit the specific requirements of the farm waste water used for the experimental trials. A 50 μm mesh would be considered sufficient for any critical situation.

  4. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  5. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  6. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Association of Physical Activity by Type and Intensity With Digestive System Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Bao, Ying; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Orav, John; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that common carcinogenic pathways may underlie digestive system cancers. Physical activity may influence these pathways. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the role of physical activity in overall digestive system cancer risk. To examine the association between physical activity and digestive system cancer risk, accounting for amount, type (aerobic vs resistance), and intensity of physical activity. A prospective cohort study followed 43 479 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2012. At enrollment, the eligible participants were 40 years or older, were free of cancer, and reported physical activity. Follow-up rates exceeded 90% in each 2-year cycle. The amount of total physical activity expressed in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-hours/week. Incident cancer of the digestive system encompassing the digestive tract (mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colorectum) and digestive accessory organs (pancreas, gallbladder, and liver). Over 686 924 person-years, we documented 1370 incident digestive system cancers. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower digestive system cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 for ≥63.0 vs ≤8.9 MET-hours/week; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93; P value for trend = .003). The inverse association was more evident with digestive tract cancers (HR, 0.66 for ≥63.0 vs ≤8.9 MET-hours/week; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87) than with digestive accessary organ cancers. Aerobic exercise was particularly beneficial against digestive system cancers, with the optimal benefit observed at approximately 30 MET-hours/week (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.83; P value for nonlinearity = .02). Moreover, as long as the same level of MET-hour score was achieved from aerobic exercise, the magnitude of risk reduction was similar regardless of intensity of aerobic exercise. Physical activity, as indicated by MET-hours/week, was inversely associated with the risk of

  8. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Kenneth Jay

    2014-01-01

    and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand...... about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise....../wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present...

  9. The research of condensed matter physics by using intense proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1990-01-01

    The present article covers the application of intense protons to basic condensed matter physics. Major recent neutron scattering activities in condensed matter physics are first outlined, emphasizing the fact that the contribution of accelerator base science has a tremendous impact on this basic science. Application of spallation neutrons to condensed matter physics is discussed in relation to such subjects as high energy (epithermal) excitations and small angle neutron scattering. Then the specific subject of high Tc superconductor is addressed, focusing on how neutrons as well as muons provide experimental results that serve significantly in exploring the mechanism of exotic high Tc superconductivity. Techniques for neutron polarization must be developed in the future. The neutron spin reflectivity ratio has been shown to be a sensitive probe of surface depth profile of magnetization. Another new method is neutron depolarization to probe bulk magnetic induction throughout a slab which neutrons pass through. (N.K.)

  10. Effect of epoxidised soybean oil loading as plasticiser on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, M.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Farah Nordyana, A. R.; Syed Anas, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of epoxidised soybean oil (ESO) as an alternative plasticizer on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PPVC). Samples were prepared using 10, 20, 30 and 40% by weight percent of ESO. The samples were characterized for density, water absorption, tensile, hardness and thermal properties. The addition of ESO as plasticizer in PVC had caused significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of PPVC. Increasing of ESO loading had resulted in decreased density, tensile strength, tensile modulus but increased in elongation at break and shore hardness. From water absorption study, it was observed that the all the samples reached the plateau absorption at days 8 to 10 with absorption percentages of between 1.8 to 2%. In general the crystallinity of PPVC maintained between 10 to 13% with increase in ESO loading while the melting point ( Tm) is slightly decreased about 3 to 6°C. In this study, ESO which acts as plasticiser were found to result in lower glass transition temperature (Tg). The enhancements of super cooling with higher ESO loading were found to increase the crystallization temperature, promoting crystallisation and act as nucleating agent.

  11. The NASA Task Load Index as a measure of overall workload among neonatal, paediatric and adult intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Mara, Constance A; Carle, Adam C; Gurses, Ayse P

    2018-02-12

    The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a subjective workload assessment scale developed for use in aviation and increasingly applied to healthcare. The scale purports to measure overall workload as a single variable calculated by summing responses to six items. Since no data address the validity of this scoring approach in health care, we evaluated the single factor structure of the NASA-TLX as a measure of overall workload among intenisive care nurses. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from two studies of nurse workload in neonatal, paediatric, and adult intensive care units. Study 1 data were obtained from 136 nurses in one neonatal intensive care unit. Study 2 data were collected from 300 nurses in 17 adult, paediatric and neonatal units. Nurses rated their workload using the NASA-TLX's paper version. A single factor model testing whether all six items measured a single overall workload variable fit least well (RMSEA = 0.14; CFI = 0.91; TLI = 0.85). A second model that specified two items as outcomes of overall workload had acceptable fit (RMSEA = 0.08; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.95) while a third model of four items fit best (RMSEA = 0.06; CFI > 0.99; TLI = 0.99). A summed score from four of six NASA-TLX items appears to most reliably measure a single overall workload variable among intensive care nurses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderate-to-High Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A; Frederiksen, Kristian S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruite...... reduced neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild AD, with possible additional benefits of preserved cognition in a subgroup of patients exercising with high attendance and intensity.......BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...... 200 patients with mild AD to a supervised exercise group (60-min sessions three times a week for 16 weeks) or to a control group. Primary outcome was change from baseline in cognitive performance estimated by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) group. Secondary outcomes...

  13. Physical activity intensities in youth: the effect of month of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Seabra, André; Saint-Maurice, Pedro; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Mota, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    There is clear evidence that environmental factors play an important role regarding physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in youth. This short report highlights seasonal differences in the amount and intensities of PA and SB, in Portuguese youth. Three hundred and eighty-seven participants (aged 14.7 ± 1.9 years), 220 girls, used the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 days (15-second epochs), between January and June in 2008. PA and SB differences were assessed using an ANCOVA. Boys had significantly higher values of PA, with the exception of Light intensity. Girls were significantly more sedentary. PA intensities and SB changed significantly according to gender and month of assessment. SB (Gender F = 16.32, p Gender F = 9.30, p = 0.002; Month F = 8.37, p Gender*Month F = 2.24, p = 0.050), Moderate PA (Gender F = 40.04, p Gender F = 32.89, p genders increased PA from winter to summer months and SB decreased. Seasonality in PA intensities and SB suggest that interventions to promote PA and decrease SB must be tailored to take into consideration the month of the year they are going to be implemented and also gender characteristics.

  14. Manual hyperinflation and the role of physical therapy in intensive care and emergency units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vinícius Santos Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Although manual hyperinflation (MHI is a physical therapy technique commonly used in intensive care and emergency units, there is little consensus about its use. Objective: To investigate the knowledge of physical therapists working in intensive care and emergency units about manual hyperinflation. Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on manual hyperinflation. Data collection took place between September 2014 and January 2015, in Itabuna and Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. Results: The study sample was composed of 32 physical therapists who had between 4 months and 10 years working experience. All respondents affirmed that they used the technique in their professional practice. However, only 34.4% reported it to be a routine practice. 90.6% stated that the most common patient position during manual hyperinflation is “supine”. Participants were almost unanimous (93.8% in citing secretion removal and cough stimulation as perceived benefits of MHI. High peak airway pressure was identified as being a precaution to treatment with MHI by 84.4% of participants, whilst 100% of the sample agreed that an undrained pneumothorax was a contraindication to MHI. Conclusion: The most common answers to the questionnaire were: supine position during MHI; secretion removal and cough stimulation as perceived benefits; high peak airway pressure as a precaution; and an undrained pneumothorax as a contraindication.

  15. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris

    2017-12-01

    Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging). Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting), while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options). In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations) and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation). Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver's perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems graduate students

  16. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Leak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging. Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting, while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options. In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation. Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver’s perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems

  17. The key physics and technology issues in the intense-beam proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shinian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    Beam power is required to raise one order in the next generation spallation neutron source. There are still some physics and technology difficulties need to be overcome, even though no fatal obstacle exists due to the rapid development of the technology in intense-beam accelerator in recent years. Therefore, it is highly demanded to clarify the key issues and to lunch an R and D program to break through the technological barriers before author start to build the expansive machine. The new technological challenge arises from the high beam current, the high accelerator power and the high demand on the reliability and stability of the accelerator operation. The author will discuss these issues and the means to resolve them, as well as the state of the art in a few of major technological disciplines. Finally, the choice the framework of intense-beam accelerator is discussed

  18. Robust Building Energy Load Forecasting Using Physically-Based Kernel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Krishnan Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Robust and accurate building energy load forecasting is important for helping building managers and utilities to plan, budget, and strategize energy resources in advance. With recent prevalent adoption of smart-meters in buildings, a significant amount of building energy consumption data became available. Many studies have developed physics-based white box models and data-driven black box models to predict building energy consumption; however, they require extensive prior knowledge about building system, need a large set of training data, or lack robustness to different forecasting scenarios. In this paper, we introduce a new building energy forecasting method based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR that incorporates physical insights about load data characteristics to improve accuracy while reducing training requirements. The GPR is a non-parametric regression method that models the data as a joint Gaussian distribution with mean and covariance functions and forecast using the Bayesian updating. We model the covariance function of the GPR to reflect the data patterns in different forecasting horizon scenarios, as prior knowledge. Our method takes advantage of the modeling flexibility and computational efficiency of the GPR while benefiting from the physical insights to further improve the training efficiency and accuracy. We evaluate our method with three field datasets from two university campuses (Carnegie Mellon University and Stanford University for both short- and long-term load forecasting. The results show that our method performs more accurately, especially when the training dataset is small, compared to other state-of-the-art forecasting models (up to 2.95 times smaller prediction error.

  19. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  20. Dual stimuli polysaccharide nanovesicles for conjugated and physically loaded doxorubicin delivery in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, P. S.; Shah, Ruchira; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-04-01

    The present work reports the development of pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular nano-scaffolds for the administration of doxorubicin via physical loading and polymer-drug conjugation to breast cancer cells. Dextran was suitably modified with a renewable resource 3-pentadecyl phenol unit through imine and aliphatic ester chemical linkages that acted as pH and esterase enzyme stimuli, respectively. These dual responsive polysaccharide derivatives self-organized into 200 +/- 10 nm diameter nano-vesicles in water. The water soluble anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX.HCl) was encapsulated in the hydrophilic pocket to produce core-loaded polysaccharide vesicles whereas chemical conjugation produced DOX anchored at the hydrophobic layer of the dextran nano-vesicles. In vitro studies revealed that about 70-80% of the drug was retained under circulatory conditions at pH = 7.4 and 37 °C. At a low pH of 6.0 to 5.0 and in the presence of esterase; both imine and ester linkages were cleaved instantaneously to release 100% of the loaded drugs. Cytotoxicity assays on Wild Type Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (WTMEFs) confirmed the non-toxicity of the newly developed dextran derivatives at up to 500 μg mL-1 in PBS. MTT assays on fibroblast cells revealed that DOX.HCl loaded nano-vesicles exhibited better killing abilities than DOX conjugated polymer nano-vesicles. Both DOX loaded and DOX conjugated nano-vesicles were found to show significant killing in breast cancer cells (MCF 7). Confocal microscopy images confirmed the uptake of DOX loaded (or conjugated) nano-vesicles by cells compared to free DOX. Thus, the newly developed pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular assemblies are potential drug vectors for the administration of DOX in both loaded and chemically conjugated forms for the efficient killing of breast cancer cells.The present work reports the development of pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular nano-scaffolds for the

  1. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACHIEVING MEDIUM- AND HIGH-INTENSITY PHYSICAL / SPORT ACTIVITY IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH AND LEARNING OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostjan Šimunič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces an epidemic of general physical inactivity, impeding the achievement of a sufficient level of medium- and high-intensity physical / sport activities (P / SA. Never in human history were people less physically active than they are now, both at work and in their free time. The most problematic seem to be children and adolescents whose level of P / SA decreases and is not sufficient for maintaining health. School plays an important role in ensuring sufficient and quality P / SA. Physical education is a key period during school when students can be physically active. Consequently, policy makers and moderators of strategies in the field of movement, health and sport should strive to develop the appropriate curriculum and strategies for increasing the volume, intensity and quality of P / SA during physical education. Teachers should pay particular attention, with didactic and methodical approaches, to the achievement of medium- and high-intensity of children’s P / SA.

  2. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a supervised high- and low-intensity structured training program in cancer patients concurrently undergoing chemotherapy. Seventy patients, in different stages of the disease and with different diagnoses (48 females, 22 males), between 18...... and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were......-term study support the theory that exercise is a beneficial intervention strategy for increasing muscle strength and aerobic fitness during antineoplastic chemotherapy. This type of exercise program can be an important component of complementary treatment for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy....

  3. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier: Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A.

    2012-01-01

    Particle physics aims to understand the universe around us. The Standard Model of particle physics describes the basic structure of matter and forces, to the extent we have been able to probe thus far. However, it leaves some big questions unanswered. Some are within the Standard Model itself, such as why there are so many fundamental particles and why they have different masses. In other cases, the Standard Model simply fails to explain some phenomena, such as the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and the mechanism that reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics. These gaps lead us to conclude that the universe must contain new and unexplored elements of Nature. Most of particle and nuclear physics is directed towards discovering and understanding these new laws of physics. These questions are best pursued with a variety of approaches, rather than with a single experiment or technique. Particle physics uses three basic approaches, often characterized as exploration along the cosmic, energy, and intensity frontiers. Each employs different tools and techniques, but they ultimately address the same fundamental questions. This allows a multi-pronged approach where attacking basic questions from different angles furthers knowledge and provides deeper answers, so that the whole is more than a sum of the parts. A coherent picture or underlying theoretical model can more easily emerge, to be proven correct or not. The intensity frontier explores fundamental physics with intense sources and ultra-sensitive, sometimes massive detectors. It encompasses searches for extremely rare processes and for tiny deviations from Standard Model expectations. Intensity frontier experiments use precision measurements to probe quantum effects. They typically investigate very large energy scales, even higher than the kinematic reach of high energy particle accelerators. The science addresses basic questions, such as: Are there

  5. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A. (High Energy Physics); ( PHY); (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center); (Univ. of Michigan); (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)

    2012-06-05

    Particle physics aims to understand the universe around us. The Standard Model of particle physics describes the basic structure of matter and forces, to the extent we have been able to probe thus far. However, it leaves some big questions unanswered. Some are within the Standard Model itself, such as why there are so many fundamental particles and why they have different masses. In other cases, the Standard Model simply fails to explain some phenomena, such as the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and the mechanism that reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics. These gaps lead us to conclude that the universe must contain new and unexplored elements of Nature. Most of particle and nuclear physics is directed towards discovering and understanding these new laws of physics. These questions are best pursued with a variety of approaches, rather than with a single experiment or technique. Particle physics uses three basic approaches, often characterized as exploration along the cosmic, energy, and intensity frontiers. Each employs different tools and techniques, but they ultimately address the same fundamental questions. This allows a multi-pronged approach where attacking basic questions from different angles furthers knowledge and provides deeper answers, so that the whole is more than a sum of the parts. A coherent picture or underlying theoretical model can more easily emerge, to be proven correct or not. The intensity frontier explores fundamental physics with intense sources and ultra-sensitive, sometimes massive detectors. It encompasses searches for extremely rare processes and for tiny deviations from Standard Model expectations. Intensity frontier experiments use precision measurements to probe quantum effects. They typically investigate very large energy scales, even higher than the kinematic reach of high energy particle accelerators. The science addresses basic questions, such as: Are there

  6. Clinical profile of newborns undergoing physical therapy in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ferreira Biazus

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In neonatal therapy units, physical therapy is directed toward integral baby care. Objective: To describe the profile of newborns (NBs hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. Methods: Retrospective documentary study with data collection from medical records from July 2011 to July 2013. The sample consisted of NBs who performed motor and respiratory therapy. Data were grouped into five categories according to birth weight (≤ 1000g, 1001-1500g, 1501-2000g, 2001-2500g, ≥ 2501g. Results: total of 1,884 newborns were admitted to the NICU within the stipulated period, 168 (13.9% underwent physical therapy. Of the 168 NBs who underwent physical therapy, 137 were born in the hospital (81.5% and 31 were transferred there (18.5%; 17 of these babies died during the neonatal hospital stay (10.1%. All newborns of the extremely low birth weight group (≤ 1000g required mechanical ventilation, 72.7% non-invasive ventilation and 16.6% high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The occurrence of pneumothorax in the extremely low birth weight group was 13.8% and 16% in the group with birth weight 1001-1500g. Conclusion: Infants with low birth weight (<2500g constituted the profile of NBs who underwent physical therapy, which was directly related to higher incidence of death and pneumothorax, as well as increased use of mechanical and non-invasive ventilation.

  7. [Development of Inhalable Dry Powder Formulations Loaded with Nanoparticles Maintaining Their Original Physical Properties and Functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

     Functional nanoparticles, such as liposomes and polymeric micelles, are attractive drug delivery systems for solubilization, stabilization, sustained release, prolonged tissue retention, and tissue targeting of various encapsulated drugs. For their clinical application in therapy for pulmonary diseases, the development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations is considered practical due to such advantages as: (1) it is noninvasive and can be directly delivered into the lungs; (2) there are few biocomponents in the lungs that interact with nanoparticles; and (3) it shows high storage stability in the solid state against aggregation or precipitation of nanoparticles in water. However, in order to produce effective nanoparticle-loaded dry powders for inhalation, it is essential to pursue an innovative and comprehensive formulation strategy in relation to composition and powderization which can achieve (1) the particle design of dry powders with physical properties suitable for pulmonary delivery through inhalation, and (2) the effective reconstitution of nanoparticles that will maintain their original physical properties and functions after dissolution of the powders. Spray-freeze drying (SFD) is a relatively new powderization technique combining atomization and lyophilization, which can easily produce highly porous dry powders from an aqueous sample solution. Previously, we advanced the optimization of components and process conditions for the production of SFD powders suitable to DPI application. This review describes our recent results in the development of novel DPI formulations effectively loaded with various nanoparticles (electrostatic nanocomplexes for gene therapy, liposomes, and self-assembled lipid nanoparticles), based on SFD.

  8. A Robust Dynamic Heart-Rate Detection Algorithm Framework During Intense Physical Activities Using Photoplethysmographic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic accurate heart-rate (HR estimation using a photoplethysmogram (PPG during intense physical activities is always challenging due to corruption by motion artifacts (MAs. It is difficult to reconstruct a clean signal and extract HR from contaminated PPG. This paper proposes a robust HR-estimation algorithm framework that uses one-channel PPG and tri-axis acceleration data to reconstruct the PPG and calculate the HR based on features of the PPG and spectral analysis. Firstly, the signal is judged by the presence of MAs. Then, the spectral peaks corresponding to acceleration data are filtered from the periodogram of the PPG when MAs exist. Different signal-processing methods are applied based on the amount of remaining PPG spectral peaks. The main MA-removal algorithm (NFEEMD includes the repeated single-notch filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Finally, HR calibration is designed to ensure the accuracy of HR tracking. The NFEEMD algorithm was performed on the 23 datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup Database. The average estimation errors were 1.12 BPM (12 training datasets, 2.63 BPM (10 testing datasets and 1.87 BPM (all 23 datasets, respectively. The Pearson correlation was 0.992. The experiment results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is not only suitable for HR estimation during continuous activities, like slow running (13 training datasets, but also for intense physical activities with acceleration, like arm exercise (10 testing datasets.

  9. Physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; An Shizhong; Wang Chuan; Yin Zhiguo; Wei Sumin; Li Ming; Yang Jianjun; Ji Bin; Jia Xianlu; Zhong Junqing; Yang Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), which is aimed for multiple uses including radioactive ion-beam (RIB) production. The machine adopts a compact structure of four straight sectors, capable of accelerating two kinds of beams, i.e. H − and D − . The proton and deuteron beam will be extracted in dual opposite directions by charge exchange stripping devices. The energy of the extracted proton beam is in the range 35–70 MeV with an intensity up to 700 μA. The corresponding values for the deuteron beam are 18–33 MeV and 40 μA. This paper will present the main characteristics and parameters in the design of the 70 MeV cyclotron, the results of the basic beam dynamics study, as well as the physics in the design of the different systems, including the main magnet, RF, injection and extraction systems, etc.

  10. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTENSITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SOCCER REFEREES DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Inácio da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs. The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil, Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765, with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006, and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play

  11. Foot loading with an ankle-foot orthosis: the accuracy of an integrated physical strain trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Brem, Matthias; Gelse, Kolja; Swoboda, Bernd; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the value of a built-in physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing with an ankle-foot orthosis. 12 healthy volunteers were asked to perform three trials. Plantar peak pressure values from normal gait (trial one) were defined as 100% (baseline). The following trials were performed with the Vacoped® dynamic vacuum ankle orthosis worn in a neutral position with full weight bearing (trial two) and a restriction to 10% body weight (BW) (trial three), as monitored with an integrated physical strain trainer. Peak plantar pressure values were obtained using the pedar® X system. Peak pressure values were statistically significantly reduced wearing the Vacoped® shoe with full weight bearing for the hindfoot to 68% of the baseline (normal gait) and for the midfoot and forefoot to 83% and 60%, respectively. Limited weight bearing with 10% BW as controlled by physical strain trainer further reduced plantar peak pressure values for the hindfoot to 19%, for the midfoot to 43% of the baseline and the forefoot to 22% of the baseline. The Vacoped® vacuum ankle orthosis significantly reduces plantar peak pressure. The integrated physical strain trainer seems unsuitable to monitor a limitation to 10% BW adequately for the total foot. The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device within the orthosis seems debatable but may be useful when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded.

  12. The Impact of Intrinsic Heavy Quark Distributions in the Proton on New Physics Searches at the High Intensity Frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broksky, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of an intense proton facility, at 'Project X' or elsewhere, will provide many new opportunities for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. A Project X can serve a yet broader role in the search for new physics, and in this note we highlight the manner in which thus-enabled studies of the flavor structure of the proton, particularly of its intrinsic heavy quark content, facilitate other direct and indirect searches for new physics. Intrinsic heavy quarks in both light and heavy hadrons play a key role in searches for physics BSM with hadrons - and their study at the Intensity Frontier may prove crucial to establishing its existence.

  13. The Treatment of Juvenile Fibromyalgia with an Intensive Physical and Psychosocial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David D; Brake, Lori; Tress, Jenna L; Sherker, Jennifer; Fash, Katherine; Ferry, Kelly; Weiss, Pamela F

    2015-09-01

    To assess the short-term and 1-year outcomes of children with fibromyalgia treated with intensive physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) and psychotherapy. Children with fibromyalgia seen at a tertiary care hospital were treated with 5-6 hours of intensive PT/OT daily and at least 4 hours of psychosocial services weekly. All medications used for fibromyalgia were discontinued. Children underwent standardized testing, including a visual analog scale for pain; the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance, Second Edition; the Bruce treadmill protocol; the Functional Disability Inventory; the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire, adolescent version; and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Teen Report, at 3 time points: at program entry, at the end of the intensive program, and 1 year after the end of the program. Sixty-four children (median age, 16 years; 95% Caucasian; 94% female; median duration of symptoms, 21 months) were studied. The mean pain score decreased significantly from program entry to the end of the program (from 66 of 100 to 25 of 100; P = .001). At the 1-year follow-up, 33% reported no pain. All measures of function on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance, Second Edition improved significantly and remained at that level or continued to improve over the subsequent year. The mean Bruce treadmill protocol time first increased from 588 seconds to 801 seconds (P fibromyalgia can be successfully treated without medications with a very intensive PT/OT and psychotherapy program. They have significantly improved pain and function by subject report and objective measures of function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0–10 scale in bench press

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press exercise. Three hundred eight young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 male and 66 female) performed a progressive strength test up to the one-repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity...

  15. Effects of intensive physical therapy on the motor function of a child with spastic hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Serrano-Gómez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical therapy is a health profession whose object of study is the movement of the human body, therefore, it is responsible for cases involving motor development problems, as in the case presented here. Objective: To describe the short-term effect caused by intensive physical therapy treatment, performed with Therasuit, on motor function of a child with spastic right hemiparesis. Materials and methods: Descriptive qualitative research conducted based on the case study methodology with an observation period of two years. Results: The results include, besides the detection and diagnosis of the case, the analysis of information based on the application of the methodology and the observation of results in clinical trials to assess movement, design and implementation of a treatment plan using the Therasuit method. Conclusions: This case study makes possible to observe how the presence of a physical therapy program at a clinical practice institution allowed Therasuit method treatment to a four-year-old child diagnosed with right spastic hemiparesis sequelae, which improved gait and motor function.

  16. Coupling of physical erosion and chemical weathering after phases of intense human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonejans, Jerome; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation profoundly alters the lateral and vertical fluxes of soil nutrients and particles at the land surface. Human-induced acceleration of soil erosion can thereby result in an imbalance between physical erosion, soil production and chemical weathering. The (de-)coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering in ecosystems with strong anthropogenic disturbances is not yet fully understood, as earlier studies mostly focused on natural ecosystems. In this study, we explore the chemical weathering intensity for four study sites located in the Internal Zone of the Spanish Betic Cordillera. Most of the sites belong to the Nevado-Filabres complex, but are characterized by different rates of long-term exhumation, 10Be catchment-wide denudation and hill slope morphology. Denudation rates are generally low, but show large variation between the three sites (from 23 to 246 mm kyr-1). The magnitude of denudation rates is consistent with longer-term uplift rates derived from marine deposits, fission-track measurements and vertical fault slip rates. Two to three soil profiles were sampled per study site at exposed ridge tops. All soils overly fractured mica schist, and are very thin (< 60cm). In each soil profile, we sampled 5 depth slices, rock fragments and the (weathered) bedrock. In total, 38 soil and 20 rock samples were analyzed for their chemical composition. The chemical weathering intensity is constrained by the Chemical Depletion Fraction that is based on a chemical mass balance approach using Zr as an immobile element. Chemical weathering accounts for 5 to 35% of the total mass lost due to denudation. We observe systematically higher chemical weathering intensities (CDFs) in sites with lower denudation rates (and vice versa), suggesting that weathering is supply-limited. Our measurements of soil elemental losses from 10 soil profiles suggest that the observed variation in chemical weathering is strongly associated

  17. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    , Basher A, Amin MR, Faiz MA. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:23-6.

  18. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n=18 or vigorous-intensity (n=18 center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7±219.7 kcal⋅d−1 was higher (P=.011 than on days without exercise (450.7±140.5 kcal⋅d−1; however, the difference (127.0±188.1 kcal⋅d−1 was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6±153.6 kcal⋅d−1 was lower (P=.047 than on days without exercise (519.2±127.4 kcal⋅d−1. Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity.

  19. The Importance of Vigorous-Intensity Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Gary; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Stensel, David J; Hamer, Mark

    2018-03-02

    To investigate the role of vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in the obese. Trained interviewers assessed physical activity and body mass index (BMI; calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) in 59,005 adult participants (mean ± SD age, 57±12 years; 46.5% male) in 2 household-based surveillance studies: Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey. Mortality was ascertained from death certificates. Data were collected from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking habit, total physical activity, long-standing illness, prevalent CVD, and occupation. There were 2302 CVD deaths during 532,251 person-years of follow-up (mean ± SD, 9±4 years). A total of 15,002 (25%) participants were categorized as obese (BMI ≥30). Leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated and BMI was positively associated with CVD mortality. Compared with those who reported meeting physical activity guidelines including some vigorous-intensity physical activity and who had a normal BMI (18.5-24.9) (reference group), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was not significantly different in the obese who also reported meeting physical activity guidelines including some vigorous-intensity physical activities (1.25; 95% CI, 0.50-3.12). Compared with the reference group, the CVD mortality hazard ratio was more than 2-fold in the obese who reported meeting physical activity guidelines, including only moderate-intensity physical activities (2.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.53). This large, statistically powerful study suggests that vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity is important in reducing CVD mortality risk in the obese. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations of low-intensity light physical activity with physical performance in community-dwelling elderly Japanese: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro P Izawa

    Full Text Available Physical activity and physical performance relate to quality of life, mortality, and morbidity in elderly people. However, little is known about differences in physical performance related to low-intensity light physical activity (LLPA, high-intensity light physical activity (HLPA, and moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA and how they are separated by sex in elderly populations.This study aimed to determine differences in LLPA, HLPA, MPA, and physical performance, and associations between these measures in community-dwelling elderly men and women.Physical activity and physical performance such as timed-up-and-go test, one-leg standing time, and maximum gait speed were measured in 181 community-dwelling elderly men (mean age, 75.1 ± 5.3 years and 109 women (mean age, 73.4 ± 4.8 years in 2013. Physical activity was classified as LLPA (1.6~1.9 METs of physical activity, HLPA (2.0~2.9 METs of physical activity, and MPA (over 3 METs of physical activity. The association between the values of these three intensities of physical activity in the participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of physical performance values with the three groups defined by accelerometer-measured physical activity intensity adjusted for sociographic, behavioral, and multiple diseases in the participants.MPA was beneficially associated with all physical performance indicators in the men (all P<0.05 and women (all P<0.05. Only HLPA showed significant associations with the timed-up-and-go test (P = 0.001 and maximum gait speed (P = 0.006 in women.These results may support the notion that not only HLPA in women but MPA in both sexes appears to improve physical performance in elderly populations.The present study findings provide novel epidemiological evidence for the potential benefits of HLPA in women and also reinforce the potential benefits of MPA in both sexes, which is the

  1. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  2. Breaking Up Sitting with Light-Intensity Physical Activity: Implications for Shift-Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting, restricted sleep, and circadian disruption are all independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Previous research has demonstrated that breaking up sitting with light-intensity physical activity has clear benefits for the health of day workers, but these findings may not apply in the presence of sleep restriction and/or circadian disruption—both of which are commonly experienced by shift-workers. Specifically, sleep restriction, and circadian disruption result in acute physiological changes that may offset the benefits of breaking up sitting. This commentary will explore the potential benefits of breaking up sitting for health, work performance, and subsequent sleep in shift-workers. Future areas of research designed to understand the mechanisms by which prolonged sitting and shift work impact worker health and safety and to support the design of effective occupational health and safety interventions are proposed.

  3. High-Intensity Ultrasound to Improve Physical and Functional Properties of Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Ashwini; Birkin, Peter; Martini, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been used in recent years to change the crystallization behavior of edible lipids. This technique can be used in combination with other processing technologies to tailor lipids' functional properties and broaden their application for various food products. In general, sonication induces crystallization, increases crystallization rate, and generates a harder and more elastic crystalline network characterized by smaller crystals with a sharper melting profile. An important application of HIU is to improve the hardness and elasticity of shortenings that have a low content of saturated fatty acids and are free of trans-fats. This review summarizes recent research that used HIU to change the physical and functional properties of edible lipids and focuses on the importance of controlling processing variables such as sonication power level and duration and crystallization temperature.

  4. Physics Based Model for Cryogenic Chilldown and Loading. Part IV: Code Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, D. G.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Brown, B.

    2014-01-01

    This is the fourth report in a series of technical reports that describe separated two-phase flow model application to the cryogenic loading operation. In this report we present the structure of the code. The code consists of five major modules: (1) geometry module; (2) solver; (3) material properties; (4) correlations; and finally (5) stability control module. The two key modules - solver and correlations - are further divided into a number of submodules. Most of the physics and knowledge databases related to the properties of cryogenic two-phase flow are included into the cryogenic correlations module. The functional form of those correlations is not well established and is a subject of extensive research. Multiple parametric forms for various correlations are currently available. Some of them are included into correlations module as will be described in details in a separate technical report. Here we describe the overall structure of the code and focus on the details of the solver and stability control modules.

  5. Multipactor Physics, Acceleration, and Breakdown in Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Richard P.; Gold, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this 3-year program is to study the physics issues associated with rf acceleration in dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures, with a focus on the key issue of multipactor loading, which has been found to cause very significant rf power loss in DLA structures whenever the rf pulsewidth exceeds the multipactor risetime (~10 ns). The experiments are carried out in the X-band magnicon laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC, who develop the test structures with support from the DoE SBIR program. There are two main elements in the research program: (1) high-power tests of DLA structures using the magnicon output (20 MW @11.4 GHz), and (2) tests of electron acceleration in DLA structures using relativistic electrons from a compact X-band accelerator. The work during this period has focused on a study of the use of an axial magnetic field to suppress multipactor in DLA structures, with several new high power tests carried out at NRL, and on preparation of the accelerator for the electron acceleration experiments.

  6. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  7. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer.A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices.Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland-Altman analysis.Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a desired speed.

  8. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-01-01

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  9. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-10-28

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  10. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Oscar E. Suman, PhD...Multicenter Study of the Effect of In-Patient Exercise Training on Length of Hospitalization, Mental Health , and Physical Performance in Burned...Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance,” Proposal Log Number 13214039, Award Number W81XWH-14

  11. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Paul J; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren

    2014-02-24

    Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (physical activity/d). During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less vigorous intensity physical activity

  12. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Methods Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (physical activity/d). Results During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less

  13. Patient and family perceptions of physical therapy in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Peter D; Nordon-Craft, Amy; Malone, Daniel; Schenkman, Margaret; Moss, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Patient and family member perceptions of physical therapy (PT) in the intensive care unit and the factors that influence their degree of satisfaction have not been described. A panel of experts developed a questionnaire that assessed patient and family perceptions of PT. Critically ill patients and their family members were asked to complete the survey. Patient and family member scores were compared and stratified by age, sex, and mechanical ventilation for greater than 14 days compared to 14 days or less. A total of 55 patients and 49 family members completed the survey. Patients and family members reported that PT was necessary and beneficial to recovery, despite associating PT with difficulty, exertion, and discomfort. Patient perceptions were similar regardless of age or sex. Family members underestimated a patient's enjoyment of PT (P = .03). For individuals who required prolonged mechanical ventilation (>14 days), patients reported that PT was more difficult (P = .03) and less enjoyable (P = .049), and family members reported PT as causing greater discomfort (P = .005). In addition, family members of patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilation felt that PT was less beneficial (P = .01). Physical therapy is perceived as necessary and beneficial to recovery by critically ill patients and family members. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Physical Performance and Frailty in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldeen, Kenneth Ladd; Lasky, Ginger; Leiker, Merced Marie; Pang, Manhui; Personius, Kirkwood Ely; Troen, Bruce Robert

    2018-03-14

    Sarcopenia and frailty are highly prevalent in older individuals, increasing the risk of disability and loss of independence. High intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide a robust intervention for both sarcopenia and frailty by achieving both strength and endurance benefits with lower time commitments than other exercise regimens. To better understand the impacts of HIIT during aging, we compared 24-month-old C57BL/6J sedentary mice with those that were administered 10-minute uphill treadmill HIIT sessions three times per week over 16 weeks. Baseline and end point assessments included body composition, physical performance, and frailty based on criteria from the Fried physical frailty scale. HIIT-trained mice demonstrated dramatic improvement in grip strength (HIIT 10.9% vs -3.9% in sedentary mice), treadmill endurance (32.6% vs -2.0%), and gait speed (107.0% vs 39.0%). Muscles from HIIT mice also exhibited greater mass, larger fiber size, and an increase in mitochondrial biomass. Furthermore, HIIT exercise led to a dramatic reduction in frailty scores in five of six mice that were frail or prefrail at baseline, with four ultimately becoming nonfrail. The uphill treadmill HIIT exercise sessions were well tolerated by aged mice and led to performance gains, improvement in underlying muscle physiology, and reduction in frailty.

  15. Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high energy density physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast z-pinch implosions can convert more than 10% of the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents of 6 to 8 MA with a risetime of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically-symmetric loads, producing implosions velocities as high as 100 cm/μs and x-ray energies as high as 500 kJ. The keV component of the resulting x-ray spectrum has been used for many years 8 a radiation source for material response studies. Alternatively, the x-ray output can be thermalized into a near-Planckian x-ray source by containing it within a large cylindrical radiation case. These large volume, long-lived radiation sources have recently been used for ICF-relevant ablator physics experiments as well as astrophysical opacity and radiation-material interaction experiments. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using uniform-fill gas puff loads or by using wire arrays with as many a 192 wires. These techniques produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, Zn reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75±10 TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. These powers represent greater than a factor of three in power amplification over the electrical power of the Saturn n accelerator, and are a record for x-ray powers in the laboratory

  16. Intensity-Frontier Antiproton Physics with The Antiproton Annihilation Spectrometer (TAPAS) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, Giorgio; /Fermilab; Asner, David M.; /PNL, Richland; Baldini, Wander; /INFN, Ferrara; Bartoszek, Larry; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Brown, Charles N.; /Fermilab; Chakravorty, Alak; /St. Xavier U., Chicago; Colas, Paul; /Saclay; Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab; Drutskoy, Alexey; /Moscow, ITEP; Fortner, Michael; /Northern Illinois U. /Saclay /Indian Inst. Tech., Hyderabad

    2011-11-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source is the world's most intense source of antimatter. With the Tevatron program now behind us, this unique facility can help make the case for Fermilab's continued accelerator operations. The Antiproton Source can be used for unique, dedicated antimatter studies, including medium-energy {bar p}-annihilation experiments. We propose to assemble a powerful, yet cost-effective, solenoidal magnetic spectrometer for antiproton-annihilation events, and to use it at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to measure the charm production cross section, study rare hyperon decays, search for hyperon CP asymmetry, precisely measure the properties of several charmonium and nearby states, and make the first measurements of the Drell-Yan continuum in medium-energy antiproton annihilation. Should the charm production cross section be as large as some have proposed, we will also be able to measure D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with high precision and discover (or sensitively limit) charm CP violation. The observation of charm or hyperon CP violation would be evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, with possible implications for the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the universe - the question of what happened to all the antimatter that must have been produced in the Big Bang. The experiment will be carried out by an international collaboration and will require some four years of running time. As possibly the sole hadron experiment in progress at Fermilab during that time, it will play an important role in maintaining a broad particle physics program at Fermilab and in the U.S. It will thus help us to continue attracting creative and capable young people into science and technology, and introducing them to the important technologies of accelerators, detectors, and data acquisition and analysis - key roles in society that accelerator-based particle physics has historically played.

  17. Commissioning with low-intensity beams helps prepare CMS for this year’s physics run. This event is one of the first low-intensity collisions recorded in the CMS detector, during the early hours of 23 April 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068005

    2016-01-01

    Commissioning with low-intensity beams helps prepare CMS for this year’s physics run. This event is one of the first low-intensity collisions recorded in the CMS detector, during the early hours of 23 April 2016

  18. Attending a workplace: its contribution to volume and intensity of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Daniel; Dolan, Catriona; Granat, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the contribution that attending a workplace has in accumulating physical activity (PA) may help inform strategies used to increase PA. This study explores the influence that attending work has on the total number of steps taken and the time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA). A global position system (GPS) was used to identify the geographical domain of the participant. An activity monitor (activPAL, PALtechnologies Ltd, Glasgow, UK) was employed to measure the number of steps taken and the cadence of those steps. Both devices were worn for seven consectutive days and 5 work days extracted post data collection. The data from the two devices were synchronised allowing domain, volume and intensity of PA to be explored. The distance from the home domain to the workplace was used to establish if there was any relationship between commute distance and number of steps accumulated and time in MVPA. Twenty-six office workers (17F; mean age 38 (range 23-65)) were recruited. The number of steps taken per day on average for the group was 11 008 (SD  ±  2999) with time spent in MVPA per day being 32.7 (SD  ±  17.1) min. The commute accounted for 32% or 3550 (SD  ±1664) of the steps taken and 68% or 22.0 (SD  ±14.1) min of MVPA. No statistically significant correlations with distance from home to the workplace for either variable were found. This work explores the contribution that attending work makes to PA, combining data from a GPS system and an objective activity monitor. The commute to works accounts for more than two-thirds of the MVPA accumulated per day. This provides meaningful in sight into the volume and intensity of individuals' activity and also its context.

  19. Assessing the physical-chemical properties and stability of dapivirine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, José; Amiji, Mansoor; Bahia, Maria Fernanda; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-11-18

    Nanocarriers may provide interesting delivery platforms for microbicide drugs and their characterization should be addressed early in development. Differently surface-engineered dapivirine-loaded, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)-based nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by nanoprecipitation using polyethylene oxide (PEO), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surface modifiers. Physical-chemical properties of NP aqueous dispersions were evaluated upon storage at -20-40 °C for one year. NPs presented 170-200 nm in diameter, roundish-shape, low polydispersity index (≤0.18), and high drug association efficiency (≥97%) and loading (≥12.7%). NPs differed in zeta potential, depending on surface modifier (PEO: -27.9 mV; SLS: -54.7 mV; CTAB: +42.4 mV). No interactions among formulation components were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), except for SLS-PCL NPs. Colloidal properties of NPs were lost at -20 °C storage. Negatively charged NPs were stable up to one year at 5-40°C; as for CTAB-PCL NPs, particle aggregation was observed from 30 to 90 days of storage depending on temperature. Colloidal instability affected the in vitro drug release of CTAB-PCL NPs after 360 days. In any case, no degradation of dapivirine was apparent. Overall, PEO-PCL and SLS-PCL NPs presented suitable properties as nanocarriers for dapivirine. Conversely, CTAB-PCL NPs require additional strategies in order to increase stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining intensively farmed Danish catchments, 1990-2014. How can the observed trend be explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windolf, Jørgen; Børgesen, Christen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian; Larsen, Søren E.; Tornbjerg, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The total land-based nitrogen load to Danish coastal waters has decreased by 50% since 1990 through a reduction of the outlet of nitrogen from sewage point sources and diffuse sources. On a national scale nitrogen load from diffuse sources, has been reduced by 43% , mainly due to limitation of the amount of N input to different crops, rules for timing and application of manure, mandatory demands for catch crops and restoration of wetlands. The latter increasing the nitrogen retention capacity in surface waters. However, on a local scale huge variations exist in the reduction of the diffuse nitrogen load. Since 1990, an important part of the Danish national monitoring program on the aquatic environment (NOVANA) has been directed at quantifying the nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining small intensively farmed catchments. The 48 catchments have a mean size of 18 km2, farmed area constitutes more than 60% of the catchment area and the catchments have no significant outlets of sewage to the streams. The statistical trend results (based on a seasonal Mann-Kendall) from these 48 streams show a 9-65% reduction in the diffuse nitrogen load (mean: 48%). The large differences in trends in the diffuse N load are related to differences in catchment-specific variables such as nitrogen surpluses, nitrogen leaching from the root zone, hydrogeology and nitrogen retention in ground and surface waters.

  1. The impact of high intensity physical training on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Bo M; Jensen, Joakim; Bode, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Several studies have investigated various physical interventions on PD. The effects of a high intensity exercise program with focus on resistance; cardio; equilibrium......; and flexibility training have not been evaluated previously. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a complex, high intensity physical training program, with a long duration, on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHOD: 24 patients with PD Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-3 were...... non-randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 12). The intervention group underwent 32 weeks of high intensity personalized physical training twice a week, with an optional extra training session once a week. The control group received general recommendations...

  2. The Relationship between Fear of Movement and Pain Intensity with Physical Disability in Chronic Lew-Back Pain Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Afshar-Nezhad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is growing evidence for the idea that fear of movement may be as disabling as pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients (CLBP. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the relation between fear of movement and pain intensity with physical disability in chronic low back pain patients and the role of pain duration, gender and age differences in these relations. Materials & Methods: In this analytical and cross-sectional study, 194 patients with chronic low back pain for more than three months, referred to seven rehabilitation clinics in Rasht city during four months, were selected consecutively. Data were collected by Numerical Rating Scale, Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia and Demographic questionnaire and analyzed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multi Regression. Results: Significant correlations were found between physical disability with fear of movement, pain intensity and age (P<0.001 and also pain duration (P=0.036. These relations were not different between males and females. In first Regression model, fear of movement and pain intensity, were the strongest predictors of physical disability. No differences were found between these factors. Then, prediction model was prepared adding age, sex and pain duration. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the fear of movement and pain intensity were superior in predicting disability. Among demographic variables, only the Beta Coefficient for age was significant in predicting disability (P=0.002. Conclusion: Fear of movement, pain intensity and age are important factors influencing physical disability in individuals suffering a chronic low back pain. Thus, for minimizing physical disability, alone with reducing pain intensity, patients showing fear of movement can be offered interventions that focus on reduction of the fear.

  3. Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100 G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  4. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating

  5. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B.; Lee, E.P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  6. The Effects of Active Videogame Feedback and Practicing Experience on Children's Physical Activity Intensity and Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to explore the effects of receiving active videogame (AVG) feedback and playing experience on individuals' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and perceived enjoyment. This was a within-subject design study. The participants included 36 (n = 15 and 21 for boys and girls, respectively) fourth graders enrolled in a rural elementary school in southern Georgia area. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks with each week including three sessions. The participants were assigned in either front row (sensor feedback) or back row (no sensor feedback) during practice, which was alternated in different sessions. Two different dance games were played during the study with each game implemented for 3 weeks. The MVPA was measured with GT3X+ accelerometers. Physical activity (PA) enjoyment was assessed after the completion of the first two and last two sessions of each game. A repeated one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to examine the effects of AVG feedback and game on MVPA. A repeated one-way MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) was conducted for each game to examine the effects of experience and AVG feedback on enjoyment and MVPA. No effects of AVG feedback were found for MVPA or enjoyment (P > 0.05). The effects of experience on MVPA were found for Just Dance Kids 2014 with experience decreased MVPA (P < 0.05). Students who practiced dance AVG without receiving feedback still demonstrated positive affection and accumulated similar MVPA than when practicing while receiving feedback. Experience for certain dance games tends to decrease PA intensity.

  7. People who perceive themselves as active cannot identify the intensity recommended by the international physical activity guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop NW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neal W Prokop,1 Travis JR Hrubeniuk,1 Martin Sénéchal,2,3 Danielle R Bouchard1,4 1Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 2Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4Health, Leisure, and Human Performance Research Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Background: Many national and international organizations recommend that adults achieve at least 150 minutes of aerobic physical activity (PA weekly, at a minimum moderate intensity to optimize health benefits. It is unknown if people who consider themselves as active have the ability to identify what is considered moderate intensity. Methods: Fifty-one participants who reported achieving a minimum 150 minutes per week at a minimum of moderate intensity PA were recruited through a local fitness facility. All participants underwent a single assessment involving questionnaires, clinical measures, and a treadmill test to measure the ability to perceive moderate intensity. Following the visit, participants' PA level was evaluated by heart rate monitor, while exercising, for 7 consecutive days. Results: Eighty percent of participants overestimated moderate intensity on the treadmill test; they were at vigorous intensity compared to what is considered moderate. Only 11.8% of participants accurately identified moderate intensity; all of them were women (P=0.03, had a high level of education (P=0.04, and knew that moderate intensity was the minimum intensity recommended by health organizations (P<0.01. Only 69.2% of participants reached the aerobic component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines with no significant advantage for those correctly identifying moderate intensity. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as active are exercising at vigorous intensity while believing they are

  8. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I), and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations.

  9. A comparison of two short-term intensive physical activity interventions: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Lynda H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in chronic illness due to sedentary lifestyles and poor metabolic fitness have led to numerous intervention strategies to promote physical activity (PA. This paper describes the methodological strategies of two short-term PA interventions. Outcome measures reported are PA adherence and compliance rates during the intervention and at 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Methods The 40-day interventions were: a pedometer-based walking program (n = 251 and a group-based intensive program (n = 148. There was also an active control group (n = 135. Intervention subjects were prescribed PA each day and required to record all activity sessions (pedometer steps or energy expenditure from heart rate monitors. Results Compliance (≥ 150 min/wk PA was highest post-intervention (81.1% and 64.5% for the group and pedometer subjects, respectively and then progressively decreased across the 12-month follow-up period (final compliance rates were 53.5% and 46.6%, respectively although they remained significantly higher than pre-intervention rates (zero %. There was significantly higher adherence to 6 months (75.0% and 64.9%, and compliance to 3 months (64.9% and 51.0%, for group versus pedometer subjects. The active control group maintained the highest adherence and compliance rates across the study. Conclusions The group-based program resulted in higher adherence and compliance rates post-intervention although both types of interventions showed long-term effectiveness to increase activity patterns.

  10. Physical and occupational therapy utilization in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang R; LaPorte, Megan; Civitello, Matthew; Stanger, Meg; Orringer, Maxine; Casey, Frank; Kuch, Bradley A; Beers, Sue R; Valenta, Cynthia A; Kochanek, Patrick M; Houtrow, Amy J; Fink, Ericka L

    2017-08-01

    To characterize the use of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) consultation in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We studied children aged 1week-18years admitted to a tertiary care PICU for ≥3days. Patient characteristics, details of PT and OT sessions and adverse events were collected. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with receipt of PT and OT consultation with propensity analysis followed by a regression for factors associated with outcome. Of 138 children studied, 40 (29%) received PT and OT consultation. Services were initiated 6.9±10.0 (mean±standard deviation) days after PICU admission. Range of motion (83%) was the most common therapy provided and 28% of patients were ambulated. Sixty-four of 297 (21.5%) sessions were deferred and 7 (2.4%) sessions were terminated early due to physiologic instability with no serious adverse events. Children who received PT and OT were older, more likely to require neuromuscular blocking agents, and had lower pre-PICU POPC scores (all ptherapies initiated in the ICU to improve outcome for critically ill children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, L.; Reitelseder, S.; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    resonance imaging, muscle biopsies were obtained bilaterally from vastus lateralis for determination of myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, and maximal muscle strength was assessed by 1RM testing and in an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees /s. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased (P ...Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same...... individual trained one leg at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) (heavy load, HL) while training the other leg at 15.5% 1RM (light load, LL). Eleven sedentary men (age 25 +/- 1 yr) trained for 12 wk at three times/week. Before and after the intervention muscle hypertrophy was determined by magnetic...

  12. Allostatic load mediates the impact of stress and trauma on physical and mental health in Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Berger, Maximus; Jawan, Isabella

    2016-02-01

    A considerable gap exists in health and social emotional well-being between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Australians. Recent research in stress neurobiology highlights biological pathways that link early adversity and traumas as well as life stresses to ill health. We argue that the neurobiological stress response and its maladaptive changes, termed allostatic load, provide a useful framework to understand how adversity leads to physical and mental illness in Indigenous people. In this paper we review the biology of allostatic load and make links between stress-induced systemic hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes and physical and mental illnesses. Exposure to chronic stress throughout life results in an increased allostatic load that may contribute to a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and mental disorders that shorten life expectancy in Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. LBMR: Load-Balanced Multipath Routing for Wireless Data-Intensive Transmission in Real-Time Medical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chinyang Henry

    2016-05-31

    In wireless networks, low-power Zigbee is an excellent network solution for wireless medical monitoring systems. Medical monitoring generally involves transmission of a large amount of data and easily causes bottleneck problems. Although Zigbee's AODV mesh routing provides extensible multi-hop data transmission to extend network coverage, it originally does not, and needs to support some form of load balancing mechanism to avoid bottlenecks. To guarantee a more reliable multi-hop data transmission for life-critical medical applications, we have developed a multipath solution, called Load-Balanced Multipath Routing (LBMR) to replace Zigbee's routing mechanism. LBMR consists of three main parts: Layer Routing Construction (LRC), a Load Estimation Algorithm (LEA), and a Route Maintenance (RM) mechanism. LRC assigns nodes into different layers based on the node's distance to the medical data gateway. Nodes can have multiple next-hops delivering medical data toward the gateway. All neighboring layer-nodes exchange flow information containing current load, which is the used by the LEA to estimate future load of next-hops to the gateway. With LBMR, nodes can choose the neighbors with the least load as the next-hops and thus can achieve load balancing and avoid bottlenecks. Furthermore, RM can detect route failures in real-time and perform route redirection to ensure routing robustness. Since LRC and LEA prevent bottlenecks while RM ensures routing fault tolerance, LBMR provides a highly reliable routing service for medical monitoring. To evaluate these accomplishments, we compare LBMR with Zigbee's AODV and another multipath protocol, AOMDV. The simulation results demonstrate LBMR achieves better load balancing, less unreachable nodes, and better packet delivery ratio than either AODV or AOMDV.

  14. The effects of mechanised equipment on physical load among road workers and floor layers in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Windhorst, J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Molen, H. van der; Swuste, P.H.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the impact of the use of mechanised equipment on physical load and workers' health among road workers and floor layers by comparing the traditional manual work method with frequently occurring scenarios of use of this new equipment. Continuous direct measurements of postures

  15. Mechano-Physical Properties and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Paste after Thermal Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeląg, Maciej

    2017-09-11

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the modification of a cement matrix. Carbon nanotubes were introduced into a cement paste in the form of an aqueous dispersion in the presence of a surfactant (SDS-sodium dodecyl sulfate), which was sonicated. The selected physical and mechanical parameters were examined, and the correlations between these parameters were determined. An analysis of the local microstructure of the modified cement pastes has been carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDS). In addition, the effect of carbon nanotubes on the change in characteristics of the cementitious material exposed to the sudden, short-term thermal load, was determined. The obtained material was characterized by a much lower density than a traditional cement matrix because the phenomenon of foaming occurred. The material was also characterized by reduced durability, higher shrinkage, and higher resistance to the effect of elevated temperature. Further research on the carbon nanotube reinforced cement paste, with SDS, may contribute to the development of a modified cement binder for the production of a lightweight or an aerated concrete.

  16. Mechano-Physical Properties and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Paste after Thermal Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the modification of a cement matrix. Carbon nanotubes were introduced into a cement paste in the form of an aqueous dispersion in the presence of a surfactant (SDS—sodium dodecyl sulfate), which was sonicated. The selected physical and mechanical parameters were examined, and the correlations between these parameters were determined. An analysis of the local microstructure of the modified cement pastes has been carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDS). In addition, the effect of carbon nanotubes on the change in characteristics of the cementitious material exposed to the sudden, short-term thermal load, was determined. The obtained material was characterized by a much lower density than a traditional cement matrix because the phenomenon of foaming occurred. The material was also characterized by reduced durability, higher shrinkage, and higher resistance to the effect of elevated temperature. Further research on the carbon nanotube reinforced cement paste, with SDS, may contribute to the development of a modified cement binder for the production of a lightweight or an aerated concrete. PMID:28891976

  17. Using Multiple Ways to Investigate Cognitive Load Theory in the Context of Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Tianlong

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) (Sweller 1988, 1998, 2010) provides us a guiding framework for designing instructional materials. CLT differentiates three subtypes of cognitive load: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. The three cognitive loads are theorized based on the number of simultaneously processed elements in working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load depends upon the number of interacting elements in the instructional material that are related to the learning objective. Extraneous cognitive load is the mental resources allocated to processing unnecessary information which does not contribute to learning as caused by non- optimal instructional procedure. It is determined by the number of interacting elements which are not related to learning goal. Both intrinsic and extraneous load vary according to prior knowledge of learners. Germane cognitive load is indirectly related to interacting elements. It represents the cognitive resources deployed for processing intrinsic load, chunking information and constructing and automating schema. Germane cognitive load is related to level of motivation of the learner. Given this triarchic model of cognitive load and their different roles in learning activities, different learning outcomes can be expected depending upon the characteristics of the educational materials, learner characteristics, and instructional setting. In three experiments, we investigated cognitive load theory following different approaches. Given the triarchic nature of cognitive load construct, it is critical to find non- intrusive ways to measure cognitive load. In study one, we replicated and extended a previous landmark study to investigate the use of eye movements related metrics to measure the three kinds of cognitive load independently. We also collected working memory capacity of students using a cognitive operation-span task. Two of the three types of cognitive load (intrinsic and extraneous) were directly manipulated, and the third

  18. Effect of the change in the load resistance on the high voltage pulse transformer of the intense electron-beam accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin-bing; Liu, Jin-liang; Qian, Bao-liang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong-bo

    2009-11-01

    A high voltage pulse transformer (HVPT) is usually used as a charging device for the pulse forming line (PFL) of intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBAs). Insulation of the HVPT is one of the important factors that restrict the development of the HVPT. Until now, considerable effort has been focused on minimizing high field regions to avoid insulation breakdown between windings. Characteristics of the HVPT have been widely discussed to achieve these goals, but the effects of the PFL and load resistance on HVPT are usually neglected. In this paper, a HVPT is used as a charging device for the PFL of an IEBA and the effect of the change in the load resistance on the HVPT of the IEBA is presented. When the load resistance does not match the wave impedance of the PFL, a high-frequency bipolar oscillating voltage will occur, and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage will increase with the decrease in the load resistance. The load resistance approximates to zero and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage is much higher. This makes it easier for surface flashover along the insulation materials to form and decrease the lifetime of the HVPT.

  19. Physical and structural changes in liquid whole egg treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Molés, Raquel; Rojas-Graü, María A; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2011-03-01

    Liquid whole egg (LWE) is currently pasteurized through the application of heat; however, this treatment entails deleterious effects against some of the functional and technological properties of the product. In this study, the effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) processing (field strength: 19, 32, and 37 kV/cm) was compared to the traditional heat pasteurization (66 °C for 4.5 min). Different physical and structural characteristics of LWE, subjected or not to homogenization, were evaluated and compared, having the untreated LWE as a reference. Thermal treatment caused an increase in the viscosity of LWE, especially in nonhomogenized samples. HIPEF treatments did not modify the original color of LWE, whereas thermally treated samples developed an opaque appearance. LWE treated at 19 and 32 kV/cm exhibited a similar foaming capacity as fresh untreated egg, whereas thermal processing and PEF treatments of 37 kV/cm caused a substantial decrease in the foaming capacity of untreated liquid egg. Regarding the microstructure, the lipoprotein matrix appeared to be less affected by the HIPEF than by heat treatment if compared to the control. In addition, heat pasteurization had a significant impact on both the water-soluble protein content of the LWE samples (19.5% to 23.6% decrease) and the mechanical properties of the egg gels (up to 21.3% and 14.5% increase in hardness and cohesiveness, respectively). On the other hand, these parameters were not substantially affected in the HIPEF-treated samples. Heat-induced gels obtained from HIPEF-treated samples did not exhibit remarkable differences in the water-holding capacity (WHC) with respect to heat-pasteurized samples. The impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) processing on technological properties of liquid-whole egg was investigated and compared to that of thermal processing. Heat treatments cause a severe impact on the foaming capacity, the water-soluble protein content, and the

  20. Postgraduate Course 'Physics Aspects of Nuclear Medicine'. Theoretical and practical intensive version. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; Gonzalez, G.J.; Torres, A.L.; Fraxedas, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Using national and international recommendations about human resource in Nuclear Medicine, a group of experts organized a National Course for the education and training of physicist who work in Cuban hospitals, adapted to national condition and practice of Nuclear Medicine. The program was approved for National Authorities in Nuclear Security and University Schools in Medicine. The program contains two intensive theoretic and practical courses, to be completed over a period of 15 days of full time engagement, complemented with 4 month full attachment to a Nuclear Medicine Service monitored by accredited expert. The theoretical/practical intensive courses have final evaluation: combining practical exercise and a final test. When all docent activities finish the students should clear a final theoretical/practical evaluation by an examination board comprising of at least three accredited experts. The theoretical/practical courses were attended by 19 physicists working in hospitals in Cuba. The contents of the first course included, Introduction to Nuclear Medicine, Principle of NM equipment, Quality assurance and quality control of NM equipment, Radiation Protection and Licence Topics of NM Services. The second course had the following topics: Acquisition and Processing methods in Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Techniques and Clinical Dosimetry for radiopharmaceutical therapy. With 100 point of maximum score and 60 point minimum to pass, the final test of this first course comprised of 2 types of questions: 1 Multiple choice questions and 2. long essay type questions. The average scores obtained by the participants was 87.02 points/ students (range 65- 100 points). The students pass the test with very good degree of comprehension: 10-Excellent (90-100 points), 5- Very good (80-89 points), 2-Good (70-79 point) and 2- satisfactory standard (60-69 point). The students evaluated 'satisfactory' the quality of the course (in anonymous poll), reporting like

  1. Physics of intense light ion beams and production of high energy density in matter. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.J.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the results obtained in 1994 within the FZK-program on 'Physics of intense ion beams and pulsed plasmas'. It describes the present status of the 6 MW, 2 TW pulsed generator KALIF-HELIA, the production and focussing of high power ion beams and numerical simulations and experiments related to the hydrodynamics of beam matter interaction. (orig.) [de

  2. Rehabilitation Using High-Intensity Physical Training and Long-Term Return-to-Work in Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Karin M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Wouw, Agnès J.; Houterman, Saskia; Schep, Goof

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Due to large and increasing numbers of cancer survivors, long-term cancer-related health issues have become a major focus of attention. This study examined the relation between a high-intensity physical rehabilitation program and return-to-work in cancer survivors who had received

  3. Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J. F.; Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    To examine the prospective association between objectively measured time spent sedentary and insulin resistance and whether this association is independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and other relevant confounders. This was a population-based study (Medical Research

  4. Physical activity intensity and surrogate markers for cardiovascular health in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Kriemler, Susi; Eser, Prisca; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    We examined the impact of physical activity (PA) on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in adolescents. 52 healthy students (28 females, mean age 14.5 ± 0.7 years) were investigated. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry to determine reactive hyperemic index (RHI). Vagal activity was measured using 24 h analysis of heart rate variability [root mean square of successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD)]. Exercise testing was performed to determine peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and maximum power output. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Linear regression models were performed and adjusted for age, sex, skinfolds, and pubertal status. The cohort was dichotomized into two equally sized activity groups (low vs. high) based on the daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA, 3,000-5,200 counts(.)min(-1), model 1) and vigorous PA (VPA, >5,200 counts(.)min(-1), model 2). MVPA was an independent predictor for rMSSD (β = 0.448, P = 0.010), and VPA was associated with maximum power output (β = 0.248, P = 0.016). In model 1, the high MVPA group exhibited a higher vagal tone (rMSSD 49.2 ± 13.6 vs. 38.1 ± 11.7 ms, P = 0.006) and a lower systolic blood pressure (107.3 ± 9.9 vs. 112.9 ± 8.1 mmHg, P = 0.046). In model 2, the high VPA group had higher maximum power output values (3.9 ± 0.5 vs. 3.4 ± 0.5 W kg(-1), P = 0.012). In both models, no significant differences were observed for RHI and [Formula: see text]. In conclusion, in healthy adolescents, PA was associated with beneficial intensity-dependent effects on vagal tone, systolic blood pressure, and exercise capacity, but not on microvascular endothelial function.

  5. Long-Term Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Heart Failure Development in Aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana U. Pagan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise is a strategy to control hypertension and attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. The influence of exercise on cardiac remodeling during uncontrolled hypertension is not established. We evaluated the effects of a long-term low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on heart failure (HF development and cardiac remodeling in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Methods: Sixteen month old SHR (n=50 and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=35 rats were divided into sedentary (SED and exercised (EX groups. Rats exercised in treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for four months. The frequency of HF features was evaluated at euthanasia. Statistical analyses: ANOVA and Tukey or Mann-Whitney, and Goodman test. Results: Despite slightly higher systolic blood pressure, SHR-EX had better functional capacity and lower HF frequency than SHR-SED. Echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging showed no differences between SHR groups. In SHR-EX, however, left ventricular (LV systolic diameter, larger in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, and endocardial fractional shortening, lower in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, had values between those in WKY-EX and SHR-SED not differing from either group. Myocardial function, assessed in LV papillary muscles, showed improvement in SHR-EX over SHR-SED and WKY-EX. LV myocardial collagen fraction and type I and III collagen gene expression were increased in SHR groups. Myocardial hydroxyproline concentration was lower in SHR-EX than SHR-SED. Lysyl oxidase gene expression was higher in SHR-SED than WKY-SED. Conclusion: Exercise improves functional capacity and reduces decompensated HF in aging SHR independent of elevated arterial pressure. Improvement in functional status is combined with attenuation of LV and myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis.

  6. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Karen E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in neighbourhoods of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of obesity and a lower likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations than their more affluent counterparts. This study examines the sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland and whether such access differs by the mode of transport available and by Urban Rural Classification. Methods A database of all fixed physical activity facilities was obtained from the national agency for sport in Scotland. Facilities were categorised into light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity groupings before being mapped. Transport networks were created to assess the number of each type of facility accessible from the population weighted centroid of each small area in Scotland on foot, by bicycle, by car and by bus. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities by small area deprivation within urban, small town and rural areas separately, adjusting for population size and local authority. Results Prior to adjustment for Urban Rural Classification and local authority, the median number of accessible facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity activity increased with increasing deprivation from the most affluent or second most affluent quintile to the most deprived for all modes of transport. However, after adjustment, the modelling results suggest that those in more affluent areas have significantly higher access to moderate and vigorous intensity facilities by car than those living in more deprived areas. Conclusions The sociospatial distributions of access to facilities for both moderate intensity and vigorous intensity physical activity were similar. However, the results suggest that those living in the most affluent neighbourhoods have poorer access to facilities of either type that can be reached on foot

  7. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  9. Effect of physical property of supporting media and variable hydraulic loading on hydraulic characteristics of advanced onsite wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to investigate the effects of physical properties of the supporting media and variable hydraulic shock loads on the hydraulic characteristics of an advanced onsite wastewater treatment system. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic reactors (a septic tank and an anaerobic filter) accommodated within a single unit. The study was divided into three phases on the basis of three different supporting media (Aqwise carriers, corrugated ring and baked clay) used in the anaerobic filter. Hydraulic loadings were based on peak flow factor (PFF), varying from one to six, to simulate the actual conditions during onsite wastewater treatment. Hydraulic characteristics of the system were identified on the basis of residence time distribution analyses. The system showed a very good hydraulic efficiency, between 0.86 and 0.93, with the media of highest porosity at the hydraulic loading of PFF≤4. At the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6 also, an appreciable hydraulic efficiency of 0.74 was observed. The system also showed good chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removal efficiency of 80.5% and 82.3%, respectively at the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6. Plug-flow dispersion model was found to be the most appropriate one to describe the mixing pattern of the system, with different supporting media at variable loading, during the tracer study.

  10. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...... in healthy young men. However, LL resistance training was inferior to HL training in evoking adaptive changes in muscle size and contractile strength and was insufficient to induce changes in MHC composition.......Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same.......05) in HL but remained unchanged in LL (4 +/- 5%, not significant). Finally, MHC IIX protein expression was decreased with HL but not LL, despite identical total workload in HL and LL. Our main finding was that LL resistance training was sufficient to induce a small but significant muscle hypertrophy...

  11. Pain, pain intensity and pain disability in high school students are differently associated with physical activity, screening hours and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anabela G; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Queirós, Alexandra; Neto, Maritza; Rocha, Nelson P

    2017-05-16

    Studies exploring the association between physical activity, screen time and sleep and pain usually focus on a limited number of painful body sites. Nevertheless, pain at different body sites is likely to be of different nature. Therefore, this study aims to explore and compare the association between time spent in self-reported physical activity, in screen based activities and sleeping and i) pain presence in the last 7-days for 9 different body sites; ii) pain intensity at 9 different body sites and iii) global disability. Nine hundred sixty nine students completed a questionnaire on pain, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen based time watching TV/DVD, playing, using mobile phones and computers and sleeping hours. Univariate and multivariate associations between pain presence, pain intensity and disability and physical activity, screen based time and sleeping hours were investigated. Pain presence: sleeping remained in the multivariable model for the neck, mid back, wrists, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.17 to 2.11); moderate physical activity remained in the multivariate model for the neck, shoulders, wrists, hips and ankles/feet (OR 1.06 to 1.08); vigorous physical activity remained in the multivariate model for mid back, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.05 to 1.09) and screen time remained in the multivariate model for the low back (OR = 2.34. Pain intensity: screen time and moderate physical activity remained in the multivariable model for pain intensity at the neck, mid back, low back, shoulder, knees and ankles/feet (Rp 2 0.02 to 0.04) and at the wrists (Rp 2  = 0.04), respectively. Disability showed no association with sleeping, screen time or physical activity. This study suggests both similarities and differences in the patterns of association between time spent in physical activity, sleeping and in screen based activities and pain presence at 8 different body sites. In addition, they also suggest that the factors associated

  12. The Immediate Effects of Conventional Physical Therapy on the Knee Joint Load in Subjects with Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis; A Preliminary Single Blinded Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fattahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects with knee osteoarthritis typically have higher knee adduction moment. Current research efforts are mainly focused on therapeutic procedures that potentially may modify disease progression. This preliminary study was designed as a single blind (examiner randomized control trial to investigate the impact of conventional physical therapy on pain, and knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Twelve participants diagnosed with moderate knee OA were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. Three-dimensional knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait before and after 10 sessions of conventional physical therapy. In addition, pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale and pain subscale of KOOS questionnaire. The control group did not receive any intervention during the same period. Gait parameters were analyzed within and between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: There was a significant difference between groups in baseline KOOS-pain Score and ML knee force (P=0.048 and P=0.01. Immediately after ten sessions of physical therapy the initial (first peak of knee adduction moment was significantly (P=0.03 lower than that of the control group while the first and second peak of knee AP velocity were significantly (P=0.02, P=0.01 respectively higher. In the intervention group, the second peaks of vertical and anteroposterior (AP knee forces were strongly correlated with the pretest KOOS-pain Score (r=0.99 and r=0.98, P<0.001. Therefore a multivariate general linear model was adopted with adjustment to baseline KOOS-pain. By this adjustment, 51% alleviation of VAS pain score and 81% decrement of first peak of knee adduction moment in comparison to control group was statistically significant (P=0.02, P=0.03 respectively. Conclusion: It seems that ten sessions of conventional physical therapy may modify knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee

  13. The effect of physical and psychosocial loads on the trapezius muscle activity during computer keying tasks and rest periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Søgaard, Karen; Christensen, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    hand keying task-interspaced with short (30 s) and long (4 min) breaks-in sessions with and without a combination of cognitive and emotional stressors. Adding psychosocial loads to the same physical work did not increase the activity of the trapezius muscle on either the keying or the control side......The overall aim was to investigate the effect of psychosocial loads on trapezius muscle activity during computer keying work and during short and long breaks. In 12 female subjects, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from the upper trapezius muscle during a standardized one...... resting level. During both short and long breaks, exposure to psychosocial loads also did not increase the activity of the trapezius muscle either on the side of the keying or the control hand. Of note is that during long breaks the muscle activity of the keying side as well as that of the control side...

  14. Effect of Low-intensity Exercise on Physical and Cognitive Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andy C Y; Wong, Thomson W L; Lee, Paul H

    It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic review aimed to fill this research gap. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of low-intensity exercise interventions on physical and cognitive health of older adults. Published research was identified in various databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDro, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Research studies published from January 01, 1994 to February 01, 2015 were selected for examination. Studies were included if they were published in an academic peer-reviewed journal, published in English, conducted as randomized controlled trial (RCT) or quasi-experimental studies with appropriate comparison groups, targeted participants aged 65 or above, and prescribed with low-intensity exercise in at least one study arm. Two reviewers independently extracted the data (study, design, participants, intervention, and results) and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality index ranged from 15 to 18 mean = 18.3 with a full score of 28, indicating a moderate quality. Most of the outcomes reported in these studied were lower limb muscle strength ( n  = 9), balancing ( n  = 7), flexibility ( n  = 4), and depressive symptoms ( n  = 3). Out of the 15 selected studies, 11 reported improvement in flexibility, balancing, lower limb muscle strength, or depressive symptoms by low-intensity exercises. The current literature suggests the effectiveness of low-intensity exercise on improved physical and cognitive health for older adults. It may be a desired intensity level in promoting

  15. Effect of Physical Load on Aerobic Exercise Performance during Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, Kristen R; Luippold, Adam J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Schwartz, Steven A; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of increasing external loads on 5-km treadmill time trial (TT) performance in 20°C and 40°C environmental conditions and to construct an ecologically relevant performance prediction decision aid. Twenty-six male and four female volunteers (age, 23.5 ± 6.9 yr; weight, 76.0 ± 8.9 kg; height, 1.75 ± 0.07 m; V˙O2peak, 50.7 ± 4.5 mL·kg·min) participated in a counterbalanced, mixed-model design, with each subject assigned to a load group (20%, 30%, or 50% body mass (BM); n = 10 per group). Volunteers performed three, self-paced 5-km familiarization TT (treadmill) without external load. Each volunteer then performed a 5-km TT in each environment with loads of either 20% (n = 10), 30% (n = 10), or 50% (n = 10) of BM. 1) Loads of (20%, 30%, and 50% of BM) impaired 5-km TT performance compared with that when unloaded (P exercise trials, an ecologically valid decision aid was developed from self-paced data, in which pace (km·h) can be predicted for individual levels of heat, load, or heat + load in combination.

  16. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997, whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  17. Leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status: effective life periods and exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-11-01

    Physical activity may decrease breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear what intensity of exercise and during which life periods this effect on decreasing risk is efficiently expressed, and whether the associations differ by the estrogen-/progesterone- receptor (ER/PR) status of tumors. We investigated associations between age- and intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity and ER/PR-defined breast cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were 405 cases newly diagnosed (>99% known ER/PR) from 2001 to 2005, who were age-/area-matched with 405 controls. Activity was assessed with a self-reported questionnaire which considered intensity level (moderate and/or strenuous) at different ages (at 12 and 20 years, and in the previous 5 years). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Strenuous but not moderate physical activity at age 12 was inversely associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk across ER/PR subtypes [overall OR(≥ 5 days/week vs. none) = 0.24 (0.14-0.43)]. Moderate physical activity in the previous 5 years was significantly associated with a decrease in risk for postmenopausal ER + PR + tumors only [OR(≥ 1 day/week vs. none) = 0.35 (0.18-0.67)]. Strenuous activity in teens and moderate activity after menopause may contribute to a reduction in breast cancer risk.

  18. Are Total, Intensity- and Domain-Specific Physical Activity Levels Associated with Life Satisfaction among University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. Methods The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire — long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567), smoking status (p = 0.056), alcohol consumption (p = 0.058), or BMI (p = 0.508). Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). Conclusions This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading. PMID:25695492

  19. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E

    2015-01-01

    Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045). This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading.

  20. Simulation of the stochastic wave loads using a physical modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.F.; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2013-01-01

    In analyzing stochastic dynamic systems, analysis of the system uncertainty due to randomness in the loads plays a crucial role. Typically time series of the stochastic loads are simulated using traditional random phase method. This approach combined with fast Fourier transform algorithm makes...... reliability or its uncertainty. Moreover applicability of the probability density evolution method on engineering problems faces critical difficulties when the system embeds too many random variables. Hence it is useful to devise a method which can make realization of the stochastic load processes with low...

  1. The effects of sex and changes of game rules on the intensity of inner loads during small-sided games in four on four basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Rechtik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-sided games are very common conditioning method within sports training, especially in team sports. The practical part of the thesis deals with the measurement of inner load during 4 on 4 games with the modification of basketball rules. The thesis compares physiological intensity of exercise between males and females. The basic monitored parameters are the average heart rate, the blood lactate threshold and the subjective assessment with the Borg’s scale (RPE. The results are also compared with the results of foreign expert sources. Data was obtained by project International Visegrad Fund No. 11320057.

  2. Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Markkula, Gustav; Li, Yibing; Merat, Natasha

    2018-08-01

    Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro

  3. Position of the pelvis, lower extremities load and the arch of the feet in young adults who are physically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body posture is an individual motion habit. It is variable and depends on the gender, age, structure of the body but also on mental and physical state. Although it is difficult to formulate a universal definition of correct body posture, the opinion that its elementary feature is symmetry is beyond any doubt. Such symmetry is related to the position of particular anatomical points and effects of static and dynamic forces. Aim of the research: To assess the relations between the pelvis position in the frontal plane, the static load on the lower limbs and architecture of the feet. The following features were analysed in a group of young, healthy and particularly physically active women and men: the frequency of asymmetry related to pelvis position, the load on the lower limbs related to body weight and foot architecture. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 100 students of physical education. To assess the position of the pelvis a palpable-visual method was used. Clarke’s method was applied to characterize the foot architecture determined by the position of standing with one leg on the CQ Elektronik podoscope. The static load on the lower limbs was assessed using the stabilographic platform EMILDUE from Technomex. Results : Collected data and observations show frequent asymmetric changes of pelvis position in the frontal plane and incorrect balance of the body in the standing position. The change of static load on the lower limbs influences the longitudinal architecture of the feet and this influence is statistically significant. Increased asymmetry of the pelvis in the frontal plane is related to profound disorder of body balance. Conclusions : Asymmetric position of the pelvis is associated with asymmetric arching of the feet and asymmetric body weight distribution. Full symmetric position of the pelvis is rare even among young people who are physically active.

  4. Child Maltreatment and Allostatic Load: Consequences for Physical and Mental Health in Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and DHEA, body-mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a composite index of allostatic load. Child self-report and camp adult-rater reports of child symptomatology were obtained; mothers provided information on health problems. The results indicated that higher allostatic load and child maltreatment status independently predicted poorer health outcomes and greater behavior problems. Moderation effects indicated that allostatic load was related to somatic complaints, attention problems, and thought problems only among maltreated children. Risks associated with high waist-hip ratio, low morning cortisol, and high morning DHEA also were related to depressive symptoms only for maltreated children. The results support an allostatic load conceptualization of the impact of high environmental stress and child abuse and neglect on child health and behavioral outcomes and have important implications for long-term physical and mental health. PMID:22018084

  5. Stress-associated cardiovascular reaction masks heart rate dependence on physical load in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, A A; Popova, A S; Borovik, A S; Dolgov, O N; Tsvirkun, D V; Custaud, M; Vinogradova, O L

    2014-06-10

    When tested on the treadmill mice do not display a graded increase of heart rate (HR), but rather a sharp shift of cardiovascular indices to high levels at the onset of locomotion. We hypothesized that under test conditions cardiovascular reaction to physical load in mice is masked with stress-associated HR increase. To test this hypothesis we monitored mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate in C57BL/6 mice after exposure to stressful stimuli, during spontaneous locomotion in the open-field test, treadmill running or running in a wheel installed in the home cage. Mice were treated with β1-adrenoblocker atenolol (2mg/kg ip, A), cholinolytic ipratropium bromide (2mg/kg ip, I), combination of blockers (A+I), anxiolytic diazepam (5mg/kg ip, D) or saline (control trials, SAL). MAP and HR in mice increased sharply after handling, despite 3weeks of habituation to the procedure. Under stressful conditions of open field test cardiovascular parameters in mice were elevated and did not depend on movement speed. HR values did not differ in I and SAL groups and were reduced with A or A+I. HR was lower at rest in D pretreated mice. In the treadmill test HR increase over speeds of 6, 12 and 18m/min was roughly 1/7-1/10 of HR increase observed after placing the mice on the treadmill. HR could not be increased with cholinolytic (I), but was reduced after sympatholytic (A) or A+I treatment. Anxiolytic (D) reduced heart rate at lower speeds of movement and its overall effect was to unmask the dependency of HR on running speed. During voluntary running in non-stressful conditions of the home cage HR in mice linearly increased with increasing running speeds. We conclude that in test situations cardiovascular reactions in mice are governed predominantly by stress-associated sympathetic activation, rendering efforts to evaluate HR and MAP reactions to workload unreliable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length loaded in tension and bending: application to dentin and enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Habelitz, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-05-01

    Fracture toughness resistance curves describe a material's resistance against crack propagation. These curves are often used to characterize biomaterials like bone, nacre or dentin as these materials commonly exhibit a pronounced increase in fracture toughness with crack extension due to co-acting mechanisms such as crack bridging, crack deflection and microcracking. The knowledge of appropriate stress intensity factors which depend on the sample and crack geometry is essential for determining these curves. For the dental biomaterials enamel and dentin it was observed that, under bending and tensile loading, crack propagation occurs under certain constant angles to the initial notch direction during testing procedures used for fracture resistance curve determination. For this special crack geometry (a kink crack of finite length in a finite body) appropriate geometric function solutions are missing. Hence, we present in this study new mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length within samples of finite dimensions for two loading cases (tension and bending) which were derived from a combination of mixed-mode stress intensity factors of kink cracks with infinitely small kinks and of slant cracks. These results were further applied to determine the fracture resistance curves of enamel and dentin by testing single edge notched bending (SENB) specimens. It was found that kink cracks with finite kink length exhibit identical stress fields to slant cracks as soon as the kink length exceeds 0.15 times the initial straight crack or notch length. The use of stress intensity factor solutions for infinitely small kink cracks for the determination of dentin fracture resistance curves (as was done by other researchers) leads to an overestimation of dentin's fracture resistance of up to 30%. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular adaptations in adults with poststroke hemiparesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R

    2011-01-01

    Hemiparesis-disability and muscle weakness of 1 side of the body-is a common consequence of stroke. High-intensity strength training may be beneficial to regain function, but strength coaches in the field of rehabilitation need evidence-based guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...... gait velocity. Strength training coaches working in the field of rehabilitation can use this knowledge to safely and efficiently add high-intensity strength training to existing rehabilitation paradigms....

  8. Physical and Visual Accessibilities in Intensive Care Units: A Comparative Study of Open-Plan and Racetrack Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed.

  9. A proposal to extend the intensity frontier of nuclear and particle physics to 45 GeV (LAMPF 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    It is proposed to construct and operate a high-intensity, medium energy synchrotron addition to the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The addition is to consist of a 6-GeV, 170-μA booster and a 45-GeV, 34-μA, 3-Hz main synchrotron with 50% duty factor. The physics of strong and electroweak interactions to be studied at the facility is discussed, as well as accelerator design, scope of experimental area facilities, and cost estimates and schedule

  10. Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Møller, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media......-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total......-and-vigorous nor vigorous) nor mean minutes of moderate-and-vigorous PA intensity was associated to the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence (p>0.05). However, a significant inverse association was observed between mean minutes of vigorous PA and the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence independent of gender...

  11. ACHIEVEMENT GOALS AND INTENSIVITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING FREE PLAY IN CHILDREN: THE MODERATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED SPORT CONFIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lochbaum Marc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine the moderating role of sport confidence and resultant the achievement goal profile with physical activity intensity during free play. Material: participants were 28 children participating in an after-school program. The 28 children completed measures of task and ego goal orientations and sport confidence two weeks prior to having their heart rate monitored during a free play session. Results: indicated that children with high sport confidence were characterized ( p 1.10 by higher task and ego orientations and average heart rate over the course of the free play session when compared to the low sport confidence children. The moderate sport confidence children were not significantly different than the other groups expect for ego orientation though effect sizes indicated this group tended towards being more similar to the high sport confidence group. The results were confounded as all children in the low sport confidence condition were girls. Conclusions: Sport confidence moderates physical activity intensity during free play in children and is characterized by a higher ego orientation and generally higher task orientation. But given all of the low confident children were females, intervention work is needed at early ages with girls to build sport confidence and motivations for both goal orientations to hopefully increase physical activity intensity during free play.

  12. Physics and a plan for a 45 GeV facility that extends the high-intensity capability in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    A proposed program of physics research to be carried out at a 45 GeV high-intensity proton accelerator is discussed. In addition to a general discussion of the potentially most productive research directions, specific experiments in strong and flavor physics are presented. The proposed strong interaction physics deals with investigation of nonperturbative QCD through the study of exotic hadrons and measurement of nuclear medium effects on flavor-specific quark momentum distribution. The major part of the proposed program in flavor interaction physics probes possible physics beyond the minimal standard model. A design using two synchrotrons produces a 45 GeV proton beam by increasing the energy of the present LAMPF 800 MeV beam. A booster operating at 60 Hz accelerates 144 μA from 800 MeV to 6 GeV while the main ring operating at 3.33 Hz accelerates 32 μA from 6 GeV to 45 GeV. The 112 μA at 6 GeV which is not further accelerated is used to create intense beams of neutrinos and pulsed muons. The 32 μA of 45 GeV beam is slow extracted into an existing experimental area in which a large number of high-intensity, high-purity kaon and other secondary beams will be produced. A proposed layout of the experimental areas along with the characteristics of the secondary beams is also presented. The report concludes with a cost estimate to construct such a facility at Los Alamos

  13. Intense, brilliant micro γ-beams in nuclear physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Gasilov, S.; Lang, C.; Thirolf, P. G.; Jentschel, M.; Diehl, R.; Schroer, C.; Barty, C. P. J.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2011-06-01

    The upcoming γ facilities MEGa-Ray (Livermore) and ELI-NP (Bucharest) will have a 105 times higher γ flux F0 = 1013/s and a ~30 times smaller band width (ΔEγ/Eγ = BW ~ 10-3) than the presently best γ beam facility. They will allow to extract a small γ beam of about 30 - 100 μm radius 1 m behind the γ production point, containing the dominant γ energy band width. One can collimate the γ beam down to ΘBW = √ BW/ γe , where γe = Ee/ mec2 is a measure of the energy Ee of the electron beam, from which the γ beam is produced by Compton back-scattering. Due to the γ energy - angle correlation, the angular collimation results at the same time in a reduction of the γ beam band width without loss of "good" γ quanta, however, the primary γ flux F0is reduced to about Fcoll ~ F0 . 1.5 . ΔEγ/Eγ. For γ rays in the (0.1-100) MeV range, the negative real part δ of the index of refraction n = 1- δ + iβ from coherent Rayleigh scattering (virtual photo effect) dominates over the positive δ contributions from coherent virtual Compton scattering and coherent virtual pair creation scattering (Delbrück scattering). The very small absolute value |δ| ~ 10-6 - 10-9 of the index of refraction of matter for hard X-rays and γ-rays and its negative sign--in contrast to usual optics--results in a very different γ-ray optics, e.g. focusing lenses become concave and we use stacks of N optimized lenses. It requires very small radii of curvature of the γ lenses and thus very small γ beam radii. This leads to a technical new solution, where the primary γ beam is subdivided into M γ beamlets, which do not interfere with each other, but contribute with their independent intensities. We send the γ beamlets into a two-dimensional array of closely packed cylindrical parabolic refractive lenses, where N ~ 103 lenses with very small radius of curvature are stacked behind each other, leading to contracted beam spots in one dimension. With a second 1D lens system turned by

  14. Physical and clinical aspects of the dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy of 21 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, Mark J.; Tsai, J.-S.; Ulin, Kenneth; Wu Julian; Ling, Marilyn N.; Fagundes, Marcio; Kramer, Bradley; Wazer, David E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the physical and clinical aspects of the dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy of 21 patients. Methods and Materials: Dynamic, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMR) was given to 21 patients with advanced or recurrent disease. 13 patients were immobilized with head screws, and 8, with non-invasive thermoplastic masks. The system was selected because it was designed de novo from a well established simulated annealing optimization model (SA), and with stringent leakage requirements and rapid leaf transit time for a multi leaf collimator (MLC). The system included a 6 MV linear accelerator (linac), an MLC, a quad processing computer system with SA software, a computer MLC controller with inclinometers and interlocks to stop radiation upon potential MLC or linac gantry fault detection, and immobilization devices attached to CT and treatment tables. The MLC was built around a 2 x 20 array of leaves with 9 half value layers of attenuation of the primary beam (99.8%). Over a trillion (2 40 ) beamlet patterns were dynamically changeable per deg. of linac gantry rotation. With all leaves shut, transmission was within a secondary collimator standard of < 0.5% of the primary beam. MLC control was via touch screen computer, and a disk drive which read beam pattern sequences from a disk generated by the planning system. Planning included 3D CT and magnetic resonance localization of regions of interest (ROI). The SA cost function incorporated idealized dose-volume parameter sets of up to 21 ROI/patient. Relative importance and spatial pre-eminance of each ROI were quantified into the constraint set, together with an instrument data file (IDR) built from depth dose and crossplot data of 8 x 8 to 20 x 200 mm field sizes and patterns measured with small diodes in a water tanc phantom. Planner output included dose volume histograms, tabulated dosimetry statistics, 2D dose distributions, and 3D translucent renderings of patient surfaces with underlying colored

  15. A comparison of the use of virtual versus physical snapshots for supporting update-intensive workloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šidlauskas, Darius; Jensen, Christian S.; Šaltenis, Simonas

    2012-01-01

    and one for the frequent and very localized updates. The snapshot that receives the updates is frequently made available to queries, so that queries see up-to-date data. The snapshots may be physical or virtual. Physical snapshots are created using the C library memcpy function. Virtual snapshots...

  16. High energy density physics with intense ion and laser beams. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyrich, K.

    2004-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Laser plasma physics, plasma spectroscopy, beam interaction experiments, atomic and radiation physics, pulsed power applications, beam transport and accelerator research and development, properties of dense plasma, instabilities in beam-plasma interaction, beam transport in dense plasmas, short-pulse laser-matter interaction. (HSI)

  17. Evaluation of a Peer-Led, Low-Intensity Physical Activity Program for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…

  18. Numerical simulation of effective mechanical properties of stochastic composites with consideration for structural evolution under intensive dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakulov, Valerii V., E-mail: valery@ftf.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Smolin, Igor Yu., E-mail: smolin@ispms.ru, E-mail: skrp@ftf.tsu.ru; Skripnyak, Vladimir A., E-mail: smolin@ispms.ru, E-mail: skrp@ftf.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050, Russia and Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Mechanical behavior of stochastic metal-ceramic composites with the aluminum matrix under high-rate deformation at shock-wave loading is numerically simulated with consideration for structural evolution. Effective values of mechanical parameters of metal-ceramic composites AlB{sub 4}C, AlSiC, and AlAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} are evaluated depending on different concentration of ceramic inclusions.

  19. Physics Based Model for Online Fault Detection in Autonomous Cryogenic Loading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ali; Devine, Ekaterina Viktorovna P; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Sass, Jared P.; Brown, Barbara L.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2013-01-01

    We report the progress in the development of the chilldown model for rapid cryogenic loading system developed at KSC. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The two-phase flow model of the chilldown is approximated as one-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow with no slip condition for the interphase velocity. The model is built using commercial SINDAFLUINT software. The results of numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the application of the SINDAFLUINT model as a verification tool for the design and algorithm development required for autonomous loading operation.

  20. Preliminary Study of the Effect of Low-Intensity Home-Based Physical Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Hong Lin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a preliminary examination of the effect of low-intensity home-based physical therapy on the performance of activities of daily living (ADL and motor function in patients more than 1 year after stroke. Twenty patients were recruited from a community stroke register in Nan-Tou County, Taiwan, to a randomized, crossover trial comparing intervention by a physical therapist immediately after entry into the trial (Group I or after a delay of 10 weeks (Group II. The intervention consisted of home-based physical therapy once a week for 10 weeks. The Barthel Index (BI and Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM were used as standard measures for ADL and motor function. At the first follow-up assessment at 11 weeks, Group I showed greater improvement in lower limb motor function than Group II. At the second follow-up assessment at 22 weeks, Group II showed improvement while Group I had declined. At 22 weeks, the motor function of upper limbs, mobility, and ADL performance in Group II had improved slightly more than in Group I, but the between-group differences were not significant. It appears that low-intensity home-based physical therapy can improve lower limb motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Further studies will be needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Description of intensity of physical education in a structure educational educate and health-improvement-educate processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar T.S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of intensity of physical education is presented in child's establishments of making healthy and rest and general educational establishments. Questioning of 183 students-practice and analysis of document of the Kharkov regional management is conducted on physical education and sport. It is set that health-improvement-educate process is directed on forming for children and young people of culture of health. It is marked that the result of pedagogical activity in establishments and establishments of education is physical, spiritual and social development of personality of children and young people. Witnessed, that process of physical education in out-of-town child's establishments of making healthy and rest almost in three times more intensive by comparison to general educational establishments and school summer camps. It contingently a presence for the children of plenty of spare time, by the use in practice of camps of non-standard facilities and forms of increase of motive activity of children, by the features of structure health-improvement-educate process.

  2. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  3. Physical correction model for automatic correction of intensity non-uniformity in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Leger

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The proposed PCM algorithm led to a significantly improved image quality compared to the originally acquired images, suggesting that it is applicable to the correction of MRI data. Thus it may help to reduce intensity non-uniformity which is an important step for advanced image analysis.

  4. Associations of Vigorous-intensity Physical Activity with Biomarkers in Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Brazendale, Keith

    2017-01-01

    . Replacing light intensity PA with VPA (corresponding to at the 25th to 90th percentiles of VPA) was associated with a .67 (-1.33, -0.01; P = .048) to 7.30cm (-11.01, -3.58; P CPM). VPA levels were associated with 12.60 (-21...

  5. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M; Bartholomew, John B

    2017-03-16

    Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (PApple Watch, and Garmin Forerunner 225. An advantage and novel approach of the study is the examination of HR and EE at specific physical activity intensities. Establishing validity of wearable devices is of particular interest as these devices are being used in weight loss interventions and could impact findings. Future research should investigate why differences between exercise intensities and the devices exist. ©Erin E Dooley, Natalie M Golaszewski, John B Bartholomew. Originally published in JMIR

  6. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Kloster, Stine; Girma, Tsinuel

    2012-01-01

    Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physica...... activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures.......Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical...

  7. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  8. Physical status and viral load in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Gie; Lee, Eui Don; Zin, Yong Jae

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the frequency of viral integration and viral load in women with positive HPV type 16 infection, and showing normal findings, CIN, and cervical cancer. Total 75 (normal, 15; CIN I, 20; CIN III, 20; cervical cancer, 20) cervical swab specimens were used. HPV detection, typing, and viral load was determined by PCR method. Seventy of 75 (93.3%) of cervical swab specimens showed same results with hybrid capture assay and PCR method for detecting HPV DNA. HPV type 16 DNA was identified more frequently with progression from normal to cervical cancer (normal, 13 %; CIN I, 15%; CIN III, 40 %; cervical cancer, 55 %). The frequency of HPV type 16 DNA integration also increased with grade of the lesion (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 33 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 91 %) suggesting most of HPV type 16 present as integration forms in the cells. In addition, high-level of HPV 16 viral load also was found more frequently in CIN III and cervical cancer (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 0 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 100 %). These results suggest that viral integration and high-level of viral load may play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  9. Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents' objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Harris, Nigel; Lubans, David R

    2018-05-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models and evidence of a change in physical activity (i.e., compensation) were examined using multilevel linear regression models. The group-by-time interaction effects for MPA and VPA were small and moderate, respectively. Adjusted difference between groups for VPA was 1.70 min/day, 95%CI -1.96 to 5.36; p = 0.354; d = 0.55). Embedding HIIT within the school-day had a moderate effect on VPA compared to controls. Compensation analyses (i.e., individual level) suggested that adolescents were more active on days when they participated in HIIT. Further studies are needed to test the effects of HIIT on adolescents' physical activity over extended time periods.

  10. Physical activity intensity and weight control status among U.S. Adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Pariser, Gina

    2014-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the objectively determined physical activity levels by weight control status (i.e., trying to lose weight, trying to maintain weight, and neither trying to lose or maintain weight) among U.S. adults with diabetes. Therefore, this study assessed the association between physical activity and weight control status among U.S. adults with diabetes. Cross-sectional survey. The 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, which is representative of the U.S. population. Subjects were 733 adults (≥20 years) with diabetes. Participants wore an accelerometer to assess physical activity, and questionnaires were used to assess weight control status and covariates. Multivariate negative binomial regressions were used. After adjustments, and compared to those not trying to lose or maintain their weight, women trying to lose weight engaged in 74% more physical activity (rate ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.65). Although findings were not significant for men, men were more likely than women to meet physical activity recommendations. Diabetic women trying to lose weight engaged in more physical activity than did their female counterparts not trying to lose or maintain their weight. Although men were more active than women, no differences in activity estimates occurred across weight control status for men.

  11. Coordinated Scheme of Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Intelligent Appliances in a Cyber Physical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic response information could be introduced to support a secure and stable power system. Combining demand response technology with the traditional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme, a new UFLS strategy-determining method involving intelligent appliances is put forward to achieve the coordinated control of quick response resources and the traditional control resources. Based on this method, intelligent appliances can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of system operation in advance and prevent significant frequency drop, thereby improving the flexibility and stability of the system. Time-domain simulation verifies the effectiveness of the scheme, which is able to mitigate frequency drop and reduce the amount of load shedding.

  12. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Arnaud; Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Derouillat, Julien

    2016-01-01

    into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. By comparing the results given by different codes, it is possible to point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. In this paper we...

  13. [Nursing interventions on the physical environment of Neonatal Intensive Care Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel Capó Rn, I

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyse nursing interventions regarding noise and lighting that influence neurodevelopment of the preterm infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A review of the literature was performed using the databases: Cuiden Plus, PubMed, IBECS and Cochrane Library Plus. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were established in accordance with the objectives and limits used in each database. Of the 35 articles used, most were descriptive quantitative studies based on the measurement of sound pressure levels and lighting in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units. The countries included in this study are Brazil and the United States, and the variables analysed were the recording the times of light and noise. Based on the high levels of light and noise recorded in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units, nursing interventions that should be carried out to reduce them are described. The evidence indicates that after the implementation of these interventions, the high levels of both environmental stimuli are reduced significantly. Despite the extensive literature published on this problem, the levels of light and noise continue to exceed the recommended limits. Therefore, nurses need to increase and enhance their efforts in this environment, in order to positively influence neurodevelopment of premature newborn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Pedišić

    Full Text Available Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity, domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time, and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health.The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = <0.001, younger age (β = -0.07; p = 0.024, higher disposable income (β = 0.10; p = 0.001, and better self-rated health (β = 0.30; p = <0.001. No significant association was found between life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567, smoking status (p = 0.056, alcohol consumption (p = 0.058, or BMI (p = 0.508. Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045.This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the

  15. Actigraph accelerometer-defined boundaries for sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in 7 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Pulsford

    Full Text Available Accurate objective assessment of sedentary and physical activity behaviours during childhood is integral to the understanding of their relation to later health outcomes, as well as to documenting the frequency and distribution of physical activity within a population.To calibrate the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, using energy expenditure (EE as the criterion measure, to define thresholds for sedentary behaviour and physical activity categories suitable for use in a large scale epidemiological study in young children.Accelerometer-based assessments of physical activity (counts per minute were calibrated against EE measures (kcal x kg(-1 x hr(-1 obtained over a range of exercise intensities using a COSMED K4b(2 portable metabolic unit in 53 seven-year-old children. Children performed seven activities: lying down viewing television, sitting upright playing a computer game, slow walking, brisk walking, jogging, hopscotch and basketball. Threshold count values were established to identify sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis.EE was significantly associated with counts for all non-sedentary activities with the exception of jogging. Threshold values for accelerometer counts (counts x minute(-1 were <100 for sedentary behaviour and ≤2240, ≤3840 and ≥3841 for light, moderate and vigorous physical activity respectively. The area under the ROC curves for discrimination of sedentary behaviour and vigorous activity were 0.98. Boundaries for light and moderate physical activity were less well defined (0.61 and 0.60 respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for sedentary (99% and 97% and vigorous (95% and 91% than for light (60% and 83% and moderate (61% and 76% thresholds.The accelerometer cut points established in this study can be used to classify sedentary behaviour and to distinguish between

  16. The Effects of Fatigue, Load Carriage, and Physical Activity History on Musculoskeletal Injury Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    20kg, as described in the ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription [3]. Two minutes of rest was given between trials. The assessment was...injuries during military training. Mil Med, 1999. 164(2): p. 153-6. 3. Thompson, W., ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 2009...leads to cartilage degeneration and medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) [5,6,7]. Thus, the long- term effect of repetitive high varus knee loading could

  17. Differences in the intensity of physical activity during school days and weekends in Polish and Czech boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömel, Karel; Kudlacek, Michal; Groffik, Dorota; Chmelik, Frantisek; Jakubec, Lukas

    2016-06-02

    The physical, mental and social development that occurs in young people through physical activity (PA) is primarily through extracurricular activities. Family, peers and social environment, in addition to schools, interest groups and school sports, play a unique role during this developmental period. The objective of the study was to examine the differences in the intensity of PA during school days and weekends and the relationship between PA and physical inactivity (PI) during these days in Polish and Czech boys and girls. In total, there were 816 participants among whom 333 met the requirements of 8 hours of continuous recording of PA (ActiTrainer accelerometers) during at least one school and one weekend day. Boys and girls from both countries engaged in virtually the same amount of PA during school and weekend days, and participated in more PA at lower intensities on the weekends compared with school days. This study surveyed important issues related to global public health, specifically for the school environment and school settings. The important and crucial relations with family were emphasized, which should increase the awareness and understanding of public health problems of this particular research sample. The results indicated that less time was spent in PI, but also that the largest amount of time during the weekends was spent in front of a screen.

  18. Impact on weight and physical function of intensive medical weight loss in older adults with stage II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cook, Miranda; Rushing, Julia; Frain, Annette; Beavers, Kristen; Miller, Gary; Miller, Michael E; Nicklas, Barb

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month pilot trial compared two strategies for weight loss in older adults with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥35 kg/m(2) to assess weight loss response, safety, and impact on physical function. Twenty-eight volunteers were randomized to a balanced deficit diet (BDD) (500 kcal/day below estimated energy needs) or an intensive, low-calorie, meal replacement diet (ILCD, 960 kcal/day). Behavioral interventions and physical activity prescriptions were similar for both groups. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and adverse event frequency; secondary outcomes included measures of physical function and body composition. ILCD average weight change was -19.1 ± 2.2 kg or 15.9 ± 4.6% of initial body weight compared with -9.1 ± 2.7 kg or 7.2 ± 1.9% for BDD. ILCD lost more fat mass (-7.7 kg, 95% CI [-11.9 to -3.5]) but had similar loss of lean mass (-1.7 kg, 95% CI [-4.1 to 0.6]) compared with BDD. There were no significant differences in change in physical function or adverse event frequency. Compared with a traditional BDD intervention, older adults who have severe obesity treated with intensive medical weight loss had greater weight loss and decreases in fat mass without a higher frequency of adverse events. In the short term, however, this did not translate into greater improvements in physical function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. Cognitive Load Imposed by Knobology May Adversely Affect Learners' Perception of Utility in Using Ultrasonography to Learn Physical Examination Skills, but Not Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A.; McLaughlin, Kevin; Kaminska, Malgorzata E.; Raman, Maitreyi; Somayaji, Ranjani; Wright, Bruce; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used for teaching anatomy and physical examination skills but its effect on cognitive load is unknown. This study aimed to determine ultrasound's perceived utility for learning, and to investigate the effect of cognitive load on its perceived utility. Consenting first-year medical students (n?=?137) completed…

  20. Effect of Intensive Chemotherapy on Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Health of Older Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepin, Heidi D; Tooze, Janet A; Pardee, Timothy S; Ellis, Leslie R; Berenzon, Dmitriy; Mihalko, Shannon L; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Rao, Arati V; Wildes, Tanya M; Williamson, Jeff D; Powell, Bayard L; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2016-10-01

    To measure short-term changes in physical and cognitive function and emotional well-being of older adults receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Prospective observational study. Single academic institution. Individuals aged 60 and older with newly diagnosed AML who received induction chemotherapy (N = 49, mean age 70 ± 6.2, 56% male). Geriatric assessment (GA) was performed during inpatient examination for AML and within 8 weeks after hospital discharge after induction chemotherapy. Measures were the Pepper Assessment Tool for Disability (activity of daily living, instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), mobility questions), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength, Modified Mini-Mental State examination, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Distress Thermometer. Changes in GA measures were assessed using paired t-tests. Analysis of variance models were used to evaluate relationships between GA variables and change in function over time. After chemotherapy, IADL dependence worsened (mean 1.4 baseline vs 2.1 follow-up, P physical function. These data support the importance of interventions to maintain physical function during and after chemotherapy. Depressive symptoms before and during chemotherapy may be linked to potentially modifiable physical function declines. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Aspects of physics and computation of plutonium recycling in PWRs: Full MOX loading and void effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper collects and summarizes excerpts of the lectures on Core Design and Computational Chains dealing with some physical and computational aspects of the recycling of Plutonium in PWRs. (author)

  2. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a review with a physics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byungchul

    2018-03-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been considered the most successful development in radiation oncology since the introduction of computed tomography into treatment planning that enabled three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 1980s. More than three decades have passed since the concept of inverse planning was first introduced in 1982, and IMRT has become the most important and common modality in radiation therapy. This review will present developments in inverse IMRT treatment planning and IMRT delivery using multileaf collimators, along with the associated key concepts. Other relevant issues and future perspectives are also presented.

  3. Electromyographical and Perceptual Responses to Different Resistance Intensities in a Squat Protocol: Does Performing Sets to Failure With Light Loads Produce the Same Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, David P; Kraemer, William J; Joseph, Michael F; Comstock, Brett A; Denegar, Craig R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Newton, Robert U; Szivak, Tunde K; DuPont, William H; Hooper, David R; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined peak motor unit activity during sets that differed in resistance (50, 70, or 90% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). Ten resistance-trained men (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 187 ± 7 cm; body mass, 91.5 ± 6.9 kg; squat 1RM, 141 ± 28 kg) were assessed by electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles in a randomized within-subject experiment consisting of 2 test visits: a drop-set day and a single-set day using only the 50% of 1RM intensity performed to failure. At the start of each day, subjects performed 2 submaximal repetition sets (50% 1RM × 10 repetitions and 70% 1RM × 7 repetitions). On the drop-set day, subjects performed 3 consecutive maximal repetition sets at 90%, 70%, and 50% 1RM to failure with no rest periods in between. On the single-set day, subjects performed a maximal repetition set at 50% 1RM to failure. Overall, the maximal repetition sets to failure at 50% and 70% 1RM resulted in higher peak EMG amplitude than during submaximal repetition sets with the same resistance. However, peak EMG amplitude was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in the maximal 90% 1RM set than all other sets performed. When sets were performed to failure, ratings of perceived exertion (CR-10) did not differ over the intensity range of loads and suggests that perception is not capable of accurately detecting the actual amount of motor unit activation. The results of this investigation indicate that using higher external resistance is a more effective means of increasing motor unit activity than increasing the number of repetitions performed with lighter weights even when the end point is muscular failure. Accordingly, previous recommendations for the use of heavier loads during resistance training programs to stimulate the maximal development of strength and hypertrophy are further supported.

  4. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  5. A Cyber Physical Model Based on a Hybrid System for Flexible Load Control in an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To strengthen the integration of the primary and secondary systems, a concept of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS is introduced to construct a CPS in Power Systems (Power CPS. The most basic work of the Power CPS is to build an integration model which combines both a continuous process and a discrete process. The advanced form of smart grid, the Active Distribution Network (ADN is a typical example of Power CPS. After designing the Power CPS model architecture and its application in ADN, a Hybrid System based model and control method of Power CPS is proposed in this paper. As an application example, ADN flexible load is modeled and controlled with ADN feeder power control by a control strategy which includes the normal condition and the underpowered condition. In this model and strategy, some factors like load power consumption and load functional demand are considered and optimized. In order to make up some of the deficiencies of centralized control, a distributed control method is presented to reduce model complexity and improve calculation speed. The effectiveness of all the models and methods are demonstrated in the case study.

  6. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gimenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed, exercised control (C-Ex, sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed, and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73±0.49; C-Ex: 5.67±0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41±0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81±0.50 mm; P<0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex. Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats.

  7. Consumer-Based Physical Activity Monitor as a Practical Way to Measure Walking Intensity During Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Tara D; Semrau, Jennifer A; Dukelow, Sean P; Bayley, Mark T; Hill, Michael D; Eng, Janice J

    2017-09-01

    Identifying practical ways to accurately measure exercise intensity and dose in clinical environments is essential to advancing stroke rehabilitation. This is especially relevant in monitoring walking activity during inpatient rehabilitation where recovery is greatest. This study evaluated the accuracy of a readily available consumer-based physical activity monitor during daily inpatient stroke rehabilitation physical therapy sessions. Twenty-one individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation were monitored for a total of 471 one-hour physical therapy sessions which consisted of walking and nonwalking therapeutic activities. Participants wore a consumer-based physical activity monitor (Fitbit One) and the gold standard for assessing step count (StepWatch Activity Monitor) during physical therapy sessions. Linear mixed modeling was used to assess the relationship of the step count of the Fitbit to the StepWatch Activity Monitor. Device accuracy is reported as the percent error of the Fitbit compared with the StepWatch Activity Monitor. A strong relationship (slope=0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.01) was found between the number of steps captured by the Fitbit One and the StepWatch Activity Monitor. The Fitbit One had a mean error of 10.9% (5.3) for participants with walking velocities 0.8 m/s. This study provides preliminary evidence that the Fitbit One, when positioned on the nonparetic ankle, can accurately measure walking steps early after stroke during inpatient rehabilitation physical therapy sessions. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01915368. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Trunk and hip biomechanics influence anterior cruciate loading mechanisms in physically active participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Barnett; Bell, David R; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A

    2013-11-01

    Excessive trunk motion and deficits in neuromuscular control (NMC) of the lumbopelvic hip complex are risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the relationship between trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads during a sidestep cutting task has not been examined. To determine if there is an association between multiplanar trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads with ACL injury during a sidestep cutting task. Descriptive laboratory study. The hip and knee biomechanics and trunk motion of 30 participants (15 male, 15 female) were analyzed during a sidestep cutting task using an optoelectric camera system interfaced to a force plate. Trunk and lower extremity biomechanics were calculated from the kinematic and ground-reaction force data during the first 50% of the stance time during the cutting task. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated between trunk and lower extremity biomechanics. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the amount of variance in triplanar knee loading explained by trunk motion and hip moments. A greater internal knee varus moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.12 N·m/kg*m) was associated with less transverse-plane trunk rotation away from the stance limb (mean, 20.25° ± 4.42°; r = -0.46, P = .011) and a greater internal hip adduction moment (mean, 0.33 ± 0.25 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.83, P < .05). A greater internal knee external rotation moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.08 N·m/kg*m) was associated with a greater forward trunk flexion (mean, 7.62° ± 5.28°; r = 0.42, P = .020) and a greater hip internal rotation moment (mean, 0.15 ± 0.16 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.59, P = .001). Trunk rotation and hip adduction moment explained 81% (P < .05) of the variance in knee varus moment. Trunk flexion and hip internal rotation moment explained 48% (P < .05) of the variance in knee external rotation moment. Limited trunk rotation displacement

  9. [Wear intensity and surface roughness of microhybrid composite and ceramic occlusal veneers on premolars after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Y; Jiang, T; Cheng, M X; Zhang, Y W

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the wear intensity and surface roughness of occlusal veneers on premolars made of microhybrid composite resin or two kinds of ceramics in vitro after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests. In the study,24 fresh extracted human premolars without root canal treatment were prepared (cusps reduction of 1.5 mm in thickness to simulate middle to severe tooth wear, the inclinations of cusps were 20°). The prepared teeth were restored with occlusal veneers made of three different materials: microhybrid composite, heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate ceramic in the thickness of 1.5 mm. The occlusal veneers were cemented with resin cement. The specimens were fatigued using the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests after being stored in water for 72 h. The wear of specimens was measured using gypsum replicas and 3D laser scanner before and after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests and the mean lost distance (mm) was used to indicate the level of wear. The surfaces of occlusal contact area were observed and the surface roughness was recorded using 3D laser scanning confocal microscope before and after the fatigue test. Differences between the groups were compared using ONE-way ANOVA(Pcomposite group, heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic group, and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic group was (-0.13±0.03) mm, (-0.05±0.01) mm and (-0.05±0.01) mm, the wear of microhybrid composite was significantly higher than the two ceramic groups(Pcomposite was significantly higher than the two ceramic groups(Pcomposite(P=0.005) and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic (P=0.010). From the view of wear speed, microhybrid composite was significantly higher than the two kinds of ceramics, but it was similar to enamel when the opposing tooth was natural. The surface roughness before the themocycling and cyclic mechanical loading test of microhybrid

  10. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    -stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P girls. They also carried out 9.7% more daily physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...... time in vigorous physical activity (all P girls. In contrast, the girls had 3.8% higher calcaneal BMC (P boys. Both calcaneal and forearm BMD were significantly related to total time of daily physical activity as well......This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...

  11. Fostering Fifth Graders’ Reading Comprehension through the use of Intensive Reading in Physical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethia Paola Bogoya González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension in a content area needs to be seen from both the content and language perspectives. This paper examines the use of intensive reading, a strategy taken from the language teaching field, to help students improve their reading comprehension ability and develop understanding of science concepts. The study was carried out in a fifth grade class at a private bilingual institution of Bogotá. Reading was analyzed using a mixed-method approach that utilizes both qualitative and quantitative methods. The first method was done through students’ interviews, artefacts, and a teacher’s journal, and the second by means of two reading tests, Cloze and CARI, Content Area Reading Inventory Test. The statistical analysis shows that students improved their reading comprehension ability as their scores for the post-test were higher than those of the pre-test; this increment is statistically significant as p ≤ .05 when applying a t-test. The qualitative analysis shows that structured reading practices lead to the development of students’ cognitive processes. Overall, the results indicate that reading in sciences hould be seen as dynamic process that incorporates learners’ strategies in order to develop conceptual understanding.

  12. Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo B. Batacan, Jr; Mitch J. Duncan; Vincent J. Dalbo; Geraldine L. Buitrago; Andrew S. Fenning

    2018-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) and diet are 2 lifestyle factors that affect cardiometabolic risk. However, data on how a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet influences the effect of different intensities of PA on cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular function in a controlled setting are yet to be fully established. This study investigated the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity training (LIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiometabolic markers and vasc...

  13. Automatic Identification of Physical Activity Intensity and Modality from the Fusion of Accelerometry and Heart Rate Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fernando; Benito, Pedro J; Hernando, María E

    2016-12-07

    Physical activity (PA) is essential to prevent and to treat a variety of chronic diseases. The automated detection and quantification of PA over time empowers lifestyle interventions, facilitating reliable exercise tracking and data-driven counseling. We propose and compare various combinations of machine learning (ML) schemes for the automatic classification of PA from multi-modal data, simultaneously captured by a biaxial accelerometer and a heart rate (HR) monitor. Intensity levels (low / moderate / vigorous) were recognized, as well as for vigorous exercise, its modality (sustained aerobic / resistance / mixed). In total, 178.63 h of data about PA intensity (65.55 % low / 18.96 % moderate / 15.49 % vigorous) and 17.00 h about modality were collected in two experiments: one in free-living conditions, another in a fitness center under controlled protocols. The structure used for automatic classification comprised: a) definition of 42 time-domain signal features, b) dimensionality reduction, c) data clustering, and d) temporal filtering to exploit time redundancy by means of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Four dimensionality reduction techniques and four clustering algorithms were studied. In order to cope with class imbalance in the dataset, a custom performance metric was defined to aggregate recognition accuracy, precision and recall. The best scheme, which comprised a projection through Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and k-means clustering, was evaluated in leave-one-subject-out cross-validation; notably outperforming the standard industry procedures for PA intensity classification: score 84.65 %, versus up to 63.60 %. Errors tended to be brief and to appear around transients. The application of ML techniques for pattern identification and temporal filtering allowed to merge accelerometry and HR data in a solid manner, and achieved markedly better recognition performances than the standard methods for PA intensity estimation.

  14. Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstadter, Donald

    2001-01-01

    As tabletop lasers continue to reach record levels of peak power, the interaction of light with matter has crossed a new threshold, in which plasma electrons at the laser focus oscillate at relativistic velocities. The highest forces ever exerted by light have been used to accelerate beams of electrons and protons to energies of a million volts in distances of only microns. Not only is this acceleration gradient up to a thousand times greater than in radio-frequency-based sources, but the transverse emittance of the particle beams is comparable or lower. Additionally, laser-based accelerators have been demonstrated to work at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, an improvement of a factor of 1000 over their best performance of just a couple of years ago. Anticipated improvements in energy spread may allow these novel compact laser-based radiation sources to be useful someday for cancer radiotherapy and as injectors into conventional accelerators, which are critical tools for x-ray and nuclear physics research. They might also be used as a spark to ignite controlled thermonuclear fusion. The ultrashort pulse duration of these particle bursts and the x rays they can produce, hold great promise as well to resolve chemical, biological or physical reactions on ultrafast (femtosecond) time scales and on the spatial scale of atoms. Even laser-accelerated protons are soon expected to become relativistic. The dense electron-positron plasmas and vast array of nuclear reactions predicted to occur in this case might even help bring astrophysical phenomena down to Earth, into university laboratories. This paper reviews the many recent advances in this emerging discipline, called high-field science

  15. Evaluation of occupational physical load during 6-month international crisis management operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlainen, Kai; Santtila, Matti; Vasankari, Tommi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2018-01-07

    Generally, operational military duties are associated with a variety of stressors, such as prolonged physical activity (PA). However, limited information is available on the occupational workload or changes in PA during international military operations. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the changes in body composition, stress biomarkers, PA, and heart rate (HR) responses of 79 male soldiers during a 6-month international crisis management operation. Measurements were conducted 3 times in South-Lebanon during the operation. Body composition was assessed by the bioelectrical impedance method. Blood samples were analyzed for serum testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol and insulin-like growth factor. Saliva sampling was used for analyzing stress biomarkers, cortisol and α-amylase. Heart rate and physical activity were monitored by a recordable belt and tri-axial accelerometer, respectively. Increases in muscle mass (39.2±4.1 vs. 39.5±4.2 kg, p PRE-MID) of the study. The increase in muscle mass remained significant during the latter half (PRE-POST, 39.2±4.1 vs. 39.6±4.4 kg, p PRE-POST, 36.5±33.7 vs. 55.1±39.7 U/ml), the acute stress biomarkers and HR responses remained unchanged. Furthermore, the low quantity of PA, low HR values and subjective ratings of exertion refer to rather light physical workload. Due to the operatively calm nature of the working environment, the present soldiers did not express any significant signs of physical overload during the study period. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(2):185-197. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C; Ely, E Wesley; Morey, Miriam C; Anderson, Venice M; Denne, Laural B; Clune, Jennifer; Siebert, Carol S; Archer, Kristin R; Torres, Renee; Janz, David; Schiro, Elena; Jones, Julie; Shintani, Ayumi K; Levine, Brian; Pun, Brenda T; Thompson, Jennifer; Brummel, Nathan E; Hoenig, Helen

    2012-04-01

    Millions of patients who survive medical and surgical general intensive care unit care every year experience newly acquired long-term cognitive impairment and profound physical and functional disabilities. To overcome the current reality in which patients receive inadequate rehabilitation, we devised a multifaceted, in-home, telerehabilitation program implemented using social workers and psychology technicians with the goal of improving cognitive and functional outcomes. This was a single-site, feasibility, pilot, randomized trial of 21 general medical/surgical intensive care unit survivors (8 controls and 13 intervention patients) with either cognitive or functional impairment at hospital discharge. After discharge, study controls received usual care (sporadic rehabilitation), whereas intervention patients received a combination of in-home cognitive, physical, and functional rehabilitation over a 3-month period via a social worker or master's level psychology technician utilizing telemedicine to allow specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Interventions over 12 wks included six in-person visits for cognitive rehabilitation and six televisits for physical/functional rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured at the completion of the rehabilitation program (i.e., at 3 months), with cognitive functioning as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine differences in 3-month outcomes between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline scores. Patients tolerated the program with only one adverse event reported. At baseline both groups were well-matched. At 3-month follow-up, intervention group patients demonstrated significantly improved cognitive executive functioning on the widely used and well-normed Tower test (for planning and strategic thinking) vs. controls (median [interquartile range], 13.0 [11.5-14.0] vs. 7.5 [4.0-8.5]; adjusted p improving cognitive performance and functional outcomes in just 3 months. Future investigations

  17. Effect of Intensive Chemotherapy on Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Health of Older Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepin, Heidi D.; Tooze, Janet A.; Pardee, Timothy S.; Ellis, Leslie R.; Berenzon, Dmitriy; Mihalko, Shannon L.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Rao, Arati V.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Powell, Bayard L.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To measure short-term changes in physical and cognitive function and emotional well-being of older adults receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Single academic institution. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 60 and older with newly diagnosed AML who received induction chemotherapy (N = 49, mean age 70 ± 6.2, 56% male). MEASUREMENTS Geriatric assessment (GA) was performed during inpatient examination for AML and within 8 weeks after hospital discharge after induction chemotherapy. Measures were the Pepper Assessment Tool for Disability (activity of daily living, instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), mobility questions), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength, Modified Mini-Mental State examination, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Distress Thermometer. Changes in GA measures were assessed using paired t-tests. Analysis of variance models were used to evaluate relationships between GA variables and change in function over time. RESULTS After chemotherapy, IADL dependence worsened (mean 1.4 baseline vs 2.1 follow-up, P < .001), as did mean SPPB scores (7.5 vs 5.9, P = .02 for total). Grip strength also declined (38.9 ± 7.7 vs 34.2 ± 10.3 kg, P < .001 for men; 24.5 ± 4.8 vs 21.8 ± 4.7 kg, P = .007 for women). No significant changes in cognitive function (mean 84.7 vs 85.1, P = .72) or depressive symptoms (14.0 vs. 11.3, P = .11) were detected, but symptoms of distress declined (5.0 vs 3.2, P < .001). Participants with depressive symptoms at baseline and follow-up had greater declines in SPPB scores those without at both time points. CONCLUSIONS Short-term survivors of intensive chemotherapy for AML had clinically meaningful declines in physical function. These data support the importance of interventions to maintain physical function during and after chemotherapy. Depressive symptoms before and during chemotherapy may be linked to

  18. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng Hsiu; Lee, Chin Pang; Hsu, Shih Chieh; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ching Yen

    2015-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (PHIIT has positive effects on the physical and mental health of patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  19. An After-School, high-intensity, interval physical activity programme improves health-related fitness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Reloba Martínez

    Full Text Available Abstract Health problems related to a low level of physical activity (PA in children and adolescents have prompted research into extracurricular PA programs. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different levels of PA on the health-related fitness of school children. Ninety-four girls and boys (7-9 years were randomly assigned to a control group (CG or intervention group (IG. Over a 12 week study period, children in the CG participated in a similar PA program to that of a standard school physical education program while those in the IG completed a high intensity interval training (HIIT program. Both programs involved two 40 minute extracurricular sessions per week. Our findings indicate that the HIIT intervention improved motor capacity (speed/agility, Vpeak, VO2 max and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC (p < 0.05 along with the musculoskeletal capacity of the lower trunk (mean propulsive velocity and standing long jump, p < 0.05. The PA program had no effect on anthropometric variables or hand-grip strength. The data indicate that a 12 week strength training program using workloads adapted to children may significantly improve several markers of health and physical fitness compared to a standard school PA program.

  20. Metal-loaded pollucite-like aluminophosphates: dissymmetrisation of crystal structures and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvanskaya, L. V.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Koshelev, A. V.; Vasiliev, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Two aluminophosphate analogues of the mineral pollucite with the general formula Cs2(M,Al)3P3O12 (where M = Cu or Mn) have been synthesized by high-temperature flux and structurally characterized using the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both samples crystallize in cubic I4132 space group, Z = 8, with a = 13.5911(5) and a = 13.8544(7) for Cu- and Mn-loaded phases, respectively. Their framework structures are based on the ANA-type topology and exhibit the partial ordering of the metal (M/Al) and phosphorus (P) cations over the tetrahedral sites. The regular changes in cell dimensions and volumes in the row Cs2(Cu,Al)3P3O12→Cs2(Mn,Al)3P3O12 obviously correspond to increasing radii of the transition metal. The crystal chemical analysis of both pollucite-like phases show correlations between the difference in the radii size of tetrahedral cations and the degree of distortion of flexible ANA-type framework due to decreasing of the intertetrahedral angles (T-O-T). Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both compounds are paramagnets in the temperature range of 2-300 K.

  1. High intensity intermittent games-based activity and adolescents' cognition: moderating effect of physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Morris, John G; Sunderland, Caroline; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2018-05-08

    An acute bout of exercise elicits a beneficial effect on subsequent cognitive function in adolescents. The effect of games-based activity, an ecologically valid and attractive exercise model for young people, remains unknown; as does the moderating effect of fitness on the acute exercise-cognition relationship. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of games-based activity on subsequent cognition in adolescents, and the moderating effect of fitness on this relationship. Following ethical approval, 39 adolescents (12.3 ± 0.7 year) completed an exercise and resting trial in a counterbalanced, randomised crossover design. During familiarisation, participants completed a multi-stage fitness test to predict VO 2 peak. The exercise trial consisted of 60-min games-based activity (basketball), during which heart rate was 158 ± 11 beats∙min - 1 . A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, trail making and d2 tests) were completed 30-min before, immediately following and 45-min following the basketball. Response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were enhanced both immediately (p = 0.021) and 45-min (p = 0.035) post-exercise, and response times on the five item level of the Sternberg paradigm were enhanced immediately post-exercise (p = 0.023). There were no effects on the time taken to complete the trail making test or any outcome of the d2 test. In particular, response times were enhanced in the fitter adolescents 45-min post-exercise on both levels of the Stroop test (simple, p = 0.005; complex, p = 0.040) and on the three item level of the Sternberg paradigm immediately (p = 0.017) and 45-min (p = 0.008) post-exercise. Games-based activity enhanced executive function and working memory scanning speed in adolescents, an effect particularly evident in fitter adolescents, whilst the high intensity intermittent nature of games-based activity may be too demanding for

  2. Effects of physical training with different intensities of effort on lipid metabolism in rats submitted to the neonatal application of alloxan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-10-01

    revealed that intermittent training increased serum levels in alloxan animals Conclusion Thus, it was concluded that physical training at different intensities of effort is of great importance in attenuation and control of changes in the lipid metabolism in alloxan animals.

  3. Differences in the association between psychosocial work conditions and physical work load in female- and male-dominated occupations. MUSIC-Norrtälje Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, M; Pernold, G; Ahlberg-Hultén, G; Härenstam, A; Theorell, T; Vingård, E; Waldenström, M; Hjelm, E W

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a relationship between high physical work load and adverse psychosocial work factors, and whether this relationship is different for women and men. Separate analyses for female registered nurses and assistant nurses were made because these are common occupations involving high physical and psychological demands. This study was part of the MUSIC-Norrtälje study, a population study with the overall aim of identifying risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. The respondents, 1423 gainfully employed men and women, were randomly selected from the study population. The exposure assessments referred to a typical workday during the previous 12 months. Physical exposure was investigated by interview, psychosocial work factors by interview and questionnaire. For the women, but not the men, mainly routine work and a job strain situation, according to the model of Karasek and Theorell, increased the probability of having a high physical work load, assessed as a time-weighted average of energy expenditure in multiples of the resting metabolic rate. Results indicated that in female-dominated occupations, high physical work load might also imply adverse psychosocial conditions. A higher frequency of high physical work load and job strain was observed among assistant nurses compared with registered nurses. Covariance between physical and psychosocial demands makes it difficult to determine the relative influence of each in health problems. Results of the present study imply that this is a larger problem in studies of women than men.

  4. [Secondary Full Title: Effects of high intensity interval training in plain and uphill regarding physical performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marterer, Natalie; Menz, Verena; Burtscher, Martin

    2018-04-05

     As the number of HIITs is increasing in competitive and non-competitive sports, the risk of injuries and overload is increasing. There are no scientific data to support specific recommendations in regard to intensity, duration, number of intervals and gradient for HIIT that result in improved muscular parameters in athletes. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare HIIT in plain and uphill exercise, with respect to exercise tolerance and improvements in performance (VO 2max and 800 m running time in the plain and uphill).  17 well-trained sport students (10 females, 7 males; Ø VO 2max : 53.7 ml/min/kg) were randomly assigned to the plain group (plain; GE) (n = 8) or the uphill group (hill, GB) (n = 9). In the four weeks of training, all subjects completed 14 HIIT sessions. Each session consisted of 8 × 2 min running at 90 - 95 % of the maximal heart rate (HR max ), separated by 2 min recovery periods (work/rest ratio: 1:1). Before the intervention phase, subjects performed treadmill spirometry, a 800 m field test in the plain, as well as an 800 m uphill field test to determine baseline performance. One week after the intervention period, all subjects completed a retest of all measurements and tests. After the intervention, all subjects completed a questionnaire by giving their level of perceived exertion during training, using the BORG scale.  In GE, three subjects dropped out of the study because of overtraining. In GB, two subjects did not complete the study because of time constraints. The evaluation of the perceived exertion of the training in flat terrain showed a trend (p = 0.08; t = - 1.96) towards being perceived as more exhausting then in hilly terrain. A four week HIIT showed significant improvements in VO 2max by 5.2 % (p = 0.02; t = - 2.76), and a reduction in the running time in the plain by 4.6 % (p = 0.01; t = 3.48) and uphill by 6.3 % (p = 0.02; t = 2.77). No

  5. Increasing physical activity for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program: A community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and

  6. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus; Rojas, Elena; Vanhala, Esa

    2015-01-01

    water uptake showed an apparent link with the decreasing dustiness index. Effects of powder compaction appeared more material specific with both increasing and decreasing dustiness indices observed as an effect of compaction. Tests of control banding exposure models using the measured dustiness indices......Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical...... respirable dustiness index and particle size distributions. Water uptake of the powders during 7 days of incubation was investigated as an explanatory factor of the changes. Consequences of these varying storage conditions in exposure modelling were tested using the control banding and risk management tool...

  7. Parent-child attitude congruence on type and intensity of physical activity: Testing multiple mediators of sedentary behavior in older children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined parent–child attitudes on value of specific types and intensities of physical activity, which may explain gender differences in child activity, and evaluated physical activity as a mechanism to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors. A community sample of 681 parents and 433 ch...

  8. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednychenko M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  9. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cherednychenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  10. Experimental and theoretical studies of the physical processes occurring in thin plane targets irradiated by intense X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrov, A. E.; Burdonskii, I. N.; Gavrilov, V. V.; Gol'tsov, A. Yu.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Efremov, V. P.; Zhuzhukalo, E. V.; Zurin, M. V.; Koval'skii, N. G.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Potapenko, A. I.; Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Fortov, V. E.; Frolov, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction of intense X-ray pulses with different types of plane targets, including low-density (∼10 mg/cm 3 ) ones, in the Angara-5-1 facility. It is found experimentally that a dense low-temperature plasma forms on the target surface before the arrival of the main heating X-ray pulse. It is demonstrated that the contrast of the X-ray pulse can be increased by placing a thin organic film between the target and the discharge gap. The expansion velocity of the plasma created on the target surface irradiated by Z-pinch-produced X rays was found to be (3-4) x 10 6 cm/s. A comparison between the simulation and experimental results confirms the validity of the physical-mathematical model used

  11. A quasi-experimental examination of how school-based physical activity changes impact secondary school student moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity over time in the COMPASS study

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Stephen; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Storey, Kate; Carson, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is characterized by low moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Targeting the school setting can increase MVPA among a large proportion of adolescents. However, school-based physical activity interventions for adolescents remain largely ineffective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how naturally-occurring changes to school physical activity policy, recreational programming, public health resources, and the physical environmen...

  12. Rehabilitation using high-intensity physical training and long-term return-to-work in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Karin M; de Boer, Angela G E M; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Wouw, Agnès J; Houterman, Saskia; Schep, Goof

    2012-06-01

    Due to large and increasing numbers of cancer survivors, long-term cancer-related health issues have become a major focus of attention. This study examined the relation between a high-intensity physical rehabilitation program and return-to-work in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy. The intervention group, consisting of 72 cancer survivors from one hospital (8 men and 64 women, mean age 49 years), followed an 18-weeks rehabilitation program including strength and interval training, and home-based activities. An age-matched control group, consisting of 38 cancer survivors (9 men and 29 women), was recruited from two other hospitals. They received only standard medical care. All subjects were evaluated during a telephone interview on employment issues, conducted at ±3 years after diagnosis. The main outcomes were change in working hours per week and time until return-to-work. Patients in the intervention group showed significant less reduction in working hours per week [-5.0 h/week vs. -10.8 h/week (P = .03)]. Multivariate analyses showed that the training intervention, the age of patients, and the number of working hours pre-diagnosis could explain the improvement in long-term participation at work. Time until (partial) return-to-work was 11.5 weeks for the intervention group versus 13.2 weeks for the control group (P = .40). On long-term follow-up, 78% of the participants from the intervention group versus 66% from the control group had returned to work on the pre-diagnosis level of working hours (P = .18). Rehabilitation using high-intensity physical training is useful for working patients to minimize the decreased ability to work resulting from cancer and its treatment.

  13. [Benefits of Decumanum Phlebodium intake on the muscle damage in the response to intense physical exercise in sedentary subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Corzo, M C; Aguilar Cordero, M J; de Teresa Galván, C; Segura Millán, D; Miranda Leon, M T; Castillo Rueda, G; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2014-06-01

    Intense physical exercise provoke muscle damage, that in sedentary people can increase cardiovascular risk. Phlebodium decumanum (PD) has shown to have immunomodulator effects in models of moderate intense physical activities in well conditioned groups. To evaluate the PD effects during eccentric exercise, as a model of muscle inflammation protocol, on a sedentary population with cardiovascular risk. This is an experimental, double-blind, multigroup randomized study. Experimental Group 1 (n = 17)received PD, 9 doses of 400 mg (total amount 3.6 g) every 8 hours during 3 days, and Control Group 2 (n = 16)received a placebo. All the subjects performed two treadmill ergoespirometry tests: first, a modified Bruce protocol to discard ischemic responses during exercise and to evaluate VO2max before the experimental phase;and second, with an eccentric protocol (14% descending ramp test) during 10 minutes in stable state at 70-80%VO2max, as experimental inflammatory protocol.We compared intra and inter groups to evaluate differences in the pre and post-test differences results on blood muscle damage variables. The study shown statistically significant differences in all pre-post intra-groups results in muscle damage variables (CK, LDH and Myoglobin, but not in Cardiac Troponin), and in functional lower-limb test (SJand CMJ). The comparison of inter-group results shown less muscle damage and less functional lower-limb deterioration in Group 1 compared with Control group, with statistical significance in both cases. Differences in handgrip dynamometry were no statistically significant. The eccentric exercise protocol in that study has proven to be a good model to induce muscle and functional damage in sedentary people. Short PD treatment has shown to reduce muscle and functional acute damages compared with placebo control group in this specific population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Progress in Y-00 physical cipher for Giga bit/sec optical data communications (intensity modulation method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Osamu; Futami, Fumio

    2014-10-01

    To guarantee a security of Cloud Computing System is urgent problem. Although there are several threats in a security problem, the most serious problem is cyber attack against an optical fiber transmission among data centers. In such a network, an encryption scheme on Layer 1(physical layer) with an ultimately strong security, a small delay, and a very high speed should be employed, because a basic optical link is operated at 10 Gbit/sec/wavelength. We have developed a quantum noise randomied stream cipher so called Yuen- 2000 encryption scheme (Y-00) during a decade. This type of cipher is a completely new type random cipher in which ciphertext for a legitimate receiver and eavesdropper are different. This is a condition to break the Shannon limit in theory of cryptography. In addition, this scheme has a good balance on a security, a speed and a cost performance. To realize such an encryption, several modulation methods are candidates such as phase-modulation, intensity-modulation, quadrature amplitude modulation, and so on. Northwestern university group demonstrated a phase modulation system (α=η) in 2003. In 2005, we reported a demonstration of 1 Gbit/sec system based on intensity modulation scheme(ISK-Y00), and gave a design method for quadratic amplitude modulation (QAM-Y00) in 2005 and 2010. An intensity modulation scheme promises a real application to a secure fiber communication of current data centers. This paper presents a progress in quantum noise randomized stream cipher based on ISK-Y00, integrating our theoretical and experimental achievements in the past and recent 100 Gbit/sec(10Gbit/sec × 10 wavelengths) experiment.

  15. Effects of ovariectomy and exercise training intensity on energy substrate and hepatic lipid metabolism, and spontaneous physical activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, Marc A; Campbell, Sara C; Klein, Dylan J; Shapses, Sue A; Anacker, Keith R; Anthony, Tracy G; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Henderson, Gregory C

    2018-06-01

    Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice. OVX and SHAM were assigned to distance- and duration-matched CE and HIIE, or sedentary control. Energy expenditure during exercise was confirmed to be identical between CE and HIIE and both similarly reduced post-exercise absolute carbohydrate oxidation and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). OVX vs. SHAM displayed impaired glucose tolerance and greater body fat despite lower hepatic TG, and these outcomes were not affected by training. Only HIIE increased hepatic AMPK in OVX and SHAM, but neither training type impacted VLDL-TG secretion. As expected, BMD was lower in OVX, and training did not affect long bones. The results reveal intensity-dependent effects on hepatic AMPK expression and general exercise effects on subsequent SPA and substrate oxidation that is independent of estrogen status. These findings support the notion that HIIE can impact aspects of liver physiology in females while the effects of exercise on whole body substrate selection appear to be independent of training intensity. However, neither exercise approach mitigated the impairment in glucose tolerance and elevated body fat occurring in OVX mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Wirtz, Christoph Zinner, Ulrike Doermann, Heinz Kleinoeder, Joachim Mester

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E. Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre, one week after (post and three weeks (re following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05, with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05. Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic muscle groups.

  17. An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier; Shane N. Sweet

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Rating...

  18. Hormonal (Cortical-Gonadotropic Axis) and Physical Changes With Two Years Intense Exercise Training in Elite Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Hackney, Anthony C; Kebsi, Wiem; Owen, Adam L; Nebigh, Amar; Racil, Ghazi; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane

    2017-09-01

    Hammami, MA, Ben Abderrahman, A, Hackney, AC, Kebsi, W, Owen, AL, Nebigh, A, Racil, G, Tabka, Z, and Zouhal, H. Hormonal (cortical-gonadotropic axis) and physical changes with two years intense exercise training in elite young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2388-2397, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 soccer-training seasons on physical fitness and hormone concentrations in elite youth soccer players. Twenty male elite soccer players (SP, age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) and 20 male control subjects (CS, age 14.3 ± 0.3 years) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 [YYIRT1]) and anaerobic soccer relevant performances (jump and sprint tests), blood testosterone (T), cortisol (C), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and T/C ratio were assessed 5 times (from T0 to T4) during 2 competitive seasons. Significant differences from basal values (Δ) of T, SHBG, and C between SP and CS were observed (p soccer players group compared with controls. Our findings also show that the T concentrations and power performance outcomes co-vary positively over the 2 soccer seasons in soccer players.

  19. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  18. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; sports performance experiments.

  19. Age-related changes in physical and perceptual markers of recovery following high-intensity interval cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2018-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4.5 min rest between efforts. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 10 s sprint (10SST), 30-min time trial (30TT) performance, creatine kinase concentration (CK) and perceptual measures of motivation, total recovery, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected at baseline and at standardised time points across the 48 h recovery period. No significant group-time interactions were observed for performance of MVC, 10SST, 30TT and CK (P > 0.05). A significant reduction in 10SST peak power was found in both masters (P = 0.002) and young (P = 0.003) cyclists at 1 h post exercise, however, both groups physically recovered at similar rates. Neither group showed significant (P > 0.05) or practically meaningful increases in CK (%∆ < 10%). A significant age-related difference was found for perceptual fatigue (P = 0.01) and analysis of effect size (ES) showed that perceptual recovery was delayed with masters cyclists reporting lower motivation (ES ±90%CI = 0.69 ± 0.77, moderate), greater fatigue (ES = 0.75 ± 0.93, moderate) and muscle soreness (ES = 0.61 ± 0.70, moderate) after 48 h of recovery. The delay in perceived recovery may have negative effects on long-term participation to systematic training.

  20. Health related quality of life is differently associated with leisure-time physical activity intensities according to gender: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila Missaki; Teixeira, Inaian Pignatti; Smirmaul, Bruno Paula Caraça; Sebastião, Emerson; Papini, Camila Bosquiero; Gobbi, Sebastião; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2014-08-18

    Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, studies have suggested that this association depends both on the PA intensity and the domain of HRQL evaluated. This study aimed to explore the association between physical, mental and overall HRQL with recommended levels of PA. PA levels were divided into moderate and vigorous intensity leisure-time PA and total leisure-time PA. The study included 1001 adults, 582 women (46 ± 17 years) and 419 men (43 ± 16 years), residents in Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire to assess HRQL and the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to assess level and intensities of leisure-time PA. Total leisure-time PA at moderate intensity was classified as: less than 9 min/week, 10-149 min/week, 150-299 min/week and 300 min/week or more. Total leisure-time PA at vigorous intensity was classified as: less than 9 min/week, 10 to 74.9 min/week, 75-149 min/week and 150 min/week or more. Multiple linear regression was performed in STATA version 12.0. Among women, moderate intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with physical health. Among men, moderate and vigorous intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with physical health and overall HRQL. Furthermore, moderate intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with mental health in men. However, vigorous intensity PA was not associated with mental health for this group. The different domains of HRQL were associated with different levels and intensities of PA in leisure-time according to gender of adults. These findings indicate the complexity and importance of evaluating the HRQL stratified by gender and consider the different levels and intensities of PA.

  1. Association Between Manual Loading and Newly Developed Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Subjects With Physical Disabilities: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nung; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Yen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chang, Kwang-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    To identify the association between body composition and newly developed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to search for the best probabilistic cutoff value of associated factors to predict subjects with physical disabilities developing new CTS. Longitudinal. University-affiliated medical center. Subjects with physical disabilities (N=47; mean age ± SD, 42.1±7.7y). Not applicable. Median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were measured at the initial and follow-up tests (interval >2y). Total and regional body composition were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the initial test. Leg lean tissue percentage was calculated to delineate each participant's manual loading degree during locomotion. Leg lean tissue percentage is the lean tissue mass of both legs divided by body weight. Based on median SNCV changes, we divided all participants into 3 groups: subjects with bilateral CTS (median SNCV value normative ulnar SNCV value >37.8m/s) in the initial test (n=10), subjects with newly developed CTS in the follow-up test (n=8), and subjects without additional CTS in the follow-up test (n=27). Eight of 35 subjects not having bilateral CTS initially developed new CTS (8.8% per year; mean follow-up period, 2.6y). Leg lean tissue percentage was associated with the probability of newly developed CTS (adjusted odds ratio, .64; P12% were less likely to have developed new CTS at the follow-up test (sensitivity, .75; specificity, .85; area under the curve, .88; Pphysical disabilities. Therefore, a preventive program for those subjects at risk can start early. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Training Load, Physical Performance, Biochemical Markers, and Psychological Stress During A Short Preparatory Period in Brazilian Elite Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Thiago A G; Bara Filho, Maurício G; Coimbra, Danilo R; Miranda, R; Werneck, Francisco Z

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between training load (TL) and physical performance, biochemical markers, and psychological stress during a short preparatory period (PP) in Brazilian elite male volleyball players. Twelve volleyball players from a team competing in the Brazilian Men's Volleyball Super League were enrolled (26.9 ± 4.6 years). Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Creatine Kinase (CK), Testosterone (T), Cortisol (Cr), T/Cr ratio, and Recovery and Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) were collected at baseline, after 2, 4, and 6 week. TL was quantified daily using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). Differences were noted between Total Weekly TL (TWTL) (F3,33 = 50.907; p = 0.0001), CK (F3,33 = 16.157; p = 0.0001), and T (F3,33 = 3.283; p = 0.03). No differences were seen in CMJ (F3,33 = 1.821; p = 0.16), Cr (F3,33 = 2.409; p = 0.08), or T/Cr ratio (F3,33 = 1.527; p = 0.23). The RESTQ-Sport demonstrated differences between moments in Social Stress (F3,33 = 2.297; p = 0.04; Eta = 0.25), Success (F3,33 = 4.350; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.19), General Well-being (F3,33 = 4.465; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.36), and Injury (F3,33 = 2.792; p = 0.05; Eta = 0.62). The results showed a significant correlations of small to moderate magnitude between TWTL and CK (r = 0.32; p = 0.05). In conclusion, a short PP in volleyball leads to increased TL, CK level, and psychological stress. TL was related with the increase of CK, suggesting muscle damage without increased of physical performance.

  3. The effect of joystick handle size and gain at two levels of required precision on performance and physical load on crane operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; Looze, M.P. de; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Dieën, J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of joystick handle size and (display-control) gain at two levels of required task precision on performance and physical load on crane operators. Eight experienced crane operators performed a simulated crane operation task on a computer by use of a

  4. Cognitive Load Theory and the Use of Worked Examples as an Instructional Strategy in Physics for Distance Learners: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Kim Guan

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the cognitive load theory to explore the use of worked examples to teach a selected topic in a higher level undergraduate physics course for distance learners at the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia. With a break of several years from receiving formal education and having only minimum science…

  5. High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Bongers, P.M.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bouter, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. Methods: The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for

  6. High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain: results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Bongers, P.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Ariens, G.A.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. Methods: The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for

  7. High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain : results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W E; Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Ariëns, G A M; van Mechelen, W; Bouter, L M

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. METHODS: The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for

  8. Estimation of physical work load by statistical analysis of the heart rate in a conveyor-belt worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontosic, I; Vukelić, M; Pancić, M; Kunisek, J

    1994-12-01

    Physical work load was estimated in a female conveyor-belt worker in a bottling plant. Estimation was based on continuous measurement and on calculation of average heart rate values in three-minute and one-hour periods and during the total measuring period. The thermal component of the heart rate was calculated by means of the corrected effective temperature, for the one-hour periods. The average heart rate at rest was also determined. The work component of the heart rate was calculated by subtraction of the resting heart rate and the heart rate measured at 50 W, using a regression equation. The average estimated gross energy expenditure during the work was 9.6 +/- 1.3 kJ/min corresponding to the category of light industrial work. The average estimated oxygen uptake was 0.42 +/- 0.06 L/min. The average performed mechanical work was 12.2 +/- 4.2 W, i.e. the energy expenditure was 8.3 +/- 1.5%.

  9. Automatic determination of BWR fuel loading patterns based on K.E. technique with core physics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, T.; Tsuiki, M.; Takeshita, T.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis oof a computerized search method, a prototype for a fuel loading pattern expert system has been developed to support designers in core design for BWRs. The method was implemented by coupling rules and core physics simulators into an inference engine to establish an automated generate-and-test cycle. A search control mechanism, which prunes paths to be searched and selects appropriate rules through the interaction with the user, was also introduced to accomplish an effective search. The constraints in BWR core design are: (1) cycle length more than L, (2) core shutdown margin more than S, and (3) thermal margin more than T. Here L, S, and T are the specified minimum values. In this system, individual rules contain the manipulation to improve the core shutdown margin explicitly. Other items were taken into account only implicitly. Several applications to the test cases were carried out. It was found that the results were comparable with those obtained by human expert engineers. Broad applicability of the present method in the BWR core design domain was proved

  10. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu MH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meng Hsiu Wu,1,2 Chin Pang Lee,1–3 Shih Chieh Hsu,1,3 Chia Ming Chang,1,3 Ching Yen Chen1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Results: Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (P<0.01 and the General Psychopathology Scale score from 14.28±2.16 to 13.00±1.72 (P<0.01. Positive Scale scores changed, but not significantly, from 12.28±2.27 to 12.33±2.00 (P=0.729. Scores on the BDI (from 19.56±15.28 to 15.89±14.33, P<0.001 and BAI (from 13.67±13.83 to 10.06±11.18, P=0.003 both improved significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HIIT has positive

  11. The influence of a high intensity physical activity intervention on a selection of health related outcomes: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Non E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of mortality throughout the world. With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, it is unsurprising that research into obesity prevalence within school aged youth is burgeoning. Within this study our primary objective will be to examine whether high intensity interval training (HIT improves the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents. Our secondary objective will be to identify the prevalence of CVD risk factors and examine factors associated with these in adolescents aged 15 - 18 years. Method/Design A South Lanarkshire school of low socioeconomic status (SES was selected to participate in the study intervention. Participants from secondary 5 (15 - 17 years and 6 (16 - 18 years will be recruited for this study. Participants from secondary 6 will be randomly assigned to Group A (HIT or Group B (moderate-vigorous and will perform each protocol three times weekly. The secondary 5 participants will act as the control group. Data collection will take place during the Physical Education (PE lessons and on school premises and will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at two sites, physiological responses (blood pressure, aerobic fitness, heart rate (HR response, vertical jump performance, 10-metre (m sprint, 50-m sprint and 505-agility test, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen (Fg, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin (high molecular weight, triglyceride and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. An environmental audit of the secondary school and the health related quality of life (HRQOL of the participants will also be measured. Finally, all exercise

  12. A database for analysis of speech under physical stress: detection of exercise intensity while running and talking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Beek, Peter; Evers, Vanessa

    One of the ways to gauge your own exercise intensity while running, is to assess your capability of talking while running: if you can still speak comfortably, you are running within the recommended intensity guidelines. This subjective way of estimating one's exercise intensity by talking (i.e. the

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  14. Validation of Cut-Points for Evaluating the Intensity of Physical Activity with Accelerometry-Based Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Vähä-Ypyä

    Full Text Available Our recent study of three accelerometer brands in various ambulatory activities showed that the mean amplitude deviation (MAD of the resultant acceleration signal performed best in separating different intensity levels and provided excellent agreement between the three devices. The objective of this study was to derive a regression model that estimates oxygen consumption (VO2 from MAD values and validate the MAD-based cut-points for light, moderate and vigorous locomotion against VO2 within a wide range of speeds.29 participants performed a pace-conducted non-stop test on a 200 m long indoor track. The initial speed was 0.6 m/s and it was increased by 0.4 m/s every 2.5 minutes until volitional exhaustion. The participants could freely decide whether they preferred to walk or run. During the test they carried a hip-mounted tri-axial accelerometer and mobile metabolic analyzer. The MAD was calculated from the raw acceleration data and compared to directly measured incident VO2. Cut-point between light and moderate activity was set to 3.0 metabolic equivalent (MET, 1 MET = 3.5 ml · kg-1 · min-1 and between moderate and vigorous activity to 6.0 MET as per standard use.The MAD and VO2 showed a very strong association. Within individuals, the range of r values was from 0.927 to 0.991 providing the mean r = 0.969. The optimal MAD cut-point for 3.0 MET was 91 mg (milligravity and 414 mg for 6.0 MET.The present study showed that the MAD is a valid method in terms of the VO2 within a wide range of ambulatory activities from slow walking to fast running. Being a device-independent trait, the MAD facilitates directly comparable, accurate results on the intensity of physical activity with all accelerometers providing tri-axial raw data.

  15. Workplace physical activity interventions and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity levels among working-age women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Prince, Stephanie A; Cole, Christie A; Fodor, J George; Hiremath, Swapnil; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Tulloch, Heather E; Wright, Erica; Reid, Robert D

    2014-12-19

    The rapid pace of modern life requires working-age women to juggle occupational, family and social demands. This modern lifestyle has been shown to have a detrimental effect on health, often associated with increased smoking and alcohol consumption, depression and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Despite the proven benefits of regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), few are meeting the current physical activity (PA) recommendations of 150 min of MVPA/week. It is important that appropriate and effective behavioural interventions targeting PA are developed and identified to improve the MVPA levels of working-age women. As these women spend a substantial proportion of their waking hours at work, workplaces may be an opportune, efficient and relatively controlled setting to implement programmes and strategies to target PA in an effort to improve MVPA levels and impact cardiometabolic health. The purposes of this systematic review are to compare the effectiveness of individual-level workplace interventions for increasing MVPA levels in working-age women in high-income/developed countries and examine the effectiveness of these interventions for improving the known beneficial health sequelae of MVPA. Eight electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort and experimental studies that examine the impact of individual-level workplace interventions for increasing MVPA levels among working-age (mean age 18-65 years) women from high-income/developed countries. Grey literature including theses, dissertations and government reports will also be included. Study quality will be assessed using a modified Downs and Black checklist, and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Cochrane's risk of bias tool and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will

  16. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF

  17. Effect of exposure to greater active videogame variety on time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Cardoso, Chelsi; Bond, Dale S

    2016-07-01

    This investigation examined whether exposure to greater active videogame variety increases moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Twenty-three participants (age=22.7±4.2yrs; body mass index=23.5±3.0kg/m(2); self-reported MVPA=298.7±116.7min/wk; 62.2% female; 73.9% Caucasian) participated in VARIETY (4 different active videogames during 4, 15-min bouts) and NON-VARIETY (only 1 active videogame during 4, 15-min bouts) counterbalanced sessions. VARIETY provided a different active videogame in each bout. NON-VARIETY provided participants their most highly liked active videogame in each bout. The Sensewear Mini Armband objectively assessed MVPA. For MVPA minutes, a session×bout (p<0.05) interaction occurred. In NON-VARIETY, bouts 2, 3, and 4 had significantly (p<0.05) fewer minutes than bout 1, with no decrease occurring in VARIETY. In bout 4, VARIETY had significantly (p<0.05) more minutes than NON-VARIETY. A main effect of session (p<0.05) occurred for MVPA minutes and energy expenditure, with VARIETY achieving greater amounts (31.8±14.3min vs. 27.6±16.9min; 186.1±96.8kcal vs. 171.2±102.8kcal). Exposure to greater activity variety within a session increased MVPA. Future research should examine exposure to a variety of activities over a longer time frame with participants of differing lifestyles in free-living environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth: The International Children's Accelerometry Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Corder

    2016-12-01

    Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5.0–5.9 y and larger negative annual differences.

  19. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Marcus; Rojas, Elena; Vanhala, Esa; Vippola, Minnamari; Liguori, Biase; Kling, Kirsten I.; Koponen, Ismo K.; Mølhave, Kristian; Tuomi, Timo; Gregurec, Danijela; Moya, Sergio; Jensen, Keld A.

    2015-01-01

    Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical respirable dustiness index and particle size distributions. Water uptake of the powders during 7 days of incubation was investigated as an explanatory factor of the changes. Consequences of these varying storage conditions in exposure modelling were tested using the control banding and risk management tool NanoSafer. Drastic material-specific effects on powder respirable dustiness index were observed with the change in TiO 2 from 30 % RH (639 mg/kg) to 50 % RH (1.5 mg/kg). All five tested materials indicate a decreasing dustiness index with relative humidity increasing from 30 to 70 % RH. Test of powder water uptake showed an apparent link with the decreasing dustiness index. Effects of powder compaction appeared more material specific with both increasing and decreasing dustiness indices observed as an effect of compaction. Tests of control banding exposure models using the measured dustiness indices in three different exposure scenarios showed that in two of the tested materials, one 20 % change in RH changed the exposure banding from the lowest level to the highest. The study shows the importance of powder storage conditions prior to tests for classification of material dustiness indices. It also highlights the importance of correct storage information and relative humidity and expansion of the dustiness test conditions specifically, when using dustiness indices as a primary parameter for source strength in exposure assessment

  20. Influence of relative humidity and physical load during storage on dustiness of inorganic nanomaterials: implications for testing and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Marcus, E-mail: mle@nrcwe.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology (Denmark); Rojas, Elena [CIC biomaGUNE (Spain); Vanhala, Esa; Vippola, Minnamari [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Liguori, Biase; Kling, Kirsten I.; Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mølhave, Kristian [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology (Denmark); Tuomi, Timo [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Gregurec, Danijela; Moya, Sergio [CIC biomaGUNE (Spain); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark)

    2015-08-15

    Dustiness testing using a down-scaled EN15051 rotating drum was used to investigate the effects of storage conditions such as relative humidity and physical loading on the dustiness of five inorganic metal oxide nanostructured powder materials. The tests consisted of measurements of gravimetrical respirable dustiness index and particle size distributions. Water uptake of the powders during 7 days of incubation was investigated as an explanatory factor of the changes. Consequences of these varying storage conditions in exposure modelling were tested using the control banding and risk management tool NanoSafer. Drastic material-specific effects on powder respirable dustiness index were observed with the change in TiO{sub 2} from 30 % RH (639 mg/kg) to 50 % RH (1.5 mg/kg). All five tested materials indicate a decreasing dustiness index with relative humidity increasing from 30 to 70 % RH. Test of powder water uptake showed an apparent link with the decreasing dustiness index. Effects of powder compaction appeared more material specific with both increasing and decreasing dustiness indices observed as an effect of compaction. Tests of control banding exposure models using the measured dustiness indices in three different exposure scenarios showed that in two of the tested materials, one 20 % change in RH changed the exposure banding from the lowest level to the highest. The study shows the importance of powder storage conditions prior to tests for classification of material dustiness indices. It also highlights the importance of correct storage information and relative humidity and expansion of the dustiness test conditions specifically, when using dustiness indices as a primary parameter for source strength in exposure assessment.

  1. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  2. State of gas exchange in recumbent and orthostatic positions and under physical load in healthy persons of varying age, sex and body build

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, G. A.; Charyyev, M.; Zilbert, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    Age effect on gas exchange was studied in the recumbent and orthostatic positions and under physical load. In the case of the older age group and for normal as compared with hypersthenic persons, oxygen consumption during rest and during moderate physical overload diminishes. When the vertical position is assumed oxygen consumption in persons of various age groups is distinctly increased, particularly in the elderly group. There is a reduction in the amount of oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, recovery coefficient, and work efficiency under moderate overload. In persons over 50, physical labor induces a large oxygen requirement and a sharp rise in the level of lactic acid and the blood's lactate/pyruvate ratio. No distinct difference was noted in the amount of oxygen consumed during rest and during physical overload in men and women of the same physical development and age.

  3. Carbohydrate solutions and contribute to the improvement of physical performance during a high-intensity and long-lasting physical exercise: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (SNE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...... an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to carbohydrate solutions and contribute to the improvement of physical performance during a high‐intensity and long‐lasting physical exercise. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed...... effect. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is ‘contribute to the improvement of physical performance during a high‐intensity and long‐lasting physical exercise’, which is considered by the Panel as a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has...

  4. Intensity and timing of physical activity in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tricia M; Moore, Steven C; Gierach, Gretchen L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of an inverse association of physical activity with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, whether a certain intensity or time of life of physical activity is most effective for lowering breast cancer risk is not known. In 118,899 postmenopausal women in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the relations of light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during four periods of life ('historical': ages 15-18, 19-29, 35-39 years; 'recent': past 10 years) to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at baseline, and 4287 incident breast cancers were identified over 6.6 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted and multivariate Cox regression models, >7 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity during the past 10 years was associated with 16% reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (RR:0.84; 95%CI:0.76,0.93) compared with inactivity. The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI (RR:0.87; 95%CI:0.78,0.96). Neither moderate-to-vigorous activity during other periods of life nor light intensity activity during any period of life was related to breast cancer risk, and associations did not vary by tumor characteristics. A high level of recent, but not historical, physical activity of moderate-to-vigorous intensity is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. More precise recall of recent physical activity than activity in the distant past is one possible explanation for our findings

  5. Cognitive Load Theory and the Use of Worked Examples as an Instructional Strategy in Physics for Distance Learners: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Guan SAW

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the cognitive load theory to explore the use of worked examples to teach a selected topic in a higher level undergraduate physics course for distance learners at the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia. With a break of several years from receiving formal education and having only minimum science background, distance learners need an appropriate instructional strategy for courses that require complex conceptualization and mathematical manipulations. As the working memory is limited, distance learners need to acquire domain specific knowledge in stages to lessen cognitive load. This article charts a learning task with a lower cognitive load to teach Fermi-Dirac distribution and demonstrates the use of sequential worked examples. Content taught in stages using worked examples can be presented as a form of didactic conversation to reduce transactional distance. This instructional strategy can be applied to similar challenging topics in other well-structured domains in a distance learning environment.

  6. The intensity of physical activity influences bone mineral accrual in childhood: the childhood health, activity and motor performance school (the CHAMPS) study, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Malene; Mølgaard, Christian; Husby, Steffen; Schou, Anders J; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Chr; Holst, René; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-03-02

    Studies indicate genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to optimal bone development. In particular, the intensity level of physical activity may have an impact on bone health. This study aims to assess the relationship between physical activity at different intensities and Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Area (BA) accretion. This longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline and after two years follows up. BMC, BMD, and BA were measured. The total body less head (TBLH) values were used. Physical activity (PA) was recorded by accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT3X). Percentages of different PA intensity levels were calculated and log odds of two intensity levels of activity relative to the third level were calculated. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the categories of physical activity and bone traits. Of 800 invited children, 742 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow up. Complete datasets were obtained in 602/742 (81%) children. Mean (range) of age was 11.5 years (9.7-13.9). PA at different intensity levels was for boys and girls respectively, sedentary 62% and 64%, low 29% for both genders and moderate to high 9% and 7% of the total time. Mean (range) BMC, BMD, and BA was 1179 g (563-2326), 0.84 g/cm2 (0.64-1.15) and 1393 cm2 (851-2164), respectively. Valid accelerometer data were obtained for a mean of 6.1 days, 13 hours per day. There 7was a positive relationship between the log odds of moderate to high-level PA versus low level activity and BMC, BMD and BA. Children with an increased proportion of time in moderate to high-level activity as opposed to sedentary and low-level activity achieved positive effects on BMC, BMD and BA.

  7. New photon science and extreme field physics: volumetric interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with over-dense targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegelich, Bjorn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-24

    The constantly improving capabilities of ultra-high power lasers are enabling interactions of matter with ever extremer fields. As both the on target intensity and the laser contrast are increasing, new physics regimes are becoming accessible and new effects materialize, which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transparent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a{sub 0} > 10), ultra high contrast laser pulse with a solid density, nanometer target. Here, a still overdense target is turned transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons, increasing the skin depth beyond the target thickness and thus enabling volumetric interaction of the laser with the entire target instead of only a small interaction region at the critical density surface. This increases the energy coupling, enabling a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration, highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime, the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. In this talk we will show the theoretical framework for this regime, explored by multi-D, high resolution and high density PIC simulations as well as analytic theory and present measurements and experimental demonstrations of direct relativistic optics, relativistic HHG, electron acceleration, and BOA ion acceleration in the transparent overdense regime. These effects can in turn be used in a host of applications including laser pulse shaping, ICF diagnostics, coherent x-ray sources, and ion sources for fast ignition (IFI), homeland security applications and medical therapy. This host of applications already makes transparent-overdense regime one of general interest, a situation reinforced by the fact that the TOR target undergoes an extremely wide HEDP parameter space during interaction ranging from WDM conditions

  8. Comparisons of intensity-duration patterns of physical activity in the US, Jamaica and 3 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Lara R; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Shoham, David; Kroff, Jacolene; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf; Luke, Amy

    2014-08-27

    This difference in how populations living in low-, middle or upper-income countries accumulate daily PA, i.e. patterns and intensity, is an important part in addressing the global PA movement. We sought to characterize objective PA in 2,500 participants spanning the epidemiologic transition. The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) is a longitudinal study, in 5 countries. METS seeks to define the association between physical activity (PA), obesity and CVD risk in populations of African origin: Ghana (GH), South Africa (SA), Seychelles (SEY), Jamaica (JA) and the US (suburban Chicago). Baseline measurements of objective PA, SES, anthropometrics and body composition, were completed on 2,500 men and women, aged 25-45 years. Moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA, min/d) on week and weekend days was explored ecologically, by adiposity status and manual labor. Among the men, obesity prevalence reflected the level of economic transition and was lowest in GH (1.7%) and SA (4.8%) and highest in the US (41%). SA (55%) and US (65%) women had the highest levels of obesity, compared to only 16% in GH. More men and women in developing countries engaged in manual labor and this was reflected by an almost doubling of measured MPVA among the men in GH (45 min/d) and SA (47 min/d) compared to only 28 min/d in the US. Women in GH (25 min/d), SA (21 min/d), JA (20 min/d) and SEY (20 min/d) accumulated significantly more MPVA than women in the US (14 min/d), yet this difference was not reflected by differences in BMI between SA, JA, SEY and US. Moderate PA constituted the bulk of the PA, with no study populations except SA men accumulating > 5 min/d of vigorous PA. Among the women, no sites accumulated >2 min/d of vigorous PA. Overweight/obese men were 22% less likely to engage in manual occupations. While there is some association for PA with obesity, this relationship is inconsistent across the epidemiologic transition and suggests that PA policy recommendations should be

  9. The theory of dissipative structures of the kinetic system for defects of nonlinear physical system 'metal+loading+irradiation'. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.A.; Borikov, T.L.; Kryzhanovskaya, T.V.; Chernezhenko, S.A.; Rusov, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetic system for defects of physical nonlinear system 'metal + load + irradiation' is specified [1, 2, 3]. Developing the approaches offered in [4], where distinctions of mechanisms of radiating creep and areas of their applicability are formalized (depending on external parameters) for fuel and constructional metals, division of kinetic systems for defects of constructional and fuel metals is carrying out. Thus the accent on the autocatalytic features of kinetic system for defects of reactor fuel metals, resulting from the exoenergic autocatalytic character of nuclear fission reactions being the main point defect source is done. In this part of the article the basic attention is given to the kinetic of sink drains for point defects. For kinetic systems of sinks-sources new approaches for the task of boundary conditions are offered. The possible structure of the computer program modelling kinetic system for defects of nonlinear physical system 'metal + load + irradiation' is considered

  10. The effects of laboratory inquire-based experiments and computer simulations on high school students‘ performance and cognitive load in physics teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Branka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to examine the extent to which different teaching instructions focused on the application of laboratory inquire-based experiments (LIBEs and interactive computer based simulations (ICBSs improved understanding of physical contents in high school students, compared to traditional teaching approach. Additionally, the study examined how the applied instructions influenced students’ assessment of invested cognitive load. A convenience sample of this research included 187 high school students. A multiple-choice test of knowledge was used as a measuring instrument for the students’ performance. Each task in the test was followed by the five-point Likert-type scale for the evaluation of invested cognitive load. In addition to descriptive statistics, determination of significant differences in performance and cognitive load as well as the calculation of instructional efficiency of applied instructional design, computed one-factor analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test. The findings indicate that teaching instructions based on the use of LIBEs and ICBSs equally contribute to an increase in students’ performance and the reduction of cognitive load unlike traditional teaching of Physics. The results obtained by the students from the LIBEs and ICBSs groups for calculated instructional efficiency suggest that the applied teaching strategies represent effective teaching instructions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010: The Quality of Education System in Serbia from European Perspective

  11. An intervention to reduce sitting and increase light-intensity physical activity at work: Design and rationale of the 'Stand & Move at Work' group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Mullane, Sarah L; Toledo, Meynard J; Rydell, Sarah A; Gaesser, Glenn A; Crespo, Noe C; Hannan, Peter; Feltes, Linda; Vuong, Brenna; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    American workers spend 70-80% of their time at work being sedentary. Traditional approaches to increase moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be perceived to be harmful to productivity. Approaches that target reductions in sedentary behavior and/or increases in standing or light-intensity physical activity [LPA] may not interfere with productivity and may be more feasible to achieve through small changes accumulated throughout the workday METHODS/DESIGN: This group randomized trial (i.e., cluster randomized trial) will test the relative efficacy of two sedentary behavior focused interventions in 24 worksites across two states (N=720 workers). The MOVE+ intervention is a multilevel individual, social, environmental, and organizational intervention targeting increases in light-intensity physical activity in the workplace. The STAND+ intervention is the MOVE+ intervention with the addition of the installation and use of sit-stand workstations to reduce sedentary behavior and enhance light-intensity physical activity opportunities. Our primary outcome will be objectively-measured changes in sedentary behavior and light-intensity physical activity over 12months, with additional process measures at 3months and longer-term sustainability outcomes at 24months. Our secondary outcomes will be a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (comprised of fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure), workplace productivity, and job satisfaction DISCUSSION: This study will determine the efficacy of a multi-level workplace intervention (including the use of a sit-stand workstation) to reduce sedentary behavior and increase LPA and concomitant impact on cardiometabolic health, workplace productivity, and satisfaction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02566317 (date of registration: 10/1/2015). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot project - demonstration of capabilities and benefits of bridge load rating through physical testing : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project demonstrated the capabilities for load testing bridges in Iowa, developed and presented a webinar to local and state engineers, and produced a spreadsheet and benefit evaluation matrix that others can use to preliminarily assess where br...

  13. Alumina physically loaded by thiosemicarbazide for selective preconcentration of mercury(II) ion from natural water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Salwa A.

    2008-01-01

    The multifunctional ligand, thiosemicarbazide, was physically loaded on neutral alumina. The produced alumina-modified solid phase (SP) extractor named, alumina-modified thiosemicarbazide (AM-TSC), experienced high thermal and medium stability. This new phase was identified based on surface coverage determination by thermal desorption method to be 0.437 ± 0.1 mmol g -1 . The selectivity of AM-TSC phase towards the uptake of different nine metal ions was checked using simple, fast and direct batch equilibration technique. AM-TSC was found to have the highest capacity in selective extraction of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions all over the range of pH used (1.0-7.0), compared to the other eight tested metal ions. So, Hg(II) uptake was 1.82 mmol g -1 (distribution coefficient log K d = 5.658) at pH 1.0 or 2.0 and 1.78, 1.73, 1.48, 1.28 and 1.28 mmol g -1 (log K d = 4.607, 4.265, 3.634, 3.372 and 3.372), at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0, respectively. On the other hand, the metal ions Ca(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) showed low uptake values in range 0.009-0.720 mmol g -1 (log K d < 3.0) at their optimum pH values. A mechanism was suggested to explain the unique uptake of Hg(II) ions based on their binding as neutral and chloroanionic species predominate at pH values ≤3.0 of a medium rich in chloride ions. Application of the new phase for the preconcentration of ultratrace amounts of Hg(II) ions spiked natural water samples: doubly distilled water (DDW), drinking tap water (DTW) and Nile river water (NRW) using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) was studied. The high recovery values obtained using AM-TSC (98.5 ± 0.5, 98.0 ± 0.5 and 103.0 ± 1.0) for DDW, DTW and NRW samples, respectively based on excellent enrichment factor 1000, along with a good precision (R.S.D.% 0.51-0.97%, n 3) demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the new modified alumina sorbent for preconcentrating ultratrace amounts of Hg(II) with no

  14. The greatest risk for low-back pain among newly educated female health care workers; body weight or physical work load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP represents a major socioeconomic burden for the Western societies. Both life-style and work-related factors may cause low back pain. Prospective cohort studies assessing risk factors among individuals without prior history of low back pain are lacking. This aim of this study was to determine risk factors for developing low back pain (LBP among health care workers. Methods Prospective cohort study with 2,235 newly educated female health care workers without prior history of LBP. Risk factors and incidence of LBP were assessed at one and two years after graduation. Results Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and psychosocial factors showed that workers with high physical work load had higher risk for developing LBP than workers with low physical work load (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8. In contrast, workers with high BMI were not at a higher risk for developing LBP than workers with a normal BMI. Conclusion Preventive initiatives for LBP among health care workers ought to focus on reducing high physical work loads rather than lowering excessive body weight.

  15. P3: An installation for high-energy density plasma physics and ultra-high intensity laser–matter interaction at ELI-Beamlines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, Stefan A.; Bechet, Sabrina; Borneis, S.; Brabec, Lukáš; Bučka, Martin; Chacon-Golcher, Edwin; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; De Marco, Massimo; Fajstavr, Antonín; Falk, Kateřina; Garcia, E.-R.; Grosz, Jakub; Gu, Yanjun; Hernandez Martin, Juan C.; Holec, M.; Janečka, Pavel; Jantač, Martin; Jirka, Martin; Kadlecová, Hedvika; Khikhlukha, Danila; Klimo, Ondřej; Korn, Georg; Kramer, Daniel; Batheja, Deepak Kumar; Laštovička, Tomáš; Lutoslawski, P.; Morejon, L.; Olšovcová, Veronika; Rajdl, Marek; Renner, Oldřich; Rus, Bedřich; Singh, Sushil K.; Šmíd, Michal; Sokol, Martin; Versaci, Roberto; Vrána, Roman; Vranic, M.; Vyskočil, Jiří; Wolf, Adam; Yu, Q.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2017), s. 149-176 E-ISSN 2468-080X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk LM2015065; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000449 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162; OP VVV - HiFi(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000449 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-energy-density- physics * ultra-high-intensity * warm dense matter * laboratory astrophysics * high repetition rate lasers * plasma optics * inertial confinement fusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics )

  16. Effects of one versus two bouts of moderate intensity physical activity on selective attention during a school morning in Dutch primary schoolchildren: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity is positively related to several aspects of cognitive functioning in children, among which is selective attention. To date, no information is available on the optimal frequency of physical activity on cognitive functioning in children. The current study examined the acute effects of one and two bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity on children's selective attention. Randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN97975679). Thirty boys and twenty-six girls, aged 10-13 years, were randomly assigned to three conditions: (A) sitting all morning working on simulated school tasks; (B) one 20-min physical activity bout after 90min; and (C) two 20-min physical activity bouts, i.e. at the start and after 90min. Selective attention was assessed at five time points during the morning (i.e. at baseline and after 20, 110, 130 and 220min), using the 'Sky Search' subtest of the 'Test of Selective Attention in Children'. We used GEE analysis to examine differences in Sky Search scores between the three experimental conditions, adjusting for school, baseline scores, self-reported screen time and time spent in sports. Children who performed two 20-min bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity had significantly better Sky Search scores compared to children who performed one physical activity bout or remained seated the whole morning (B=-0.26; 95% CI=[-0.52; -0.00]). Our findings support the importance of repeated physical activity during the school day for beneficial effects on selective attention in children. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise dependence score in patients with longstanding eating disorders and controls: the importance of affect regulation and physical activity intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Oyvind; Hoffart, Asle; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations among exercise dependence score, amount of physical activity and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in patients with longstanding ED and non-clinical controls. Adult female inpatients (n = 59) and 53 age-matched controls participated in this cross sectional study. Assessments included the eating disorders examination, eating disorders inventory, exercise dependence scale, reasons for exercise inventory, and MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Positive associations were found among vigorous, not moderate, physical activity, exercise dependence score and ED symptoms in patients. In the controls, ED symptoms were negatively associated with vigorous physical activity and not correlated with exercise dependence score. Exercise for negative affect regulation, not weight/appearance, and amount of vigorous physical activity were explanatory variables for exercise dependence score in both groups. The positive associations among exercise dependence score, vigorous physical activity and ED symptoms need proper attention in the treatment of longstanding ED. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Physical state of poorly water soluble therapeutic molecules loaded into SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica carriers: a case study with itraconazole and ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellaerts, Randy; Jammaer, Jasper A G; Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Chen, Hong; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick; Van den Mooter, Guy; Martens, Johan A

    2008-08-19

    The ordered mesoporous silica material SBA-15 was loaded with the model drugs itraconazole and ibuprofen using three different procedures: (i) adsorption from solution, (ii) incipient wetness impregnation, and (iii) heating of a mixture of drug and SBA-15 powder. The location of the drug molecules in the SBA-15 particles and molecular interactions were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, TGA, DSC, DRS UV-vis, and XPS. The in vitro release of hydrophobic model drugs was evaluated in an aqueous environment simulating gastric fluid. The effectiveness of the loading method was found to be strongly compound dependent. Incipient wetness impregnation using a concentrated itraconazole solution in dichloromethane followed by solvent evaporation was most efficient for dispersing itraconazole in SBA-15. The itraconazole molecules were located on the mesopore walls and inside micropores of the mesopore walls. When SBA-15 was loaded by slurrying it in a diluted itraconazole solution from which the solvent was evaporated, the itraconazole molecules ended up in the mesopores that they plugged locally. At a loading of 30 wt %, itraconazole exhibited intermolecular interactions inside the mesopores revealed by UV spectroscopy and endothermic events traced with DSC. The physical mixing of itraconazole and SBA-15 powder followed by heating above the itraconazole melting temperature resulted in formulations in which glassy itraconazole particles were deposited externally on the SBA-15 particles. Loading with ibuprofen was successful with each of the three loading procedures. Ibuprofen preferably is positioned inside the micropores. In vitro release experiments showed fast release kinetics provided the drug molecules were evenly deposited over the mesoporous surface.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampshoff, Caroline S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Twisk, Jos W R; Schep, Goof; Nijziel, Marten R; van Mechelen, Willem; Buffart, Laurien M

    2015-10-29

    International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) resistance and endurance exercise program compared with a wait list control (WLC) group on physical fitness and fatigue in a mixed group of cancer survivors who completed primary cancer treatment, including chemotherapy. Overall, 277 cancer survivors were randomized to 12 weeks of HI exercise (n = 91), LMI exercise (n = 95), or WLC (n = 91). Both interventions were identical with respect to exercise type, duration and frequency, and only differed in intensity. Measurements were performed at baseline (4-6 weeks after primary treatment) and post-intervention. The primary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness (peakVO2), muscle strength (grip strength and 30-second chair-stand test), and self-reported fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory; MFI). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood, and sleep disturbances. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed to estimate intervention effects using an intention-to-treat principle. In the HI and LMI groups, 74 % and 70 % of the participants attended more than 80 % of the prescribed exercise sessions, respectively (P = 0.53). HI (β = 2.2; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.1) and LMI (β = 1.3; 95 % CI, 0.3-2.3) exercise showed significantly larger improvements in peakVO2 compared to WLC. Improvements in peakVO2 were larger for HI than LMI exercise (β = 0.9; 95 % CI, -0.1 to 1.9), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). No intervention effects were found for grip strength and the 30-second chair-stand test. HI and LMI exercise significantly reduced general and physical fatigue and reduced activity

  20. Special aspects of hemo-dynamic and reaction of erythrocytes in blood to standard physical load of different qualification female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Popel’

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the aspects of organism’s cardio-hemo-dynamic and blood erythrocytes reaction of female volleyball players to standard physical load. Material: with functional methods we studied cardio-hemo-dynamic and with the help of scanning electronic microscopy - erythrocytes’ structure in 18 female volleyball players of different qualification (age - 22.0±0.60 years. Results: it was found that maximal physical load causes substantial changes in cardio-hemo-dynamic, which depend on female volleyball players’ qualification. These changes have intrinsic to them type of blood circulation system reacting, which is manifested in the following: appropriate changes of some indicators; natural changes of periphery blood erythrocytes. In the article possible mechanisms of realization of female volleyball players’ organism’s typological features, depending on blood circulation type and erythrocytes’ conformation, are discussed. Conclusions: In relaxed state all female volleyball players have non-uniform cardio-hemo-dynamic of blood circulation. With hyper-dynamic blood circulation type, higher indicators of strike and minute blood volume were observed. With hypo-kinetic blood circulation type the opposite picture was observed: indicators of strike and minute blood volume, heart index, load on cardio-vascular system in different periods of day were low.

  1. Subjective perceptions, symptom intensity and performance: a comparison of two independent studies, both changing similarly the pollution load in an office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Lagercrantz, Love Per; Witterseh, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    , intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms and performance of office work. Removing the pollution source improved the perceived air quality, decreased the perceived dryness of air and the severity of headaches, and increased typing performance. These effects were observed separately in each experiment...

  2. The role of cumulative physical work load in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis – a case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolmaali Nasreddin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine the dose-response relationship between cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting as well as to lifting and carrying of loads and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA in a population-based case-control study. Methods In five orthopedic clinics and five practices we recruited 295 male patients aged 25 to 70 with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis associated with chronic complaints. A total of 327 male control subjects were recruited. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. To calculate cumulative exposure, the self-reported duration of kneeling and squatting as well as the duration of lifting and carrying of loads were summed up over the entire working life. Results The results of our study support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. For a cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting > 10.800 hours, the risk of having radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis as measured by the odds ratio (adjusted for age, region, weight, jogging/athletics, and lifting or carrying of loads is 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–5.0 compared to unexposed subjects. Lifting and carrying of loads is significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis independent of kneeling or similar activities. Conclusion As the knee osteoarthritis risk is strongly elevated in occupations that involve both kneeling/squatting and heavy lifting/carrying, preventive efforts should particularly focus on these "high-risk occupations".

  3. Does Physical Loading Affect The Speed and Accuracy of Tactical Decision-Making in Elite Junior Soccer Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Frýbort, Jakub Kokštejn, Martin Musálek, Vladimír Süss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A soccer player’s capability to control and manage his behaviour in a game situation is a prerequisite, reflecting not only swift and accurate tactical decision-making, but also prompt implementation of a motor task during intermittent exercise conditions. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between varying exercise intensity and the visual-motor response time and the accuracy of motor response in an offensive game situation in soccer. The participants (n = 42 were male, semi-professional, soccer players (M age 18.0 ± 0.9 years and trained five times a week. Each player performed four different modes of exercise intensity on the treadmill (motor inactivity, aerobic, intermittent and anaerobic activity. After the end of each exercise, visual-motor response time and accuracy of motor response were assessed. Players’ motion was captured by digital video camera. ANOVA indicated no significant difference (p = 0.090 in the accuracy of motor response between the four exercise intensity modes. Practical significance (Z-test = 0.31 was found in visual-motor response time between exercise with dominant involvement of aerobic metabolism, and intense intermittent exercise. A medium size effect (Z-test = 0.34 was also found in visual-motor response time between exercise with dominant involvement of aerobic metabolism and exercise with dominant involvement of anaerobic metabolism, which was confirmed by ANOVA (897.02 ± 57.46 vs. 940.95 ± 71.14; p = 0.002. The results showed that different modes of exercise intensity do not adversely affect the accuracy of motor responses; however, high-intensity exercise has a negative effect on visual-motor response time in comparison to moderate intensity exercise.

  4. Research on deeply purifying effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy to remove uranium by ion exchange. Pt.2: Elution uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the intense fractionation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqiang; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    Developing macroporous resin for purifying uranium effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy is presented. The Intense Fractionation Process is employed to elute uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the eluent of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. The result is indicated that the uranium concentration in the rich elutriant is greatly increased, and the rich liquor is only one bed column volume, uranium concentration in the elutriant is increased two times which concentration is 10.1 g/L. The eluent is saved about 50% compared with the conventional fixed bed elution operation. And also the acidity in the rich elutriant is of benefit to the later precipitation process in uranium recovery

  5. An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity. The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women’s well-being.

  6. An Experience Sampling Study of Physical Activity and Positive Affect: Investigating the Role of Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity Across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S; Sweet, Shane N

    2013-04-18

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE)] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity). The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women's well-being.

  7. Selection of appropriate Chinese terms to represent intensity and types of physical activity terms for use in the Taiwan version of IPAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Jwo, Clark J C; Yao, Kaiping Grace; Chiang, Li-Chi; Huang, Lian-Hua

    2008-12-01

    In order to analyze the health risks of insufficient activity by international comparisons, the first author obtained the permission to translate and develop a Taiwan version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The objective was to determine culturally sensitive Chinese translations for the terms "moderate", "vigorous" and "physical activity" as well as to identify representative types of physical activity for Taiwanese. This study used discussions by 12 expert focus groups, 6 expert audits, a scale survey, field study, Cognitive Aspect Survey Methodology (CASM), dual independent translation and back-translation to establish a consensus on physical activity-related concepts, terminologies and types that define the intensity of common activities of Taiwanese by integrating both local and foreign studies. The Chinese terms "fei li", "zhong deng fei li" and "shen ti huo dong", respectively, were identified as suitable and adequate translations for the English terms "vigorous", "moderate" and "physical activity". The common Taiwanese activities were accurately categorized and listed in questionnaires, forming culturally sensitive scales. Taiwan versions of IPAQ's self-administered long version (SL), self-administered short version (SS), and telephone interview short version (TS) were developed. Their content validity indices were .992, .994, and .980, as well as .994, .992, and .994 for language equivalence and meaning similarity between the English and Chinese versions of the IPAQ-LS, IPAQ-SS, and IPAQ-TS, respectively. Consistency values for the English and Chinese versions in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients were .945, .704, and .894, respectively. The IPAQ-Taiwan is not only a sensitive and precise tool, but also shows the effectiveness of the methodology (CASM) used in tool development. Subjects who did not regularly exercise and had an education less than a junior high school level underestimated the moderate-intensity

  8. Experimental studies of particle acceleration with ultra-intense lasers - Applications to nuclear physics experiments involving laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaisir, C.

    2010-11-01

    For the last ten years, the Ultra High Intensity Lasers offer the opportunity to produce accelerated particle beams which contain more than 10 12 electrons, protons accelerated into a few ps. We have simulated and developed some diagnostics based on nuclear activation to characterize both the angular and the energy distributions of the particle beams produced with intense lasers. The characterization methods which are presented are illustrated by means of results obtained in different experiments. We would use the particle beams produced to excite nuclear state in a plasma environment. It can modify intrinsic characteristics of the nuclei such as the half-life of some isomeric states. To prepare this kind of experiments, we have measured the nuclear reaction cross section (gamma,n) to produce the isomeric state of the 84 Rb, which has an excitation energy of 463 keV, with the electron accelerator ELSA of CEA/DIF in Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). (author)

  9. Intense Plasma Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz Probe Science with Ultrafast Lasers for Solid State Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...Summary 2 1. Introduction 2. Two colour excitation of intense terahertz radiation in MOFs 2 3. Terahertz optical nonlinearities in...of 2- colour THz generation and propagation in waveguides that we have developed to evaluate fibre designs before fabrication is only one

  10. The effect of exercise intensity and excess postexercise oxygen consumption on postprandial blood lipids in physically inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Laurel A; Papadakis, Zacharias; Rogers, Katie M; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Taylor, J Kyle; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-09-01

    Reductions in postprandial lipemia have been observed following aerobic exercise of sufficient energy expenditure. Increased excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been documented when comparing high- versus low-intensity exercise. The contribution of EPOC energy expenditure to alterations in postprandial lipemia has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia in healthy, sedentary, overweight and obese men (age, 43 ± 10 years; peak oxygen consumption, 31.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; body mass index, 31.8 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 ) and to determine the contribution of EPOC to reductions in postprandial lipemia. Participants completed 4 conditions: nonexercise control, low-intensity exercise at 40%-50% oxygen uptake reserve (LI), high-intensity exercise at 70%-80% oxygen uptake reserve (HI), and HI plus EPOC re-feeding (HI+EERM), where the difference in EPOC energy expenditure between LI and HI was re-fed in the form of a sports nutrition bar (Premier Nutrition Corp., Emeryville, Calif., USA). Two hours following exercise participants ingested a high-fat (1010 kcals, 99 g sat fat) test meal. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, before the test meal, and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Triglyceride incremental area under the curve was significantly reduced following LI, HI, and HI+EERM when compared with nonexercise control (p exercise conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusions, prior LI and HI exercise equally attenuated postprandial triglyceride responses to the test meal. The extra energy expended during EPOC does not contribute significantly to exercise energy expenditure or to reductions in postprandial lipemia in overweight men.

  11. Start-up of intensive anaerobic wastewater methanization processes: impact of hydrodynamic conditions and of control strategy of organic load increase on biofilm formation and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresson, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the understanding of mechanisms of anaerobic film development and maturation, in order to obtain a better control of their formation and this to decrease the duration of the bioreactor start-up phase. More precisely, the author analysed the impact of hydrodynamic parameters and of load rise strategy on biofilm characteristics (thickness, density, biodiversity) and on its activity (anaerobic breathing, decontamination kinetics) during its development. Thus, after a recall of the anaerobic digestion principle, the author presents processes, methods and techniques used during this research, reports and discusses the obtained results

  12. P3: An installation for high-energy density plasma physics and ultra-high intensity laser–matter interaction at ELI-Beamlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Weber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ELI-Beamlines (ELI-BL, one of the three pillars of the Extreme Light Infrastructure endeavour, will be in a unique position to perform research in high-energy-density-physics (HEDP, plasma physics and ultra-high intensity (UHI (>1022W/cm2 laser–plasma interaction. Recently the need for HED laboratory physics was identified and the P3 (plasma physics platform installation under construction in ELI-BL will be an answer. The ELI-BL 10 PW laser makes possible fundamental research topics from high-field physics to new extreme states of matter such as radiation-dominated ones, high-pressure quantum ones, warm dense matter (WDM and ultra-relativistic plasmas. HEDP is of fundamental importance for research in the field of laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF. Reaching such extreme states of matter now and in the future will depend on the use of plasma optics for amplifying and focusing laser pulses. This article will present the relevant technological infrastructure being built in ELI-BL for HEDP and UHI, and gives a brief overview of some research under way in the field of UHI, laboratory astrophysics, ICF, WDM, and plasma optics.

  13. Extra Physiotherapy in Critical Care (EPICC) Trial Protocol: a randomised controlled trial of intensive versus standard physical rehabilitation therapy in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kirsty; Wright, Stephen E; Watson, Gillian; Baker, Catherine; Stafford, Victoria; Wade, Clare; Chadwick, Thomas J; Mansfield, Leigh; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Shen, Jing; Deverill, Mark; Bonner, Stephen; Hugill, Keith; Howard, Philip; Henderson, Andrea; Roy, Alistair; Furneval, Julie; Baudouin, Simon V

    2015-05-25

    Patients discharged from Critical Care suffer from excessive longer term morbidity and mortality. Physical and mental health measures of quality of life show a marked and immediate fall after admission to Critical Care with some recovery over time. However, physical function is still significantly reduced at 6 months. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guideline on rehabilitation after critical illness, identified the need for high-quality randomised controlled trials to determine the most effective rehabilitation strategy for critically ill patients at risk of critical illness-associated physical morbidity. In response to this, we will conduct a randomised controlled trial, comparing physiotherapy aimed at early and intensive patient mobilisation with routine care. We hypothesise that this intervention will improve physical outcomes and the mental health and functional well-being of survivors of critical illness. 308 adult patients who have received more than 48 h of non-invasive or invasive ventilation in Critical Care will be recruited to a patient-randomised, parallel group, controlled trial, comparing two intensities of physiotherapy. Participants will be randomised to receive either standard or intensive physiotherapy for the duration of their Critical Care admission. Outcomes will be recorded on Critical Care discharge, at 3 and 6 months following initial recruitment to the study. The primary outcome measure is physical health at 6 months, as measured by the SF-36 Physical Component Summary. Secondary outcomes include assessment of mental health, activities of daily living, delirium and ventilator-free days. We will also include a health economic analysis. The trial has ethical approval from Newcastle and North Tyneside 2 Research Ethics Committee (11/NE/0206). There is a Trial Oversight Committee including an independent chair. The results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and

  14. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mazurek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME. Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n=24 or CME; n=24 of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p<0.001, similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME, despite body mass not changing significantly (p=0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME. A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p=0.018 and p=0.018; a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p<0.001, but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p=0.022. Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  15. Self-adaptation in Software-intensive Cyber-physical Systems: From System Goals to Architecture Configurations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerostathopoulos, I.; Bureš, Tomáš; Hnětynka, P.; Keznikl, Jaroslav; Kit, M.; Plášil, F.; Plouzeau, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, December (2016), s. 378-397 ISSN 0164-1212 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LD15051 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : cyber–physical systems * self-adaptivity * dependability Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2016

  16. Relation between lean body mass and thyroid volume in competition rowers before and during intensive physical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Lean body mass is a better determinant of thyroid size than body weight as demonstrated in a previous crosssectional study. We now evaluated if intra-individual changes in body composition and especially changes in lean body mass, due to physical training, could give rise to changes in thyroid

  17. Effect of Wheelchair Running on Recovery of Blood Lactate and Physical Performance after High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise – An Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive sprint sport players perform high intensity exercise only for a small percentage of a total game and such periods are often instrumental in determining the eventual outcome. Recovery is a key factor for performance, and constant lack of recovery or insufficient recovery turns into overtraining which is detrimental in achieving peak performance. The purpose was to find out the effect of wheelchair running on the physical performance recovery after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Method: Ten sportsmen having the age range from 20 to 29, VO2max Ranges from 60.51 to 64.29 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. After filling pre-participation questionnaire and 30-min of supine rest, Blood lactate and the field tests for the measurement of static balance, power, speed and agility were applied. The subjects were made to run in the treadmill and to increase the intensity to reach the Target Heart Rate (THR. After 1-min the subjects were given rest for 15-s and after that they started exercise again and thus the subjects completed several bouts of such exercises until exhaustion followed by either Passive rest or wheelchair running for the duration of 10 minutes. Parameters were measures after completed the exercise bout and after the recovery. Results: After the recovery in experimental group significant improvement found only in blood lactate (p<0.01 and no significant changes found in other parameters while in control group no significant changes found in all parameters. There was no significant difference found in all the parameters including blood lactate between the groups. Conclusion: Both wheelchair running and passive recovery are same in the efficiency of blood lactate removal and restoration of physical performance following intense intermittent exercise.

  18. INTENSITY OF THE DYNAMICS OF PHYSICAL PREPAREDNESS IN THE PROCESS OF STUDENTS GROWING UP WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Revenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation is the scientific substantiation forthe implementation of a differentiated approach to the organization of physical education on the basis of accounting students individually-typological features of the age.Methods. Motor abilities of students are studied by measuring: force (backbone dynamometry, strength endurance (pulling up on the bar, speed-strength abilities (long jump from their seats, as well as high-speed capacity (running at 30, 60 or 100 meters, depending on the age, aerobic endurance (running at 1000 or 3000 m, depending on age. The dynamics of the integrated physical preparedness (DIPP of each student is estimated by calculating the arithmetic mean value of the growth rate of the development of motor abilities listed above (the results of 5 tests. Evaluation of general intelligence (GI of schoolchildren in 8, 10 and 11 classes, students of 1 – 3 courses carried out by the test of R. Amthauer adapted by L. A. Yasyukova [13], and the 6 classes pupils – through the intellectual test (GIT [1].Results. It was experimentally established that students of 6, 8, 10, 11 grades and 1 – 3 courses at higher intelligence level have a low dynamics of physical fitness. On the contrary, students with a lower level of intelligence revealed a high dynamics of physical fitness. Marked discrepancies in the dynamics of the development of mental and motor areas of maturing personality are interpreted as individual-typological features of age-related development. Based on these facts it is concluded that the organization of physical education on the basis of program-regulatory approach with common unified requirements involved, will not allow to create conditions for highquality physical education of the younger generation and the formation of a sustainable motivation for self-employment by physical exercises.Scientific novelty. Scientific evidence of sustained differences in the dynamics of the

  19. Post-graduated course 'Basic aspects of medical physics in nuclear medicine': theoretical/practical intensive version: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Adlin; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Torres, Leonel; Fraxedas, Roberto; Varela, Consuelo; Freixas, Vivian.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Using national and international recommendation about human resource in nuclear medicine, a group of experts organized a national course for the education and training of physicist who works in Cuban hospital, adapted to national condition and practice of nuclear medicine. The program was approved for National Authorities in Nuclear Security and University School in Medicine and content three intensive theoretic and practical courses (15 days of full time duration each), complemented with 4 months full time in Nuclear Medicine Service monitored by accredited expert and 2 months at distance with practical task. The theoretical/practical intensive courses have final evaluation: combining practical exercise and write final test. When all docent activities finish the students should pass a final evaluation by a testing board composed for (at least) three accredited experts. The first theoretical/practical course included 19 physicists who work in hospital, the second 17 and the third 16 students. With 100 point of maximum score and 60 point minimum to pass, the partial final tests included: true or false choice (with 10 aspects to verify, 1 point/correct answer) and questions to write developed answer. The average result was 83.02 points/ students (range 65-100 points). The students evaluated satisfactory the quality of different courses (in anonymous poll), reporting like very good; the quality of conferences, excellent; the usefulness of different charters, very good; the support bibliography, and recommended the repetition of this kind of education and training in order to warranty the human resource, in the same way and content, and included others item in the future. Conclusion: the theoretical/practice intensive courses of this post-graduated course were successful and satisfied the objective of education and training of medical physicist in nuclear medicine. (author)

  20. Physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of pain intensity, pain disability, and the number of pain locations in depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Denise J C; Naarding, Paul; Collard, Rose M; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Late-life depression and pain more often co-occur than can be explained by chance. Determinants of pain in late-life depression are unknown, even though knowledge on possible determinants of pain in depression is important for clinical practice. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were 1) to describe pain characteristics of depressed older adults and a nondepressed comparison group, and 2) to explore physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of acute and chronic pain intensity, disability, and multisite pain in depressed older adults. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons cohort, consisting of 378 depressed persons, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria, and 132 nondepressed persons aged 60 years and older, were used in a cross-sectional design. Pain characteristics were measured by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the contribution of physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants to outcomes pain intensity, disability, and the number of pain locations. Depressed older adults more often reported chronic pain and experienced their pain as more intense and disabling compared to nondepressed older adults. Adjusted for demographic, physical, and lifestyle characteristics, multinomial logistic regression analyses showed increased odds ratios (OR) for depression in acute pain (OR 3.010; P=0.005) and chronic pain (OR 4.544, Presearch could focus on the temporal relationship between anxiety, late-life depression, and pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of consanguineous marriages and degrees of inbreeding on fertility, child mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and genetic load: a cross-sectional study from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Mohd; Kaisar Ahmad, Mir; Azeem Anwar, Malik; Afzal, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to understand the relationship between consanguineous marriages and reproductive outcomes. A total of 999 families were recruited from five Muslim populations of Jammu region. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and inbreeding status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F). Fertility, mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and lethal equivalents were measured using standard methods. The significant differences for gross fertility was found to be higher among inbred groups as compared to the unrelated families (P consanguineous families of all populations in comparison with the non-consanguineous family groups. Moreover, the prenatal and postnatal child mortality rates (i.e., U5MR and U18MR) have presented a persuasive increase with an upsurge in the homozygosity level. The mortality rate was found to be maximum among families with the highest value of coefficient of inbreeding (F). The selection intensity (SI) also showed inflations among families with respect to their increasing inbreeding coefficients. The greater values of lethal equivalents per gamete (LEs/gamete) were observed for autosomal inheritance in comparison with sex-linked inheritance. Our conclusive assessment brings out the deleterious consequence of consanguineous marriages on reproductive outcomes.

  2. Greater Leisure Time Physical Activity Is Associated with Lower Allostatic Load in White, Black, and Mexican American Midlife Women: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Rainisch, Bethany Wexler; Chyu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Allostatic load is a useful construct to understand how social and environmental conditions get under the skin to affect health. To date, few studies have examined health-enhancing lifestyle behaviors and their potential benefits in reducing allostatic load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of leisure time physical activity on level of allostatic load among White, Black, and Mexican American midlife women. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2004 (n = 1,680, women ages 40-59). All analyses were weighted. Negative binomial regression was used to model a summative count measure of allostatic load (M = 2.30). Models were also computed to estimate adjusted predicted allostatic load for given levels of physical activity, and by race/ethnicity for each age category (40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59), controlling for other demographics and medication use. Higher levels of physical activity were associated significantly with lower levels of allostatic load, independent of demographics. Compared with White women ages 40 to 44, all other racial/ethnic-by-age groups had significantly higher allostatic load. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a lower allostatic load. Adjusted prediction models demonstrated associations between greater levels of physical activity and lower allostatic load for all ages and racial/ethnic groups. Our findings suggest physical activity may ameliorate some of the effects of cumulative physiological dysregulation and subsequent disease burden in midlife women. Programs and policies that encourage and promote healthy aging and provide opportunities for a diversity of women to engage in health-enhancing lifestyle practices such as physical activity are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical functional outcome assessment of patients with major burns admitted to a UK Burn Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Determining the discharge outcome of burn patients can be challenging and therefore a validated objective measure of functional independence would assist with this process. We developed the Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score to measure burn patients' functional independence. FAB scores were taken on discharge from ICU (FAB 1) and on discharge from inpatient burn care (FAB 2) in 56 patients meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data to measure the progress of patients' physical functional outcomes and to evaluate the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome. Mean age was 38.6 years and median burn size 35%. Significant improvements were made in the physical functional outcomes between FAB 1 and FAB 2 scores (pburn patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of Hospitalization, Mental Health, and Physical Performance in Burned Patients DOCUMENTS: Protocol , Version Date: June 30, 2016 The UTMB...throughout hospital stay across the US and (Aim 2) outcomes in burn in- patients . Over 4 years, we will enroll 96 patients (24 per site; MP10 n=64 and...to be safe) and during the entire BICU, on ventilator and in- hospital stay in burn individuals. UTMB, UC-Davis and UTSW are enrolling patients . The

  5. Sources of high energy particles obtained with intense lasers for applications in nuclear physics; Sources de particules de hautes energies obtenues avec des lasers intenses pour applications a la physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbaux, M

    2007-12-15

    This experimental study concerns the characterization of the beams of electrons and protons with energies above a few MeV produced in the interaction of an ultra-intense (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser beam with a 10 {mu}m thick solid target. This work was issued in the framework to use these beams in nuclear physics experiments. It was hence necessary to know quantitatively the characteristics of these particle beams. Laser accelerated particle beams have very different characteristics from conventional ones produced in accelerators, especially on account of their transience and intensity as well as their continuous energy distribution. These properties make their characterization complex and led us to develop methods combining measurements with diodes spectrometers, radiochromic films, nuclear activation of chosen materials and Monte-Carlo simulations. These methods have been employed on 2 different facilities but with similar characteristics for the study of the electron beams as a function of the target material. The angular aperture of the electron beam appears to be strongly dependent on the atomic number of the target. An experiment was also carried out to characterize at each shot the proton beam produced with the LULI 100 TW laser facility. This experiment also proved the possibility to induce nuclear reactions in plasma and to measure quantitatively the reaction rate in order to scale an experiment on the perturbation of the nucleus electronic-shells coupling via a strong electromagnetic field due to the laser. (author)

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval training on physical capacities and substrate oxidation rate in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Tringali, G; Caccavale, M; De Micheli, R; Abbruzzese, L; Sartorio, A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O 2 max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O 2 max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37.5 kg m -2 ) participated in this study. Before starting (week 0, W0) and at the end of the weight-management program (week 3, W3), body composition was assessed by an impedancemeter; basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rate were measured during exercise and post-exercise recovery by indirect calorimetry. At W3, body mass (BM) and fat mass (FM) decreased significantly in all groups, the decreases being significantly greater in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups (BM: -8.4 ± 1.5 vs -6.3 ± 1.9 vs -4.9 ± 1.3 kg and FM: -4.2 ± 1.9 vs -2.8 ± 1.2 vs -2.3 ± 1.4 kg, p < 0.05, respectively). V'O 2 peak, expressed in relative values, changed significantly only in the HI and HIIT groups by 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.007 ± 0.004 L kg FFM -1  min -1 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HI and HIIT subgroups exhibited a greater absolute rate of fat oxidation between 50 and 70 % V'O 2 peak at W3. No significant changes were observed at W3 in BMR, energy expenditure during exercise and post-exercise recovery. A 3-week weight-management program induced a greater decrease in BM and FM in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups, and greater increase in V'O 2 peak and fat oxidation rate in the HI and HIIT than in the LI subgroup.

  7. Freeze-thaw processes and intense winter rainfall: The one-two punch for high streambank legacy sediment and nutrient loads from Mid-Atlantic watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, S. P.; Johnson, E. R.; Rowland, R. D.; Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D.

    2017-12-01

    Historic and contemporary anthropogenic soil erosion combined with early-American milldams resulted in large deposits of legacy sediments in the valley bottoms of Piedmont watersheds of the eastern US. Breaching of milldams subsequently yielded highly incised streams with exposed vertical streambanks that are vulnerable to erosion. Streambank erosion is attributed to fluvial scouring, freeze-thaw processes and mass wasting. While streambanks represent a large reservoir of fine sediments and nutrients, there is considerable uncertainty about the contribution of these sources to watershed nonpoint source pollution. Using high-frequency hydrologic, sediment, and turbidity data we show that freeze-thaw events followed by intense winter rainstorms can export unusually high concentrations of suspended sediment and particulate nutrients from watersheds. Data from a 12 ha forested, Piedmont, stream following an intense rain event (54 mm) on February 2016 yielded suspended sediment and particulate nutrient (organic carbon and nitrogen) concentrations and exports that exceeded those from tropical storms Irene, Lee, and Sandy that had much greater rainfall and discharge amounts, but which occurred later in the year. A similar response was also observed with regards to turbidity data for USGS stream monitoring locations at Brandywine Creek (813 km2) and White Clay Creek (153 km2). We hypothesize that much of the sediment export associated with winter storms is likely due to erosion of streambank sediments and was driven by the coupled occurrence of freeze-thaw conditions and intense rainfall events. We propose that freeze-thaw erosion represents an important and underappreciated mechanism in streams that "recharges" the sediment supply, which then is available for flushing by moderate to large storms. Future climate projections indicate increased intensification of storm events and increased variability of winter temperatures. Freeze-thaw cycles coupled with winter rain events

  8. Is environmental setting associated with the intensity and duration of children's physical activity? Findings from the SPEEDY GPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Emma; van Sluijs, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2013-03-01

    Using a sample of English school children, we use accelerometery and global positioning systems to identify whether different intensities of activity (light, moderate, and vigorous) occur in different environments, and whether environments for bouts of moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) vary from those for non-bout MVPA. We find that land uses such as buildings and roads and pavements were generally used for light activity, whilst green environments such as gardens, parks, grassland and farmland appear supportive of vigorous activity. Built land uses such as hard surface play areas were particularly used for activity of short duration. Future work may consider differentiating light activity from moderate and vigorous, and separating bout and non-bout MVPA to better identify environmental supportiveness for activity in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Niaz Akhtar; Abu Bakar Sulong; M.K. Fadzly Radzi; N.F. Ismail; M.R. Raza; Norhamidi Muhamad; Muhammad Azhar Khan

    2017-01-01

    Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers have been used for the developments of many products. Therefore, Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications. The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP)-reinforced composites. Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique. Different fiber loadings of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 wt%treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the treated, untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites. Moreover, the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical, morphological, and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP. However, variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents. The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured. In addition, 40 wt%kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties. By contrast, kenaf/PP composite with 50%fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix. To conclude, 40%kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive, sports, construction, animal bedding, and mass production industries.

  10. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Niaz Akhtar; Abu Bakar Sulong; M.K.Fadzly Radzi; N.F.Ismail; M.R.Raza; Norhamidi Muhamad; Muhammad Azhar Khan

    2016-01-01

    Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products,Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers have been used for the developments of many products.Therefore,Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications.The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP)-reinforced composites.Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique.Different fiber loadings of 10,20,30,40,50 wt% treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared.Xray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the treated,untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites.Moreover,the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical,morphological,and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP.However,variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents.The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured.In addition,40 wt%kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties.By contrast,kenaf/PP composite with 50% fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix.To conclude,40% kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive,sports,construction,animal bedding,and mass production industries.

  11. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Niaz Akhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus fibers have been used for the developments of many products. Therefore, Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications. The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP-reinforced composites. Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique. Different fiber loadings of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 wt% treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were performed on the treated, untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites. Moreover, the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical, morphological, and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP. However, variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents. The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured. In addition, 40 wt% kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties. By contrast, kenaf/PP composite with 50% fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix. To conclude, 40% kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive, sports, construction, animal bedding, and mass production industries.

  12. Plasma chemerin in young untrained men: association with cardio-metabolic traits and physical performance, and response to intensive interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-02-01

    Chemerin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokine thought to decrease insulin sensitivity and increase cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to assess the association of chemerin with cardiometabolic risk and physical performance and examine its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen young men have been applied a HIIT program during 8 weeks. Plasma chemerin together with several cardiometabolic factors and physical performance indices were determined before and after the training program. Plasma chemerin and insulin were assessed using immunoenzymatic methods. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) index was calculated as an estimate of insulin resistance. Basal plasma chemerin was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.782, pHIIT program resulted in significant improvements in body composition, plasma lipids and insulin sensitivity. However, no significant change was detected for plasma chemerin in response to HIIT (134±50.7 ng/mL vs. 137±51.9 ng/mL, p=0.750). Basal plasma chemerin is associated with cardiometabolic health and physical performance in young men. Following HIIT, cardiometabolic health and physical performance had improved, but no significant change had occurred for plasma chemerin.

  13. Intensity and Types of Physical Exercise in Relation to Dementia Risk Reduction in Community-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2015-10-01

    To systematically examine the amount and type of physical exercise that might reduce the future risk of dementia in community-living older people. Six-year observational study. All the Elderly Health Centers (EHCs) of the Department of Health in Hong Kong. A total of 15,589 community-living Chinese aged 65 years and older with no history of stroke, clinical dementia, or Parkinson disease when they completed health assessment at the EHCs in the first 6 months of 2005. Self-reported habitual physical exercise patterns, including the frequency, duration, and type of exercise, at baseline and Year 3 were analyzed. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Both the cognitively stable and incident groups reported exercising a median of 7 days per week and 45 minutes per day at baseline and Year 3. The former practiced aerobic and mind-body exercises more at baseline and Year 3, whereas the latter practiced stretching and toning exercises more. The odds ratio for dementia remained significant for aerobic (0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.95; P = .01) and mind-body exercises (0.76; 0.63-0.92; P = .004) after excluding participants who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for important potential confounders, such as age, gender, educational level, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities. Although physical exercise is widely promoted as a nonpharmacological intervention for dementia prevention, not all types of exercise appear to be useful in reducing risk of dementia in older people. Our findings suggest that daily participation in aerobic and mind-body but not stretching and toning exercises might protect community-living older adults from developing dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  14. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (psoccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  15. Effects of 28 weeks of high-intensity interval training during physical education classes on cardiometabolic risk factors in Chilean schoolchildren: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Latorre-Román, Pedro

    2018-04-21

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 28 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) during physical education classes on the weight status, cardiorespiratory capacity, and blood pressure of overweight and obese schoolchildren. The participants included 197 schoolchildren (108 girls and 89 boys) aged between 6 and 11 years (8.39 ± 1.15 years) in four groups: experimental group 1 (EG1) = 59 overweight schoolchildren; experimental group 2 (EG2) = 92 obese schoolchildren; control group 1 (CG1) = 17 overweight children; and control group 2 (CG2) = 29 obese schoolchildren. The participants in the EGs carried out HIIT twice per week for 28 weeks. After the 28-week intervention, the participants showed significant reductions in body mass index (p HIIT program caused significant improvements in the cardiorespiratory capacity, anthropometric variables, and blood pressure levels of overweight and obese children. What is Known: • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs improve health, but investigations have used relatively short intervention periods. What is New: • The 28-week period (a large intervention period) of HIIT-based games during physical education classes caused significant improvements in cardiorespiratory capacity, anthropometric variables, and blood pressure levels of overweight and obese schoolchildren.

  16. Effect of a high-intensity exercise program on physical function and mental health in nursing home residents with dementia: an assessor blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wiken Telenius

    Full Text Available Dementia is among the leading causes of functional loss and disability in older adults. Research has demonstrated that nursing home patients without dementia can improve their function in activities of daily living, strength, balance and mental well being by physical exercise. The evidence on effect of physical exercise among nursing home patients with dementia is scarce and ambiguous. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a high intensity functional exercise program on the performance of balance in nursing home residents with dementia. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of this exercise on muscle strength, mobility, activities of daily living, quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms.This single blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 170 persons with dementia living in nursing homes. Mean age was 86.7 years (SD = 7.4 and 74% were women. The participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 87 or a control group (n = 83. The intervention consisted of intensive strengthening and balance exercises in small groups twice a week for 12 weeks. The control condition was leisure activities.The intervention group improved the score on Bergs Balance Scale by 2.9 points, which was significantly more than the control group who improved by 1.2 points (p = 0.02. Having exercised 12 times or more was significantly associated with improved strength after intervention (p<0.05. The level of apathy was lower in the exercise group after the intervention, compared to the control group (p = 0.048.The results from our study indicate that a high intensity functional exercise program improved balance and muscle strength as well as reduced apathy in nursing home patients with dementia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02262104.

  17. High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain: results of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, W E; Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Ariëns, G A M; van Mechelen, W; Bouter, L M

    2002-05-01

    To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Workers from 21 companies located throughout The Netherlands participated in the part of this study on sickness absence due to low back pain. The study population consisted of 732 workers with no sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain in the 3 months before the baseline survey and complete data on the reasons for absences during the follow up period. The mean (range) period of follow up in this group was 37 (7-44) months. Physical load at work was assessed by analyses of video recordings. Baseline information on psychosocial work characteristics was obtained by a questionnaire. Data on sickness absence were collected from company records. The main outcome measure was the rate of sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain during the follow up period. After adjustment of the work related physical and psychosocial factors for each other and for other potential determinants, significant rate ratios ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 were found for trunk flexion, trunk rotation, lifting, and low job satisfaction. A dose-response relation was found for trunk flexion, but not for trunk rotation or lifting. Non-significant rate ratios of about 1.4 were found for low supervisor support and low coworker support. Quantitative job demands, conflicting demands, decision authority, and skill discretion showed no relation with sickness absence due to low back pain. Flexion and rotation of the trunk, lifting, and low job satisfaction are risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain. Some indications of a relation between low social support, either from supervisors or coworkers, and sickness absence due to low back pain are also present.

  18. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  19. Refficientlib: an efficient load-rebalanced adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for high-performance computational physics meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Baiges Aznar, Joan; Bayona Roa, Camilo Andrés

    2017-01-01

    No separate or additional fees are collected for access to or distribution of the work. In this paper we present a novel algorithm for adaptive mesh refinement in computational physics meshes in a distributed memory parallel setting. The proposed method is developed for nodally based parallel domain partitions where the nodes of the mesh belong to a single processor, whereas the elements can belong to multiple processors. Some of the main features of the algorithm presented in this paper a...

  20. Position of the pelvis, lower extremities load and the arch of the feet in young adults who are physically active

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska; Edyta Mikołajczyk; Małgorzata Kołpa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Body posture is an individual motion habit. It is variable and depends on the gender, age, structure of the body but also on mental and physical state. Although it is difficult to formulate a universal definition of correct body posture, the opinion that its elementary feature is symmetry is beyond any doubt. Such symmetry is related to the position of particular anatomical points and effects of static and dynamic forces. Aim of the research: To assess the relations betwe...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  2. Searching for Physics Beyond the Standard Model: Strongly-Coupled Field Theories at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    This proposal is to develop the software and algorithmic infrastructure needed for the numerical study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and of theories that have been proposed to describe physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) of high energy physics, on current and future computers. This infrastructure will enable users (1) to improve the accuracy of QCD calculations to the point where they no longer limit what can be learned from high-precision experiments that seek to test the Standard Model, and (2) to determine the predictions of BSM theories in order to understand which of them are consistent with the data that will soon be available from the LHC. Work will include the extension and optimizations of community codes for the next generation of leadership class computers, the IBM Blue Gene/Q and the Cray XE/XK, and for the dedicated hardware funded for our field by the Department of Energy. Members of our collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Columbia University worked on the design of the Blue Gene/Q, and have begun to develop software for it. Under this grant we will build upon their experience to produce high-efficiency production codes for this machine. Cray XE/XK computers with many thousands of GPU accelerators will soon be available, and the dedicated commodity clusters we obtain with DOE funding include growing numbers of GPUs. We will work with our partners in NVIDIA's Emerging Technology group to scale our existing software to thousands of GPUs, and to produce highly efficient production codes for these machines. Work under this grant will also include the development of new algorithms for the effective use of heterogeneous computers, and their integration into our codes. It will include improvements of Krylov solvers and the development of new multigrid methods in collaboration with members of the FASTMath SciDAC Institute, using their HYPRE framework, as well as work on improved symplectic integrators.

  3. Searching for Physics Beyond the Standard Model: Strongly-Coupled Field Theories at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Richard C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Physics and ECE Depts.

    2016-11-08

    This proposal is to develop the software and algorithmic infrastructure needed for the numerical study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and of theories that have been proposed to describe physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) of high energy physics, on current and future computers. This infrastructure will enable users (1) to improve the accuracy of QCD calculations to the point where they no longer limit what can be learned from high-precision experiments that seek to test the Standard Model, and (2) to determine the predictions of BSM theories in order to understand which of them are consistent with the data that will soon be available from the LHC. Work will include the extension and optimizations of community codes for the next generation of leadership class computers, the IBM Blue Gene/Q and the Cray XE/XK, and for the dedicated hardware funded for our field by the Department of Energy. Members of our collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Columbia University worked on the design of the Blue Gene/Q, and have begun to develop software for it. Under this grant we will build upon their experience to produce high-efficiency production codes for this machine. Cray XE/XK computers with many thousands of GPU accelerators will soon be available, and the dedicated commodity clusters we obtain with DOE funding include growing numbers of GPUs. We will work with our partners in NVIDIA's Emerging Technology group to scale our existing software to thousands of GPUs, and to produce highly efficient production codes for these machines. Work under this grant will also include the development of new algorithms for the effective use of heterogeneous computers, and their integration into our codes. It will include improvements of Krylov solvers and the development of new multigrid methods in collaboration with members of the FASTMath SciDAC Institute, using their HYPRE framework, as well as work on improved symplectic integrators.

  4. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  5. Influence of Physical and Geometrical Uncertainties in the Parametric Instability Load of an Axially Excited Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Martins Alves da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of Young’s modulus, shells thickness, and geometrical imperfection uncertainties on the parametric instability loads of simply supported axially excited cylindrical shells. The Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory is used for the displacement field of the cylindrical shell and the parameters under investigation are considered as uncertain parameters with a known probability density function in the equilibrium equation. The uncertainties are discretized as Hermite-Chaos polynomials together with the Galerkin stochastic procedure that discretizes the stochastic equation in a set of deterministic equations of motion. Then, a general expression for the transversal displacement is obtained by a perturbation procedure which identifies all nonlinear modes that couple with the linear modes. So, a particular solution is selected which ensures the convergence of the response up to very large deflections. Applying the standard Galerkin method, a discrete system in time domain that considers the uncertainties is obtained and solved by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Several numerical strategies are used to study the nonlinear behavior of the shell considering the uncertainties in the parameters. Special attention is given to the influence of the uncertainties on the parametric instability and time response, showing that the Hermite-Chaos polynomial is a good numerical tool.

  6. The 'Verbund' main load-dispatchingcentre - in the area of tension between physics, environment and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebenstreit, K.

    2016-01-01

    The main load-dispatchingcentre of Verbund is the interface between the power stations and the market. The short-term use of the VERBUND power plants is planned, optimized and controlled around the clock, as well as the management of the reservoirs. The rain falls from the sky, the wind blows when it wants, and the sun shines unstable and uninfluenceable. These irrefutable facts are the key drivers of the energy transition, because a system based on renewable energies has to be according to these situations. This is not an easy task for an industry, where production and consumption must always be balanced as the power system has to be safe, affordable and environmentally compatible. The changed market accompanies the VERBUND Company in its daily work, for example in the electricity trade, which is devoted to the optimal marketing of its production. The increasing share of renewable energies in Europe is affecting market activity more and more. The spot market and especially short-term intraday trading, are gaining momentum. Since the start of liberalization, VERBUND's experts have used market standards to optimize the use of power plants based on energy and meteorological know-how. (rössner) [de

  7. Eight weeks of a combination of high intensity interval training and conventional training reduce visceral adiposity and improve physical fitness: a group-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Aphamis, George; Sakkis, Panikos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2016-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently promoted as an effective, low volume and time-efficient training method for improving fitness and health related parameters. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of a combination of a group-based HIIT and conventional gym training on physical fitness and body composition parameters in healthy adults. Thirty nine healthy adults volunteered to participate in this eight-week intervention study. Twenty three participants performed regular gym training 4 days a week (C group), whereas the remaining 16 participants engaged twice a week in HIIT and twice in regular gym training (HIIT-C group) as the other group. Total body fat and visceral adiposity levels were calculated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness, speed, lower limb explosiveness, flexibility and isometric arm strength were assessed through a battery of field tests. Both exercise programs were effective in reducing total body fat and visceral adiposity (Ptraining improved cardiorespiratory fitness levels (Ptraining (Ptraining improve various physical fitness parameters and reduce both total and visceral fat levels. This type of training was also found to be superior compared with conventional exercise training alone in terms of reducing more visceral adiposity levels. Group-based HIIT may consider as a good methods for individuals who exercise in gyms and craving to acquire significant fitness benefits in relatively short period of time.

  8. Enhancement of High-Intensity Actions and Physical Performance During a Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Competition With a Moderate Dose of Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lara, Francisco Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Areces, Francisco; García, Jose Manuel; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Although caffeine is one of the most commonly used substances in combat sports, information about its ergogenic effects on these disciplines is very limited. To determine the effectiveness of ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine to enhance overall performance during a simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) competition. Fourteen elite BJJ athletes participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design. In a random order, the athletes ingested either 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo (cellulose, 0 mg/kg) and performed 2 simulated BJJ combats (with 20 min rest between them), following official BJJ rules. Specific physical tests such as maximal handgrip dynamometry, maximal height during a countermovement jump, permanence during a maximal static-lift test, peak power in a bench-press exercise, and blood lactate concentration were measured at 3 specific times: before the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. The combats were video-recorded to analyze fight actions. After the caffeine ingestion, participants spent more time in offensive actions in both combats and revealed higher blood lactate values (P Performance in all physical tests carried out before the first combat was enhanced with caffeine (P caffeine and placebo. Caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid for improving intensity and physical performance during successive elite BJJ combats.

  9. The influence of moderate-intensity physical effort on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander-Szymanowicz, P; Marchewka, A; Dabrowski, Z; Teleglow, A; Bac, A; Glodzik, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a six-week aerobic training on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome. Fifteen men with Down syndrome (average age 22.4 years ± 0.91) with moderate or severe intellectual disability took part in the study. Patients underwent a training program three times a week for six weeks. Venous blood samples of 10 ml were collected from every examined patient, 24 hours before and after the exercise. The blood samples were submitted to hematological examination (hematocrit, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) number, RBC indicators: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)), reduced glutathione (GSH) level and number of macrocytes, polikilocytrometric examination of RBC and rheological blood examination (elongation index (EI), aggregation index (AI), syllectogram amplitude (AMP), aggregation half time (t1/2)) was made by LORCA. Amoderate six-week physical training performed on a cycloergometer resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the MCV value, hematocrit and plasma viscosity. The six-week cycloergometer training caused a statistically significant increase in the GSH level and erythrocyte pliability at a shear stress of 0.58 Pa.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  11. Physical ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we

  12. Physical events that occur in the reactor core during load changes; Les effets physiques sur le coeur mis en jeu lors des variations de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulin, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN/UNIE/GECC), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Golfier, H. [CEA Saclay (DEN-DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-05-15

    The reactor core control aims at mastering 2 important parameters that are relevant for reactor availability and safety. First, the reactivity that sets the power output and secondly, the power map in order to handle hot spots. In PWR-type reactors, physical events such as moderator or fuel temperature changes, xenon concentration, that are important for both parameters, evolve during load changes but also during power plateaus and are dependent on burn-up. In this article temperature effect and xenon poisoning are analysed and their impact are assessed along an irradiation campaign through a core neutronic simulation and data from instrumentation. Xenon oscillations are particularly well illustrated. The counter-reactions of the means used for reactor controlling: soluble boron and control rods, are also analysed. (A.C.)

  13. Laboratory triggering of stick-slip events by oscillatory loading in the presence of pore fluid with implications for physics of tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, Noel M.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2012-01-01

    The physical mechanism by which the low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that make up portions of tectonic (also called non-volcanic) tremor are created is poorly understood. In many areas of the world, tectonic tremor and LFEs appear to be strongly tidally modulated, whereas ordinary earthquakes are not. Anomalous seismic wave speeds, interpreted as high pore fluid pressure, have been observed in regions that generate tremor. Here we build upon previous laboratory studies that investigated the response of stick-slip on artificial faults to oscillatory, tide-like loading. These previous experiments were carried out using room-dry samples of Westerly granite, at one effective stress. Here we augment these results with new experiments on Westerly granite, with the addition of varying effective stress using pore fluid at two pressures. We find that raising pore pressure, thereby lowering effective stress can significantly increase the degree of correlation of stick-slip to oscillatory loading. We also find other pore fluid effects that become important at higher frequencies, when the period of oscillation is comparable to the diffusion time of pore fluid into the fault. These results help constrain the conditions at depth that give rise to tidally modulated LFEs, providing confirmation of the effective pressure law for triggering and insights into why tremor is tidally modulated while earthquakes are at best only weakly modulated.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  16. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF COSMETIC MULTI- PLE EMULSIONS LOADED WITH ASCORBYL PALMITATE AND SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE SALTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hira; Akhtar, Naveed; Ali, Atif; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Sohail, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Nawaz, Zarqa

    2016-09-01

    Stability of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives for quenching synergistic antioxidant activities and to treat oxidative related diseases is a major issue. This study was aimed to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives (ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as functional ingredients in a newly formulated multiple emulsion of the W//W type to attain the synergistic antioxidant effects and the resultant system's long term physical and chemical stability. Several multiple emulsions using the same concentration of emulsifiers but different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were developed. Three finally selected multiple emulsions (ME₁, ME₂ and ME₃) were evaluated for physical stability in terms of rheology, microscopy, conductivity, pH, and organoleptic characteristics under different storage conditions for 3 months. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on Sykam GmbH HPLC system (Germany), equipped with a variable UV detector. Results showed that at accelerated storage conditions all the three multiple emulsions had shear thinning behavior of varying shear stress with no influence of location of functional ingredients in a carrier system. Conductivity values increased and pH values remained within the skin pH range for 3 months. Microscopic analysis showed an increase in globule size with the passage of time, especially at higher temperatures while decreased at low temperatures. Centrifugation test did not cause phase separation till the 45th day, but little effects after 2 months. Chemical stability analysis by HPLC at the end of 3 months showed that ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were almost stable in all multiple emulsions with no influence of their location in a carrier system. Multiple emulsions were found a stable carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives to enhance their desired effects. Considering that many topical formulations

  17. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly un...

  18. High-intensity aquatic exercises (HydrOS) improve physical function and reduce falls among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Fronza, Fernanda Cerveira Abuana Osorio; dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo; Kruel, Luis Fernando Martins; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2013-10-01

    . The aquatic e