WorldWideScience

Sample records for intensive livestock production

  1. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry.

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse

  2. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms. Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area. For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. We would like to emphasize the need to include in the "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (as defined in Directive 91/676/CEE [1]), all areas where there are intensive farming of fish with open-system type of water use. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater.

  3. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry. Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction from animal houses include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and the application o...

  4. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design,

  5. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and, in case of mechanically ventilated animal houses, the application of end-of-pipe air treatment, viz acid scrubbers and bioscrubbers. Air treatment techniques can achieve very high emission red...

  6. Potential geographic distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from intensive livestock production in North Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Marcinko, Sarah E.; Goewert, Ann E.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the consequences of increased spatial aggregation of livestock production facilities, we estimated the annual production of nitrogen in livestock waste in North Carolina, USA, and analyzed the potential distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from confined animal feeding operations ('CAFO') lagoons. North Carolina is a national center for industrial livestock production. Livestock is increasingly being raised in CAFOs, where waste is frequently held, essentially untreated, in open-air lagoons. Reduced nitrogen in lagoons is volatilized as ammonia (NH 3 ), transported atmospherically, and deposited to other ecosystems. The Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, NC, is representative of nitrogen-sensitive coastal waters, and is a major component of the second largest estuarine complex in the U.S. We used GIS to model the area of water in the Sound within deposition range of CAFOs. We also evaluated the number of lagoons within deposition range of each 1 km 2 grid cell of the state. We considered multiple scenarios of atmospheric transport by varying distance and directionality. Modeled nitrogen deposition rates were particularly elevated for the Coastal Plain. This pattern matches empirical data, suggesting that observed regional patterns of reduced nitrogen deposition can be largely explained by two factors: limited atmospheric transport distance, and spatial aggregation of CAFOs. Under our medium-distance scenario, a small portion (roughly 22%) of livestock production facilities contributes disproportionately to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Furthermore, we estimated that between 14-37% of the state receives 50% of the state's atmospheric nitrogen deposition from CAFO lagoons. The estimated total emission from livestock is 134,000 t NH 3 yr -1 , 73% of which originates from the Coastal Plain. Stronger waste management and emission standards for CAFOs, particularly those on the Coastal Plain nearest to sensitive water bodies

  7. Livestock production and marketing:

    OpenAIRE

    Negassa, Asfaw; Rashid, Shahidur; Gebremedhin, Berhanu

    2011-01-01

    The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural GDP and 11 percent of national GDP, with the highest shares recorded at 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively, at its peak (NBE 2005/06). The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. The ann...

  8. Overview of European and Netherlands' regulations on airborne emissions from intensive livestock production with a focus on the application of air scrubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is of major importance to the economies of many countries but is also connected with a number of environmental effects, including airborne emissions. Currently emission standards are becoming increasingly stringent in European countries and the livestock industry is

  9. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Productivity of duckweed (Lemna minor as alternative forage feed for livestock in different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uti Nopriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed (Lemna minor is a small aquatic plant that grow and float in water and spread extensively. Lemna minor is potential as a source of high quality forage. This study aimed to determine optimal light intensity on Lemna minor to generate maximum productivity. Parameters observed were physical-biological and chemical characteristics of the media (pH value, temperature, cover area, decreased of media volume, BOD, COD, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate, plant growth acceleration (number of shoots, leaf diameter and chlorophyll-a, biomass production, doubling time of cover area and the number of daughters. This study was done based on a completely randomized design with 4 levels of shading. While treatment was: without shading, shading 30%, shading 50% and shading 70% using paranet shade. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Result showed that the productivity of Lemna minor included the number of daughters, chlorophyll-a, biomass production, cover area, absorbed phosphate and doubling time the number of daughters reached the highest level without shading treatment (1007,21-2813,57 lux. The decrease of intensity of light, the increase the diameter of leaf. Decrease of media volume was positively correlated to size of cover area. Biomass production influenced by a wide doubling time of cover area and number of daughters.

  11. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  12. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  13. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  14. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  15. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  16. Samoa : Livestock Production and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide information and analysis of the Samoan livestock sub-sector for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries through a technical assistance assignment financed by the World Bank. The Word Bank contributed technical assistance support to the Government of Samoa to help identify measures to strengthen agriculture sector institutions, to improve the performanc...

  17. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  18. Prospects of Livestock Production in Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raziq*, M. Younas1 and Z. Rehman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan and makes about 44% of the total geographical area of the country. Most of the area is rangelands with only 5% arable. Animal agriculture is centuries old occupation of the people of Balochistan. Livestock are one of the major important sectors of the province having about 20% of the national stock. However, with little manufacturing facilities and under-developed infrastructure, the provincial economy lags far behind other parts of the country. This is the cradle of many precious livestock breeds and livestock make an important part of the socio-cultural and socioeconomic survival of its inhabitants. The biodiversity of animal genetic resources plays very pivotal role in the economy of the province and each breed has its own uniqueness and socioeconomic importance. The exact value of such precious animal genetic resource has never been realized as yet and no serious steps have been taken for its improvement. It is the utmost need of the time to rethink on the policies relating to livestock production in the province while keeping the needs of the growing population, socio-cultural change and the global warming issues in mind.

  19. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.327 Production of livestock. For an employee to be engaged in the production of livestock, he must be actively taking care of the animals or standing by in readiness for that purpose. Thus...

  20. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... including the burden of parasitic diseases in livestock and human exposure to ... for: -improving livestock production, animal, and human health; -supporting local ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  1. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  2. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  3. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production is expected to grow tremendously in line with the projected demand for animal products. Therefore, the methods of livestock production must change to allow for efficiency and improvement in productivity. Biotechnology is important if the world is to respond to the pressure to produce more food from ...

  4. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  5. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-10-01

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  6. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    . Presently, the development of abatement technologies is limited by the lack of an accurate and reliable method for quantifying the effect on odor. To measure the impact of air cleaning techniques on perceived odor, common practice in Europe is to store odor samples in sample bags and quantify them......Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...... from a gas phase to a liquid phase, e.g. biotrickling filters, is decelerated due to their low partitioning coefficients. This can significantly limit the odor reduction obtained with these technologies. The present study examines the possibility of adding metal catalysts to enhance the mass transfer...

  7. Veterinary Antibiotics in Young Dutch Groundwater under Intensive Livestock Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliet, M. V.; Kivits, T.; Broers, H. P.; Beeltje, H.; Griffioen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dutch groundwater is heavily affected by nutrient loads from agricultural origin. The use of antibiotics is also widespread in Dutch farming practice, 200.000 kg active substance over 1.839.000 ha of agricultural land. National measures were established to reduce the applications. Spreading of manure over farmlands is assumed to be the main pathway for the leaching of antibiotics to groundwater, but actual numbers are lacking. We studied the occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in groundwater in two areas with intensive livestock farming, sampling existing multi-level wells that were previously age dated using tritium-helium. Wells were selected based on the following criteria: the uppermost screen is situated just below the average groundwater level, which is not deeper than 3 meters, the well is in an agricultural field where rainwater infiltrates avoiding areas adjacent to ditches or streams, the groundwater quality is known for several years and the age of the extracted water is known to be young (antibiotics used in in intensive livestock farming were analyzed belonging to the following groups: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, quinolones and in addition nitrofurans and chloramphenicol. The samples were analyzed for antibiotics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry preceded by solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB cartridge). Five out of 22 antibiotics were detected: sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin, chloramphenicol in concentration ranges of 0.2 to 18 ng/l. Sulfamethazine was most frequently found, and shows a continuous concentration-depth profile in 3 out of 4 multi-level wells. Sulfonamides were found in groundwater up to 20 m. depth and in water aged between 1 and 25 years old. The study shows that sulfonamides are omnipresent in groundwater up to 25 years old, which corresponds with the known history of the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice.

  8. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the highland and mid altitude areas of Horro and Guduru districts of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing livestock production situation, livestock production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution.

  9. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  10. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  11. Gender issues in livestock production: a case study of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupawaenda, Anna C; Chawatama, Shingirai; Muvavarirwa, Plaxidia

    2009-10-01

    The importance of main streaming gender issues in development programmes is now recognized by governments and development agents. This paper evaluates the role of gender in smallholder livestock production using Zimbabwe as a case study. It draws on several studies and assesses the gender dimension in terms of access and control, decision making and, division of labour. It is shown that for mainly traditional and historical reasons men continue to dominate livestock production although the situation is gradually changing. Men eclipse women in terms of ownership of more valuable stock, the making of decisions and the control of livestock production. This suggests that gender is important in livestock production and must be considered among other factors. The complexity of the system is noted but more gender disaggregated quantitative data is required if gender is to be effectively mainstreamed in livestock development programmes.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensities for the Livestock Sector in Indonesia, Based on the National Specific Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eska Nugrahaeningtyas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to calculate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and to identify the trends of GHG emission intensity, based on meat production from the livestock sector in Indonesia, which had not been done before. The total emissions from the livestock sector from 2000 to 2015 in Indonesia were calculated using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guideline (2006 IPCC GL using Tier 1 and Tier 2, with its default values and some of the country specific data that were found in the grey literature. During 2000 to 2015, the change from the Tier 1 to Tier 2 methods resulted in an approximately 7.39% emission decrease from enteric fermentation and a 4.24% increase from manure management, which resulted in a 4.98% decrease in the total emissions. The shared emission from manure management increased by about 9% and 6% using Tier 1 and Tier 2, respectively. In contrast with the total emissions, the overall emission intensity in Indonesia decreased (up to 60.77% for swine, showing that the livestock productivity in Indonesia has become more efficient. In order to meet the meat demand with less GHG emissions, chicken farming is one option to be developed. The increased emission and share from manure management indicated that manure management system needs to be of concern, especially for beef cattle and swine.

  13. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized) fashion. Prostaglandins are therefore regarded as essential mediators of female reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock production especially oestrus synchronization and induced parturition. KEYWORDS: Prostaglandins, Production ...

  14. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland and mid altitude areas ... production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution. A single-visit multi subject formal survey method was used in the survey.

  15. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  16. Staple Food and Livestock Production among the Yoruba of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    natural for a staple food farmer to also, essentially, own and raise livestock. No doubt .... whole, by 1945, agriculture in Ekiti had generally experienced ... fried plantain or processed dried powdered plantain, in form of amala .... There were, however, some dangers to livestock production in the ... goats, sheep, dogs and pigs.

  17. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases

  18. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases. (author)

  19. Economic feasibility of animal welfare improvements in Dutch intensive livestock production: A comparison between broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Voermans, G.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the economic feasibility of production systems with different levels of animal welfare (AW) in the broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig sectors. Economic feasibility over a five-year time horizon was assessed using stochastic bio-economic simulation models. The results suggest

  20. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  1. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  2. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.

  3. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... livestock production can be categorised as the biological, chemical and physical techniques ... the European industrial revolution in the 17th century that ..... Heterotypic protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding.

  4. A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on ...

  5. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  6. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  7. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  8. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  9. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries.

  10. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  12. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  13. Adoption of automated livestock production systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades the development of automated systems in livestock production has gained increasing interest among farmers. A combined use of computers and sensor systems has lead the development into new research areas with automated milking systems, grain drying systems and automated feeding...... on the relationship and adoption patterns among these countries. The paper presents the results of the surveyed population, demography, farm structure with livestock production characteristics and farmers use of selected automated systems in livestock production....... systems. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a farm survey and cluster analysis that have been made among 4 countries in Europe. This study is based on replies from 413 respondents in Germany (eastern part), Greece, Finland and Denmark, respectively, and the study comments...

  14. A review of the sustainability of global livestock production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judith L. Capper

    of livestock production, is that all foods have an environmental cost and that this is not ... only require the replacement of animal products with plant-based foods, but .... an ideological view of the perceived advantages of historical small-scale.

  15. Contribution of Livestock Production to Climate Change and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt is made to understand the role livestock production plays in climate change and to identify mitigation strategies to cap or reduce greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Scientific literature on farm animal production and documented GHG emission, as well as mitigation strategies were synthesized and used for the study.

  16. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  17. Enteric methane emissions and their response to agro-ecological and livestock production systems dynamics in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinurai, Walter; Mapanda, Farai; Sithole, Dingane; Moyo, Elisha N; Ndidzano, Kudzai; Tsiga, Alois; Zhakata, Washington

    2018-03-01

    Without disregarding its role as one of the key sources of sustainable livelihoods in Zimbabwe and other developing countries, livestock production contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation. For the livestock sector to complement global efforts to mitigate climate change, accurate estimations of GHG emissions are required. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in Zimbabwe were quantified over 35years under four production systems and five agro-ecological regions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission factor methodology was used to derive CH 4 emissions from seven livestock categories at national level. Emission intensities based on human population, domestic export of livestock meat and climate variables were used to assess emission drivers and predict future emission trends. Over the past 35years, enteric fermentation CH 4 emissions from all livestock categories ranged between 158.3 and 204.3Ggyear -1 . Communal lands, typified by indigenous livestock breeds, had the highest contribution of between 58% and 75% of the total annual emissions followed by livestock from large scale commercial (LSC) farms. The decreasing livestock population on LSC farms and consequent decline in production could explain the lack of a positive response of CH 4 emissions to human population growth, and decreasing emissions per capita over time at -0.3kg CH 4 capita -1 year -1 . The emissions trend showed that even if Zimbabwe's national livestock population doubles in 2030 relative to the 2014 estimates, the country would still remain with similar magnitude of CH 4 emission intensity as that of 1980. No significant correlations (P>0.05) were found between emissions and domestic export of beef and pork. Further research on enhanced characterisation of livestock species, population and production systems, as well as direct measurements and modelling of emissions from indigenous and exotic livestock breeds were

  18. The economics of optimal health and productivity in smallholder livestock systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J J; Randolph, T F; Staal, S J

    1999-08-01

    Livestock kept or produced in smallholder farming systems are an important component of the agricultural economy in the developing world. The role of livestock on smallholder farms varies widely, providing draught power for crop production or as a production activity for subsistence needs or market sale under systems ranging from extensive pastoralist to intensive, peri-urban feeder and dairy systems. A set of unique conditions and features characterise smallholder systems, and these need to be appreciated when assessing the strategies that have evolved for managing animal health in smallholder systems, and evaluating opportunities for improving disease control strategies. To provide a framework for discussing animal health issues and analytical methodogies, a typology of smallholder livestock and crop/livestock systems is developed. The typology considers livestock systems both in terms of the degree of intensification, as measured by market orientation and intensity of factor use, and in terms of importance within the household economy, as measured by contribution to household income. A number of characteristics are identified that distinguish smallholder systems from the commercialised systems of developed countries, including the multiple functions livestock serve, the integrated nature of livestock activities, multiple objectives of producers and lower capacity to bear risk at the household level, as well as poor infrastructure, markets, and access to information at the community level. Three representative smallholder livestock systems from Africa are described in detail, highlighting the relevant characteristics and the implications for analysing disease control strategies. Smallholder dairy systems in Kenya demonstrate the role of individual producer decision-making for animal health management in intensive, market-oriented systems, placing emphasis on farm-level risk and production management aspects of disease control. In extensive pastoralist systems

  19. livestock production systems for increased yield on resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciples of business management to research and education programming is ... planning for livestock production research and education ... cultivated with the maximum potential of arable land being ... (3) Approximately 85/, of the land area receives ... trate feeds has had a great impact on the beef cattle in- ..... (45 days A.I.,.

  20. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  1. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  2. 9 CFR 302.3 - Livestock and products entering official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock and products entering official establishments. 302.3 Section 302.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Livestock and products entering official establishments. All livestock and all products entering any...

  3. Annual forage cropping-systems for midwestern ruminant livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Annual forage cropping systems are a vital aspect of livestock forage production. One area where this production system can be enhanced is the integration of novel annual forages into conventional cropping systems. Two separate projects were conducted to investigate alternative forage options in annual forage production. In the first discussed research trial, two sets of crops were sown following soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain harvest, at two nitrogen application rates 56 ...

  4. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Effects of annual crops used for fall forage production on livestock productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversification of farm enterprises is important to maintain sustainable production systems. Systems that integrate crops and livestock may prove beneficial to each enterprise. Our objectives were to determine the effects of annual crops grazed in the fall and early-winter period on cow and calf gro...

  5. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  6. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.; Menzi, H.; Pain, B.F.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Daemmgen, U.; Hendriks, H.; Doehler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH 3 . At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH 3 , and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH 3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH 3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH 3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH 3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH 3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  7. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  8. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock production. 205.603 Section 205.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. In accordance with restrictions specified in this section the following synthetic substances may be used in organic livestock production: (a) As disinfectants, sanitizer, and...

  9. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results: High grazing...... as well as in most other European countries, the amount of land covered by semi-natural grassland has decreased dramatically during the 20th century concurrent with the general intensification of the agricultural production. To reverse this trend, actions are being taken in many places to either maintain...

  10. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  11. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S.; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss. PMID:22308313

  12. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western ...

  13. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production. 205.604 Section 205.604 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic livestock...

  14. Livestock and human use of land: Productivity trends and dietary choices as drivers of future land and carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Rolinski, Susanne; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Biewald, Anne; Humpenöder, Florian; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Stevanović, Miodrag

    2017-12-01

    Land use change has been the primary driving force of human alteration of terrestrial ecosystems. With 80% of agricultural land dedicated to livestock production, the sector is an important lever to attenuate land requirements for food production and carbon emissions from land use change. In this study, we quantify impacts of changing human diets and livestock productivity on land dynamics and depletion of carbon stored in vegetation, litter and soils. Across all investigated productivity pathways, lower consumption of livestock products can substantially reduce deforestation (47-55%) and cumulative carbon losses (34-57%). On the supply side, already minor productivity growth in extensive livestock production systems leads to substantial CO2 emission abatement, but the emission saving potential of productivity gains in intensive systems is limited, also involving trade-offs with soil carbon stocks. If accounting for uncertainties related to future trade restrictions, crop yields and pasture productivity, the range of projected carbon savings from changing diets increases to 23-78%. Highest abatement of carbon emissions (63-78%) can be achieved if reduced consumption of animal-based products is combined with sustained investments into productivity increases in plant production. Our analysis emphasizes the importance to integrate demand- and supply-side oriented mitigation strategies and to combine efforts in the crop and livestock sector to enable synergies for climate protection.

  15. A comparison between urban livestock production strategies in Burkina Faso, Mali and Nigeria in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, Hamadoun; Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-10-01

    We undertook a comparative analysis of (peri-)urban livestock production strategies across three West African cities. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, livestock-keeping households (HH) were interviewed in Kano/Nigeria (84 HH), Bobo Dioulasso/Burkina Faso (63 HH) and Sikasso/Mali (63 HH). Questions covered livestock species kept, herd sizes and structure, feeds used, manure management, livestock marketing and production constraints. Sheep and goats dominated (p livestock, whereas field cropping and livestock were integrated. There was no relation between the education of the HH head and the adoption of improved management practices (p > 0.05), but the proportion of HH heads with a long-term experience in UPA activities was higher in Kano and in Bobo Dioulasso than in Sikasso (p livestock keepers in West Africa does not threaten the acceptance of improved technologies and innovations supporting the sustainability of their livestock production.

  16. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  17. Analysis Of Trends In Livestock Production In Nigeria: 1970-2005 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The livestock industry as an important component of general agriculture is expected to be a key contributor to national development. This study analyzes the livestock production trends in Nigeria with a view to ascertaining the influence of policy changes on real output of livestock over time, and investigates the existence of ...

  18. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    was found: 97% of this increase was attributed to the rise in CO2, -3% to climate trends and 15% to trends in nitrogen fertilization and deposition. When compared with statistical data, ORCHIDEE-GM captures well the observed phase of climate-driven interannual variability in grassland production well, whereas the magnitude of the interannual variability in modeled productivity is larger than the statistical data. Regional grass-fed livestock numbers can be reproduced by ORCHIDEE-GM based on its simple assumptions and parameterization about productivity being the only limiting factor to define the sustainable number of animals per unit area. Causes for regional model-data misfits are discussed, including uncertainties in farming practices (e.g., nitrogen fertilizer application, and mowing and grazing intensity) and in ruminant diet composition, as well as uncertainties in the statistical data and in model parameter values.

  19. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic...... development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized......, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as “organic by default” can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification...

  20. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  1. Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambra-Lopez, Maria; Aarnink, Andre J.A.; Zhao Yang; Calvet, Salvador; Torres, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect. Levels of PM in livestock houses are high, influenced by kind of housing and feeding, animal type, and environmental factors. Improved knowledge on particle morphology, primarily size, composition, levels, and the factors influencing these can be useful to identify and quantify sources of PM more accurately, to evaluate their effects, and to propose adequate abatement strategies in livestock houses. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PM in and from livestock production systems. Future research to characterize and control PM in livestock houses is discussed. - Control of particulate matter emissions, a major challenge to modern livestock production.

  2. Perception of the HACCP system operators on livestock product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Nam, Ki-Chang; Jo, Cheorun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate crucial factors on HACCP system implementation in domestic livestock product plants, and to offer job satisfaction and the career prospect of HACCP system operators. The survey was carried out by selecting 150 HACCP system operators who implemented HACCP system. The respondents claimed that the most important contents in HACCP system operation were to assemble HACCP team (21.8%), and the second was to monitoring (20.0%). Documentation and recording (16.9%) and verification (11.1%) were followed. The respondents answered the major factor in sanitation management was cleaning/washing/disinfection (18.9%) and inspection (18.4%). The results showed that there were significant differences in the prospect of occupation in HACCP system operator by the gender (p HACCP system operator were satisfied with their job (73%) and also showed optimistic prospect of occupation (82%).

  3. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool. PMID:19152713

  4. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus in two meadows in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  5. Production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori prefecture: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    We have collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides which will be released from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Published data concerning production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori Prefecture were collected and compiled. We tried to estimate market dilution coefficient, which is the ratio of local products to total consumption by people in a target area, for the livestock products from the compiled data under some assumptions. Production weight per unit field area (production density) and consumption rates of grass and feed by the domestic animals were also estimated by using the collected data. Estimated means of the market dilution coefficients for livestock products and production density of grass were lower than those used in the environmental assessment for a reprocessing plant now under construction in Rokkasho Village. Consumption rates of grass and feed by milk cows and beef cattle were higher than those used in the assessment. Since we assumed that milk cows and beef cattle of Aomori Prefecture consume only grass and feed produced in Aomori Prefecture, the rates may be overestimated. Further study is required to clarify this point. We collected 52 reports in the literature related to transfer reduction of radionuclides to livestock products and decontamination of the radionuclides. (author)

  6. Strategies for improving water use efficiency of livestock production in rain-fed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Haileslassie, A; Duncan, A J; de Boer, I J M

    2015-05-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall water use efficiency of agriculture. Previous studies have reported significant variation in livestock water productivity (LWP) within and among farming systems. Underlying causes of this variation in LWP require further investigation. The objective of this paper was to identify the factors that explain the variation in LWP within and among farming systems in Ethiopia. We quantified LWP for various farms in mixed-crop livestock systems and explored the effect of household demographic characteristics and farm assets on LWP using ANOVA and multilevel mixed-effect linear regression. We focused on water used to cultivate feeds on privately owned agricultural lands. There was a difference in LWP among farming systems and wealth categories. Better-off households followed by medium households had the highest LWP, whereas poor households had the lowest LWP. The variation in LWP among wealth categories could be explained by the differences in the ownership of livestock and availability of family labor. Regression results showed that the age of the household head, the size of the livestock holding and availability of family labor affected LWP positively. The results suggest that water use efficiency could be improved by alleviating resource constraints such as access to farm labor and livestock assets, oxen in particular.

  7. Impact of livestock Scale on Rice Production in Battambang of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, D.; Xu, S. W.; Wyu; Ahmed, A.-G.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the awareness of environmental protection especially in the rural regions is important as most the farmers reside in that region. Crop-livestock proudciton has proven in many ways to encourage environmental protection. This study analyzes among other factors the impacto of livestock scale on rice production. Two regressions: Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and stepwise regression was applied to investigate these interrelationship. The result stress of three factors encouraging livestock production namely size of farmland, scale of livestock and income acquired from other jobs. The study further provides recommends to the government based on the findings of the study.

  8. Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers’ perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Udo, H.M.J.; Viets, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and

  9. Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, S J; Udo, H M J; Viets, T C

    2014-08-01

    Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and livestock populations are found within smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems, which should, therefore, contribute significantly towards this increase in livestock production. The present paper argues that increased livestock production in smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems faces many constraints at the level of the farm and the value chain. The present paper aims to describe and explain the impact of increased production from the farm and farmers' perspective, in order to understand the constraints for increased livestock production. A framework is presented that links farming systems to livestock value chains. It is concluded that farming systems that pass from subsistence to commercial livestock production will: (1) shift from rural to urban markets; (2) become part of a different value chain (with lower prices, higher demands for product quality and increased competition from peri-urban producers and imports); and (3) have to face changes in within-farm mechanisms and crop-livestock relationships. A model study showed that feed limitation, which is common in tropical farming systems with livestock, implies that maximum herd output is achieved with small herd sizes, leaving low-quality feeds unutilised. Maximal herd output is not achieved at maximal individual animal output. Having more animals than required for optimal production - which is often the case as a larger herd size supports non-production functions of livestock, such as manure production, draught, traction and capital storage - goes at the expense of animal-source food output. Improving low-quality feeds by treatment allows keeping more animals while maintaining the same level of production. Ruminant

  10. Climate change and broadacre livestock production across southern Australia. 1. Impacts of climate change on pasture and livestock productivity, and on sustainable levels of profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew D; Ghahramani, Afshin

    2013-05-01

    Broadacre livestock production is a major but highly diverse component of agriculture in Australia that will be significantly exposed to predicted changes in climate over coming decades. We used the GRAZPLAN simulation models to assess the impacts of climate change under the SRES A2 scenario across southern Australia. Climate change impacts were examined across space (25 representative locations) and time (1970-99, 2030, 2050 and 2070 climate) for each of five livestock enterprises. Climate projection uncertainty was considered by analysing projections from four global circulation models (GCMs). Livestock production scenarios were compared at their profit-maximizing stocking rate, constrained to ensure that risks of soil erosion were acceptable. Impacts on net primary productivity (ANPP) varied widely between GCM projections; the average declines from historical climate were 9% in 2030, 7% in 2050 and 14% in 2070. Declines in ANPP were larger at lower-rainfall locations. Sensitivity of ANPP to changes in rainfall ranged from 0.4 to 1.7, to temperature increase from -0.15 to +0.07 °C(-1) and to CO2 increase from 0.11 to 0.32. At most locations the dry summer period lengthened, exacerbating the greater erosion risk due to lower ANPP. Transpiration efficiency of pastures increased by 6-25%, but the proportion of ANPP that could safely be consumed by livestock fell sharply so that operating profit (at constant prices) fell by an average of 27% in 2030, 32% in 2050 and 48% in 2070. This amplification of ANPP reductions into larger profitability declines is likely to generalize to other extensive livestock systems. Profit declines were most marked at drier locations, with operating losses expected at 9 of the 25 locations by 2070. Differences between livestock enterprises were smaller than differences between locations and dates. Future research into climate change impacts on Australian livestock production needs to emphasise the dry margin of the cereal-livestock zone

  11. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  12. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2017-01-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance

  13. Management Approaches to Accomplish Contemporary Livestock Production-Conservation Objectives in Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional rangeland management in the shortgrass steppe has emphasized livestock production with moderate stocking rates, but alternative approaches will be needed to meet production objectives under increasing demands for conservation-oriented management. We investigated the utility of very inten...

  14. GENDER ROLES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock fell heavily on women and female children. Women ... Brain (1975), on the position of women in the Rural Settlement Schemes and others did not ... the extension system of the need to be gender sensitive in the development and.

  15. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21st Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L. Campbell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington. This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of ‘sustainable intensification’ and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified.

  16. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output...

  17. Role of women in livestock production: A socio-economic analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the role of women in livestock management with emphasis on milk production. Data for the study was collected via structured questionnaire from 120 women livestock farmers in five local governments of Sokoto state. The result of the analysis shows that majority of the women were in age range of ...

  18. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to

  19. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  20. Status and Potential of Smallholder Livestock Production Systems in Xishuangbanna, southern P.R. China

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    With Chinas rapid economic development during the last decades, the national demand for livestock products has quadrupled within the last 20 years. Most of that increase in demand has been answered by subsidized industrialized production systems, while million of smallholders, which still provide the larger share of livestock products in the country, have been neglected. Fostering those systems would help China to lower its strong urban migration streams, enhance the livelihood of poorer rura...

  1. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    %) per decade was found: 97% of this increase was attributed to the rise in CO2, -3% to climate trends and 15% to trends in nitrogen fertilization and deposition. When compared with statistical data, ORCHIDEE-GM captures well the observed phase of climate-driven interannual variability in grassland production well, whereas the magnitude of the interannual variability in modeled productivity is larger than the statistical data. Regional grass-fed livestock numbers can be reproduced by ORCHIDEE-GM based on its simple assumptions and parameterization about productivity being the only limiting factor to define the sustainable number of animals per unit area. Causes for regional model-data misfits are discussed, including uncertainties in farming practices (e.g., nitrogen fertilizer application, and mowing and grazing intensity) and in ruminant diet composition, as well as uncertainties in the statistical data and in model parameter values. PMID:26018186

  2. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Chang

    3% per decade was found: 97% of this increase was attributed to the rise in CO2, -3% to climate trends and 15% to trends in nitrogen fertilization and deposition. When compared with statistical data, ORCHIDEE-GM captures well the observed phase of climate-driven interannual variability in grassland production well, whereas the magnitude of the interannual variability in modeled productivity is larger than the statistical data. Regional grass-fed livestock numbers can be reproduced by ORCHIDEE-GM based on its simple assumptions and parameterization about productivity being the only limiting factor to define the sustainable number of animals per unit area. Causes for regional model-data misfits are discussed, including uncertainties in farming practices (e.g., nitrogen fertilizer application, and mowing and grazing intensity and in ruminant diet composition, as well as uncertainties in the statistical data and in model parameter values.

  3. Livestock Production - Current Status in South and South-East Asia, Future Directions and Priority Areas for Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, B. M.A. Oswin, [Kandy (Sri Lanka)

    2014-01-15

    The role of livestock in agriculture in South and South-East Asia is complex and significantly different from that of industrialized nations. The traditional farming systems are mostly based on mixed crop-livestock systems, with small farms predominating. The most important livestock species in the region are cattle (Bos indicus, Bos taurus and their crosses), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, both river and swamp types), goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. In some high altitude areas Yaks (Poephagus grunniens) and Mithun or Gayal (Bos frontalis) are also important. Although the contribution of the livestock sub-sector to national GDP in most Asian countries is low, it is a crucial source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins to the population, by way of milk, meat and eggs. For millions of smallholder farmers it provides food security, draught power, fibre, manure and fuel, and also serves as a 'living bank' in periods of economic hardship. The farming systems in the region vary widely (Perera et al., 2005), determined by a matrix of several interacting factors that include climate (latitude, altitude and rainfall), location (rural, peri-urban or urban), cropping systems (rain-fed or irrigated, annual or perennial crops), type of operation (small or large farm, subsistence or commercial), and the species and their primary purpose (milk, meat, eggs, draught, capital or mixed). The ruminant production systems that were largely extensive or semi-intensive in the past (grassland-based or mixed crop-livestock, with rain-fed or irrigated mixed farming), which were sustained with locally available resources, have become constrained due to many factors. Competition for land from the increasing human population that demands space for habitation, crop production and other economic activities have dwindled grazing lands. Mechanization of agricultural operations and commercial market forces have also made such systems less competitive. Thus some enterprising farmers have moved

  4. the economic benefits of extension services on livestock production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS FOLA AJAYI

    2007-06-08

    Jun 8, 2007 ... This study examined the impact of extension services on livestock output in six communities in .... Divorced. 3. 2.5. Widowed. 2. 1.7. Total. 120. 100. Educational ... status may be constraints on positive impact of extension on.

  5. Impact Of Ethnic Conflicts On Livestock Production In Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rampant ethnic conflicts and civil wars in the northern parts of most African ... than 50 sheep, goats and poultry after the conflict also declined after the conflict. ... the livestock sector in the region but a decade after the conflict, most farmers ...

  6. THREAT TO LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AMONG WOMEN IN OYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    This study examines women farmers' perception on livestock involvement in road accident in ... this could be made possible through exchange of female goats among kilns and kiths in a ... bounded partly by Ogun State in the south, Kwara state in the North. ..... Realizing the promise and potentials of African agriculture.

  7. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    within the scope of this paper to go into details, but rather emphasise .... individual herd off-take in the Black States. For exam- ple, a recent finding in two areas of the Ciskei and. Transkei ..... make livestock marketing centres more attractive, by siting them .... cation of the other principles of grazing management. Extension ...

  8. Perspective of agricultural extension in livestock production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extension communication methods used were visits, demonstration, workshop, training and excursion. The benefits of extension services were introduction of livestock species, marketing information, feed and feed ingredient supply, disease and pest control, and liaison services. Constraints to the use of extension ...

  9. Analyze of Predictive Model of Innovation Management in Processing and Complementary Industries of Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Ommani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was designing predictive model for innovation management in processing and complementary industries of livestock products. The method of research was correlative descriptive. The population of this research was managers in processing and complementary industries of livestock products of Khouzestan Province (N=486). By stratified random sampling, a random sample (n=125) was selected for participation in the study. A questionnaire was developed to ...

  10. The Utilization of Fungi and Their Products to Increase Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Fungi as part of eukaryotic organisms play an important role for livestock. Some fungi are detrimental because they cause animal diseases, and some fungi are beneficial because they can improve animal productivity. The use of fungi that benefit from starting he has done as agents of biological control and to be as probiotics.Within the fungi, the use of simple technologies to high level degree for the benefit of cattle is developed. This paper describes some fungi that are beneficial and dire...

  11. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  12. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  13. Livestock, the World, and the Dutch : a quick scan of opportunities in livestock production in nine countries : final draft for discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.; Hooft, van 't K.; Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Wouters, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report explores opportunities and associated challenges for companies and organizations engaged in livestock production and marketing by looking at nine countries, representing BRIC countries, the so-called Next 11, and developing countries.

  14. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  15. Environmental and economic impacts of livestock productivity increase in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luis Alfaro

    2012-12-01

    Livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not matching the annual 2.5 % growth of its population. Regional per capita meat and milk production corresponds, respectively, to about 13 and 8 % of developed countries indicators. Livestock performances in this region have decreased within the last 30 years. In fact, SSA, with a 12 % bovine extraction rate against a world average of 21 %, includes about 16 % of world cattle, only producing 6 and 2.6 % of global meat and milk, respectively. These low performances have economic and environmental consequences reflecting the necessity for upgrading livestock managing skills in the region. This effort includes various components such as sanitary prophylaxis, reproduction, nutrition, and in particular, substantial increase in livestock yield for human consumption. This will allow for an improved animal and pasture management and soil preservation, enhancing meat production and decreasing methane and nitrogen emissions from enteric fermentation and manure processing. These environmental gains due to increased livestock off-take rates can represent relevant credits in the global Environmental Carbon Market under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto protocol. These credits can be used for investments in livestock essential services and marketing facilities leading to improved productivity.

  16. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy

  17. Genomic selection to improve livestock production in developing countries with a focus on India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    growth will increase the demand for food as well as animal products, particularly in emerging economic giants like India. Moreover, the urbanization has considerable impact on patterns of food consumption in general and on demand for livestock products, in particular and the increased income growth led......Global livestock production has increased substantially during the last decades, in both number of animals and productivity. Meanwhile, the human population is projected to reach 9.6 billions by 2050 and most of the increase in the projection takes place in developing countries. Rapid population...... production (OPU-IVP) of embryos will have a considerable impact in the future. This paper attempts to provide basic concepts of using genomic tools for livestock production with the focus on genomic prediction and selection methods and discuss about the potential application of genomic selection to increase...

  18. Estimation of nitrogen and phosphorus flows in livestock production in Dianchi Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroki; Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Irbis, Chagan; Li, Kunzhi; Kumagai, Hajime; Inamura, Tatsuya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows in intensified livestock production systems by investigating nutrient budgets and cycling in the basin of Dianchi Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China. We conducted field surveys based on feed samplings and interviews of livestock farmers. The N and P in local and external feeds, animal body retentions, animal products and excretions were calculated at the individual level for dairy cattle, fattening pigs, breeding sows, broilers and laying hens. The N and P flows in the total livestock production system in the area were estimated by multiplying the individual N and P budgets by the number of animals. For the dairy and fattening pig productions, N and P supplied from local crops or by-products accounted for large parts of the inputs. For the other livestock categories, most of the N and P inputs depended on external resources. The N and P outputs through animal manure into the cropland were 287 and 66 kg/ha/year, respectively, which were higher than the N and P inputs into the livestock production systems from the cropland. The N and P loads from manure should be reduced for the establishment of sustainable agricultural production systems. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US$). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO 2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction. (letter)

  20. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides from feed to livestock products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The accumulation of data on radionuclide transfer are poor in Japan and those are limited to 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I released from the previous atomic bomb experiments. However, in Europe, intensive studies on environment RI level which affects the restriction of the intake for meats and milk products have been made as the measures against the environment radioactivity due to Chernobyl accident. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides to meats and milk products were estimated on a basis of the data published in the Science of the Total Environment vol.85(1989), Oxford University and CEC Radiation Protection, EUR 12608 EN, Luxembourg, 1990 in addition to the data on Exclusion of Radioactivity from foods, Environment Parameter, series No. 4. On the other hand, the transfer coefficients for Japanese were estimated using the concerned data from published reports and the environment radioactivity data reported by national and local government bodies. In this book, many new data of transfer coefficient are presented in tables along with the previous data collected by international nuclear energy agencies and respective national facilities concerned. (M.N.)

  1. The Utilization of Fungi and Their Products to Increase Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi as part of eukaryotic organisms play an important role for livestock. Some fungi are detrimental because they cause animal diseases, and some fungi are beneficial because they can improve animal productivity. The use of fungi that benefit from starting he has done as agents of biological control and to be as probiotics.Within the fungi, the use of simple technologies to high level degree for the benefit of cattle is developed. This paper describes some fungi that are beneficial and direction and suggestion to develop research on veterinary micology in Indonesia.

  2. Prioritizing alarms from sensor-based detection models in livestock production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Nielsen; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present, evaluate and discuss methods for reducing false alarms in sensor-based detection models developed for livestock production as described in the scientific literature. Papers included in this review are all peer-reviewed and present sensor-based detection...... models developed for modern livestock production with the purpose of optimizing animal health or managerial routines. The papers must present a performance for the model, but no criteria were specified for animal species or the condition sought to be detected. 34 papers published during the last 20 years...... (NBN) and Hidden phase-type Markov model, the NBN shows the greatest potential for future reduction of alerts from sensor-based detection models in livestock production. The included detection models are evaluated on three criteria; performance, time-window and similarity to determine whether...

  3. Estimation of livestock appropriation of net primary productivity in Texas Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Washington-Allen; Jody Fitzgerald; Stephanie Grounds; Faisar Jihadi; John Kretzschmar; Kathryn Ramirez; John Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The ecological state of US Drylands is unknown. This research is developing procedures to determine the impact of the ecological footprint of grazing livestock on the productive capacity of US Drylands. A pilot geodatabase was developed for the state of Texas that includes 2002 data for county boundaries, net primary productivity (NPP) derived from the Moderate...

  4. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions and mitigation options from livestock production in peri-urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Bai, Z.H.; Chadwick, D.; Hou, Y.; Qin, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Jiang, R.F.; Ma, L.

    2018-01-01

    Livestock production in peri-urban areas constitutes an important sub-sector of the agricultural production system in China, and contributes to environmental degradation and local air borne pollution contributing to smog. As a result, local policies are being implemented to safeguard the

  5. High-Density Livestock Production and Molecularly Characterized MRSA Infections in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A.; Shopsin, Bo; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Nachman, Keeve E.; Curriero, Frank C.; Rose, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: European studies suggest that living near high-density livestock production increases the risk of sequence type (ST) 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated associations between livestock production and human infection by other strain types. Objectives: We evaluated associations between MRSA molecular subgroups and high-density livestock production. Methods: We conducted a yearlong 2012 prospective study on a stratified random sample of patients with culture-confirmed MRSA infection; we oversampled patients from the Geisinger Health System with exposure to high-density livestock production in Pennsylvania. Isolates were characterized using S. aureus protein A (spa) typing and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and scn genes. We compared patients with one of two specific MRSA strains with patients with all other strains of MRSA isolates, using logistic regression that accounted for the sampling design, for two different exposure models: one based on the location of the animals (livestock model) and the other on crop field application of manure (crop field model). Results: Of 196 MRSA isolates, we identified 30 spa types, 47 PVL-negative and 15 scn-negative isolates, and no ST398 MRSA. Compared with quartiles 1–3 combined, the highest quartiles of swine livestock and dairy/veal crop field exposures were positively associated with community-onset-PVL-negative MRSA (CO-PVL-negative MRSA vs. all other MRSA), with adjusted odds ratios of 4.24 (95% CI: 1.60, 11.25) and 4.88 (95% CI: 1.40, 17.00), respectively. The association with CO-PVL-negative MRSA infection increased across quartiles of dairy/veal livestock exposure (trend p = 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that other MRSA strains, beyond ST398, may be involved in livestock-associated MRSA infection in the United States. Citation: Casey JA, Shopsin B, Cosgrove SE, Nachman KE, Curriero FC, Rose HR, Schwartz BS

  6. Livestock Production and its Impact on Nutrient Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakadevan, K.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector provides more than one third of human protein needs and is a major provider of livelihood in almost all developing countries. While providing such immense benefits to the population, poor livestock management can potentially provide harmful environmental impacts at local, regional and national levels which have not been adequately addressed in many countries with emerging economies. Twenty six percent of global land area is used for livestock production and forest lands are continuously being lost to such production. The intensification of livestock production led to large surpluses of nitrogen and phosphorus at the farm in many parts of the world with non-point source pollution of water resources that became a national concern. The sector is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing around 14.5% of all human induced GHG emissions, a major driver of use and pollution of freshwater (accounting 10% anthropogenic water use) and contributed to the loss of biodiversity. About 60% of global biomass harvested annually to support all human activity is consumed by livestock industry, undermining the sustainability of allocating such large resource to the industry.

  7. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R; de Oliveira, Sonaly D; Braga, Célia C; Brito, José Ivaldo B; de Sousa, Francisco de Assis S; de Holanda, Romildo M; Campos, João Hugo B C; de Souza, Enio P; Braga, Armando César R; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Araújo, Lincoln E

    2016-12-15

    Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. The indexes of water scarcity (WSI), water dependency (WDI) and water self-sufficiency (WSSI) were calculated for each Brazilian state. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2008) and Hoekstra and Hung (2005). The total water exports and imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.28 × 10 10 and 1.22 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 , respectively, which results in positive virtual water balance of 4.05 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 . Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1.85 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 . The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food production, except for a few products such as wheat and rice. Horticultural products (tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic) make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr. −1 (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr. −1 (1 Tg = 10 12 g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of

  10. Projections of NH3 emissions from manure generated by livestock production in China to 2030 under six mitigation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Koloutsou-Vakakis, Sotiria; Rood, Mark J; Luan, Shengji

    2017-12-31

    China's rapid urbanization, large population, and increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets, have resulted in China becoming the world's largest source of ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from livestock production. This is the first study to use provincial, condition-specific emission factors based on most recently available studies on Chinese manure management and environmental conditions. The estimated NH 3 emission temporal trends and spatial patterns are interpreted in relation to government policies affecting livestock production. Scenario analysis is used to project emissions and estimate mitigation potential of NH 3 emissions, to year 2030. We produce a 1km×1km gridded NH 3 emission inventory for 2008 based on county-level activity data, which can help identify locations of highest NH 3 emissions. The total NH 3 emissions from manure generated by livestock production in 2008 were 7.3TgNH 3 ·yr -1 (interquartile range from 6.1 to 8.6TgNH 3 ·yr -1 ), and the major sources were poultry (29.9%), pigs (28.4%), other cattle (27.9%), and dairy cattle (7.0%), while sheep and goats (3.6%), donkeys (1.3%), horses (1.2%), and mules (0.7%) had smaller contributions. From 1978 to 2008, annual NH 3 emissions fluctuated with two peaks (1996 and 2006), and total emissions increased from 2.2 to 7.3Tg·yr -1 increasing on average 4.4%·yr -1 . Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, NH 3 emissions in 2030 are expected to be 13.9TgNH 3 ·yr -1 (11.5-16.3TgNH 3 ·yr -1 ). Under mitigation scenarios, the projected emissions could be reduced by 18.9-37.3% compared to 2030 BAU emissions. This study improves our understanding of NH 3 emissions from livestock production, which is needed to guide stakeholders and policymakers to make well informed mitigation decisions for NH 3 emissions from livestock production at the country and regional levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Productivity dynamics of Livestock in southern peninsular India: A Compound growth rate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kathiravan 1 and S. Selvam 2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although India possesses the large volume of livestock, their productivity is abysmally low at global level. India, with its wide variation in geo-ecological parameters, elucidates a high variation in the productivity of its livestock, among regions. The compound growth rate of livestock productivity was worked out for the Southern Peninsular state of India, Tamil Nadu. The average productivity of milk in cross bred cows and buffaloes in Tamil Nadu was less than the national average, while the productivity desi cows was a bit a more. The annual compound growth rate of milk productivity among crossbred cows of Tamil Nadu was at meager 0.54 per cent during the period between 1998-1999 and 2006- 2007, whereas the productivity of milk in desi cows had improved from at an annual compound growth rate of 1.29 per cent. Notably, the milk productivity in buffaloes had declined at a rate of 0.29 per cent during the period under study. The annual compound growth of egg productivity in improved hens of Tamil Nadu was 20.87 per cent. The average annual productivity was 109.531 eggs, which improved from 70.623 in 1998-1999 to 197.084 in 2004-2005. Correspondingly, the productivity of desi hens also had a positive swing from the year 2003-2004 onwards. The results implied that the simulation of increased productivity, better farm financing and improved milk marketing could result in enhanced livestock production that would meet the future demands. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 68-74

  12. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  13. Rangeland livestock production: Developing the concept of sustainability on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Ruyle

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) was established in 1903 at the behest of concerned stockmen and researchers as the first facility in the United States set aside to study range livestock production. At the time, severe overgrazing of the public domain had seriously reduced carrying capacities of Southwestern rangelands. Researchers on the SRER developed and...

  14. Enabling sustainable pastoralism: policies and investments that optimise livestock production and rangeland stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R; Davies, J

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both. The current paper examines three cornerstones that have proven to be crucial for sustainable pastoralist development and for maximising the links between livestock production and environmental stewardship: strengthening pastoral capabilities and institutions, securing land tenure and natural resource governance, and ensuring equitable markets for pastoral diversity. To effectively support the dual economic-environmental roles of pastoralism requires not only optimisation of the production of ecosystem services through extensive livestock production, but also a major overhaul of the way we approach pastoralist development, and major investment in the people who are central to the system. As long as pastoralists remain marginalised, with weak rights and little access to services, their future will remain uncertain.

  15. Animal behaviour and animal nutrition science working together to support livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, S.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Within livestock production and welfare science, many of the interesting and important questions lie at the interface of traditional fields of study and benefit from an interdisciplinary approach. The effects of nutrition on the behaviour of animals have been widely studied. They range from the

  16. Integrated Assessment of Crop-Livestock Production Systems Beyond Biophysical Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masikati, Patricia; Homann Kee-Tui, Sabine; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Sisito, Gevious; Senda, Trinity; Crespo, Olivier; Nhamo, Nhamo

    2017-01-01

    Crop-livestock farming systems that are predominant in Africa, are complex with various interrelated ecological and economic factors. They involve multiple products or benefits (intended and nonintended), with trade-offs and synergies occurring both on- and off-site and varying over time.

  17. Environmental assessment tools for the evaluation and improvement of European livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halberg, N.; Werf, H.M.G.; Basset-Mens, C.; Dalgaard, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Different types of assessment tools have been developed in Europe with the purpose of determining the environmental impact of various livestock production systems at farm level. The assessment tools differ in terms of which environmental objectives are included and how indicators are constructed and

  18. Lean production of intensive cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad; Bojesen, Anders; Bramming, Pia

    2014-01-01

    turnover. This is analysed in terms of Italo Calvino's Invisible cities. It is argued that Calvino's themes and prose help us understand change as a multiplicity of temporal intensities producing ambivalence and affect. We describe this use of literary abstractions as a ‘hyperbolic social epistemology......’. Through the depiction of four intensifications of Lean Production, the metaphors of Calvino's cities show how reality and illusion; hope and poverty; dreams and death and utopia and dystopia are intricately mingled and produce temporary and equally ambivalent affects of alienation, hypocrisy, self...

  19. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Chun Lee; Chi-Min Chen; Jen-Ting Wei; Hsiu-Yi Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and egg...

  20. A method for assessing work productivity and flexibility in livestock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiou, N; Dedieu, B

    2012-05-01

    Changes affecting livestock farming systems have made farm work a central concern for both the sector and for farmers themselves. Increased pressure on farms to be competitive and productive together with farmers' demand for greater autonomy, holidays or time to spend on private activities and the family converge to underline the two key dimensions of work - productivity and flexibility - required for the assessment of work organization. This paper proposes a method called the QuaeWork (QUAlification and Evaluation of Work in livestock farms) to assess work productivity and flexibility on a farm, and its use to identify how livestock management can contribute to work organization on dairy farms. The QuaeWork method was set up through an iterative process combining surveys conducted with farmers in two regions of France, discussions with different experts and literature review. The QuaeWork was applied on a sample of seven dairy farms in the southern Massif Central in France to identify patterns of how livestock management contributes to work organization. The QuaeWork was used to analyse work organization over the year through a systemic approach to the farm, integrating interactions between herd and land management, workforce composition, equipment facilities and combinations of activities through a characterization of 'who does what, when and for how long'. The criteria for assessing work productivity were work duration (routine work, seasonal work) and work efficiency (per livestock unit or hectare of utilized agricultural area). The criteria for assessing work flexibility were room for manoeuvre and adjustments to internal and external events. The three main patterns of livestock management practices to work organization were identified. In pattern-1, farmers used indoor stable feeding practices with delegated work, with moderate room for manoeuvre and efficiency. In pattern-3, farmers used simplified milking, reproduction and breeding practices to seasonalize

  1. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  3. A perspective on livestock production and greenhouse gasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must ..... their productive herd life declined from 7.9 lactations in 1970 to 2.3 lactations in 2003 ... changed in recent years, leading to more balanced breeding objectives .... on production traits, using the Afrikaner as the dam line and European ...

  4. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems.

  5. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems

  6. Parasitological measures to characterize different livestock production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Mejer, H.; Enemark, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    OF practices include outdoor production with associated higher risks of parasites. In dairy cattle production, changes are less dramatic and mostly related to self-sufficiency with feedstuffs and increased use of grazing. But in all cases, there is a reduced reliance on external input, including restrictions...... work done on diets, bioactive plants, selective breeding and pasture management. For this purpose we need better tools to overall characterize farms with regard to parasites, to determine the need for interventions, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a range of alternative approaches on-farm....

  7. Supporting the production of quality livestock vaccines for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will support technology transfer and establishment of product formulation and quality systems that will enable the Kenyan Institute to produce and register three new vaccines of international quality standards. This project will also pilot a model for bulk antigen processing for other vaccine types in Africa that can ...

  8. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, for sustainable production and export of cotton, it was imperative to ... used to supplement the mulch from the banana trash and sometimes "tete" .... 17.7. Source. Stephens. 1937. Table 4 Effect of chemical preservatives on nitrogen content in cattle dung and urine. Treatment. Dung. Urine .%. %. Control. 0.59. 2.0.

  9. The changing role of shrubs in rangeland-based livestock production systems: Can shrubs increase our forage supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected global increases in ruminant numbers and loss of native grasslands will present a number of challenges for livestock agriculture. Escalated demand for livestock products may stimulate interest in using shrubs on western rangelands. A paradigm shift is needed to change the role of shrubs in...

  10. Combining Livestock Production Information in a Process-Based Vegetation Model to Reconstruct the History of Grassland Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; hide

    2016-01-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5deg by 0.5deg. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 19012012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, risingCO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 x 10(exp 6) km(exp 2) in 1901 to 12.3 x 10(exp 6) kmI(exp 2) in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and inter-annual variability of grassland productivity at global

  11. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  12. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of livestock condemned on... DISPOSAL OF CONDEMNED OR OTHER INEDIBLE PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.7 Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock which...

  13. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chun Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011–2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Keywords: Agricultural authorities, Livestock products, Post-market monitoring, Veterinary drug residues

  14. Dietary manipulations for improving productivity in ruminant livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beever, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Against a background of the major aspects of forage utilization by the rumen ecosystem and host animal metabolism, the need to manipulate the nature of the diet in order to improve animal productivity is reviewed. A number of criteria by which possible dietary manipulants should be considered are provided. The role of feed additives to manipulate rumen fermentation characteristics with respect to volatile fatty acid production, suppression of methanogenesis, and stimulation of microbial protein synthesis is discussed, and the possible benefits of changing the rumen microflora (e.g. by defaunation) are considered. The potential of nitrogen, energy and specific amino acid supplements to enhance rumen fermentation and/or nutrient absorption is examined and the paper concludes with consideration of possible areas where dietary manipulation could be beneficial, but to date suitable technology has not been satisfactorily developed. In this context, the nutritional effect of tannins, including enhancement of pronutritional and diminution of antinutritional factors, the suppression of rumen proteolysis and the ruminal protection of starch are examined. (author). 74 refs, 1 tab

  15. Forage quality declines with rising temperatures, with implications for livestock production and methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark A.; Davis, Aaron P.; Chagunda, Mizeck G. G.; Manning, Pete

    2017-03-01

    Livestock numbers are increasing to supply the growing demand for meat-rich diets. The sustainability of this trend has been questioned, and future environmental changes, such as climate change, may cause some regions to become less suitable for livestock. Livestock and wild herbivores are strongly dependent on the nutritional chemistry of forage plants. Nutrition is positively linked to weight gains, milk production and reproductive success, and nutrition is also a key determinant of enteric methane production. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the effects of growing conditions on forage quality by compiling published measurements of grass nutritive value and combining these data with climatic, edaphic and management information. We found that forage nutritive value was reduced at higher temperatures and increased by nitrogen fertiliser addition, likely driven by a combination of changes to species identity and changes to physiology and phenology. These relationships were combined with multiple published empirical models to estimate forage- and temperature-driven changes to cattle enteric methane production. This suggested a previously undescribed positive climate change feedback, where elevated temperatures reduce grass nutritive value and correspondingly may increase methane production by 0.9 % with a 1 °C temperature rise and 4.5 % with a 5 °C rise (model average), thus creating an additional climate forcing effect. Future methane production increases are expected to be largest in parts of North America, central and eastern Europe and Asia, with the geographical extent of hotspots increasing under a high emissions scenario. These estimates require refinement and a greater knowledge of the abundance, size, feeding regime and location of cattle, and the representation of heat stress should be included in future modelling work. However, our results indicate that the cultivation of more nutritious forage plants and reduced livestock farming in warming regions

  16. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D M; Galindo, F A; Murgueitio, E

    2013-11-22

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people working there. Conservation need not just involve tiny islands of natural vegetation in a barren world of agriculture, as there can be great increases in biodiversity in farmed areas. Herbivores, especially ruminants that consume materials inedible by humans, are important for human food in the future. However, their diet should not be just ground-level plants. Silvopastoral systems, pastures with shrubs and trees as well as herbage, are described which are normally more productive than pasture alone. When compared with widely used livestock production systems, silvopastoral systems can provide efficient feed conversion, higher biodiversity, enhanced connectivity between habitat patches and better animal welfare, so they can replace existing systems in many parts of the world and should be further developed.

  17. Feeding strategies for improving productivity of ruminant livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The primary function of the FAO/IAEA Programme on Animal Production and Health is to improve the capability of animal production and veterinary institutes in developing countries to conduct research into solving the problems of low animal productivity. The main objective of the Advisory Group Meeting was to review recent developments in ruminant nutrition research and identify developments and techniques that could be of use to developing Member States to increase livestock productivity. The report contains papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Smart investments in sustainable food production: revisiting mixed crop-livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Thornton, P K; Notenbaert, A M; Wood, S; Msangi, S; Freeman, H A; Bossio, D; Dixon, J; Peters, M; van de Steeg, J; Lynam, J; Parthasarathy Rao, P; Macmillan, S; Gerard, B; McDermott, J; Seré, C; Rosegrant, M

    2010-02-12

    Farmers in mixed crop-livestock systems produce about half of the world's food. In small holdings around the world, livestock are reared mostly on grass, browse, and nonfood biomass from maize, millet, rice, and sorghum crops and in their turn supply manure and traction for future crops. Animals act as insurance against hard times and supply farmers with a source of regular income from sales of milk, eggs, and other products. Thus, faced with population growth and climate change, small-holder farmers should be the first target for policies to intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and technologies.

  19. Insect proteins as a potential source of antimicrobial peptides in livestock production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, A; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2017-01-01

    in the nutrition of different livestock. The great potential for the use of AMPs in animal production is primarily associated with the growing problem of antibiotics resistance, which has triggered the search for alternatives to antibiotics in livestock production. The review presents the current knowledge...... been identified in different organisms, including plants, fungi, bacteria and animals. Insects are a primary source of AMPs which are considered as not resulting in the development of natural bacterial resistance. In general, they are characterized as heat-stable with no adverse effects on eukaryotic...... cells. These characteristics contribute to the potential use of these proteins in human and veterinary medicine and in animal nutrition. Depending on their mode of action, insect AMPs may be applied as single peptides, as a complex of different AMPs and as an active fraction of insect proteins...

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  1. Matching Social and Biophysical Scales in Extensive Livestock Production as a Basis for Adaptation to Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, N. F.; Bestelmeyer, B.

    2015-12-01

    Global livestock production is heterogeneous, and its benefits and costs vary widely across global contexts. Extensive grazing lands (or rangelands) constitute the vast majority of the land dedicated to livestock production globally, but they are relatively minor contributors to livestock-related environmental impacts. Indeed, the greatest potential for environmental damage in these lands lies in their potential for conversion to other uses, including agriculture, mining, energy production and urban development. Managing such conversion requires improving the sustainability of livestock production in the face of fragmentation, ecological and economic marginality and climate change. We present research from Mongolia and the United States demonstrating methods of improving outcomes on rangelands by improving the fit between the scales of social and biophysical processes. Especially in arid and semi-arid settings, rangelands exhibit highly variable productivity over space and time and non-linear or threshold dynamics in vegetation; climate change is projected to exacerbate these challenges and, in some cases, diminish overall productivity. Policy and governance frameworks that enable landscape-scale management and administration enable range livestock producers to adapt to these conditions. Similarly, livestock breeds that have evolved to withstand climate and vegetation change improve producers' prospects in the face of increasing variability and declining productivity. A focus on the relationships among primary production, animal production, spatial connectivity, and scale must underpin adaptation strategies in rangelands.

  2. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, J.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  3. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Chen, Chi-Min; Wei, Jen-Ting; Chiu, Hsiu-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011-2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Leaching of Copper and Zinc in a Garden Soil Receiving Poultry and Livestock Manures from Intensive Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The leaching characteristics of a garden soil may be greatly affected by application of poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming.Packed soil columns of a garden soil(CK)and the soils after respectively receiving 2% pig manure (PM),chicken manure(CM),and commercial organic manure(OM)were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 and 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solutions.The leachate EC(electric conductivity)values gradually increased at the beginning and then reached a stable value when the soil columns were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution.The leachate EC values showed a peak-shape when leached with 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solution.In all the soil columns,the pH values of the leachates decreased with increase of displacement volumes when the Ca(NO3)2 solution was used.The total amounts of Cu and Zn eluted from the four soil columns were significantly correlated with the extracted soil Cu and Zn concentrations by 1.0 mol L-1 NH4NO3,but were not correlated with the leachate dissolved organic carbon(DOC)contents.The Zn concentration in the leachate of the PM-treated soil column with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution was above the Quality Standard III for Ground Water of China(GB/T 14848-93,Zn < 1.0 mg L-1).When compared with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2,the EDTA solution significantly accelerated Cu and Zn elutions in the manure-treated columns.This suggested that applying poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming to farmland might pose a threat to the groundwater quality.

  6. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests targeting females in livestock production programming may better ensure improvements

  7. International trade and Austria's livestock system: Direct and hidden carbon emission flows associated with production and consumption of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilova, Olga; Jonas, Matthias; Erb, Karlheinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created a framework of responsibilities and mechanisms to mitigate climate change by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The Protocol stipulates accounting and reporting of GHG emissions and removals, such as energy use, industrial processes, agriculture, waste and net emissions resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities. Emissions reported according to the rules set by the Kyoto Protocol do not include GHG emissions outside a country's boundaries resulting from the production of imported goods or services. As a result, GHG accounts constructed according to the Kyoto Protocol reflect the GHG emissions resulting from the production system of a country, but not all the emissions resulting from the consumption of goods and services within the country. However, as previous studies demonstrate, a country's emission balance changes remarkably if emissions related to goods or services imported and exported are taken into account. Here, we go beyond the aforementioned studies which mainly focus on GHG emissions from fossil fuel combustion. We assess, in a first-order approach, upstream emissions that result from LULUC activities outside a country while the produced goods are consumed within the country. In our study we focus on Austria's livestock system to elucidate the difference between production and consumption-related emissions accounting approaches. We study direct and 'hidden' (embodied) GHG emissions associated with Austria's bilateral trade in livestock and livestock-related products, based on the integration of full carbon accounting (FCA) and life cycle analysis (LCA). (author)

  8. Radiotracer studies of agrochemical residues in meat, milk and related products of livestock and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The joint FAO/IAEA programme was initiated in 1981 and terminates with this report. The specific objectives of the programme have been to evaluate the magnitude, fate and significance of agricultural chemical residues in edible tissues and by-products of livestock and poultry, aided by radiotracer techniques. It was anticipated that the data arising from studies conducted under this programme would be useful in assessing the toxicological significance of studied chemicals to exposed animals and to humans who may consume potentially polluted meat, milk or eggs. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  10. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leip, Adrian; Grizzetti, Bruna; Weiss, Franz; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Sutton, Mark A; Simpson, David; De Vries, Wim; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens. (letter)

  11. The Food Safety of Livestock Products (Meatball, Corned Beef, Beef Burger and Sausage Studied from Heavy Metal Residues Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Harlia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of animal husbandry improvements are to increase both the quality and the quantity of livestock production and to ensure the safety of the product. It is necessarry for consumers to pay attention to the food safety of livestock product because it is related to human's health. The research was conducted to determine the food safety of livestock product condition by detecting heavy metal residues on several food products from livestock like meatball, corned beef, burger’s beef, and sausages. This research was explored by using survey's method and purposive technique sampling, then the resulted data were descriptively analyzed. The observed variables were heavy metal contents such as Plumbum (Pb and Cadmium (Cd in which being measured by using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometri . The result showed that in general, heavy metal residue of Pb from several livestock products (meatball, corned beef, beef burger, and sausages were smaller than Maximum Residue Limit (MRL, while the Cd’s residue was partly over the MRL concentration, therefore further action has to be taken as it affects the human's health. (Animal Production 12(1: 50-54 (2010 Key words : food safety, MRL, heavy metal Pb, Cd.

  12. On resource use in food production systems : the value of livestock as 'rest-stream upgrading system'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, S

    2004-01-01

    A large part of the world's natural resources is used for the production of food for the world's population. The production of meat in particular is assumed to put a large claim on resources. On the other hand, livestock is often fed with residues from the food industry, so meat production can be

  13. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of lean meat (20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urban Livestock Keeping in the City of Nairobi: Diversity of Production Systems, Supply Chains, and Their Disease Management and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Fèvre, Eric M; Muinde, Patrick; Murungi, Maurice K; Kiambi, Stella; Akoko, James; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors. Supply chain flow diagrams and thematic analysis of the data was done. Results of the study show a large variability of livestock keeping in Nairobi. The majority were small scale with: Supply chain analysis indicated that most dairy farmers sold milk directly to consumers due to "lack of trust" of these in traders. Broiler and pig farmers sold mainly to traders but are dependent on few large dominating companies for their replacement or distribution of products. Selling directly to retailers or consumers (including own consumption), with backyard slaughtering, were important chains for small-scale pig, sheep and goat, and indigenous chicken keepers. Important disease risk practices identified were associated with consumption of dead and sick animals, with underground network of brokers operating for ruminant products. Qualified trained health managers were used mainly by dairy farmers, and large commercial poultry and pig farmers, while use of unqualified health managers or no treatment were common in small-scale farming. Control of urban livestock keepers was reported difficult due to their "feeling of being outlaws," "lack of trust" in government, "inaccessibility" in informal settlements, "lack of government funding," or "understaffing." Findings are useful for designing policies to help to control urban livestock production and

  15. INCOME AND WELFARE INDICATORS OF SLOVENIAN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN VIEW OF FUTURE ACCESION TO THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stane Kavčič

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian livestock production is facing different agricultural policy and economic environment as is the case in EU. Despite modest reforms of national agricultural policy it is still incomparable with common market organisations of CAP. Different levels of market-price support for major livestock commodities is another aggravating circumstance for efficient adjustment. Therefore different policy measures have to be taken into account simultaneously for policy relevant analysis (income effects, welfare efficiency. Applying APAS-PAM agricultural sector model for Slovenian agriculture the most important income and welfare effects of Slovenian EU accession on producers, consumers and taxpayers as well as net welfare effects for baseline and three accession scenarios have been simulated. Results obtained show potential improvement of incomes in dairy farming and cattle fattening only for most optimistic accession scenario (complete adoption of Agenda 2000 CAP, while deterioration is foreseen in pig and poultry farming irrespective of accession conditions. Producer surplus indicates similar trends, while consumers are expected to be beneficiaries due to lower market-price support. Main part of producer income support burden will be transferred to taxpayers. Irrespective of accession scenario net welfare effects for pork and poultry are favourable, while opposite could happen in milk and beef sectors.

  16. Impacts of Climate Trends and Variability on Livestock Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, A.; Munger, J.; Gibbs, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cattle systems of Brazil are of major economic and environmental importance. They occupy ¼ of the land surface of the country, account for over 15 billion USD of annual revenue through the sale of beef, leather, and milk, are closely associated with deforestation, and have been projected to substantially grow in the coming decades. Sustainable intensification of production in the sector could help to limit environmental harm from increased production, but productivity growth could be inhibited by climate change. Gauging the potential future impacts of climate change on the Brazilian livestock sector can be aided by examining past evidence of the link between climate and cattle production and productivity. We use statistical techniques to investigate the contribution of climate variability and climate change to variability in cattle system output in Brazil's municipalities over the period 1974 to 2013. We find significant impacts of both temperature and precipitation variability and temperature trends on municipality-level exports and the production of both milk and beef. Pasture productivity, represented by a vegetation index, also varies significantly with climate shocks. In some regions, losses from exposure to climate trends were of comparable magnitude to technology and/or market-driven productivity gains over the study period.

  17. The role of a German multi-stakeholder standard for livestock products derived from non-GMO feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venus, Thomas J.; Drabik, Dusan; Wesseler, Justus

    2018-01-01

    In Germany, products derived from livestock who were fed GMO are not required to be labeled as GMO. However, non-GMO labeling requires compliance with the national public non-GMO production standard, including a confirmation that no GM feed was used. In addition to the national standard, firms can

  18. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  19. Vegetable, livestock and agroindustrial products and byproducts: An alternative tilapia feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Salas, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the culture of tilapia limited supply and high cost of fish meal have forced nutritionists to consider alternative sources of protein. Due to the importance of the products and by-products in fish feed, this paper aims to show the alternatives that have been used to partially or totally replace fish meal and soybean meal in tilapia growing. This paper showsthe maximum or optimal use of vegetable by-products for tilapia as cottonseed meal, sunflower, canola, soybean and Leucaena. It also deals with the inclusion with agro-industrial by-product such as corn, sorghum, coffee pulp, cocoa, wheat and citrus. The present study also deals with the use of aquatic plants such as Lemna and Azolla, single-celled plant protein source as antibiotics and probiotics. Finally, this paper also refers to animal by-products as silage, manure and earthworm usage. There is a high potential for using plant, livestock and agro-industrial by-products in fresh and processed food for the tilapia, but depending on the product, pretreatment to improve its balance of nutrients or eliminate anti-nutritional factors may be required.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with food animals: a United States perspective of livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Alan G; Cissell, Robin; Liamthong, S

    2007-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial compounds in food animal production provides demonstrated benefits, including improved animal health, higher production and, in some cases, reduction in foodborne pathogens. However, use of antibiotics for agricultural purposes, particularly for growth enhancement, has come under much scrutiny, as it has been shown to contribute to the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human significance. The transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and selection for resistant bacteria can occur through a variety of mechanisms, which may not always be linked to specific antibiotic use. Prevalence data may provide some perspective on occurrence and changes in resistance over time; however, the reasons are diverse and complex. Much consideration has been given this issue on both domestic and international fronts, and various countries have enacted or are considering tighter restrictions or bans on some types of antibiotic use in food animal production. In some cases, banning the use of growth-promoting antibiotics appears to have resulted in decreases in prevalence of some drug resistant bacteria; however, subsequent increases in animal morbidity and mortality, particularly in young animals, have sometimes resulted in higher use of therapeutic antibiotics, which often come from drug families of greater relevance to human medicine. While it is clear that use of antibiotics can over time result in significant pools of resistance genes among bacteria, including human pathogens, the risk posed to humans by resistant organisms from farms and livestock has not been clearly defined. As livestock producers, animal health experts, the medical community, and government agencies consider effective strategies for control, it is critical that science-based information provide the basis for such considerations, and that the risks, benefits, and feasibility of such strategies are fully considered, so that human and animal health can be maintained while

  1. Prospects for dedicated energy crop production and attitudes towards agricultural straw use: The case of livestock farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.; Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Second generation biofuels utilising agricultural by-products (e.g. straw), or dedicated energy crops (DECs) produced on ‘marginal’ land, have been called for. A structured telephone survey of 263 livestock farmers, predominantly located in the west or ‘marginal’ upland areas of England captured data on attitudes towards straw use and DECs. Combined with farm physical and business data, the survey results show that 7.2% and 6.3% of farmers would respectively consider growing SRC and miscanthus, producing respective maximum potential English crop areas of 54,603 ha and 43,859 ha. If higher market prices for straw occurred, most livestock farmers would continue to buy straw. Reasons for not being willing to consider growing DECs include concerns over land quality, committing land for a long time period, lack of appropriate machinery, profitability, and time to financial return; a range of moral, land quality, production conflict and lack of crop knowledge factors were also cited. Results demonstrate limited potential for the production of DECs on livestock farms in England. Changes in policy support to address farmer concerns with respect to DECs will be required to incentivise farmers to increase energy crop production. Policy support for DEC production must be cognisant of farm-level economic, tenancy and personal objectives. - Highlights: • Survey of English livestock farms determining attitudes to dedicated energy crops. • 6.3% to 7.2% of surveyed farmers would consider growing energy crops. • Limited potential for dedicated energy crops on livestock farms in England. • Livestock farmers would continue to buy straw, even at higher market prices. • Wide range of reasons given for farmers’ decisions related to energy crops

  2. Flower production of Aster tripolium is affected by behavioral differences in livestock species and stocking densities : the role of activity and selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.

    Semi-natural grasslands are an important habitat for endangered plant and animal species. In grasslands, low-intensity livestock grazing is frequently applied as a tool for nature conservation. We aim to investigate how different livestock species in various densities influence the state and flower

  3. Production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori Prefecture. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from atomic energy facilities in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rates of livestock feed by domestic animals are important factors for the estimation of radioactive materials transfers to them. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and layers. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and layers were fed with compound feeds made of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The grass and field corn were assumed to be locally produced. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 20.4 kg-fresh d -1 and 6.8 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. Those for beef cattle were 3.1 kg-fresh d -1 and 0.5 kg-fresh d -1 of grass and field corn, respectively. All these rates were lower than those used in the environmental assessment of the reprocessing plant which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. (author)

  4. Historical extension of operational NDVI products for livestock insurance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; Meroni, Michele; Shee, Apurba; Mude, Andrew G.; Woodard, Joshua; de Bie, C. A. J. M. (Kees); Rembold, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Droughts induce livestock losses that severely affect Kenyan pastoralists. Recent index insurance schemes have the potential of being a viable tool for insuring pastoralists against drought-related risk. Such schemes require as input a forage scarcity (or drought) index that can be reliably updated in near real-time, and that strongly relates to livestock mortality. Generally, a long record (>25 years) of the index is needed to correctly estimate mortality risk and calculate the related insurance premium. Data from current operational satellites used for large-scale vegetation monitoring span over a maximum of 15 years, a time period that is considered insufficient for accurate premium computation. This study examines how operational NDVI datasets compare to, and could be combined with the non-operational recently constructed 30-year GIMMS AVHRR record (1981-2011) to provide a near-real time drought index with a long term archive for the arid lands of Kenya. We compared six freely available, near-real time NDVI products: five from MODIS and one from SPOT-VEGETATION. Prior to comparison, all datasets were averaged in time for the two vegetative seasons in Kenya, and aggregated spatially at the administrative division level at which the insurance is offered. The feasibility of extending the resulting aggregated drought indices back in time was assessed using jackknifed R2 statistics (leave-one-year-out) for the overlapping period 2002-2011. We found that division-specific models were more effective than a global model for linking the division-level temporal variability of the index between NDVI products. Based on our results, good scope exists for historically extending the aggregated drought index, thus providing a longer operational record for insurance purposes. We showed that this extension may have large effects on the calculated insurance premium. Finally, we discuss several possible improvements to the drought index.

  5. A study on monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in livestock wastewater and treatment by radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Seung Woon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, and effective monitoring and the investigation of treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals from the influent and effluent of livestock wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) and by-product with radiation processing by LC/ESI-MS/MS was performed. Thirteen pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, growth promoters and disinfectants were assayed from twelve WWTPs in South Korea. The established method could be used to determine low concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. From few influents of live-stock WWTPs, chlortetracycline and acetaminophen were detected with the highest concentration among the monitoring pharmaceuticals. And also lincomycin, sufathiazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, acetyl salicylic acid, tylosin, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde were detected from the influents of WWTPs

  6. A study on monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in livestock wastewater and treatment by radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung Woon

    2010-05-01

    In this study, and effective monitoring and the investigation of treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals from the influent and effluent of livestock wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) and by-product with radiation processing by LC/ESI-MS/MS was performed. Thirteen pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, growth promoters and disinfectants were assayed from twelve WWTPs in South Korea. The established method could be used to determine low concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. From few influents of live-stock WWTPs, chlortetracycline and acetaminophen were detected with the highest concentration among the monitoring pharmaceuticals. And also lincomycin, sufathiazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, acetyl salicylic acid, tylosin, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde were detected from the influents of WWTPs

  7. Climate metrics and the carbon footprint of livestock products: where’s the beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U. Martin; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Cederberg, Christel; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bryngelsson, David

    2015-03-01

    The livestock sector is estimated to account for 15% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 80% of which originate from ruminant animal systems due to high emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management. However, recent analyses have argued that the carbon footprint (CF) of ruminant meat and dairy products are substantially reduced if one adopts alternative metrics for comparing emissions of GHGs—e.g., the 100 year global temperature change potential (GTP100), instead of the commonly used 100 year global warming potential (GWP100)—due to a lower valuation of CH4 emissions. This raises the question of which metric to use. Ideally, the choice of metric should be related to a climate policy goal. Here, we argue that basing current GHG metrics solely on temperature impact 100 years into the future is inconsistent with the current global climate goal of limiting warming to 2 °C, a limit that is likely to be reached well within 100 years. A reasonable GTP value for CH4, accounting for current projections for when 2 °C warming will be reached, is about 18, leading to a current CF of 19 kg CO2-eq. per kilo beef (carcass weight, average European system), 20% lower than if evaluated using GWP100. Further, we show that an application of the GTP metric consistent with a 2 °C climate limit leads to the valuation of CH4 increasing rapidly over time as the temperature ceiling is approached. This means that the CF for beef would rise by around 2.5% per year in the coming decades, surpassing the GWP based footprint in only ten years. Consequently, the impact on the livestock sector of substituting GTPs for GWPs would be modest in the near term, but could potentially be very large in the future due to a much higher (>50%) and rapidly appreciating CF.

  8. Heat stress: Impact on livestock well-being and productivity and mitigation strategies to alleviate the negative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress (HS) is a multi-factorial problem that negatively impacts livestock health and productivity and is closely linked with animal welfare. While HS may not be harmful when animals are able to adapt, the physiological changes that occur to ensure survival may impede the efficient conversion o...

  9. Prioritizing alarms from sensor-based detection models in livestock production - A review on model performance and alarm reducing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Sylow; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present, evaluate and discuss methods for reducing false alarms in sensor-based detection models developed for livestock production as described in the scientific literature. Papers included in this review are all peer-reviewed and present sensor-based detection...

  10. Drugs and natural products: From plants and livestock to human therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants toxic to livestock species have a significantly negative impact on agriculture but can be an important source of bioactive molecules for use in medicine. The initial research on plant toxicity is focused on the response to the poisoning and the specific livestock species impacted by the toxic...

  11. The Contribution of Livestock in Soil Productivity, Biodiversity, Land Use, and Welfare Change in Nduuri Embu, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang'ara, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Nduuri is situated in Runyenjes Division of Embu district in South East of Mt Kenya. Majority of farms in Nduuri are scale mixed with coffee as main cash crop. Livestock production especially cattle dairy has been only second to coffee in economic importance . Due to decline in coffee price and breakdown of milk marketing channel, the standard of living and land use system has changed. A survey was therefore conducted in this area to determine the contribution of livestock to this changes. the survey inquired among others the Household sources of income, land size and distribution in various farm uses, livestock species and their management, crop produced and their role in the household, Manure generated its fate and effect in the farm integrity as animal pollution decline. The result indicated that coffee was the mainstay of the household economy, but this is shifting to livestock due to low coffee revenue as a result of poor price. since in some farms need for revenue outstrips the normal from dairy production sales, the milking cows are also being sold to meet large domestic need. This reduces the livestock population and the manure generated in the farm that is used for improvement of coffee an food crop production. This then break the farm nutrient cycle that result in soil low fertility, decline in crop production, changes in biodiversity, land use system and decline in household food security and livelihood. It was concluded that there is need for restoring the nutrient cycle through restocking with dairy cattle as a matter of policy in future when the coffee price improve as part of coffee production improvement and poverty alleviation strategy

  12. Sustainable livestock production: Low emission farm – The innovative combination of nutrient, emission and waste management with special emphasis on Chinese pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaufmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global livestock production is going to be more and more sophisticated in order to improve efficiency needed to supply the rising demand for animal protein of a growing, more urban and affluent population. To cope with the rising public importance of sustainability is a big challenge for all animal farmers and more industrialized operations especially. Confined animal farming operations (CAFO are seen very critical by many consumers with regard to their sustainability performance, however, the need to improve the sustainability performance especially in the ecological and social dimension exists at both ends of the intensity, i.e., also for the small holder and family owned animal farming models. As in livestock operations, feed and manure contribute the majority to the three most critical environmental impact categories global warming potential (GWP, acidification (AP and eutrophication potential (EP any effort for improvement should start there. Intelligent combination of nutrient-, emission- and waste management in an integrated low emission farm (LEF concept not only significantly reduces the environmental footprint in the ecological dimension of sustainability, but by producing renewable energy (heat, electricity, biomethane with animal manure as major feedstock in an anaerobic digester also the economic dimension can be improved. Model calculations using new software show the ecological improvement potential of low protein diets using more supplemented amino acids for the Chinese pig production. The ecological impact of producing biogas or upgraded biomethane, of further treatment of the digestate and producing defined fertilizers is discussed. Finally, the LEF concept allows the integration of an insect protein plant module which offers additional ecological and economical sustainability improvement potential in the future. Active stakeholder communication about implementation steps of LEF examples improves also the social aspect of

  13. Biomarkers of Thermal Adaptation: New Tools in Sustainable Livestock Production under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo, A; Lamy, E; Pinheiro, CC; Lopes, OS; Capela e Silva, F; Pereira, A

    2015-01-01

    Climate changes have been identified as one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats to the planet and humanity. The increase of extreme weather events, such as prolonged droughts, extreme ambient temperatures or periods with high and intensive precipitation has effects on animal production systems. Crops, and consequently forage productivity and availability are compromised, the risk of new diseases increase, and animal production is impaired (growth, reproductive performan...

  14. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (Plean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (Pproduction system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  15. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  16. Mycotoxins in ethanol co-products: modeling economic impacts on the livestock industry and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Munkvold, Gary P

    2008-06-11

    The rapidly expanding U.S. ethanol industry is generating a growing supply of co-products, mostly in the form of dried distillers' grain and solubles (DDGS) or wet distillers' grains (WDG). In the United States, 90% of the co-products of maize-based ethanol are fed to livestock. An unintended consequence is that animals are likely to be fed higher levels of mycotoxins, which are concentrated up to three times in DDGS compared to grain. The model developed in this study estimates current losses to the swine industry from weight gain reduction due to fumonisins in added DDGS at $9 million ($2-18 million) annually. If there is complete market penetration of DDGS in swine feed with 20% DDGS inclusion in swine feed and fumonisins are not controlled, losses may increase to $147 million ($29-293 million) annually. These values represent only those losses attributable to one mycotoxin on one adverse outcome on one species. The total loss due to mycotoxins in DDGS could be significantly higher due to additive or multiplicative effects of multiple mycotoxins on animal health. If mycotoxin surveillance is implemented by ethanol producers, losses are shifted among multiple stakeholders. Solutions to this problem include methods to reduce mycotoxin contamination in both pre- and postharvest maize.

  17. Relationships between stocking rate, livestock production systems and Alpine grasslands management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sturaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to identify the relationships between stocking rate, management system, topographic conditions and weed encroachment of summer pastures in “Lessinia”, a pre-Alpine area in the Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy. Using the data from a field survey on 46 summer pastures (30 with dairy cows and 16 with other bovine categories, various ANOVA/ANCOVA models were used to test the effects on stocking rate of livestock category, supplementary concentrate feeding, and pasture weed encroachment, slope and elevation. Stocking rate was higher in summer pastures with dairy cows than in those with other bovine categories, and in pastures with moderate slopes than in those with higher ones, but was unaffected by supplementary concentrate feeding, altitude and weed encroachment. This indicates that in the considered areas stocking rate is not constrained by pasture productivity and is kept at sub-optimal levels. Future research is needed to make more clear the effects that the present management status may have on the evolution of pastures productivity and biodiversity value.

  18. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILKING LIVESTOCK AND MILK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milking livestock and milk production in Romania during the period 20072-012 and to establish the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat. The methods used in this study were: the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. While the number of dairy cows declined by 30 %, accounting for 1,265 thou heads in 2012, the number of female sheep and goats increased by 45 % reaching 8,726 thou heads. The farm size is very small, 1-2 cows/farm for 59 % holdings, 3-9 cows/farm for 38 % holdings and over 10 cows for only 3 % farms and the extensive technology is the most practiced one. Milk production declined by 20 %, accounting for 44,172 thou hl in 2012, of which 86 % is produced by cows. Milk production value contributes by 32 % to agricultural production value. Cow milk yield is small, only 3,417 kg/cow in 2012 and in decline. Only about 22 % of milk is delivered to dairies and the remaining is consumed on farm and directly sold in the market because of the low milk farm gate price and milk quality. The producer's price is the lowest in the EU, accounting for Euro 29.84/100 milk kg. As a conclusion, to rehabilitate the sector of milk producing, the farmers' associative forms are required to join the capital and financial resources, to apply for EU funding to modernize the farms, to produce a higher production and assure a high profitability and competitiveness.

  19. Urban Livestock Keeping in the City of Nairobi: Diversity of Production Systems, Supply Chains, and Their Disease Management and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alarcon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors. Supply chain flow diagrams and thematic analysis of the data was done. Results of the study show a large variability of livestock keeping in Nairobi. The majority were small scale with: <5 dairy cows, 1–6 dairy goats, <10 small ruminants, <20 pigs, 200–500 broilers, 300–500 layers, <10 indigenous chickens, or <20 rabbits. Beef keeping was mainly described as a “by the way” system or done by traders to fatten animals for 3 month. Supply chain analysis indicated that most dairy farmers sold milk directly to consumers due to “lack of trust” of these in traders. Broiler and pig farmers sold mainly to traders but are dependent on few large dominating companies for their replacement or distribution of products. Selling directly to retailers or consumers (including own consumption, with backyard slaughtering, were important chains for small-scale pig, sheep and goat, and indigenous chicken keepers. Important disease risk practices identified were associated with consumption of dead and sick animals, with underground network of brokers operating for ruminant products. Qualified trained health managers were used mainly by dairy farmers, and large commercial poultry and pig farmers, while use of unqualified health managers or no treatment were common in small-scale farming. Control of urban livestock

  20. Guidelines for sustainable manure management in Asian livestock production systems. A publication prepared under the framework of the RCA project on Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated approach for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment' (RAS/5/044). Technical Cooperation projects are technology transfer initiatives, designed to address specific priorities identified by Member States. The specific objectives of this project were: (a) to improve animal productivity and decrease discharges of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (b) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies to improve animal productivity through the use of better selection criteria for offspring from cross-breeding programmes, optimum utilization of appropriate indigenous cows, benchmarking for growth and reproduction, and improving procedures for management, nutrition and healthcare programmes in dairy farms. The first meeting to plan project activities was hosted by the Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, and was held from 4 to 8 April 2005. It was attended by 23 nominated project counterparts from 12 RCA Member States and was supported by three IAEA experts. One of the conclusions from this meeting was that there was considerable scope and need for improving current manure management practices in the region to enhance the productive recycling of ingested nutrients in animal production systems, which in addition to increasing livestock and crop productivity will decrease environment pollution. It was agreed that there was a need to focus on improving the nutritional and manure management in integrated livestock systems, and that it was

  1. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) on grazing provision and livestock production in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ecosystems (Robles and Chapin, 1995). Invasive alien tree species and shrubs negatively affect ecosystems in various ways, and often result in a decline in benefits that people derive from the functioning of these systems ? or ecosystem services... the ecological impacts of the invasive alien plant species, Acacia mearnsii, on the function and productivity of rangelands in South Africa and their ability to sustain livestock production. AIM The central aim of this research is to develop a deeper...

  2. Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

  3. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of single hazard surveillance in livestock production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuezhen; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is essential for surveillance organizations (such as food safety authorities) when making scientifically based decisions on optimization of resource allocation. To enable this, quantitative decision support tools are required at two levels of analysis: (1) single-hazard surveillance system and (2) surveillance portfolio. This paper addresses the first level by presenting a conceptual approach for the economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems. The concept includes objective and subjective aspects of single-hazard surveillance system analysis: (1) a simulation part to derive an efficient set of surveillance setups based on the technical surveillance performance parameters (TSPPs) and the corresponding surveillance costs, i.e., objective analysis, and (2) a multi-criteria decision making model to evaluate the impacts of the hazard surveillance, i.e., subjective analysis. The conceptual approach was checked for (1) conceptual validity and (2) data validity. Issues regarding the practical use of the approach, particularly the data requirement, were discussed. We concluded that the conceptual approach is scientifically credible for economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems and that the practicability of the approach depends on data availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thin-layer chromatographic determination of erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics in livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, M; Solly, R; Lymburn, M; Clear, M H

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for determination of 4 macrolide antibiotics in livestock products. Erythromycin, tylosin, oleandomycin, and spiramycin were extracted from animal tissues, milk, and egg with acetonitrile at pH 8.5. Cleanup was done by adding sodium chloride and dichloromethane, evaporating the organic layer, and subsequent acid/base partitioning. After the antibiotics were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), they were reacted with xanthydrol and could be detected as purple spots down to 0.02 mg/kg without interference by other commonly used therapeutic drugs (23 were tested). Anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid, cerium sulfate-molybdic acid, phosphomolybdic acid, and Dragendorff's reagent proved to be less sensitive as visualizing agents. For quantitation, TLC plates were scanned at 525 nm. Recoveries were between 71 and 96% for erythromycin and tylosin in liver, muscle, and egg at the 0.1-0.5 mg/kg level and 51% for erythromycin in milk at the 0.02 mg/kg level (coefficient of variation = 10-18%). Bioautography with Bacillus subtilis was used to confirm results, in addition to TLC analysis of derivatized antibiotics and liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Various derivatization procedures for erythromycin were investigated for improved ultra-violet or fluorescence detection in liquid chromatography.

  5. How Does Recycling of Livestock Manure in Agroecosystems Affect Crop Productivity, Reactive Nitrogen Losses, and Soil Carbon Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Longlong; Lam, Shu Kee; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Deli

    2017-07-05

    Recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems to partially substitute synthetic fertilizer nitrogen (N) input is recommended to alleviate the environmental degradation associated with synthetic N fertilization, which may also affect food security and soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, how substituting livestock manure for synthetic N fertilizer affects crop productivity (crop yield; crop N uptake; N use efficiency), reactive N (Nr) losses (ammonia (NH 3 ) emission, N leaching and runoff), GHG (methane, CH 4 ; and nitrous oxide, N 2 O; carbon dioxide) emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agroecosystems is not well understood. We conducted a global meta-analysis of 141 studies and found that substituting livestock manure for synthetic N fertilizer (with equivalent N rate) significantly increased crop yield by 4.4% and significantly decreased Nr losses via NH 3 emission by 26.8%, N leaching by 28.9% and N runoff by 26.2%. Moreover, annual SOC sequestration was significantly increased by 699.6 and 401.4 kg C ha -1 yr -1 in upland and paddy fields, respectively; CH 4 emission from paddy field was significantly increased by 41.2%, but no significant change of that was observed from upland field; N 2 O emission was not significantly affected by manure substitution in upland or paddy fields. In terms of net soil carbon balance, substituting manure for fertilizer increased carbon sink in upland field, but increased carbon source in paddy field. These results suggest that recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems improves crop productivity, reduces Nr pollution and increases SOC storage. To attenuate the enhanced carbon source in paddy field, appropriate livestock manure management practices should be adopted.

  6. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  7. Impact of animal health programmes on poverty reduction and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, J P

    2017-04-01

    Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest. Conversely, these analyses identify no statistical link between the quality of Veterinary Services and increased livestock production volumes. However, where animal diseases are poorly controlled, productivity is low and livestock growth is extensive, based mainly on a steady increase in animal numbers. Extensive growth is less effective than intensive growth in reducing poverty and aggravates the pressure of livestock production on natural resources and the climate.

  8. Distributions of emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, G A; Takahashi, T; Orr, R J; Harris, P; Lee, M R F

    2018-01-10

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of livestock production systems is often based on inventory data for farms typical of a study region. As information on individual animals is often unavailable, livestock data may already be aggregated at the time of inventory analysis, both across individual animals and across seasons. Even though various computational tools exist to consider the effect of genetic and seasonal variabilities in livestock-originated emissions intensity, the degree to which these methods can address the bias suffered by representative animal approaches is not well-understood. Using detailed on-farm data collected on the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) in Devon, UK, this paper proposes a novel approach of life cycle impact assessment that complements the existing LCA methodology. Field data, such as forage quality and animal performance, were measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions and directly transferred into LCA processes. This approach has enabled derivation of emissions intensity for each individual animal and, by extension, its intra-farm distribution, providing a step towards reducing uncertainty related to agricultural production inherent in LCA studies for food. Depending on pasture management strategies, the total emissions intensity estimated by the proposed method was higher than the equivalent value recalculated using a representative animal approach by 0.9-1.7 kg CO 2 -eq/kg liveweight gain, or up to 10% of system-wide emissions. This finding suggests that emissions intensity values derived by the latter technique may be underestimated due to insufficient consideration given to poorly performing animals, whose emissions becomes exponentially greater as average daily gain decreases. Strategies to mitigate life-cycle environmental impacts of pasture-based beef productions systems are also discussed.

  9. Intensity of the production organisation in organic and conventional dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Malaga-Toboła

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the intensity of the production organization between dairy farms conducting agricultural activity in organic and conventional production systems. Study groups of farms were located in the southern (fifteen organic farms, central and eastern part of Poland (fifteen conventional farms. The study was conducted in the form of a directed interview in the marketing year 2010/2011. Area, structure of land use and crop, livestock and the size of plant and animal in the production global and commodity were specified. The analysis showed a lot of differences between the two systems of production, from the area of farm and structure of land use and finally the production outputs. Basic statistical analysis was also conducted. It showed a significant negative correlation between the area of agricultural land and a positive correlation between the livestock and intensity of organisation of production. However, the correlation coefficients between the studied variables in the analysed farm groups differed from each other.

  10. Facilitating wider application of progesterone RIA for improving livestock production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswin Perera, B.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research and development programmes supported by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on improving livestock production in developing countries have identified three major biological constraints: feeding, breeding management and diseases. Proper breeding management is important in order to achieve optimum economic benefits (through products such as milk, meat and offspring) from an animal during its lifespan. This requires early attainment of puberty, short intervals from calving to conception, high conception rates and low number of matings or artificial inseminations (Als) per conception. The use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy animals or in blood of meat animals, together with recording of data on reproductive events and production parameters, is an indispensable tool that provides information both on problems in breeding management by farmers as well as deficiencies in the Al services provided to them by government, co-operative or private organizations. This allows appropriate strategies and interventions to be adopted to overcome these limitations. Progesterone RIA can also detect animals that have not conceived by Al within 21 days after mating (early non-pregnancy diagnosis or N-PD), and alert farmers to the need to have these animals closely observed for oestrus and re-inseminated at the appropriate time. In order to ensure the sustained use of RIA technology for progesterone measurement in developing Member States, the IAEA has been engaged in the development and transfer of simple, robust and cheap methods of RIA. The system currently being used is based on a direct (non-extraction) method, using a 125 I-progesterone tracer and a solid-phase separation method (antibody coated tubes). In order to ensure wider availability (and lower cost) of the two key reagents required for the assay, the IAEA has initiated a programme to assist Member States to develop the capability to produce these in selected regional or

  11. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Gudrun S.; Spruijt, Ineke T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Yzermans, Joris; van Dijk, Christel E.; Maassen, Catharina B. M.; van der Hoek, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20–72 years) living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97%) participants from electronic medical records (EMR) from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR). The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%). Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0–9.8). We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.7). Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non

  12. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun S Freidl

    Full Text Available Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20-72 years living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97% participants from electronic medical records (EMR from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR. The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%. Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0-9.8. We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7. Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non

  13. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of ∼10 39 cm -2 s -1 , which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10 11 s -1 . 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...

  15. Strategies to alleviate poverty and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia: Intensification vs production efficiency of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-nomadic pastoralism was replaced by sedentary pastoralism in Inner Mongolia during the 1960's in response to changes in land use policy and increasing human population. Large increases in numbers of livestock and pastoralist households (11- and 9-fold, respectively) during the past 60 yrs have ...

  16. Livestock Feed Production from Sago Solid Waste by Pretreatment and Anaerobic Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food needs in Indonesia is increasing, including beef. Today, Indonesia has problem to do self-sufficiency in beef. The cause of the problem is the quality of local beef is still lower compared with imported beef due to the quality of livestock feed consumed. To increase the quality of livestock is through pretreatment and fermentation. Source of livestock feed that processed is solid sago waste (Arenga microcarpa, because in Indonesia that is relatively abundant and not used optimally. Chemical pretreatment process for delignification is by using NaOH solution. The purposes of this research are to study NaOH pretreatment, the addition of Trichoderma sp, and fermentation time to improve the quality of sago solid waste as livestock feed through anaerobic fermentation. The variables used are addition or without addition (4%w NaOH solution and Trichoderma sp 1%w and fermentation time (7, 14 and 21 days, with the response of crude fiber and protein. The result of this research shows that the pretreatment with soaking of NaOH solution, addition of Trichoderma sp and 14 days of fermentation was more effective to improve the quality of solid sago waste with decrease of crude fiber from 33.37% to 17.36% and increase of crude protein from 4.00% to 7.96%.

  17. A Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Model for Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Livestock Production in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergé, Xavier P.C.; Dyer, James A.; Worth, Devon E.; Smith, Ward N.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; McConkey, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary We developed a model to estimate the carbon footprint of Canadian livestock production. To include long term soil carbon storage and loss potential we introduced a payback period concept. The model was tested by reallocating 10% only of the protein production from a ruminant to a non ruminant source to minimize the risk of including rangeland or marginal lands. This displacement generated residual land which was found to play a major role in the potential mitigation of GHG emissions. The model will allow land use policies aimed at reducing the agricultural GHG emissions to be assessed. Abstract To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES) was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application of ULICEES, 10% of beef cattle protein production was assumed to be displaced with an equivalent amount of pork protein. Without accounting for the loss of soil carbon, this 10% shift reduced GHG emissions by 2.5 TgCO2e y−1. The payback period was defined as the number of years required for a GHG reduction to equal soil carbon lost from the associated land use shift. A payback period that is shorter than 40 years represents a net long term decrease in GHG emissions. Displacing beef cattle with hogs resulted in a surplus area of forage. When this residual land was left in ungrazed perennial forage, the payback periods were less than 4 years and when it was reseeded to annual crops, they were equal to or less than 40 years. They were generally greater than 40 years when this land was used to raise cattle. Agricultural GHG mitigation policies will inevitably involve a trade-off between production, land use and GHG emission reduction. ULICEES is a model that can objectively assess these trade-offs for Canadian agriculture. PMID:26487032

  18. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  19. Biosecurity and mastitis in intensive dairy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boboš Stanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034

  20. A Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Model for Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Livestock Production in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. McConkey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application of ULICEES, 10% of beef cattle protein production was assumed to be displaced with an equivalent amount of pork protein. Without accounting for the loss of soil carbon, this 10% shift reduced GHG emissions by 2.5 TgCO2e y−1. The payback period was defined as the number of years required for a GHG reduction to equal soil carbon lost from the associated land use shift. A payback period that is shorter than 40 years represents a net long term decrease in GHG emissions. Displacing beef cattle with hogs resulted in a surplus area of forage. When this residual land was left in ungrazed perennial forage, the payback periods were less than 4 years and when it was reseeded to annual crops, they were equal to or less than 40 years. They were generally greater than 40 years when this land was used to raise cattle. Agricultural GHG mitigation policies will inevitably involve a trade-off between production, land use and GHG emission reduction. ULICEES is a model that can objectively assess these trade-offs for Canadian agriculture.

  1. Studies on quality, storeability, cooking and processing for products of agricultural and livestock produced by natural farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung; Jo, Sung Ki; Go, Youn Mi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heun Ja; Lee, Sung Hee [Ansung National University, Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The wholesomeness of agricultural and livestock products produced in contaminated natural environment and inactivated farmland are under apprehension. We have to produce foodstuff reliable high quality and wholesomeness in harmonizing with environmental condition and sustainable agriculture. All members of Korean Natural Farming Association are working at the self-managing natural farming field and has been developed steadily to village unit due to voluntary demanding and self-practicing more than 30 years. Agricultural and livestock products and its processed foods produced by member of Association are distributing in domestic and exporting to Japan and other country with recognition of its high quality and wholesomeness by consumer. In order to propagate the natural farming technology and to increase the consumption of its products and processed food in domestic and abroad, scientific approach and evaluation for their quality were carried out in field of chemical component and microbial activity of farmland(32 kinds), physico-chemical properties of cereals(7 kinds), fruits and vegetables(14 kinds) and meat processed foods (2 kinds). 51 refs., 29 tabs. (author)

  2. Energy availability from livestock and agricultural productivity in Europe, 1815–1913: a new comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, Astrid; Warde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the proposition that a reason for high agricultural productivity in the early nineteenth century was relatively high energy availability from draught animals. The article is based on the collection of extensive new data indicating different trends in draught power availability and the efficiency of its use in different countries of Europe. This article shows that the proposition does not hold, and demonstrates that, although towards the end of the nineteenth century England had relatively high numbers of draught animals per agricultural worker, it also had low number of workers and animals per hectare, indicating the high efficiency of muscle power, rather than an abundance of such power. The higher efficiency was related to a specialization on less labour-intensive farming and a preference for horses over oxen.

  3. Taxation of carbon intensive imported products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Fuente Sanchez, C.; Dubilly, A.L.; Lescal, N.

    2010-01-01

    It is one of the greatest challenges of our time to make the link between development issues and climate change actions. The EU has committed itself, throughout the Kyoto Protocol and the current negotiation mechanisms, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gas, but the question is still pending on the possible ways to have those efforts harmonized globally, and in particular with developing countries. Why not set taxation on carbon intensive products imported, ted, in the European Union, from countries that do not provide 'green' guarantees in their fabrication process? We begin this study with a thorough analysis of the ins and outs of the carbon tax. On the one hand, it is a good way of adjusting prices and rectifying a competition distortion between those paying or their emissions and those exempted of constraints. On the other hand, one can ask oneself if it is fair to discriminate developing countries when they need growth and better living standards. After going through the legal issues in which this debate is imbricated, the third and last part of this study investigates the possible implementation issues in terms of tax level and of benefits' generation and use. This study illustrates the complexity of reuniting particular interests and global interests on global warming, as well as the complexity of sharing responsibilities on a fair way between industrialized and developing countries on climate change issues. The challenge is big and complex yet it is worth the effort. (authors)

  4. WDM production with intense relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Josh; Andrews, Heather; Klasky, Mark; Colgan, James; Burris-Mog, Trevor; Creveling, Dan; Miller, Craig; Welch, Dale; Berninger, Mike

    2016-10-01

    The production of warm dense matter (WDM) through collisional heating with intense relativistic electrons is underway. A 100-ns-long monochromatic bunch of electrons with energies of 19.1-19.8 MeV and currents of 0.2-1.7 kA is used to heat 100- μm-thick foils with Z measuring the equation of state with particle beams and benchmark numerical models. Measurements indicate the formation of a warm dense plasma near the end of the pulse, which is on the order of the beam size. These plasmas expand 5 mm in the first microsecond and slow down to 1018 cm-3. At these densities our plasma is collisionally dominated making it possible to spectrally model the density and temperature in LTE. Preliminary density gradient measurements will also be presented indicating the spatial extent of the solid density cutoff. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Se- curity Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  5. Prevalence of Veterinary Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in the Surface Water of a Livestock Production Region in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuelian; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Wang, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs) and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L−1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment. PMID:25372873

  6. Prevalence of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the surface water of a livestock production region in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Zhang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L(-1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment.

  7. Prevalence of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the surface water of a livestock production region in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuelian; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Wang, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs) and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L(-1). The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment.

  8. Productive inclusion, family livestock situation of rural women of brazil without poverty program in a municipality of the rs - context a little-known reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Julia Marques Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyze sociodemographic characteristics of rural women working in family livestock, inserted in Brazil without Poverty Plan in Encruzilhada do Sul. This type of work is culturally defined as masculine as well, the question is how women in it operate. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southern half has in beef cattle the main productive activity which alludes to a supposed production homogeneity. This condition challenges and boost research that shows the multiplicity of experiences of livestock rural families. Thus, the motivation of this article also is based on the problem of discussion little debated on family livestock, for example, the sexual division of labor and women's participation in the activity. So it was found the presence of women in family livestock and their inclusion in the Brazil without Poverty Program. The information analyzed shows that 92.31% of ownership in the program are women, 6.59% of men and 1.10% for both. This reality leads the female role of idea in action, however it is necessary to consider other issues that contribute to other explanatory possibilities of this condition. The trajectory and the sexual division of labor "earmarking" women to the most precarious jobs, it may be a potential answer. Thus, the recognition of women's work is hindered in social practices and intra-family and sexual division of labor is reaffirmed by the notions of what is "man of affairs and women's things". The issues that emerge interrelate livestock, poverty and gender, since most of the families of the Brazil without Poverty is also included in the livestock. We question the extent to which livestock is male activity and poverty would be a "parameter" to characterize rural activities, including livestock, as female?

  9. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  10. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  11. Duration and long-term management of radiocaesium in livestock products in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    During the summer months in Norway, large uncultivated areas of forest and mountain areas are used as pasture for sheep, goats and cattle. Since the accident in 1986, a large number of animals has undergone special feeding programme i.e. fed with fodder with low concentration of radiocaesium to reduce the levels before slaughtering. The methods for live monitoring of animals were developed in 1987 and are still used yearly to avoid slaughtering animals with radioactivity levels exceeding the food intervention levels of 600 Bq/kg. The length of the individual feeding programme varies between areas and years and lasts from 1 to 8 weeks depending on the concentration levels of radiocaesium in the livestock. In addition, Prussian blue in concentrates and salt-licks are still in use in the most contaminated areas to avoid radioactive caesium from being re-absorbed by the animal and instead it all goes out with the excretion. In the most contaminated areas, the use of Prussian blue has reduced the levels of radiocaesium in meat and milk with approximately 50 %. Ecological half-lives of {sup 137}Cs in milk from cow and goat herds from different regions in Norway vary between 4 and 12 years. Calculated ecological half-lives of {sup 137}Cs in sheep vary from 3 to 11 years, with the longest half-lives in the most contaminated regions. In years with a high abundance of mushrooms, levels of {sup 137}Cs increases in meat and milk owing to the ingestion of radioactive mushrooms by grazing animals. Experience from the last decade's turns out that abundance of mushrooms more or less controls the levels of {sup 137}Cs in livestock animals. Based on our experience, it is still necessary to maintain countermeasures for at least another decade to comply with food interventional levels for meat and milk in Norway. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Understanding factors affecting technology adoption in smallholder livestock production systems in Ethiopia : the role of farm resources and the enabling environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    In response to population growth, rising income and urbanisation, the demand for livestock products, such as milk, meat and eggs is growing in Ethiopia. The growing demand for milk products offers opportunities for smallholders to realize better livelihoods.

  13. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  14. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  15. Promoting Health, Livelihoods, and Sustainable Livestock Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These areas are experiencing zoonotic (animal to human and vice-versa) ... and shed light on interactions between disease risk, livestock and human health, and ... and social development to support safe food production, healthy livestock, ...

  16. Innovation in Livestock Genetic Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mofakkarul Islam, M.; Renwick, A.; Lamprinopoulou, C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of genetic selection technologies in livestock breeding offers unique opportunities to enhance the productivity, profitability and competitiveness of the livestock industry. However, there is a concern that the uptake of these technologies has been slower in the sheep and beef

  17. Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorne, P.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Keulen, van H.; Thornton, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarises the development of a ruminant livestock component for the Farm System Simulator (FSSIM). This includes treatments of energy and protein transactions in ruminant livestock that have been used as a basis for the biophysical simulations that will generate the input production

  18. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock... of such biological product, drug, or chemical will not result in the products of such livestock being...

  19. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuubi Martin

    2012-10-01

    some of these plants, plant products and ethnopractices in managing livestock health as further research may lead to discovery of useful ethnopharmaceutical agents applicable in livestock industry.

  20. Alternativas de manejo de la fertilidad del suelo en ecosistemas agropecuarios Management alternatives of soil fertility in livestock production ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, debido a la degradación que presentan los suelos, se requiere de un manejo integrado para potenciar su capacidad productiva en beneficio del hombre y lograr el desarrollo sostenible y la seguridad alimentaria. Esta situación demanda que los profesionales, técnicos y responsables de la producción agropecuaria amplíen sus conocimientos relacionados con el manejo y conservación de este recurso, de modo que con su trabajo se pueda lograr un equilibrio en el sistema suelo-planta-animal, que posibilite mejorar el medio ambiente, lograr producciones más ecológicas y obtener mayores beneficios económicos y sociales para el país. En este artículo se presentan algunos resultados generados en diferentes instituciones científicas en cuanto al uso de tecnologías adecuadas en el manejo de la fertilidad del suelo en ecosistemas agropecuarios, así como las experiencias de su introducción en la práctica productiva con el fin de contribuir al desarrollo sostenible y la seguridad alimentaria en Cuba.In Cuba, due to soil degradation, integrated management is required to enhance their productive capacity in benefit of man and achieve sustainable development and the necessary food security. This situation demands that the professionals, technicians and people responsible for livestock production increase their knowledge related to the management and conservation of this resource, so that with their work balance can be achieved in the soil-plant-animal system, which allows improving the environment, achieving more ecological productions, and attaining higher economic and social benefits for the country. In this paper some results are shown generated in different scientific institutions regarding the use of adequate technologies of soil fertility management in agricultural and livestock production ecosystems, as well as the experiences of their introduction in productive practice in order to contribute to sustainable development and food

  1. Use of geophysical survey as a predictor of the edaphic properties variability in soils used for livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability in soils used for livestock production (i.e. Natraquoll and Natraqualf at farm and paddock scale is usually very high. Understanding this spatial variation within a field is the first step for site-specific crop management. For this reason, we evaluated whether apparent electrical conductivity (ECa, a widely used proximal soil sensing technology, is a potential estimator of the edaphic variability in these types of soils. ECa and elevation data were collected in a paddock of 16 ha. Elevation was negatively associated with ECa. Geo-referenced soil samples were collected and analyzed for soil organic matter (OM content, pH, the saturation extract electrical conductivity (ECext, available phosphorous (P, and anaerobically incubated Nitrogen (Nan. Relationships between soil properties and ECa were analyzed using regression analysis, principal components analysis (PCA, and stepwise regression. Principal components (PC and the PC-stepwise were used to determine which soil properties have an important influence on ECa. In this experiment elevation was negatively associated with ECa. The data showed that pH, OM, and ECext exhibited a high correlation with ECa (R2=0.76; 0.70 and 0.65, respectively. Whereas P and Nan showed a lower correlation (R2=0.54 and 0.11 respectively. The model resulting from the PC-stepwise regression analysis explained slightly more than 69% of the total variation of the measured ECa, only retaining PC1. Therefore, ECext, pH and OM were considered key latent variables because they substantially influence the relationship between the PC1 and the ECa (loading factors>0.4. Results showed that ECa is associated with the spatial distribution of some important soil properties. Thus, ECa can be used as a support tool to implement site-specific management in soils for livestock use.

  2. Use of geophysical survey as a predictor of the edaphic properties variability in soils used for livestock production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, N.R.; Cicore, P.L.; Marino, M.A.; Marques da Silva, J. R.; Costa, J.L.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial variability in soils used for livestock production (i.e. Natraquoll and Natraqualf) at farm and paddock scale is usually very high. Understanding this spatial variation within a field is the first step for site-specific crop management. For this reason, we evaluated whether apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), a widely used proximal soil sensing technology, is a potential estimator of the edaphic variability in these types of soils. ECa and elevation data were collected in a paddock of 16 ha. Elevation was negatively associated with ECa. Geo-referenced soil samples were collected and analyzed for soil organic matter (OM) content, pH, the saturation extract electrical conductivity (ECext), available phosphorous (P), and anaerobically incubated Nitrogen (Nan). Relationships between soil properties and ECa were analyzed using regression analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), and stepwise regression. Principal components (PC) and the PC-stepwise were used to determine which soil properties have an important influence on ECa. In this experiment elevation was negatively associated with ECa. The data showed that pH, OM, and ECext exhibited a high correlation with ECa (R2=0.76; 0.70 and 0.65, respectively). Whereas P and Nan showed a lower correlation (R2=0.54 and 0.11 respectively). The model resulting from the PC-stepwise regression analysis explained slightly more than 69% of the total variation of the measured ECa, only retaining PC1. Therefore, ECext, pH and OM were considered key latent variables because they substantially influence the relationship between the PC1 and the ECa (loading factors>0.4). Results showed that ECa is associated with the spatial distribution of some important soil properties. Thus, ECa can be used as a support tool to implement site-specific management in soils for livestock use. (Author)

  3. Grazing and Rangeland Development for Livestock Production. A Handbook for Volunteers. Agriculture Technology for Developing Countries. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Howard B.; And Others

    This handbook, developed for training Peace Corps volunteers, reviews the basic principles that underlie sound grazing land management and indicates the application of these principles for livestock production in the tropics and subtropics. The handbook is made up of three technical series bulletins. The first bulletin covers management of…

  4. Input and service provision supply methods in mixed crop-livestock production systems in South-Ethiopia: Improvement options from a dairy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, T.; Lee, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Dale and Shebedino districts of southern Ethiopia during the period October 2014 to January 2015. It investigates dairy-related input and service provision in mixed crop-livestock production systems. Data were collected from 120 dairy producers, six focus group

  5. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  6. Conceptual Framework for the National Pilot Project on Livestock and the Environment, Livestock Series Report 2

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Bouzaher; Stanley R. Johnson; Shannon Neibergs; Ron Jones; Larry Beran; Larry Frarey; Larry M. Hauck

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the effects of alternative policies that regulate nonpoint pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires insight into the interactions of livestock production practices, waste management technologies, and their impacts on the environment. CAFOs have been identified as a source of nutrient loadings that impair ground and surface water quality, and they can emit intense odor that impairs air quality. This report describes the conceptual framework and the integ...

  7. Mainstreaming gender issues in livestock research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Providing equal access to and use of resources for men and women could also increase the productivity of livestock systems. Read more about how to mainstream gender considerations into livestock development projects in the Gender Responsive Livestock Research brief (PDF, 613KB, available in ...

  8. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-02-29

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area.

  9. Epidemiology of camel trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Mauritania and its control strategies for sustainable livestock production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dia Mamadou Lamine [CNERV, Nouakchott (Mauritania)], E-mail: mldsb@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Camel trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi is mechanically transmitted by hematophagious diptera such as Tabanidae, Stomoxyinae, and Hippoboscidae. In its acute form, the disease results in a generalized weakness. The animal lies down as of the least effort; milk production falls with the abortion of females. At times, the animal dies after a prolonged decubitus. However, in 80% cases, the disease is observed in its chronic form, which is characterized by considerable economic losses resulting from abortions, reduction of milk production, loss weight, and cachexia. Due to its extremely dry conditions Mauritania remains a favourable environment for camels as preferred livestock species of considerable economic importance. The animals are kept by shepherds who are very mobile in the field in search of good pastures and water points. Unfortunately, this pastoral system is reported to expose dromedaries to numerous pathologic conditions, especially camel trypanosomiasis due to T. evansi. Our investigations from 1993 to 1997 showed that T. evansi is present in the dromedaries in Mauritania. According the haematocrit centrifuge technique the parasite prevalence rate ranged from 1.1 to 13.6 % while seroprevalence varied from 13% to 36.7% according to the CATT test. In the Trarza region, as consequence of a good rainy season we more recently observed an abundance of tabanids and stomoxes hence a favourable ecology of T. evansi vectors, and subsequently an outbreak of camel trypanosomosis. Prevalence rate was 17.6% using buffy coat examination and 58.8% with the CATT. In many herds, numerous abortions were recorded and all breeders registered very important milk production losses. In order to limit the infections due to T. evansi, two control strategies for camel husbandry could be practiced in the Trarza region. The first is 'northern strategy' with the potential of lowering pastures availability and usage. However, it has the advantage of avoiding the direct and

  10. Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-10-06

    This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  12. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  13. Energy intensities of food products. Energie-intensiteiten van voedingsmiddelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, R.; Biesiot, W.; Wilting, H.C.

    1993-08-01

    The energy intensity of a product is the amount of primary energy used per Dutch guilder spent on consumer goods. The energy intensity can differ for each spending and varies from household to household. The aim of this study is to calculate the energy intensities and to provide an overview of the total package of consumer goods, including sociological categories and lifestyles, and the related use of primary energy to produce these goods. Use is made of the Energy Analysis Program (EAP) to calculate the energy intensities. EAP is based on the hybrid method: both the process analysis and the input-output analysis are applied in the model. The data input of the model consists of data from the Budget Survey 1990 of the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, which holds data of consumptions from 2767 households. In the chapters 4 to 10 energy intensities are given of the categories bread, pastry and groceries (chapter four), potatoes, vegetables and fruits (chapter five), sugary products and beverages (chapter six), oils and fats (chapter seven), meat, meat products and fish (chapter eight), dairy products (chapter nine), and other food products (chapter ten). The highest energy intensity is found for oils and fats (13.5 MJ per Dutch guilder). The energy intensities for the other products vary from 4.0 to 6.6 MJ/gld. It appears that most of the energy intensive products are products which do not use a large part of the primary energy, mainly because the consumption of these products is low. On the other hand many of the products that consume much of the primary energy (i.e. are consumed much themselves) are relatively energy extensive. The products that show a high consumption rate have relatively low energy intensities. Some of the options to shift towards a more energy extensive food package are the use of fresh products and outside grown products instead of treated products or greenhouse products and a more balanced diet. 5 figs., 18 tabs., 2 appendices, 52 refs.

  14. Ethanol and agriculture: Effect of increased production on crop and livestock sectors. Agricultural economic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.; Peters, M.; Baumes, H.; Disney, W.T.

    1993-05-01

    Expanded ethanol production could increase US farm income by as much as $1 billion (1.4 percent) by 2000. Because corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, growers in the Corn Belt would benefit most from improved ethanol technology and heightened demand. Coproducts from the conversion process (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and others) compete with soybean meal, soybean growers in the South may see revenues decline. The US balance of trade would improve with increased ethanol production as oil import needs decline

  15. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  16. Household nutrition and income impacts of using dairy technologies in mixed crop-livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunte, Kebebe

    2017-01-01

    Technologies like improved breeds of dairy cows and improved forages have the potential to significantly increase dairy cow productivity and farmers' profits in developing countries. However, adoption of such technologies has been low in Ethiopia, despite numerous efforts to disseminate the

  17. Saving land to feed a growing population: consequences for consumption of crop and livestock products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bikker, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The expected increase in demand for food raises concerns about the expansion of agricultural land worldwide. To avoid expansion, we need to focus on increasing land productivity, reducing waste, and shifting human diets. Studies exploring diet shifts so far have ignored competition for land

  18. Minimizing the environmental footprint of livestock production: which measure to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing and wealthier human population implies an increase in demand for their needs, such as housing, infrastructure, energy and food, including animal-source food. Current animal production levels, however, already pose severe pressure on the environment, via their emissions to air, water and

  19. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF AGROPASTORALISTS IN THE DERIVED SAVANNA OF SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi Ayobami Olafadehan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted by the administration of structured questionnaires to agropastoralists in fifty settlements in the derived savannah of South-west Nigeria in other to highlight the management practices and some of the factors influencing production in the area. The production system is traditional with animals being maintained on free range grazing, browsing and offer of crop-residues. Rangelands were, however, the major source of feed for the cattle. Farmers rarely supplemented their stock with concentrate diet while the most commonly purchased feed supplement was salt. Cattle constituted the major ruminant in the stock (65% while sheep and goats accounted for 23% and 11%, respectively. The most favoured and dominant breed of cattle in the agropastoral herd is the Bunaji (White Fulani (72.10% followed by N’Dama (18.20% and Keteku (9.30%. Female cattle were more in the herd than the male for all the breeds. Labour allocation among the agropastoralists is based on sex with more male tasks than female. All the agropastoralists (100% inherited there stock while few (24% engaged in care-taking of animals for others. Low milk production, soil-eating and diarrhoea were the prevalent diseases among the animals. Majority (84% of the agropastoralists depended on the use of local herbs and self medication for treating their animals as against a few (6% engaging the services of the veterinarian. The system under study vividly typifies a traditional smallholder dairy production system characterized by little or not input. Improved feeding, housing and health management will enhance the productivity of the animals.

  20. Novel Production Method for Plant Polyphenol from Livestock Excrement Using Subcritical Water Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Yamamoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenol, including vanillin, is often used as the intermediate materials of the medicines and vanilla flavoring. In agriculture generally vanillin is produced from vanilla plant and in industry from lignin of disposed wood pulp. We have recently developed a method for the production of plant polyphenol with the excrement as a natural resource of lignin, of the herbivorous animals, by using the subcritical water. The method for using the subcritical water is superior to that of the supercritical water because in the latter complete decomposition occurs. We have successfully produced the vanillin, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid in products. Our method is simpler and more efficient not only because it requires the shorter treatment time but also because it releases less amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

  1. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii on grazing provision and livestock production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available with selective grazing Others: grass invaders, forbs and serge Bare: refers to bare ground RESULTS: Grass species composition and basal cover 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Uninvaded Cleared Light Dense Co ver (% ) A. mearnsii invasion status... Light Dense M o is tu re (% ) Acacia mearnsii invasion status P?0.05 CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions ?High density invasions of A. mearnsii have negative effects on rangelands productivity ?Removal of A. mearnsii improves grazing...

  2. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  3. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefelmeyer, K.; Mussell, A.; Moore, T.L.; Liu, D.

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  4. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  5. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... livestock. (a) Livestock products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as organic must be from livestock under continuous organic management from the last third of gestation or hatching: Except, That: (1...

  6. 9 CFR 85.4 - Interstate movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of livestock. 85.4... Interstate movement of livestock. (a) Livestock showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall not be moved interstate. (b) Livestock that have been exposed to an animal showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall...

  7. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living...

  8. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  9. Impacts of Macronutrients on Gene Expression: Recent Evidence to Understand Productive and Reproductive Performance of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmodul Hasan Sohel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the effects of nutrients on gene expression and to assess the interactions between genes and nutrition by means of various cutting-edge technologies, the interdisciplinary branch ‘Nutrigenomics’ was created. Therefore, nutrigenomics corresponds to the use of knowledge and techniques of nutrition, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics to seek and explain the cross-talk between nutrition and genes in molecular level. Macronutrients are important dietary signals that control metabolic programming of cells and have important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis by influencing specific gene expression. Recent advancements in molecular genetics studies, for instance, use of next-generation sequencing, microarray and qPCR array to investigate the expression of transcripts, genes, and miRNAs, has a crucial impact on understanding and quantitative measurement of the impact of dietary macronutrients on gene function. This review will shade a light on the interactions and mechanisms how the dietary source of macronutrients changes the expression of specific mRNA and miRNA. Furthermore, it will highlight the exciting recent findings in relation to animal performance characteristics which eventually help us to identify a dietary target to improve animal production.

  10. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFFS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING IN VITRO GAS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. KHANUM, T. YAQOOB1, S. SADAF1, M. HUSSAIN, M. A. JABBAR1, H. N. HUSSAIN, R. KAUSAR AND S. REHMAN1

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05 differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME and digestibility of organic matter. Predicted metabolizable energy values were very low in feedstuffs having high fiber and low protein contents. These feedstuffs included various grasses, crop residues and wheal straw. Lowest ME value of 4.7 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM was found in wheat straw. Many of the roughages (Sorghum vulgare, Kochia indica, Leptochloa fusca studied were found to be deficient in fermentable carbohydrates, resulting in low organic matter digestibility. Concentrate feed stuffs like cotton seed meal, sunflower meal, cotton seed cakes, rice polish, rapeseed meal and Zea mays (maize grains had higher ME values (9.27 – 12.44 MJ/kg DM. The difference of ME of various feedstuffs reflects different contents of fermentable carbohydrates and available nitrogen in cereals and protein supplements. Among the non-conventional feedstuffs, Acacia ampliceps, Acacia nilotica, Sesbania aculeata, Leptochloa fusca and Prosopis juliflora were found potential fodders. Extensive use of in vitro gas method proved its potential as a tool to evaluate various ruminant feeds for energy component.

  11. Wages, Productivity and Work Intensity in the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Darby; Robert A Hart

    2002-01-01

    We show that U.S. manufacturing wages during the Great Depression were importantly determined by forces on firms' intensive margins. Short-run changes in work intensity and the longer-term goal of restoring full potential productivity combined to influence real wage growth. By contrast, the external effects of unemployment and replacement rates had much less impact. Empirical work is undertaken against the background of an efficient bargaining model that embraces employment, hours of work and...

  12. Technique de production intensive du poisson chat africain, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducarme, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive Production of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, is well appreciated in Africa and reaches high prices on the town markets (2 - 3 Euro/kg. Although it is raised since 1974 and its production is increasing in Europe, Asia and Latin America, the African production is on standby. The intensive production systems (biomass: 10 - 400 kg/m3, production: 1 - 4 kg/m3/j in recirculated systems recently developed in Europe (family farms: 200 - 250 t/year are profitable when the selling price on the farm reach 1,2 Euro/kg. This kind of model could be adapted by the African fish farmers to their local conditions and finally contributed to an important development of fish culture in Africa.

  13. Assessment of Collective Production of Biomethane from Livestock Waste for Urban Transportation Mobility in Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Camile Pasqual

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water, energy, and food are essential elements for human life, but face constant pressure resulting from economic development, climate change, and other global processes. Predictions of rapid economic growth, increasing population, and urbanization in the coming decades point to rapidly increasing demand for all three. In this context, improved management of the interactions among water, energy, and food requires an integrated “nexus” approach. This paper focuses on a specific nexus case: biogas generated from organic waste, a renewable source of energy created in livestock production, which can have water-quality impacts if waste enters water bodies. An innovative model is presented to make biogas and biomethane systems feasible, termed “biogas condominiums” (based on collective action given that small- and medium-scale farms on their own cannot afford the necessary investments. Based on the “farm to fuel” concept, animal waste and manure are converted into electrical and thermal energy, biofuel for transportation, and high-quality biofertilizer. This nexus approach provides multiple economic, environmental, and social benefits in both rural and urban areas, including reduction of ground and surface water pollution, decrease of fossil fuels dependence, and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions, among others. The research finds that biogas condominiums create benefits for the whole biogas supply chain, which includes farmers, agroindustry, input providers, and local communities. The study estimated that biomethane potential in Brazil could substitute the country’s entire diesel and gasoline imports as well as 44% of the total diesel demand. In the United States, biomethane potential can meet 16% of diesel demand and significantly diversify the energy matrix.

  14. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  15. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  16. Spatio-temporal characteristics of livestock and their effects on pollution in China based on geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yongyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen

    2016-07-01

    Livestock pollution, caused by rural household's scatter breeding mainly, is one of the major non-point sources. Different animal manures are abundant with different nutrients. Adopting the policies, management practices, and technologies related to livestock production based on livestock structure analysis can improve the efficiency on preventing pollution. Based on statistical data, the component structure of livestock was analyzed and corresponding effect on pollution was evaluated during the period of 1992-2012 in China. The results showed that the average annual growth rate (AAGR) of total China was 1.58 % during the 20 years. Larger amounts of livestock were concentrated in Southwest China and East China. In the view of component structure, each type of livestock had different distribution characteristics and constant increasing amounts were presented during the 20 years. Cattle took the largest proportion in almost every province, and the number of heads was over 40 % of all the livestock quantity for most provinces. Pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) caused by livestock excretion in East and Southeast China was much more serious than that in other regions. However, the load of COD was far less than that of TN and TP. Cattle accounted most for the livestock pollution, and swine was the second one. The intensity characteristics of TN, TP, and COD were different from that of total pollution loads. The spatio-temporal characteristics of amounts and component structure of livestock were influenced by three kinds of factors (natural, economic, and social), such as climate, topography, modes of production, feed grain sector, related policies, and area of the study regions. Different livestock excrements had different impacts on environment. According to various livestock structures and economy conditions, different disposal methods should be adopted.

  17. Integrated freshwater aquaculture, crop and livestock production in the Mekong delta, Vietnam: Determinants and the role of the pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Phong, L.T.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Duong, L.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Little, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    Promotion of integrated aquaculture with agriculture, including crops and livestock (IAA-farming), requires consideration of both bio-physical and socio-economic contexts. The major factors influencing the adoption of IAA-farming by households at three sites in the Mekong delta were identified.

  18. Effects of light intensity on cylindrospermopsin production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of light intensity on growth and the production of the hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in the cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was investigated using cultured isolates grown in N-free media under a series of neutral density screens. Maximum growth as indicated by ...

  19. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH 3 emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH 3 emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH 3 emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH 3 emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH 3 abatement options.

  20. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  1. Time series livestock diet optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Williams, Ryan Blake

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable feed formulation (defined here as nutritional and economic feed optimization) is substantial in feed chain production from crop farmers to livestock producers. Diet formulation employing a static linear programming (LP) approach, which is widely used in trading firms and feed production

  2. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector. Livestock production will be limited by climate variability as animal water consumption is expected to increase by a factor of three, demand for agricultural lands increase due to need for 70% growth in production, and food security concern since about one-third of the global cereal harvest is used for livestock feed. Meanwhile, the livestock sector contributes 14.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, driving further climate change. Consequently, the livestock sector will be a key player in the mitigation of GHG emissions and improving global food security. Therefore, in the transition to sustainable livestock production, there is a need for: a assessments related to the use of adaptation and mitigation measures tailored to the location and livestock production system in use, and b policies that support and facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

  3. Comportamiento de comunidades de lombrices de tierra en dos sistemas ganaderos Behavior of earthworm communities in two livestock production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento de comunidades de lombrices de tierra en dos sistemas ganaderos (pastizal de gramíneas y sistema silvopastoril, los cuales se manejaron para la ceba de animales vacunos y la producción de semillas, se realizó una investigación en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas. Para el estudio de las comunidades de lombrices se hicieron seis colectas. En cada una de las áreas descritas se tomaron 40 muestras de suelo, según la Metodología del Programa de Investigación Internacional «Biología y Fertilidad del Suelo Tropical». Se encontraron 297 y 740 organismos en el pastizal de gramíneas y en el sistema silvopastoril, respectivamente. La especie Onychochaeta elegans mostró una mayor abundancia proporcional en el pastizal de gramíneas; mientras que en el sistema silvopastoril se encontraron tres especies, de ellas dos típicas de zonas boscosas: Polypheretima elongata y Onychochaeta windlei; la primera tuvo un mayor valor, con diferencias significativas respecto a las especies halladas del género Onychochaeta. Se concluye que la presencia de árboles en pastizales de gramíneas contribuye a estimular los organismos del suelo, en especial las lombrices de tierra, las que desempeñan un papel importante al mejorar no solo los indicadores físicos y químicos de este, sino también como estimuladoras de otros organismos.In order to evaluate the behavior of earthworm communities in two livestock production systems (grassland and silvopastoral system, which were managed for cattle fattening and seed production, a study was conducted at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas. For the study of the earthworm communities six collections were made. In each of the described areas 40 soil samples were taken, according to the Methodology of the International Research Program «Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility». In the grassland and

  4. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study changes in the aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity at the global and country levels. The ACI is defined as the energy-related CO_2 emissions in electricity production divided by the electricity produced. It is a performance indicator since a decrease in its value is a desirable outcome from the environmental and climate change viewpoints. From 1990 to 2013, the ACI computed at the global level decreased only marginally. However, fairly substantial decreases were observed in many countries. This apparent anomaly arises from a geographical shift in global electricity production with countries having a high ACI increasingly taking up a larger electricity production share. It is found that globally and in most major electricity producing countries, reduction in their ACI was due mainly to improvements in the thermal efficiency of electricity generation rather than to fuel switching. Estimates of the above-mentioned effects are made using LMDI decomposition analysis. Our study reveals several challenges in reducing global CO_2 emissions from the electricity production sector although technically the reduction potential for the sector is known to be great. - Highlights: •Variations of aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity of world countries are analysed. •Main drivers of changes in ACI of major electricity producing countries are studied using index decomposition analysis. •Geographical shift in electricity production had a significant impact on global ACI. •Improvements in the thermal efficiency of generation were the main driver of reduction in ACI.

  5. Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the gender gap ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... The book further analyzes the role of livestock ownership, especially by women, ... access to resources, information, and financial services to enable women to more effectively participate in livestock production and marketing.

  6. Overview of Pigs and Poultry: Specific Livestock Industries, Livestock Diseases and Policies in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas; Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    The pigs and poultry industries are the major livestock sectors in terms of commercial livestock production in Thailand. The dramatic growth of the Thai economy since the 1960s was spearheaded by rapid expansion of agricultural industries such as the poultry sector and has since generated increased demand for other livestock commodities such as pork. While pigs have traditionally been an important part of the integrated farm system in Thailand, pork production has only recently developed into...

  7. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bheekhee, H.; Hulman, B.; Boodoo, A.A.; Ramnauth, R.K.; Lam Heung Yuen, R.; Fakim, R.; Dobee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  8. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, J.; Ashraf, I.; Mehmood, K.; Iftikhar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  9. Report on the third research co-ordination meeting of the coordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The third RCM for the CRP on the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries was held in Natal, Brazil, from 11-15 April 2005. The meeting was attended by ten Research Contract Holders, a second representative of the research group of the host country, two Research Agreement Holders, two Technical Contract Holders and the Scientific Secretary. The work in the second phase of this CRP has built upon the progress reported from the first phase, resulting in good quality immunoassay reagents, confirmatory methods and a number of validated methods. It is recommended that all contracts (with one exception), including technical contracts, be renewed to facilitate the completion of the work plans agreed at the meeting. A protocol for the validation of immunoassays will be provided by a Research Agreement Holder. The protocol has already been successfully applied for validation of an RIA method in Brazil. It is recommended that this protocol be adopted by all participants in the project to harmonize the validation of immunoassay methods developed. Work on the development of the 125 I-radioimmunoassay for chloramphenicol has not been satisfactory. It is recommended that this work is transferred to the research group in Brazil. The meeting agreed that the FAO/IAEA Joint Division's INFOCRIS database and associated e-learning modules are a very useful resource for developing country scientists. It is recommended to proceed with the expansion of the database as planned. In addition, it was suggested that a database and bibliography of original literature on, for example, pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies on veterinary drugs and hormonal growth promoters should be included. Much of this data was published many years ago and is very difficult to access, but is of importance in the design and development of methods. Some of the results generated by CRP participants should be

  10. Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop livestock systems: Taking a livestock and pro-poor approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarawali, S.A.; Herrero, M.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Grings, E.; Blmmel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed crop livestock systems provide the majority of the cereal and livestock domestic products for households in developing countries. We explore the question of whether such systems can respond to increasing demands for livestock products without compromising future livelihoods of the poor or the

  11. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  12. Livestock: An alternative mosquito control measure | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the indigenous methods or measures adopted by urban livestock owners in the control of mosquito in Sokoto metropolis. Fifty (50) respondents who were engaged in urban livestock production were conveniently sampled, In addition, five (5) locations (Sidi farm, Kara market, Sokoto ...

  13. Livestock Environment Prospects for the 90's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Thatcher

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available When projecting livestock environmental prospects for the 1990's. it is critical to recognize the multidimensional nature of managing livestock species under hot environments. This paper identifies potential critical physiological windows during the life cycle of the animal that are sensitive to heat stress and responsive to environmental modification. Ovarian follicular development appears to be sensitive to heat stress leading to reductions in intensity of oestrus and subsequent fertility. Periods of follicular development that are sensitive to heat stress have not been defined. With current improved systems to alter the microenvironment of animals. the period of embryonic sensitivity to heat stress has shifted so that early embryonic losses are less. Potential recombinant proteins that may enhance embryo survival and correct deficiencies in placental function that are induced by heat stress warrant additional investigation. The postpartum period is a critical period in which a multitude of factors interact to influence animal productivity and its sensitivity to heat stress. Nutritional strategies to improve animal performance with the use of fat-supplementation are discussed. Environmental modification and housing systems need to not only maximize the efficiency of animal production but need to consider the potential impact on the environment relative to water use. soil and water pollution. Animal production and management systems need to consider both animal health and well-being issues. To optimize profit under conditions of greater societal constraints and available management alternatives, computer assisted management systems will become a critical tool.

  14. Technology for Intensive Poultry Production as a Source of Odour Emissions with Time-Varying Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuneš Radim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology for intensive broiler breeding using deep litter method provides convenient conditions for production of odour substances inside the barn. As a consequence, there are relatively high odour emissions in the breeding area and its surrounding, which has significant impacts on the life quality of both people and animals. The amount of produced emissions increases in time because it is closely related to the amount of poultry droppings accumulated in litter inside the barn. This paper deals with changes in odour intensity depending on time measured since the beginning of broiler fattening. Odour intensity was measured by methods of dynamic olfactometry. The estimated values gradually increased from 45 ouE·m-3 to the highest value of 259 ouE·m-3, which was determined in the final fattening phase (broilers’ age 33 days. The calculated odour substances emission values were in range from 0.02 ouE·s-1·bird-1 at the beginning of fattening up to 0.10 ouE·s-1·bird-1 in the final fattening phase. Odour emissions increased five times during the fattening period.

  15. Residues of pharmaceutical products in recycled organic manure produced from sewage sludge and solid waste from livestock and relationship to their fermentation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and solid waste from livestock being utilized is useful for circulation of nourishment in farmlands as recycled organic manure (ROM). In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of 12 pharmaceutical products generated by human activity in the ROMs produced from human waste sludge (HWS), sewage sludge (SS), cattle manure (CM), poultry manure (PM), swine manure (SM) and horse manure (HM). The kind and number of pharmaceutical products detected in ROMs were different. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were detected at high levels in HWS and SS samples. In addition, the detection frequency and concentration levels of sulfonamides (SAs) in PM and SM were high. Moreover, high concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) were found in only SM. These differences reflect specific adherence adsorption of the pharmaceutical products to different livestock and humans. Moreover, it was found that the concentrations of pharmaceutical products and fermentation levels of ROMs had significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p=0.024). When the fermentation test of ROM was conducted in a rotary fermentor in a lab scale test, the residue levels of pharmaceutical products decreased effectively except carbamazepine (CBZ). The rates of decrease were in the case of tetracyclines (TCs): 85-92%, FQs: 81-100%, erythromycine: 67%, SAs: 79-95%, trimethoprim: 86% and CBZ: 37% by 30 d. Pharmaceutical products that can be decomposed by fermentation process at the lowest impact of residual antibiotic activities may therefore be considered as environmentally friendly medicines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Precision livestock production: tools and concepts Precisão de produção de gado: ferramentas e conceitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Laca

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Precision livestock production (PLP is the augmentation of precision agriculture (PA concepts to include all components of agroecosystems, particularly animals and plant-animal interactions. Soil, plants and soil-plant interactions are the subjects of PA or site-specific farming, where the main principle is to exploit natural spatial heterogeneity to increase efficiency and reduce environmental impacts. For the most part, PA has been studied and developed for intensive cropping systems with little attention devoted to pastoral and agropastoral systems. PLP focuses on the animal component and exploits heterogeneity in space and among individual animals towards more efficient and environmentally friendly production. Within PLP, precision grazing consists of the integration of information and communication technologies with knowledge about animal behavior and physiology to improve production of meat, milk and wool in grazing conditions. Two main goals are to minimize overgrazing of sensitive areas and to maximize the quality of the product through enhanced traceability. An integrated precision grazing system is outlined with its components: sensors of animal position, behavior and physiological status, real-time transmission of information to a decision support system, and feed-back through a series of actuators. Control of animal movement and diets is based on knowledge about species specific responses to various stimuli within the paradigms of flavor aversions and operant conditioning. Recent advances in the technologies and instrumentation available are reviewed briefly and linked to current livestock identification systems. The precision grazing vision is presented in full and the areas that need further research and development are discussed.A precisão de produção de gado (PPG se constitui em ampliação do conceito de agricultura de precisão (AP e que inclui todos os componentes de ecossistemas agrícolas, especialmente as intera

  17. Cambio climático, afectaciones y oportunidades para la ganadería en Cuba Climate change, affectations and opportunities for livestock production in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros de la C Milera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los fenómenos de la desertificación y la degradación de las tierras, la contaminación de las aguas, los suelos y la atmósfera, la pérdida de la diversidad biológica, el agotamiento de la capa de ozono, la deforestación, el recalentamiento del planeta y otros, han conducido a una encrucijada de la existencia humana. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la adecuación de los principales sistemas de producción ante las afectaciones del cambio climático en Cuba y los resultados de fincas diversificadas que emplean alimentos locales y se han convertido en un recurso, por su contribución para mitigarlo. Se exponen las principales afectaciones ocurridas por el cambio climático y la caracterización del período 2000-2010 en la ganadería en el país. También se presentan los principales retos de los sistemas agroforestales y los resultados productivos de cuando se emplean recursos fitogenéticos herbáceos y arbóreos en diferentes sistemas de producción ganadera, así como las propuestas de sistemas resilientes de alimentación basados en los recursos fitogenéticos forrajeros herbáceos y arbóreos que deben utilizarse como resultado de la innovación tecnológica en las áreas ganaderasThe phenomena of desertification and land degradation, water, soil and atmospheric contamination, loss of biological diversity, depletion of the ozone layer, deforestation, planet warming and others, have led to a crossroads of human existence. The objective of this work is to analyze the adaptation of the main production systems before the affectations of climate change in Cuba and the results of diversified farms which use local feedstuffs and have become a resource, for their contribution to mitigate it. The main affectations occurred due to climate change and the characterization of the period 2000-2010 in the livestock production of the country are presented. The work also shows the main challenges of agroforestry systems and the productive

  18. Production of intense negative ion beams in magnetically insulated diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, H.

    1988-01-01

    Production of intense negative ion beams in magnetically insulated diodes was studied in order to develop an understanding of this process by measuring the ion-beam parameters as a function of diode and cathode plasma conditions in different magnetically insulated diodes. A coral diode, a racetrack diode, and an annular diode were used. The UCI APEX pulse line, with a nominal output of 1MV, 140kA, was used under matched conditions with a pulse length of 50 nsec. Negative-ion intensity and divergence were measured with Faraday cups and CR-39 track detectors. Cathode plasma was produced by passive dielectric cathodes and later, by an independent plasma gun. Negative-ion currents had an intensity of a few A/cm 2 with a divergence ranging between a few tenths milliradians for an active TiH 2 plasma gun and 300 milliradians for a passive polyethelene cathode. Negative ions were usually emitted from a few hot spots on the cathode surface. These hot spots are believed to cause transverse electrical fields in the diode gap responsible for the beam divergence. Mass spectrometry measurements showed that the ion beam consists of mainly H - ions when using a polyethelene or a TiH 2 cathodes, and mainly of negative carbon ions when using a carbon cathode

  19. Methane emission from global livestock sector during 1890-2014: Magnitude, trends and spatiotemporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangal, Shree R S; Tian, Hanqin; Zhang, Bowen; Pan, Shufen; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia

    2017-10-01

    Human demand for livestock products has increased rapidly during the past few decades largely due to dietary transition and population growth, with significant impact on climate and the environment. The contribution of ruminant livestock to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has been investigated extensively at various scales from regional to global, but the long-term trend, regional variation and drivers of methane (CH 4 ) emission remain unclear. In this study, we use Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier II guidelines to quantify the evolution of CH 4 emissions from ruminant livestock during 1890-2014. We estimate that total CH 4 emissions in 2014 was 97.1 million tonnes (MT) CH 4 or 2.72 Gigatonnes (Gt) CO 2 -eq (1 MT = 10 12 g, 1 Gt = 10 15 g) from ruminant livestock, which accounted for 47%-54% of all non-CO 2 GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. Our estimate shows that CH 4 emissions from the ruminant livestock had increased by 332% (73.6 MT CH 4 or 2.06 Gt CO 2 -eq) since the 1890s. Our results further indicate that livestock sector in drylands had 36% higher emission intensity (CH 4 emissions/km 2 ) compared to that in nondrylands in 2014, due to the combined effect of higher rate of increase in livestock population and low feed quality. We also find that the contribution of developing regions (Africa, Asia and Latin America) to the total CH 4 emissions had increased from 51.7% in the 1890s to 72.5% in the 2010s. These changes were driven by increases in livestock numbers (LU units) by up to 121% in developing regions, but decreases in livestock numbers and emission intensity (emission/km 2 ) by up to 47% and 32%, respectively, in developed regions. Our results indicate that future increases in livestock production would likely contribute to higher CH 4 emissions, unless effective strategies to mitigate GHG emissions in livestock system are implemented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technological Options to Ameliorate Waste Treatment of Intensive Pig Production in China:An Analysis Based on Bio-Economic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wen-cong; MA Yong-xi; Holger Bergmann

    2014-01-01

    Ameliorating waste treatment by technological improvements affects the economic and the ecological-environment beneifts of intensive pig production. The objective of the research was to develop and test a method to determine the technical optimization to ameliorate waste treatment methods and gain insight into the relationship between technological options and the economic and ecological effects. We developed an integrated bio-economic model which incorporates the farming production and waste disposal systems to simulate the impact of technological improvements in pig manure treatment on economic and environmental benefits for the case of a pilot farm in Beijing, China. Based on different waste treatment technology options, three scenarios are applied for the simulation analysis of the model. The simulation results reveal that the economic-environmental beneifts of the livestock farm could be improved by reducing the cropland manure application and increasing the composting production with the current technologies. Nevertheless, the technical efifciency, the waste treatment capacity and the economic beneifts could be further improved by the introduction of new technologies. It implies that technological and economic support policies should be implemented comprehensively on waste disposal and resource utilization to promote sustainable development in intensive livestock production in China.

  2. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  3. Using an agent-based model to evaluate the effect of producer specialization on the epidemiological resilience of livestock production networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Serge W

    2018-01-01

    An agent-based computer model that builds representative regional U.S. hog production networks was developed and employed to assess the potential impact of the ongoing trend towards increased producer specialization upon network-level resilience to catastrophic disease outbreaks. Empirical analyses suggest that the spatial distribution and connectivity patterns of contact networks often predict epidemic spreading dynamics. Our model heuristically generates realistic systems composed of hog producer, feed mill, and slaughter plant agents. Network edges are added during each run as agents exchange livestock and feed. The heuristics governing agents' contact patterns account for factors including their industry roles, physical proximities, and the age of their livestock. In each run, an infection is introduced, and may spread according to probabilities associated with the various modes of contact. For each of three treatments-defined by one-phase, two-phase, and three-phase production systems-a parameter variation experiment examines the impact of the spatial density of producer agents in the system upon the length and size of disease outbreaks. Resulting data show phase transitions whereby, above some density threshold, systemic outbreaks become possible, echoing findings from percolation theory. Data analysis reveals that multi-phase production systems are vulnerable to catastrophic outbreaks at lower spatial densities, have more abrupt percolation transitions, and are characterized by less-predictable outbreak scales and durations. Key differences in network-level metrics shed light on these results, suggesting that the absence of potentially-bridging producer-producer edges may be largely responsible for the superior disease resilience of single-phase "farrow to finish" production systems.

  4. 7 CFR 53.15 - Accessibility to livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility to livestock. 53.15 Section 53.15... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.15 Accessibility to livestock. (a) The applicant shall...

  5. Interaction Between Livestock And Crop Farming In Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked at the role of livestock and its interaction with crop production in an integrated crop-livestock farming system in Katsina State. Field data were collected through household survey of 120 respondent located in six villages in Katsina State. The result shows that there was a high level of crop-livestock ...

  6. Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the

  7. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy P; Wint, G R William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of a livestock productive asset transfer programme to improve economic and health outcomes and reduce intimate partner violence in a postconflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A; Kohli, Anjalee; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2017-01-01

    Diverse economic empowerment programmes (eg, microcredit, village-led savings and loan, cash and productive asset transfers) for the poor have demonstrated mixed results as vehicles for improved economic stability, health and women's empowerment. However, limited rigorous evaluations exist on the impact of financial and non-financial outcomes of these programmes, especially in conflict-affected areas. The team evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative livestock productive asset transfer intervention-Pigs for Peace (PFP)-on economic, health and women's empowerment outcomes with participants in households in 10 villages in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Residual change analysis was used to examine the amount of change from baseline to 18 months between the intervention and delayed control groups, controlling for baseline scores. The majority of the 833 household participants were women (84%), 25 years of age or older, married, had on average 3 children and had never attended school. At 18 months postbaseline, the number of participants in the PFP households having outstanding credit/loans was 24.7% lower than households in the control group (p=0.028), and they had an 8.2% greater improvement in subjective health (p=0.026), a 57.1% greater reduction in symptoms of anxiety (p=0.020) and a 5.7% greater improvement in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (p<-0.001). At 18 months postbaseline, partnered women and men reported a reduction in experience and perpetration of all forms of intimate partner violence, although not statistically significant between groups. The findings support scalability of a livestock productive asset transfer programme in rural and conflict-affected settings where residents have extremely limited access to financial institutions or credit programmes, health or social services and where social norms that sustain gender inequality are strong. NCT02008708.

  9. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  10. Intensity of rivalry in Czech furniture production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Špačková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on furniture production industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates the influence of competition forces within this industry. These forces have a direct impact on success of competitive strategies of the firms. Furniture production industry is a typical branch occupied by numerous small and medium-sized firms. Small firms aim on satisfying domestic (or rather local demand, medium-sized and big firms are much more aiming on exports. The methodical sources for evaluation of rivalry represent particular influences defined by Porter in his model of five competitive forces. Main influences identified by Porter, which are increasing the intensity of competition in the furniture production industry in the Czech Republic include low industry concentration, relatively low diversity of competitors, decline in sales, low (or none switching costs, and existing excessive capacity within the industry. Further development will be most significantly influenced by a growing concentration of the bigger Czech producers on domestic market and overall economic development.

  11. Call 1 - Innovations in Livestock Vaccines (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renee Larocque

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... These vaccines often have limited uptake, efficacy or safety profiles .... It is the policy of IDRC that research work involving human participants or animals be.

  12. Gender Responsive Livestock Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Livestock researchers and development practitioners need to ... Qualitative approaches that integrate gender analysis frameworks and tools; Gender .... and social attitudes, which means multiple methods ... Combining quantitative tools that.

  13. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  14. Neutron production enhancements for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-04

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) was the first high energy spallation neutron source in the US dedicated to materials research. It has operated for sixteen years, and in that time has had a very prolific record concerning the development of new target and moderator systems for pulsed spallation sources. IPNS supports a very productive user program on its thirteen instruments, which are oversubscribed by more than two times, meanwhile having an excellent overall reliability of 95%. Although the proton beam power is relatively low at 7 kW, the target and moderator systems are very efficient. The typical beam power which gives an equivalent flux for long-wavelength neutrons is about 60 kW, due to the use of a uranium target and liquid and solid methane moderators, precluded at some sources due to a higher accelerator power. The development of new target and moderator systems is by no means stagnant at IPNS. They are presently considering numerous enhancements to the target and moderators that offer prospects for increasing the useful neutron production by substantial factors. Many of these enhancements could be combined, although their combined benefit has not yet been well established. Meanwhile, IPNS is embarking on a coherent program of study concerning these improvements and their possible combination and implementation. Moreover, any improvements accomplished at IPNS would immediately increase the performance of IPNS instruments.

  15. Neutron production enhancements for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) was the first high energy spallation neutron source in the US dedicated to materials research. It has operated for sixteen years, and in that time has had a very prolific record concerning the development of new target and moderator systems for pulsed spallation sources. IPNS supports a very productive user program on its thirteen instruments, which are oversubscribed by more than two times, meanwhile having an excellent overall reliability of 95%. Although the proton beam power is relatively low at 7 kW, the target and moderator systems are very efficient. The typical beam power which gives an equivalent flux for long-wavelength neutrons is about 60 kW, due to the use of a uranium target and liquid and solid methane moderators, precluded at some sources due to a higher accelerator power. The development of new target and moderator systems is by no means stagnant at IPNS. They are presently considering numerous enhancements to the target and moderators that offer prospects for increasing the useful neutron production by substantial factors. Many of these enhancements could be combined, although their combined benefit has not yet been well established. Meanwhile, IPNS is embarking on a coherent program of study concerning these improvements and their possible combination and implementation. Moreover, any improvements accomplished at IPNS would immediately increase the performance of IPNS instruments

  16. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-01-01

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R and D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have

  17. Optimization of Environmental and Economic Effects in Waste Treatment of Intensive Livestock Production:an Analysis Based on“Ecological- economic”Model%规模化畜牧养殖废弃物处理的环境经济优化研究--基于生态经济模型的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永喜; 王颖

    2014-01-01

    畜牧养殖污染已成为农村面源污染的主要来源。如何通过改进废弃物处理方法和管理方式来改善养殖场的环境经济效益已成为养殖企业和环境管理部门所关注的重大现实问题。本文以一个规模化生猪养殖场为例,构建了一个整合的生态经济模型,模拟分析如何通过畜牧废弃物处理利用模式的选择和管理方式的优化,来改善养殖场及周边的环境经济效益。模拟结果显示,开展农牧结合,将粪肥适度还田并扩大还田面积,同时采用综合化的废弃物处理和资源化利用方式,将能够改善养殖场的整体经济效益和环境效益。然而,养殖场缺乏足够的经济激励进行废弃物处理和利用。因而,这需要政府相关部门运用综合的技术支持和经济扶持政策,来推动畜牧养殖生产的可持续性和环境友好型发展。%Livestock farm ing pollution isthe m ain source ofnon-pointsource pollution in ruralarea ofC hina.In practice, it’s im portantto determ ine the technicaloptim ization to am eliorate w aste treatm entm ethods to im prove the econom ic and ecologicaleffects ofthe livestock production.The authors developed an integrated“ecological--econom ic”m odelto sim ulate the im pactofw aste m anagem entim provem ents on econom ic and environm entalbenefits forthe case ofa pilot pig farm . The sim ulation results revealed that the econom ic-environm ental benefits of the livestock farm w ould be im proved by reasonable returning the m anure applied in cropland and using integrated w aste treatm ent technologies. H ow ever, the lack of sufficient econom ic incentive posed difficulty in w aste disposal and utilization for intensive livestock farm s.Itim plies thattechnologicaland econom ic supportpolicies should be im plem ented com prehensively on w aste m anagem entto prom ote sustainable developm entofintensive livestock production in C hina.

  18. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  19. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises of... § 309.13. (b) Livestock plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection any disease or condition that, under...

  20. Production and Studies of Photocathodes for High Intensity Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H

    2000-01-01

    For short, high-intensity electron bunches, alkali-tellurides have proved to be a reliable photo-cathode material. Measurements of lifetimes in an rf gun of the CLIC Test Facility II at field strengths greater than 100 MV/m are presented. Before and after using them in this gun, the spectral response of the CS-Te and Rb-Te cathodes were determined with the help of an optical parametric oscillator. The behaviour of both materials can be described by Spicer's 3-step model. Whereas during the use the threshold for photo-emission in Cs-Te was shifted to higher proton energies, that of Rb-Te did not change. Our latest investigations on the stoichiometric ratio of the components are shown. The preparation of the photo-cathodes was monitored with 320 nm wavelength light , with the aim of improving the measurement sensitivity. The latest results on the protection of Cs-Te cathode surfaces with CsBr against pollution are summarized. New investigations on high mean current production are presented.,

  1. A 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle: Additional Evidence for the Common Occurrence of Balancing Selection in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Karim, Latifa; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Panitz, Frank; Aamand, Gert Pedersen; Schulman, Nina; Georges, Michel; Vilkki, Johanna; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Druet, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation. This probably results from the loss of RNASEH2B, which is known to cause embryonic death in mice. Despite its dramatic effect on fertility, 13%, 23% and 32% of the animals carry the deletion in Danish, Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle, respectively. To explain this, we searched for favorable effects on other traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part of the negative genetic correlation. Our study adds to the evidence that structural variants contribute to animal phenotypic variation, and that balancing selection might be more common in livestock species than previously appreciated. PMID:24391517

  2. A 660-Kb deletion with antagonistic effects on fertility and milk production segregates at high frequency in Nordic Red cattle: additional evidence for the common occurrence of balancing selection in livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Kadri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation. This probably results from the loss of RNASEH2B, which is known to cause embryonic death in mice. Despite its dramatic effect on fertility, 13%, 23% and 32% of the animals carry the deletion in Danish, Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle, respectively. To explain this, we searched for favorable effects on other traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part of the negative genetic correlation. Our study adds to the evidence that structural variants contribute to animal phenotypic variation, and that balancing selection might be more common in livestock species than previously appreciated.

  3. Analysis of the overall energy intensity of alumina refinery process using unit process energy intensity and product ratio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-07-15

    Alumina refinery is an energy intensive industry. Traditional energy saving methods employed have been single-equipment-orientated. Based on two concepts of 'energy carrier' and 'system', this paper presents a method that analyzes the effects of unit process energy intensity (e) and product ratio (p) on overall energy intensity of alumina. The important conclusion drawn from this method is that it is necessary to decrease both the unit process energy intensity and the product ratios in order to decrease the overall energy intensity of alumina, which may be taken as a future policy for energy saving. As a case study, the overall energy intensity of the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant with Bayer-sinter combined method between 1995 and 2000 was analyzed. The result shows that the overall energy intensity of alumina in this plant decreased by 7.36 GJ/t-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over this period, 49% of total energy saving is due to direct energy saving, and 51% is due to indirect energy saving. The emphasis in this paper is on decreasing product ratios of high-energy consumption unit processes, such as evaporation, slurry sintering, aluminium trihydrate calcining and desilication. Energy savings can be made (1) by increasing the proportion of Bayer and indirect digestion, (2) by increasing the grade of ore by ore dressing or importing some rich gibbsite and (3) by promoting the advancement in technology. (author)

  4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CATTLE MILK IN AN INTENSIVE SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM AND A CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Esteban Rivera Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cattle systems have the challenge of improving their efficiency in order to satisfy the growing demand of livestock products while at the same time reducing their emissions. In order to estimate the main environmental impacts of bovine milk production and identify mitigation alternatives, a life cycle analysis (LCA was conducted to compare an intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS and a conventional system (CS in Colombia. The structure of ISO 14044 was followed, with four functional units (FU; the estimated environmental impacts were: land use (LU, use of non-renewable energy (UNRE and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG. For all FU, the ISS had lower emissions of GHGs than the conventional system. To produce one kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM the ISS emitted 1 less GHG than the CS (2.05 vs. 2.34 kg CO2-eq. Regarding the use of non-renewable energy, the ISS required only 63% of the energy used in the CS to produce one kg FPCM (3.64 vs. 5.81 kg Mj-1 whilst for land use, the CS was more efficient in all UF compared to the ISS. We conclude that in ISS there are lower environmental impacts per unit of product, emitting less GHG and having lower UNRE.

  5. Produção pecuária no montado: suínos Livestock production in the “montado”: pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção pecuária no montado alentejano é muito importante, ao nível da exploração e à escala regional. Baseia-se no sistema silvo-pastoril, com aproveitamento directo dos recursos alimentares naturais por raças autóctones. O porco alentejano é considerado o rei dos montados alentejanos, destaca-se no aproveitamento pecuário desta floresta de uso múltiplo. Na primeira metade do século passado a raça alentejana representava cerca de 50% do armentio suíno português. A intensificação dos sistemas de produção, agrícolas e pecuários, contribuiu para um decréscimo acentuado, da suinicultura extensiva tradicional. Em 1986 a população de suínos autóctones no Alentejo tinha decaído para cerca de 2% do total nacional. As raças locais, seja de porcos ou ruminantes tem conhecido recentemente uma notoriedade nova, quando se aliam os produtos delas derivados ao território, numa perspectiva de fileira. A evolução da PAC e a consciencialização para os problemas ambientais contribuíram para reenquadrar os sistemas silvopastoris e, particularmente, a montanheira numa óptica produtiva sustentável. A montanheira tradicional consiste na engorda de porcos, com idades de 14 a 18 meses, em regime de pastoreio durante o Outono e Inverno, nos sob-cobertos dos montados de azinho e sobro. A engorda tardia, fortemente amilácea, produz carcaças pesadas de 120 kg a 140 kg com grande adiposidade. Porém, com a desejável infiltração de gordura intermuscular. O maneio adequado, à optimização das características da carcaça e à aptidão tecnológica da carne e gordura nos sistemas silvo-pastoris, implica conhecer objectivamente: os recursos naturais, a fisiologia particular das raças locais, as características físicas químicas e sensoriais requeridas pelos produtos tradicionais e pela carne fresca.Livestock production in Alentejo has been very important considering both farm and general economy. It is based on natural

  6. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce McCarl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  7. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It

  8. Optimising land use and consumption of livestock products in the human diet with an increasing human population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Land use related to food production is generally quantified using product-based life cycle assessments. We, however, quantified land use of diet scenarios with a land use optimization model. Energy and protein requirement of human populations, varying from 15 to 30 mil-lion people, were met with the

  9. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  10. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  11. Mountain Home Geothermal Project: geothermal energy applications in an integrated livestock meat and feed production facility at Mountain Home, Idaho. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B.; Brink, W.R.; Fisher, L.A.; Matherson, R.H.; Neilson, J.A.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-02-01

    The Mountain Home Geothermal Project is an engineering and economic study of a vertically integrated livestock meat and feed production facility utilizing direct geothermal energy from the KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) southeast of Mountain Home, Idaho. A system of feed production, swine raising, slaughter, potato processing and waste management was selected for study based upon market trends, regional practices, available technology, use of commercial hardware, resource characteristics, thermal cascade and mass flow considerations, and input from the Advisory Board. The complex covers 160 acres; utilizes 115 million Btu per hour (34 megawatts-thermal) of geothermal heat between 300/sup 0/F and 70/sup 0/F; has an installed capital of $35.5 million;produces 150,000 hogs per year, 28 million lbs. of processed potatoes per year, and on the order of 1000 continuous horsepower from methane. The total effluent is 200 gallons per minute (gpm) of irrigation water and 7300 tons per year of saleable high grade fertilizer. The entire facility utilizes 1000 gpm of 350/sup 0/F geothermal water. The economic analysis indicates that the complex should have a payout of owner-invested capital of just over three years. Total debt at 11% per year interest would be paid out in 12 (twelve) years.

  12. A generic method to analyse yield gaps in feed-crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Aart

    2017-01-01

    Global livestock production is expected to increase in future decades, and expansion of the agricultural area for feed production is not desired. Hence, increasing livestock production per unit agricultural area is essential. The bio-physical scope to increase production of livestock systems with

  13. Level of the farm intensity organisation as the index of environmental sustainable agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Sawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensity of the farm production organisation in relation to soil organic matter balance in different degree of mechanization process of work for 42 farms situated in different regions of Poland was analysed. Coefficients agricultural production process in ecological, economic and social aspects were presented also. It was shown that indexes; intensity farm production organisation and soil organic matter balance are correlated.

  14. Level of the farm intensity organisation as the index of environmental sustainable agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Sawa

    2009-01-01

    Intensity of the farm production organisation in relation to soil organic matter balance in different degree of mechanization process of work for 42 farms situated in different regions of Poland was analysed. Coefficients agricultural production process in ecological, economic and social aspects were presented also. It was shown that indexes; intensity farm production organisation and soil organic matter balance are correlated.

  15. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufino, M C; Brandt, P; Herrero, M; Butterbach-Bahl, K

    2014-01-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands–livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop–livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling. (paper)

  16. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  17. Biomassa microbiana do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto, submetido a intensidades de pastejo Soil microbial biomass in a no-tillage integrated crop-livestock system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicarlos Damacena de Souza

    2010-02-01

    , and 40 cm, and a no-grazing control treatment on microbial activity and on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and stocks in microbial biomass in the 0-10 cm layer of an Oxisol (Latosol, in southern Brazil, during a grazing cycle. Biomass nutrient contents and stocks and microbial activity were affected by grazing intensities and by the season of the grazing cycle. Microbial carbon and phosphorus contents increased in the beginning of the grazing cycle in May until the period of high phytomass production in September, after which these contents decreased, following the pasture senescence. On the other hand, microbial nitrogen decreased from May to November, possibly as a result of plant uptake of soil N. Integrated crop-livestock systems under no-tillage maintain soil biological quality, and are, under adequate grazing intensity, similar to no-tillage systems without grazing influence. However, at high grazing intensities (10 cm under water stress, this soil quality is negatively affected.

  18. Microbial community structures in algae cultivation ponds for bioconversion of agricultural wastes from livestock industry for feed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamics of seasonal microbial community compositions in algae cultivation ponds are complex. There is very limited knowledge on community compositions that may play significant roles in the bioconversion of manure nu¬trients to animal feed. Algae production is an alternative where land area for pro...

  19. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo; Olajoju Jokotola Awoyomi; Eniola Fabusoro; Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overal...

  20. Implications of the Biofuels Boom for the Global Livestock Industry: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of US and EU biofuel mandates for the global livestock sector. Our simulation boosts biofuel production in the US and EU from 2006 levels to mandated 2015 levels. We show that mandates will encourage crop production in both biofuel and non biofuel producing regions, while reducing livestock and livestock production in most regions of the world. The non-ruminant industry curtails its production more than other livestock indu...

  1. Use of nuclear techniques for improving livestock production and health in Sri Lanka: A review of studies conducted and strategies for technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, B.M.A.O.; Abeygunawardena, H.

    2000-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques for studies on livestock production in Sri Lanka commenced in the 1970's with the establishment of Radioimmunoassay(RIA) technique for measuring reproductive hormones in the blood and milk of buffaloes, cattle and goats. Progesterone measurement was used in a series of studies to monitor reproductive status of ruminants under small-holder farming conditions in different agro-ecological zones, to identify the major constraints and to test methods for improving fertility. Thereafter, other isotopic techniques were established and used together with conventional methods for studies on nutrition, environmental physiology and disease control. In the early 1980's the nuclear-related technique of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was established and applied for studies on the immune response of buffaloes to Toxocara vitulorum infection. Subsequently, ELISA techniques were used for studies on sero-epidomology and control of important viral and bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes (rotavirus infection, haemorrhagic specticaemia, brucellosis, rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease). The most recent development has been the use of ELISA for diagnosing viral diseases of poultry. In order to transfer the findings from research to the end-users, a multi disciplinary programme was launched in 1995, with the focus on improving buffalo production. Selected farms in three regions of the country participated in the testing, modification and evaluation of appropriate technology packages aimed at imroving the productivity and health of their animals in a sustainable and economically feasible manner. They were provided assistance to upgrade their operations to the status of farms, which are now serving as demonstration sites and training locations for other farmers (AU)

  2. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  3. Early Fattening Lamb Could Mitigate Methane Production-an Example of Climate Smart Livestock Farming System in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Ruminants, with a presence of rumen in their digestive tract, will produce methane during his life. Therefore, shortening the rearing period to produce a meat or milk is an alternative to reduce methane emissions. In Indonesia, in the last decades the tendency to slaughter the sheep at young age (around 5 months old) is increasing. This tendency is due to the young sheep (lamb) provide a tender meat and low in fat, as well as a faster in economical return. This study was aimed to evaluate whether shortening (and early age) fattening can reduce methane emissions. Sixteen data from two experimental sheep, each 8 heads of young sheep (aged 3 months old; initial weight 14.32+/- 1.25 kg), and 8 mature sheep (aged 12 m.o.; initial weight 20.65 +/- 1.89 kg) were used in this study. They were fed the pelleted diet formulated to give at least CP 12% and TDN 60% ad libitum. The results showed that the dry matter intake of young sheep was higher than mature sheep (1.33 vs. 1.08 kg), as well as daily gain (156 vs. 83 g/d) and the methane production (41.4vs 36.0 L/d), or methane production per kg daily gain (269 vs 434 L/kg body weight gain), although the production of methane per DMI was similar (32.0 vs 33.5 L/kg DMI). With assumption that sheep commonly weaned at 2 months old at body weight of 10 kg, and was slaughter at 22 kg of body weight, it could be calculated that shortening (and early age) fattening could reduce totally 1,984 L per head and 10 months shortened.

  4. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing the livestock sector towards 2050 and the changes and ... In dairy plants the water usage to process the same product may vary by more than 100%, ... Efficiency of production should be on par with competitors if the livestock ...

  5. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overall, 70 (56.9 % of 123 marketers had post-secondary education while 76 (61.8 % were trained on the use of antimicrobials. Eighteen (14.6 % of the marketers were licensed veterinarians. Only 51 (41.5 % marketers displayed adequate knowledge about antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage. Sixty-seven (54.6 % marketers requested a prescription before selling antimicrobials while 113 (91.9 % marketer recommended antimicrobials for use in animals. Two-third of the marketers (66.7 % prescribed antimicrobials without physically examining sick animals but based their prescriptions on verbal reports of clinical signs by farmers and on their personal experience. Marketers with higher educational qualification displayed more adequate knowledge of antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage than those with basic education background only. More years of experience in antimicrobial marketing did not translate to better knowledge on antimicrobial usage. Only 45 (36.6 % respondents were aware of the existence of regulatory agencies monitoring the use of antimicrobials in animals. Farmers ignored the services of veterinarians in the diagnosis and control of animal diseases but resorted to drug marketers for help. Effective communication of existing legislations on antimicrobial usage, improved access to veterinary services and strict enforcement of regulatory policies are recommended for checking non-judicious use of antimicrobial agents in animal production. Sales of

  6. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  7. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  8. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  9. Microbial community structures in high rate algae ponds for bioconversion of agricultural wastes from livestock industry for feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Murinda, Shelton E; Murry, Marcia A; Schwartz, Gregory; Lundquist, Trygve

    2017-02-15

    Dynamics of seasonal microbial community compositions in algae cultivation ponds are complex. However, there is very limited knowledge on bacterial communities that may play significant roles with algae in the bioconversion of manure nutrients to animal feed. In this study, water samples were collected during winter, spring, summer, and fall from the dairy lagoon effluent (DLE), high rate algae ponds (HRAP) that were fed with diluted DLE, and municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent which was included as a comparison system for the analysis of total bacteria, Cyanobacteria, and microalgae communities using MiSeq Illumina sequencing targeting the 16S V4 rDNA region. The main objective was to examine dynamics in microbial community composition in the HRAP used for the production of algal biomass. DNA was extracted from the different sample types using three commercially available DNA extraction kits; MoBio Power water extraction kit, Zymo fungi/bacterial extraction kit, and MP Biomedicals FastDNA SPIN Kit. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) using distance matrices on each variable showed significant differences (P=0.001) in beta-diversity based on sample source. Environmental variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT; P<0.031), total N (P<0.002), total inorganic N (P<0.002), total P (P<0.002), alkalinity (P<0.002), pH (P<0.022), total suspended solid (TSS; P<0.003), and volatile suspended solids (VSS; P<0.002) significantly affected microbial communities in DLE, HRAP, and WWTP. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified to phyla level, the dominant classes of bacteria identified were: Cyanobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Epsilon-, and Delta-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes. Our data suggest that microbial communities were significantly affected in HRAP by different environmental variables, and care must be taken in extraction procedures when evaluating specific groups of microbial communities for

  10. A moral Operating System of livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Societal views about livestock production systems in Europe are changing dramatically in a negative direction. Based on the tradition of pragmatism in applied philosophy I develop a Moral Operating System of animal production systems in cooperating a plurality of ethical views. This moral operating

  11. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daka, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  12. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  13. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  14. Intensity of rivalry in Czech furniture production industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Špačková; Pavel Žufan

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on furniture production industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates the influence of competition forces within this industry. These forces have a direct impact on success of competitive strategies of the firms. Furniture production industry is a typical branch occupied by numerous small and medium-sized firms. Small firms aim on satisfying domestic (or rather local) demand, medium-sized and big firms are much more aiming on exports. The methodical sources for evaluation of ...

  15. 9 CFR 311.30 - Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. 311.30 Section 311.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PARTS § 311.30 Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. All livestock which have been suffocated in...

  16. Make-or-Buy Desicions on Technology-Intensive Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Elsner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    . The results show two kinds of make-or-buy decisions, called type 1 and type 2. In contrast to type 1 make-or-buy decisions whose scope is mostly limited to the production and quality function, type 2 decisions are strongly linked to engineering and R&D activities. Moreover, two new decision matrices...... are introduced: a ‘product/subsystem aggregation’ scheme and a ‘make-or-buy controlling’ matrix. In an environment in which companies move towards greater use of outsourcing, the framework ensures that company strategy and core competencies are followed in the long run despite short-range deviations of make...

  17. Determination of the production rate of low intensity isomeric transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakosi, L.; Veres, A.; Tam, N.C.; Pavlicsek, I.

    1992-01-01

    Flat 2π and cylindrical 4π multiwire proportional counters were built for counting for low energy internal conversion electrons from the nuclear isomers 83m Kr, 103m Rh and 189m Os, induced by irradiation with high intensity 60 Co and 4 MeV bremsstrahlung sources. The β-decay of 176m Lu was recorded by a plastic scintillator. In this way higher sensitivities were attained than by detecting γ-rays or characteristic X-rays associated with the isomeric transitions, and the excitation of 189m Os by low energy 137 Cs and 300 kV X-ray sources also became detectable. Comparatively large isomeric activities produced by linac irradiation were standardizing by a Ge spectrometer for calibrating proportional and scintillation counting. (orig.)

  18. WOMEN, LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP AND MARKETS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3.6 Common means of livestock acquisition by women in Kenya ... 9.1 Prerequisite for a gender transformative approach in livestock research ..... of the data, describing the quantitative and qualitative methods used and the analysis employed.

  19. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  20. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  1. A facilitated process towards finding options for improved livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A participatory multi-stakeholder process of finding options for improving livestock production in the severely degraded communal grazing area of Sterkspruit in South Africa was conducted. Interviews were conducted with individual livestock keepers from two sites to gather data on their demographic characteristics, ...

  2. cyber livestock communication in rural india: a strategic model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cyber extension system focuses the overall development of the livestock farmers including production, management, marketing and other rural developmental activities, thus conceptualizing a livestock communication model and defining anything that can be fit into this model as Cyber Communication was felt ...

  3. The Way Forward for Livestock and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Gerber, P.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Steeg, van de J.; Notenbaert, A.M.; Lecomte, P.; Tarawali, S.A.; Grace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock provide many benefits to society, but at the same time, they generate considerable pressure on land, water and biomass resources and are responsible for 18 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. The total demand for livestock products may almost double by 2050, mostly in the developing

  4. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Products 120 - 130 ... This article aims to provide information on the worth and impact of the livestock sector; information and statistics providing a baseline to guiding sustainability towards 2050. Seventy percent of agricultural land in South Africa can be utilized only by livestock and game and species are found in all provinces ...

  5. Animals & Livestock | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Animals & Livestock NEWT: National Extension fisher occupancy of small, 1 km^2^ grid cells of forest habitat. Animals and Livestock html Data from consisting of IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Animals and Livestock html

  6. Dynamics of triacylglycerol and EPA production in Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nitrogen starvation at different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse M Remmers

    Full Text Available Lipid production in microalgae is highly dependent on the applied light intensity. However, for the EPA producing model-diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, clear consensus on the impact of incident light intensity on lipid productivity is still lacking. This study quantifies the impact of different incident light intensities on the biomass, TAG and EPA yield on light in nitrogen starved batch cultures of P. tricornutum. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum TAG and EPA contents were found to be independent of the applied light intensity. The lipid yield on light was reduced at elevated light intensities (>100 μmol m-2 s-1. The highest TAG yield on light (112 mg TAG molph-1 was found at the lowest light intensity tested (60 μmol m-2 s-1, which is still relatively low to values reported in literature for other algae. Furthermore, mass balance analysis showed that the EPA fraction in TAG may originate from photosynthetic membrane lipids.

  7. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  8. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund was established in September 2015 as a partnership between the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada, and the International Development Research Centre. It represents a joint investment of $57 million over five years to support the development, production, and ...

  9. Research award: Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) is an initiative developed by ... to support the development, production, and commercialization of innovative ... of countries within a regional and/or sub-regional structure (e.g. the ...

  10. Livestock-environment interactions: Methane emissions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have excitingly conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production ...

  11. High energy pair production in arbitrary configuration of intense electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.

    1978-01-01

    The photon attenuation coefficient for pair production in intense electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary confiquration is derived. The results are applied to a cascade calculation of electromagnetic processes in pulsars. (author)

  12. Energy and emergy analysis of mixed crop-livestock farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczuk, Anna; Pospolita, Janusz; Wacław, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    This paper contains substance and energy balances of mixed crop-livestock farming. The analysis involves the period between 2012 and 2015. The structure of the presentation in the paper includes: crops and their structure, details of the use of plants with a beneficial effect on soil and stocking density per 1ha of agricultural land. Cumulative energy intensity of agricultural animal and plant production was determined, which is coupled the discussion of the energy input in the production of a grain unit obtained from plant and animal production. This data was compared with the data from the literature containing examples derived from intensive and organic production systems. The environmental impact of a farm was performed on the basis of emergy analysis. Emergy fluxes were determined on the basis of renewable and non-renewable sources. As a consequence, several performance indicators were established: Emergy Yield Ratio EYR, Environmental Loading Ratio ELR and ratio of emergy from renewable sources R! . Their values were compared with the parameters characterizing other production patterns followed in agricultural production. As a consequence, conclusions were derived, in particular the ones concerning environmental sustainability of production systems in the analyzed farm.

  13. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment.

  14. Environmental status of livestock and poultry sectors in China under current transformation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Song, Kaihui; Hu, Tao; Ying, Tianyu

    2018-05-01

    Intensive animal husbandry had aroused great environmental concerns in many developed countries. However, some developing countries are still undergoing the environmental pollution from livestock and poultry sectors. Driven by the large demand, China has experienced a remarkable increase in dairy and meat production, especially in the transformation stage from conventional household breeding to large-scale industrial breeding. At the same time, a large amount of manure from the livestock and poultry sector is released into waterbodies and soil, causing eutrophication and soil degradation. This condition will be reinforced in the large-scale cultivation where the amount of manure exceeds the soil nutrient capacity, if not treated or utilized properly. Our research aims to analyze whether the transformation of raising scale would be beneficial to the environment as well as present the latest status of livestock and poultry sectors in China. The estimation of the pollutants generated and discharged from livestock and poultry sector in China will facilitate the legislation of manure management. This paper analyzes the pollutants generated from the manure of the five principal commercial animals in different farming practices. The results show that the fattening pigs contribute almost half of the pollutants released from manure. Moreover, the beef cattle exert the largest environmental impact for unitary production, about 2-3 times of pork and 5-20 times of chicken. The animals raised with large-scale feedlots practice generate fewer pollutants than those raised in households. The shift towards industrial production of livestock and poultry is easier to manage from the environmental perspective, but adequate large-scale cultivation is encouraged. Regulation control, manure treatment and financial subsidies for the manure treatment and utilization are recommended to achieve the ecological agriculture in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Economic Impact of Global Warming on Livestock Husbandry in Kenya: A Ricardian Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane (School of Economics, Univ. of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The results further suggest possible gains from rising temperatures; losses from increased precipitation, but gains in net revenues resulting from a combined effect of rising temperatures and increased precipitation

  16. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  17. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound enhances extracellular matrix production by fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti PM Bohari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pulsed-low intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate was evaluated. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content and dimethylamine blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content were performed on samples from cell cultures treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound and a control group. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation, while collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were consistently higher in the samples treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 on day 10. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both groups. These results suggest that pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation but has potential for inducing collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in cells cultured in alginate gels.

  18. Freshwater use in livestock production—To be used for food crops or livestock feed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Ylva; Middelaar, van Corina E.; Lannerstad, Mats; Herrero, Mario; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to estimate freshwater use in livestock production systems generally fail to consider the competition for water resources with alternative uses, such as production of food crops food or other ecosystem services. This article presents a new method to account for the competition for

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  20. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  1. Novel Livestock Vaccines for Viral Diseases in Africa toward ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa's livestock industry The research will take place in Kenya and South Africa, where ... They will enhance food security by increasing production efficiency and ... provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD).

  2. LVIF Call 2 - Innovations to improve livestock vaccines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Musa Mulongo

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... novel vaccine design/formulations that present significant improvements over ... and which can be transferred to vaccine manufacturers for subsequent registration of.

  3. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone however explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat and pig traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  4. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 is an increasing cause of disease in people with no livestock contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jesper; Petersen, Andreas; Sørum, Marit; Stegger, Marc; van Alphen, Lieke; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Larsen, Lars Stehr; Feingold, Beth; Price, Lance Bradley; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert Leo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock constitutes a potential reservoir of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates belonging to a recently derived lineage within clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398-IIa). Since its discovery in the early 2000s, this lineage has become a major cause of human disease in Europe, posing a serious public health challenge in countries with intensive livestock production. To retrace the history of human colonisation and infection with MRSA CC398-IIa in Denmark, we conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of MRSA isolates collected from 1999 to 2011. Among 7,429 MRSA isolates screened, we identified 416 MRSA CC398-IIa isolates. Of these, 148 were from people with infections, including 51 from patients reporting no livestock exposure. The first cases of MRSA CC398-IIa infection in Denmark occurred in 2004. Subsequently, the incidence of MRSA CC398-IIa infection showed a linear annual increase of 66% from 2004 to 2011 (from 0.09 to 1.1 per 100,000 person-years). There were clear temporal and spatial relationships between MRSA CC398-IIa-infected patients with and without livestock exposure. These findings suggest substantial dissemination of MRSA CC398-IIa from livestock or livestock workers into the Danish community and underscore the need for strategies to control its spread both on and off the farm.

  5. Effects of oncoming target velocities on rapid force production and accuracy of force production intensity and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of oncoming target velocities on the ability of rapid force production and accuracy and variability of simultaneous control of both force production intensity and timing. Twenty male participants (age: 21.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rapid gripping with a handgrip dynamometer to coincide with the arrival of an oncoming target by using a horizontal electronic trackway. The oncoming target velocities were 4, 8, and 12 m · s -1 , which were randomly produced. The grip force required was 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction. Although the peak force (Pf) and rate of force development (RFD) increased with increasing target velocity, the value of the RFD to Pf ratio was constant across the 3 target velocities. The accuracy of both force production intensity and timing decreased at higher target velocities. Moreover, the intrapersonal variability in temporal parameters was lower in the fast target velocity condition, but constant variability in 3 target velocities was observed in force intensity parameters. These results suggest that oncoming target velocity does not intrinsically affect the ability for rapid force production. However, the oncoming target velocity affects accuracy and variability of force production intensity and timing during rapid force production.

  6. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  7. Simulation of intense laser-dense matter interactions. X-ray production and laser absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueshima, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Tajima, Toshiki

    1998-03-01

    The development of short-pulse ultra high intensity lasers will enable us to generate short-pulse intense soft and hard X-rays. Acceleration of an electron in laser field generates intense illuminated located radiation, Larmor radiation, around KeV at 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} with 100 TW and 1 {mu}m wave length laser. The Coulomb interaction between rest ions and relativistic electron generates broad energy radiation, bremsstrahlung emission, over MeV at 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} with the same condition. These intense radiations come in short pulses of the same order as that of the irradiated laser. The generated intense X-rays, Larmor and bremsstrahlung radiation, can be applied to sources of short pulse X-ray, excitation source of inner-shell X-ray laser, position production and nuclear excitation, etc. (author)

  8. Collisional pumping for the production of intense spin-polarized neutral beams: target considerations. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, J.W.; Burrell, C.F.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    Polarized beams at intensity levels heretofore not considered feasible have recently been proposed for heating and fueling fusion plasmas. Polarized-beam fueling could increase fusion rates by 50% as well as allow control of the directionality of the fusion products. A process which we have recently described, and called collisional pumping, promises to produce beams of polarized ions vastly more intense than producible by current methods

  9. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  10. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BASED ON CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT. CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerim SYDYKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most developing countries, where agriculture is the main economical source, clusters have been found as a booster to develop their economy. The Asian countries are now starting to implement agro-food clusters into the mainstream of changes in agriculture, farming and food industry. The long-term growth of meat production in the Kyrgyz Republic during the last decade, as well as the fact that agriculture has become one of the prioritized sectors of the economy, proved the importance of livestock sector in the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic. The research question is “Does the Kyrgyz Republic has strong economic opportunities and prerequisites in agriculture in order to implement an effective agro cluster in the livestock sector?” Paper focuses on describing the prerequisites of the Kyrgyz Republic in agriculture to implement livestock cluster. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the livestock sector of the Kyrgyz Republic and observe the capacity of this sector to implement agro-cluster. The study focuses on investigating livestock sector and a complex S.W.O.T. The analysis was carried out based on local and regional database and official studies. The results of research demonstrate the importance of livestock cluster for national economy. It can be concluded that cluster implementation could provide to its all members with benefits if they could build strong collaborative relationship in order to facilitate the access to the labour market and implicitly, the access to exchange of good practices. Their ability of potential cluster members to act as a convergence pole is critical for acquiring practical skills necessary for the future development of the livestock sector.

  11. EGG PRODUCTION AND HATCHABILITY OF LOCAL DUCKS UNDER SEMI INTENSIVE VS EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Widiyaningrum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the egg production and hatchability of local ducks under different management systems, namely semi-intensive and extensive. The research conducted was an experimental one-way classification with two treatments. Each treatment used 15 male and 120 females (mating ratio 1:8, and ducks aged 13-14 months. Eggs production was recorded during three weeks period. About 300 eggs were selected from each treatment to be hatched. Fertility was observed at 4th days of hatching process using egg candler. Data of eggs production, eggs weight, fertility, and hatchability were analyzed using unpaired two sample Student’s t-test. The results showed that average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability were not different under two management system, but egg production in the semi-intensive maintenance was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in the extensive system. Egg production in the semi-intensive was 12.3% higher than those in the extensive. In conclusion, the semi-intensive system that is applied in this study the number of eggs production but did not affect the average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability.

  12. Growth and production of new superior rice varieties in the shade intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alridiwirsah; Harahap, E. M.; Akoeb, E. N.; Hanum, H.

    2018-02-01

    Shade intensity is one of the most important requirements for plant growth, affecting growth, development, survival, and crop productivity. This study aims to evaluate the growth and productiom of New Superior Rice Varieties In The shade Intensity. This study was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, Pagar Merbau, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra. The research used completely randomized design with twofactors. The shade intensity (N) were 25%, 50% and no shade intensity as a control. Whereas new superior rice varieties were V1: Inpara 2, V2: Suluttan Unsrat 2, V3: Inpari Mugibat, V4: Inpari Sidenuk, V5: Mekongga, V6: Ciherang, V7:Inpari 10, V8: Inpari 3, V9: Inpari 4, V10: Inpari 30, dan V11: Cibogo. The result indicated that new superior rice varietiesshowedsignificant effectonthe growth and productionvariablesuch as leaf area, where Inpari Sidenuk variety was the highest among the varieties. Total chorophyll, the highest was found on Inpari variety. Number of tillers and plant height where the highest was found on Ciherang variety. The shade intensity showed significant effect on leaf area, where 25% shade intensity was the highest. Total chlorophyll, the highest was found on 50% shade intensity, number of tillers, the highest was found on no shade intensity.

  13. Livestock and land: trends, status and research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M.; Cecile, G.

    2017-12-01

    Livestock are one of the largest users of land. The use vast areas of rangelands and pasturelands and use a third of the global cropland for feed production. The demand of rlivestock products is growing at an accelerated rate due to large increases in income and urbanisation, primarily in the developing world. While most expansion is occuring the the poultry and pork sectors, ruminant meat and milk are also increasing significantly. There is concern as to how to manage the environmental footprints of these very dynamic systems. At the same, time, significnat opportunities to intensify land use in the the livestock sector exist, primarily in grasslands. This paper gives an overview of the trends in land use in the global livestock sector, assess the status of supply and demand of livestock products and how these might be met in the future and cocludes by proposing a research agenda with key areas that merit more attention from biophysical, social and economic scientists.

  14. Obtaining ''clean'' produce from livestock reared in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyazov, R.G.; Firsakova, S.K.; Karpenko, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable areas of Byelorussia devoted to intensive livestock farming were contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. The problem of furnishing livestock produce meeting Soviet Ministry of Health requirements (provisionally permissible levels) first arose immediately after the accident and is just as pressing nowadays. The main aims of the studies were, in the long term, to devise and implement measures for the fodder/animal/livestock-produce food chain which would result in the maximum reduction of radionuclide levels in livestock produce. It was established that the coefficients of radiocaesium transfer from the daily fodder ration varied from 0.004 to 0.016 for milk, from 0.03 to 0.06 for beet and from 0.10 to 0.11 for sheepmeat, which tallies with previous findings. A procedure for producing meat from cattle reared in a contaminated environment was developed to provide ''clean'' produce from livestock farming. It was established that the rate of radiocaesium removal from muscle tissue is an exponential function with two periods of semi-elimination - 14 and 80 days. Scientific and experimental data were used to draw up practical recommendations for final fattening of cattle with ''clean'' fodder, thus allowing fodder stocks to be used rationally. Ever since the accident occurred, milk with a high concentration of radiocaesium has been processed into butter. The standard method used to make cream butter reduces by a factor of 6 the radiocaesium content in the end product as compared to the original milk; and when melted, the butter contains hardly any traces of radiocaesium. (author)

  15. Livestock mortality and offtake in sheep and goat flocks of livestock owners making use of services offered by paravets in West Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Chris J M; Fakhri, A Qader; Shams, M Hamed; Briscoe, Raymond P; Schreuder, Bram E C

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, we quantified the effect of livestock services provided through paravets (intermediate-level training in veterinary medicine) on mortality and offtake of small ruminants in Western Afghanistan for the years 2010, 2011 and 2013. We compared mortality in adult and in young stock, and offtake of young stock of 120 livestock owners that made use of the paravet services (Users) with 120 livestock owners who did not make use of these services (Non-users). Security issues in the districts under study influenced the choice of villages. Within villages, livestock owners were purposively selected based on their known use of the services, including the provision of biologicals such as anthelmintics and vaccines. In addition, we subdivided both categories into 'partial' and 'full' based on the intensity of use of biologicals. Paravets were not only trained on preventive and curative veterinary medicine, they were also trained in extension and trained on adhering to a cold-chain and applying quality biologicals. For Non-users there was the possibility to buy biologicals through a local market or bazaar. In Afghanistan, local markets have an extensive supply of vaccines, anthelmintics, and medicines from a variety of sources, often not handled appropriately and therefore of varying quality. The results indicated that livestock owners making partial or full use of the paravet services had statistically significant better animal health and production results. The mortalities in adult stock, expressed as Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs), for the partial-Users and full-Users categories were estimated to be respectively 0.80 and 0.73 times the mortality observed in the partial Non-users', the reference category. A similar result was observed for young stock mortality with estimated IRRs of 0.81 and 0.77 for partial and full-Users category respectively. The offtake for partial- and full-Users category livestock owners were 1.24 and 1.21 times higher compared with the

  16. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' was held in the Vienna International Centre from 2 to 6 September 2002. Twelve Research Contracts (RCs) and 3 Research Agreements (RAs) have been awarded under this CRP and all awardees, the Project Officer and a guest speaker from the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AAHFS) participated in the RCM. The objective of the RCM was to plan the first phase of the CRP, initiation of the development and validation of methods. Specific objectives were to: Agree upon a small number of veterinary drugs upon which to focus the research; Agree upon analytical methodologies to be employed; formulate individual work plans for each research contract holder within the framework of the overall work plan. Each RC holder presented an overview of residues monitoring from the perspective of their respective countries. Emphasis was placed on problems encountered and future requirements. The participants visited the Austrian National Reference Laboratory for veterinary drug residues at Moedling and discussed the activities there with Mr. Kuhn and laboratory staff. An overall framework for phase of the CRP, focusing upon the compounds and analytical techniques of major importance to the majority of participants, was formulated. Each RC holder discussed and revised their individual work plan with the RA holders and the PO. The overall framework was then reviewed and a summary of the individual work plans presented. Conclusions and recommendations were drafted

  17. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  18. Maximizing Conservation and Production with Intensive Forest Management: It's All About Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Filotas, Élise; Kroese, Jasmin; Messier, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional zoning has been suggested as a way to balance the needs of a viable forest industry with those of healthy ecosystems. Under this system, part of the forest is set aside for protected areas, counterbalanced by intensive and extensive management of the rest of the forest. Studies indicate this may provide adequate timber while minimizing road construction and favoring the development of large mature and old stands. However, it is unclear how the spatial arrangement of intensive management areas may affect the success of this zoning. Should these areas be agglomerated or dispersed throughout the forest landscape? Should managers prioritize (a) proximity to existing roads, (b) distance from protected areas, or (c) site-specific productivity? We use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine the effects of different spatial scenarios on landscape structure, connectivity for native forest wildlife, stand diversity, harvest volume, and road construction: (1) random placement of intensive management areas, and (2-8) all possible combinations of rules (a)-(c). Results favor the agglomeration of intensive management areas. For most wildlife species, connectivity was the highest when intensive management was far from the protected areas. This scenario also resulted in relatively high harvest volumes. Maximizing distance of intensive management areas from protected areas may therefore be the best way to maximize the benefits of intensive management areas while minimizing their potentially negative effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

  19. Effect of spatial distribution of tastants on taste intensity, fluctuation of taste intensity and consumer preference of (semi-)solid food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of

  20. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Quinlan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropical Livestock Units (TLU, weight-based species exchange ratio, and perceived value from interviews for moran (unmarried men, muruo (married men, and tɔmɔnɔ́k (married women. Hedonic regression using livestock species, sex, maturity, and size accounted for 90% of the local market price of livestock. We compared the market-based exchange ratio between cattle and smallstock (sheep and goats to TLU and perceived values situating symbolic value of cattle in terms of Maasai household production schema. One TLU model accurately predicted market exchange ratios, while another predicted hypothetical exchanges, suggesting need for improved livestock wealth estimation for pastoralists. Ritual context, subsistence work, and cultural position influenced perceived values: Moran overvalued cattle by 100% of the local market value. Tɔmɔnɔ́k accurately perceived the market exchange ratio despite never directly engaging in livestock market transactions. Muruo perceived exchange ratios intermediate between moran and tɔmɔnɔ́k. We argue that these perceptions of value reflect distinct labor responsibilities of moran, muruo, and tɔmɔnɔ́k in livestock management, differential value of bridewealth, and control of meat and milk.Attention to value of different livestock species in cultural models of production may prove useful for development efforts.

  1. Targets for production of high-intensity radioactive ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagebo, E.; Hoff, P.; Steffensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The recent developments of target systems for production of high intensity radioactive ion-beams at the ISOLDE mass separators is described. Methods for chemically selective production through separation of molecular ions are outlined and the effects of the addition of reactive gases has been studied. Results and further possible applications in the light element region are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of semi-intensive method of swine production:a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected by means of structured questionnaire administered on twenty-one farms practicing semi-intensive technique of swine production with the aid of cluster sampling technique. Data collected was subjected to various measures of return on investment viz: Gross Margin, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Net Present Value, ...

  4. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Piasentin, R.M.; Primavesi, O.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  5. Water quality under intensive banana production and extensive pastureland in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arya, D.R.; Geissen, V.; Ponce-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Becker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intensive banana production with high mineral-fertilizer application and of extensive pastures were compared regarding water quality in a lowland region of SE Mexico. We monitored NO, NO, and PO43– concentrations in groundwater (80 m depth), subsurface water (5 m depth), and surface

  6. The Impact of Telecommuting Intensity on Employee Perception Outcomes: Job Satisfaction, Productivity, and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaanga, Solomon G.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the impact of telecommuting intensity (hours worked/week from home) on worker perceived outcomes such as job satisfaction, productivity, organizational commitment. Data was collected and analyzed from a large U.S. Federal Department. The conceptual research model and design include three key mediating variables, one…

  7. The effect of intensive and extensive production systems on carcass quality in New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Daszkiewicz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty New Zealand White rabbits weaned at 30 days were divided into 2 groups and reared under intensive or extensive production system till slaughter age (90 days of age.  In the extensive production system, rabbits were housed in free-standing cages on straw litter and fed farm-made feed ad libitum.  Control rabbits were raised intensively in wire mesh slatted floor cages, indoors and on a commercial pellet ad libitum. Hot carcass weight was 16,6% lower (P<0.01 in extensive production, although the difference of 1 point both in hot and cold dressing percentage in favour of the intensively reared rabbits was not significant (P>0.05. The higher carcass weight of the control rabbits led to heavier primal cuts, including head (P0.05 and the fore part, intermediate part and hind part of the carcass (P0.01.  However, expressed as % of carcass weight, a significantly higher ratio was only found for the head (P0.01 and edible offal (P0.05 in intensively produced rabbits.  The production systems investigated  had no significant (P>0.05 effect on the chemical composition, physicochemical properties and organoleptic characteristics of meat from New Zealand White rabbits.

  8. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... represent as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics, any... restore an animal to health when methods acceptable to organic production fail. Livestock treated with a...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling...

  9. Extensive livestock farming in Morocco: From marginal territories to major social and environmental roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Sraïri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the supply of animal products in Morocco revealed a sharp decline of the contribution of extensive livestock farming systems. In a con­text of marked demographic expansion (from 15.3 to 32.9 million inhabitants from 1956 to 2013 associated to rapid urbanization (almost 60% of the pop­ulation lives in urban centers, consumption habits have changed. There has been a shift from a patriarchal structure of the society, which meant that meals were consumed at home, to more individualistic behaviors. As a consequence, the nature of animal products consumed by large sections of the population has notably changed. Dairy and poultry products appear to be most suited to these changes, as they can easily be used in fast-food preparations. On another hand, the consumption of beef and mutton from extensive systems has been stagnating. Extensive livestock systems, however, still use many fibrous feeds, from rangeland resources to cereal by-products. Traditionally, this has enabled them to ensure strategic functions such as the regional development of marginal areas, natural resource management, efficient water productivity through livestock products in a country experiencing acute water scarcity, and the creation of wealth and job opportunities. The shift of interest from these systems to more intensive ones raises many questions. It puts tremendous pressure on natural resources in areas of intensive production. In addition, the supply of animal products has become highly fragile as it depends on imported inputs, from animal genes to feeds (e.g. soya and maize for poultry. These changes mean that more attention should be given to extensive livestock production systems, as they promote a greener way of production and enhance large rural areas. These systems will hold a strategic position in the near future, when the time comes to face issues such as sustaina­bility of the animal protein supply and natural resource preservation, and to

  10. High-intensity, thin-target He-jet production source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.; Butler, G.W.; Rosenauer, Dk; Loebner, K.E.G.; Lind, V.G.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    A thin-target He-jet system suited to the production and rapid transport of non-volatile radioactive species has been successfully operated with proton beam intensities of up to 700 μA. The system consists of a water-cooled, thin-target chamber, capillary gas transport system, moving tape/Ge detection system, and an aerosol generator/gas recirculator. The yields for a wide variety of uranium fission and deep spallation products have been measured and robust operation of the system demonstrated for several weeks. He-jet transport and collection efficiencies ranged between 15 and 25% with collection rates of 10 7 to 10 8 atoms/sec/isotope. The high-intensity, thin-target He-jet approach represents a robust production source for nonvolatile radioactive heavy ion beams

  11. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 is an increasing cause of disease in people with no livestock contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Petersen, A.; Sørum, M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock constitutes a potential reservoir of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates belonging to a recently derived lineage within clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398-IIa). Since its discovery in the early 2000s, this lineage has become a major cause of human disease in Europe, posing...... a serious public health challenge in countries with intensive livestock production. To retrace the history of human colonisation and infection with MRSA CC398-IIa in Denmark, we conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of MRSA isolates collected from 1999 to 2011. Among 7,429 MRSA isolates screened, we...... identified 416 MRSA CC398-IIa isolates. Of these, 148 were from people with infections, including 51 from patients reporting no livestock exposure. The first cases of MRSA CC398-IIa infection in Denmark occurred in 2004. Subsequently, the incidence of MRSA CC398-IIa infection showed a linear annual increase...

  12. Decomposition of Fertilizer Use Intensity and Its Environmental Risk in China’s Grain Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully explore the fertilizer use intensity and its potential threats to the ecological environment, this paper has studied the decomposition of fertilizer use intensity and its environmental risk in China’s grain production. Based on the statistical data collected from 10 provinces during 2004–2015 in China’s grain producing areas, this paper has analyzed the effect of fertilizer use intensity from a regional perspective. The environmental risk assessment model considers some factors such as the fertilizer application safety thresholds use efficiency, multiple cropping index, and environmental impact weight. The fertilizer application safety thresholds are calculated on the target output of local food crops. The results show that: (1 during 2004–2015, the fertilizer use intensity shows an increasing trend in China’s grain producing areas, and the intensity is significantly higher than the upper limit of the international safety fertilization; (2 the cumulative contribution rate of the increase of fertilizer use intensity caused by regional fertilizer use efficiency and grain planting structure adjustment are 57.03% and 1.81% respectively; (3 in 2015, China’s grain producing areas’ environmental risk index of phosphorus and potash was low, with the values in these two provinces being quite different and indicating the characteristics of aggregation and distribution. Therefore, the Chinese government should unswervingly encourage the application of some technology that could save fertilizer and increase efficiency, establish environmental risk monitoring and control systems, and improve relevant policies and regulations.

  13. A high-intensity He-jet production source for radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Kimberly, H.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Talbert, W.L.; Wouters, J.M.; Rosenauer, D.; Bai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin-target, He-jet transport system operating with high primary beam intensities is explored as a high-intensity production source for radioactive beams. This method is expected to work well for short-lived, non-volatile species. As such the thin-target, He-jet approach represents a natural complement to the thick-target ISOL method in which such species are not, in general, rapidly released. Highlighted here is a thin-target, He-jet system that is being prepared for a 500 + μA, 800-MeV proton demonstration experiment at LAMPF this summer

  14. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  15. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane [School of Economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-05-15

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  16. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Quinlan; Isaya Rumas; Godfrey Naiskye; Marsha Quinlan; Jonathan Yoder

    2016-01-01

    We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropi...

  17. Production and study of high intensity discharges; Production et etude de decharges a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, C.; Charbon, J.; Hubert, P.; Vendryes, G.; Yvon, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    High intensity discharges have been induced in a pyrex toroid filled with argon or deuterium at low pressure. An attempt was made to stabilise the ring of plasma by the joint action of a metal screen and a longitudinal magnetic field. Penetrating X-ray have been observed under certain conditions. (author) [French] Des decharges a forte intensite ont ete induites dans une tore en pyrex rempli d'argon ou de deuterium sous basse pression. On a cherche a stabiliser l'anneau de plasma par l'action conjuguee d'un champ magnetique longitudinal. Un rayon X penetrant a ete observe dans certaines conditions. (auteur)

  18. Production and study of high intensity discharges; Production et etude de decharges a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, C; Charbon, J; Hubert, P; Vendryes, G; Yvon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    High intensity discharges have been induced in a pyrex toroid filled with argon or deuterium at low pressure. An attempt was made to stabilise the ring of plasma by the joint action of a metal screen and a longitudinal magnetic field. Penetrating X-ray have been observed under certain conditions. (author) [French] Des decharges a forte intensite ont ete induites dans une tore en pyrex rempli d'argon ou de deuterium sous basse pression. On a cherche a stabiliser l'anneau de plasma par l'action conjuguee d'un champ magnetique longitudinal. Un rayon X penetrant a ete observe dans certaines conditions. (auteur)

  19. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  20. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  1. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  2. Family Farming livestock data search in loco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Benito Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation and trading of livestock are potentially growing in the Brazil over the years so that there is an increase in the interest of producers to apply new technologies to be able to stay in this increasingly competitive market. The technologies that are being applied include both new production techniques as management tools, control and monitoring of animals. Thus, this work presents an application development proposal to enable livestock data transmission and retrieval through a mobile platform, informing characteristics such as origin, weight recorded in the last weighing, race, vaccination, among others. The use of a technology applied to mobile devices can solve the problems of farmers from having to carry computers or notepads to where the animals are arranged, offering convenience and speed in decision making.

  3. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  4. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  5. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  6. AIP1OGREN: Aerosol Observing Station Intensive Properties Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, Annette [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flynn, Connor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The aip1ogren value-added product (VAP) computes several aerosol intensive properties. It requires as input calibrated, corrected, aerosol extensive properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, primarily) from the Aerosol Observing Station (AOS). Aerosol extensive properties depend on both the nature of the aerosol and the amount of the aerosol. We compute several properties as relationships between the various extensive properties. These intensive properties are independent of aerosol amount and instead relate to intrinsic properties of the aerosol itself. Along with the original extensive properties we report aerosol single-scattering albedo, hemispheric backscatter fraction, asymmetry parameter, and Ångström exponent for scattering and absorption with one-minute averaging. An hourly averaged file is produced from the 1-minute files that includes all extensive and intensive properties as well as submicron scattering and submicron absorption fractions. Finally, in both the minutely and hourly files the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency is provided.

  7. Fire intensity impacts on post-fire temperate coniferous forest net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Aaron M.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Boschetti, Luigi; Johnson, Daniel M.; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecological process in forests and impacts the carbon (C) cycle through direct combustion emissions, tree mortality, and by impairing the ability of surviving trees to sequester carbon. While studies on young trees have demonstrated that fire intensity is a determinant of post-fire net primary productivity, wildland fires on landscape to regional scales have largely been assumed to either cause tree mortality, or conversely, cause no physiological impact, ignoring the impacted but surviving trees. Our objective was to understand how fire intensity affects post-fire net primary productivity in conifer-dominated forested ecosystems on the spatial scale of large wildland fires. We examined the relationships between fire radiative power (FRP), its temporal integral (fire radiative energy - FRE), and net primary productivity (NPP) using 16 years of data from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for 15 large fires in western United States coniferous forests. The greatest NPP post-fire loss occurred 1 year post-fire and ranged from -67 to -312 g C m-2 yr-1 (-13 to -54 %) across all fires. Forests dominated by fire-resistant species (species that typically survive low-intensity fires) experienced the lowest relative NPP reductions compared to forests with less resistant species. Post-fire NPP in forests that were dominated by fire-susceptible species were not as sensitive to FRP or FRE, indicating that NPP in these forests may be reduced to similar levels regardless of fire intensity. Conversely, post-fire NPP in forests dominated by fire-resistant and mixed species decreased with increasing FRP or FRE. In some cases, this dose-response relationship persisted for more than a decade post-fire, highlighting a legacy effect of fire intensity on post-fire C dynamics in these forests.

  8. Breaking the chain of zoonoses through biosecurity in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel S; Choudhary, Anupma; Bean, Andrew G D

    2017-10-20

    Increases in global travel, trade and urbanisation are leading to greater incidence of zoonotic disease, and livestock are often a key link in the spread of disease to humans. As such, livestock vaccination strategies, as a part of broader biosecurity solutions, are critical to both animal and human health. Importantly, approaches that restrict infectious agents in livestock, not only protects their economic value but should reduce the potential for spill over infections in humans. Biosecurity solutions to livestock health can take a number of different forms and are generally heavily weighted towards prevention of infection rather than treatment. Therefore, vaccination can provide an effective component of a strategic approach, particularly as production economics dictate the use of cost effective solutions. Furthermore, in an evolving global environment there is a need for vaccines that accommodate for lower socioeconomic and rapidly emerging zoonotics. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal health: Key to maximise growth performance in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beever, D.E.; Collet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is changing worldwide. It is also the case that the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift in animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing

  10. Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    measure of gender inequality and women's economic empowerment compared to indicators such as income. The role of livestock as an asset for women has been analysed in Kenya, Tanzania .... were a more common source in Tanzania and.

  11. Urbanization and the Change of Fertilizer Use Intensity for Agricultural Production in Henan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available China’s urbanization has resulted in significant changes in agricultural land use. However, understanding of the linkages between urbanization and fertilizer use intensity is limited. Using county-level panel data for Henan Province, 1995–2008 and panel econometric models, we investigate the impact of urbanization and other socioeconomic factors on fertilizer use intensity, with a focus on the two key processes related to urbanization—shrinking agricultural land area and increasing urban wages. Our results show that declining agricultural land per capita is associated with greater fertilizer use intensity. Urban wages is positively correlated with fertilizer use intensity. We also find that GDP per capita and per capita expenditure of government for agriculture both positively contribute to the increase of fertilizer use intensity, which is consistent with expectations. Our results imply that other than land conversion, urbanization contains some positive influences on land use sustainability. However, on the other hand, urbanization contributes to agriculture-based environmental pollution by increasing the level of fertilizer use in agricultural production.

  12. The Daktari: An Interactive, Multi-Media Tool for Knowledge Transfer among Poor Livestock Keepers in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Louise; Heffernan, Claire; Lin, Yibo; Yu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the findings from the assessment of a touch-screen, multi-media learning program on livestock health and production: "The Daktari." The program was tested on a sample of 62 livestock keepers in the Nairobi slums of Kariobangi and Kibera. The study examined prior knowledge regarding three livestock diseases (liver…

  13. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale, acquisition...

  14. 9 CFR 203.5 - Statement with respect to market agencies paying the expenses of livestock buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commission basis, to pay certain of the business or personal expenses incurred by buyers attending livestock... commission basis, to pay, directly or indirectly, any personal or business expenses of livestock buyers... agencies paying the expenses of livestock buyers. 203.5 Section 203.5 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN...

  15. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b) Allowing...

  16. 36 CFR 261.7 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock. 261.7 Section 261... Prohibitions § 261.7 Livestock. The following are prohibited: (a) Placing or allowing unauthorized livestock to... unauthorized livestock from the National Forest System or other lands under Forest Service control when...

  17. Leaf economics spectrum-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures depend on dominant species identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Norman W H; Orwin, Kate; Lambie, Suzanne; Woodward, Sharon L; McCready, Tiffany; Mudge, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Plant functional traits are thought to drive variation in primary productivity. However, there is a lack of work examining how dominant species identity affects trait-productivity relationships. The productivity of 12 pasture mixtures was determined in a 3-year field experiment. The mixtures were based on either the winter-active ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or winter-dormant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Different mixtures were obtained by adding forb, legume, and grass species that differ in key leaf economics spectrum (LES) traits to the basic two-species dominant grass-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixtures. We tested for correlations between community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values, functional diversity, and productivity across all plots and within those based on either ryegrass or tall fescue. The winter-dormant forb species (chicory and plantain) had leaf traits consistent with high relative growth rates both per unit leaf area (high leaf thickness) and per unit leaf dry weight (low leaf dry matter content). Together, the two forb species achieved reasonable abundance when grown with either base grass (means of 36% and 53% of total biomass, respectively, with ryegrass tall fescue), but they competed much more strongly with tall fescue than with ryegrass. Consequently, they had a net negative impact on productivity when grown with tall fescue, and a net positive effect when grown with ryegrass. Strongly significant relationships between productivity and CWM values for LES traits were observed across ryegrass-based mixtures, but not across tall fescue-based mixtures. Functional diversity did not have a significant positive effect on productivity for any of the traits. The results show dominant species identity can strongly modify trait-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures. This was due to differences in the intensity of competition between dominant species and additional species, suggesting that resource-use complementarity is a

  18. Do Environmental Regulations Influence the Competitiveness of Pollution-Intensive Products?

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Lu

    2010-01-01

    According to "Pollution Haven Effect," in order to circumvent stringent environment standards, polluting industries in developed countries will be chosen to locate into developing countries; another way is that developed countries increase imports of pollution-intensive products instead of producing by their own, both of which can contribute to the changes of comparative advantages in the past 30 years. Since 1990s, many scholars have paid special attention on whether environmental regulation...

  19. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  20. Simulation of the Effect of Intensive Forest Management on Forest Production in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Rosvall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of intensifying the management of 15% of the Swedish forest land on potential future forest production over a 100-year period were investigated in a simulation study. The intensive management treatments, which were introduced over a period of 50 years, were: intensive fertilization of Norway spruce (IntFert; bulking-up Norway spruce elite populations using somatic embryogenesis (SE-seedlings; planting of lodgepole pine, hybrid larch, and Sitka spruce (Contorta, Larch, and Sitka; fertilization with wood ash on peatlands (Wood ash; and conventional fertilization in mature forests (ConFert. Potential sites for applying intensive forest management (IFM to sites with low nature conservation values were determined with a nature conservation score (NCS. Four different scenarios were simulated: “Base scenario”, which aimed at reducing the negative impact on nature conservation values, “Fast implementation”, “No IntFert” (IntFert was not used, and “Large Forest Companies”, where the majority of plots were selected on company land. Total yields during the 100-year simulation period were about 85–92% higher for the intensive forest management scenarios than for the reference scenario (business as usual. In the “No IntFert” scenario total production was 1.8% lower and in the “Large Forest Companies” scenario total production was 4.8% lower than in the “Base scenario”. “Fast implementation” of IFM increased yield by 15% compared to the “Base scenario”. Norway spruce SE-seedlings and IntFert gave the highest yields, measured as total production during the 100-year simulation period, but relative to the yields in the reference scenario, the highest increases in yield were for Contorta. The “Base scenario” and “No IntFert” gave the highest yields for plots with the lowest NCS, but plots with higher NCS had to be used in the “Fast implementation” and “Large Forest Companies” scenarios. More than

  1. Tritium solid targets for intense D-T neutron production and its related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    This review paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, to attain an intense neutron production rate, the construction of a design with a higher tritium-containing surface and an effective cooling system like a rotating target device are discussed. The maximum attainable intensity based on tritium solid targets shall be estimated regarding planning for future D-T sources. Secondly, on the way to carry out some experiments, an absolute intensity calibration and an angular dependent neutron energy spectrum of the neutron source are essential parameters to analyse the results of the experiments. Sometimes the space dependent neutron spectrum is required as well as the space dependent neutron flux near the targets and irradiation samples. The measurement methods and their examples are reviewed for tritium solid targets. The third part is devoted to discuss the protection to tritium contamination problems due to unavoidable release of tritium gas from targets. Performance and effectiveness of tritium collection systems for intense D-T neutron sources shall be discussed in some examples. Tritium contamination incidents due to the faulted film powder of target surface are also reported in some real incident cases. (author). Abstract only

  2. Estimate of livestock water use in Nebraska during 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)

  3. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  4. Rainfall Intensity and Frequency Explain Production Basis Risk in Cumulative Rain Index Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus P.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Huffaker, Ray G.

    2017-12-01

    With minimal moral hazard and adverse selection, weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions through swift compensation at affordable premium. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing gives rise to production basis risk as the selected weather indexes do not sufficiently correspond to actual damages. To address this problem, we develop a stochastic yield model, built upon a stochastic soil moisture model driven by marked Poisson rainfall. Our analysis shows that even under similar temperature and rainfall amount yields can differ significantly; this was empirically supported by a 2-year field experiment in which rain-fed maize was grown under very similar total rainfall. Here, the year with more intense, less-frequent rainfall produces a better yield—a rare counter evidence to most climate change projections. Through a stochastic yield model, we demonstrate the crucial roles of rainfall intensity and frequency in determining the yield. Importantly, the model allows us to compute rainfall pattern-related basis risk inherent in cumulative rain index insurance. The model results and a case study herein clearly show that total rainfall is a poor indicator of yield, imposing unnecessary production basis risk on farmers and false-positive payouts on insurers. Incorporating rainfall intensity and frequency in the design of rain index insurance can offer farmers better protection, while maintaining the attractive features of the weather index insurance and thus fulfilling its promise of financial resilience.

  5. Production of intensive negative lithium beam with caesium sputter-type ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.

    2018-01-01

    Compounds of lithium oxide, hydroxide and carbonate, mixed with silver, were prepared for use as a cathode in caesium-sputter ion source. The intention was to determine the procedure which would produce the highest intensity negative lithium beams over extended period and with maximum stability. The chemical composition and properties of the samples were analysed using mass-spectrometry, optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyses (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. These analyses showed that the chemical transformations with components resulted from pressing, storage and bake out were qualitatively in agreement with expectations. Intensive negative lithium ion beams >1 μA were delivered using cathodes fabricated from materials with multicomponent chemical composition when the following conditions were met: (i) use of components with moderate enthalpy of formation; (ii) low moisture content at final stage of cathode production and (iii) small concentration of water molecules in hydrate phase in the cathode mixture.

  6. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  7. New Estimates of Land Use Intensity of Potential Bioethanol Production in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheshgi, H. S.; Song, Y.; Torkamani, S.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We estimate potential bioethanol land use intensity (the inverse of potential bioethanol yield per hectare) across the United States by modeling crop yields and conversion to bioethanol (via a fermentation pathway), based on crop field studies and conversion technology analyses. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to estimate the potential yield of four crops - corn, Miscanthus, and two variants of switchgrass (Cave-in-Rock and Alamo) - across the U.S.A. landscape for the 14-year period from 1999 through 2012, for the case with fertilizer application but without irrigation. We estimate bioethanol yield based on recent experience for corn bioethanol production from corn kernel, and current cellulosic bioethanol process design specifications under the assumption of the maximum practical harvest fraction for the energy grasses (Miscanthus and switchgrasses) and a moderate (30%) harvest fraction of corn stover. We find that each of four crops included has regions where that crop is estimated to have the lowest land use intensity (highest potential bioethanol yield per hectare). We find that minimizing potential land use intensity by including both corn and the energy grasses only improves incrementally to that of corn (using both harvested kernel and stover for bioethanol). Bioethanol land use intensity is one fundamental factor influencing the desirability of biofuels, but is not the only one; others factors include economics, competition with food production and land use, water and climate, nitrogen runoff, life-cycle emissions, and the pace of crop and technology improvement into the future.

  8. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  9. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ..., who suggested an intake level that would be attainable on productive pastures of farming operations in... animals.'' Most types or species of livestock animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats..., goats, swine, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fiber, feed, or other...

  10. The future of animal feeding: towards sustainable precision livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the future, production will increasingly be affected by globalization of the trade in feed commodities and livestock products, competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between feed, food and biofuel, and by the need to operate in a carbonconstrained economy,

  11. Phosphorus flows in a peri-urban region with intensive food production: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, S; Sheppard, S C; Poon, D; Hunt, D E

    2017-02-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e.g. keeping pets and horses and using soaps). We hypothesized changes that might notably improve P efficiency in peri-urban settings and wider regions. Livestock feed for the dairy and poultry sectors was the largest influx of P: the peri-urban land is too limited to grow feed grains and they are imported from outside the region. Fertilizer and import of food were the next largest influxes of P and a similar amount of P flows as food from the agricultural to urban ecosystems. Export of horticultural crops (berries and greenhouse crops) and poultry represented agricultural effluxes that partially offset the influxes. P efficiency was lower for horticultural production (21%) than animal production (32%), the latter benefited from importing feed crops, suggesting a regional advantage for animal products. There was 2.0, 3.8, 5.7 and 5.6 tonnes imported P per $ million farm cash receipts for horticulture, dairy, poultry meat and eggs. Eliminating fertilizer for corn and grass would reduce the ratio for the dairy industry. The net influx, dominated by fertilizer, animal feed and food was 8470 tonnes P per year or 3.2 kg P per person per year, and of this the addition to agricultural soils was 3650 tonnes P. The efflux in sewage effluent to the sea was 1150 tonnes P and exported sewage solids was 450 tonnes P. Municipal solid waste disposal was most difficult to quantify and was about 1800 tonnes P, 80% of which was partly reused

  12. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  13. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-11-03

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  14. Inventory of methane emissions from livestock in China from 1980 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiashuo; Peng, Shushi; Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Dumas, Patrice; Lin, Xin; Piao, Shilong

    2018-07-01

    Livestock is the largest anthropogenic methane (CH4) source at the global scale. Previous inventories of this source for China were based on the accounting of livestock populations and constant emission factors (EFs) per head. Here, we re-evaluate how livestock CH4 emissions have changed from China over the last three decades, considering increasing population, body weight and milk production per head which cause EF to change with time, and decreasing average life span (ALS) of livestock. Our results show that annual CH4 emissions by livestock have increased from 4.5 to 11.8 Tg CH4 yr-1 over the period 1980-2013. The increasing trend in emissions (0.25 Tg CH4 yr-2) over this period is ∼12% larger than that if using constant EFs and ALS. The increasing livestock population, production per head and decreasing ALS contributed +91%, +28% and -19% to the increase in CH4 emissions from livestock, respectively. This implies that the temporal changes in EF and ALS of livestock cannot be overlooked in inventories, especially in countries like China where livestock production systems are experiencing rapid transformations.

  15. Adult and adolescent livestock productive asset transfer programmes to improve mental health, economic stability and family and community relationships in rural South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Remy, Mitima Mpanano; Alfred, Mirindi Bacikenge; Arsene, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa; Nadine, Mwinja Bufole; Heri, Banyewesize Jean; Clovis, Mitima Murhula; Glass, Nancy

    2017-03-14

    People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese-US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities. The community-based randomised controlled trials examine the effectiveness of PFP and RFR to improve health, economic stability, and family and community relationships among male and female adults and adolescents living in 10 rural, postconflict villages of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. PFP participants include adult permanent residents of rural villages; adolescent participants in RFR include male and female adolescents 10-15 years old living in the selected rural villages. Participants were randomised to intervention or delayed control group. Participants in PFP completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postintervention. In RFR, participants completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postbaseline. The primary outcome of both trials, the change in baseline mental health distress at 18 months in the intervention group (adults, adolescents) compared to control group, is used to calculate sample size. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institute Internal Review Board approved this protocol. A committee of respected Congolese educators and community members (due to lack of local ethics review board) approved the study. The findings will provide important information on the potential for community-led sustainable development initiatives to build on traditional livelihood (livestock raising, agriculture) to have a sustained health, economic and social impact on the

  16. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  17. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership... livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? (a) Tribes determine the class of livestock and livestock ownership requirements for livestock that may be grazed on range units...

  18. Effects of Light Intensity and Color on the Biomass, Extracellular Red Pigment, and Citrinin Production of Monascus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liling; Dai, Yang; Chen, Wanping; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-12-21

    Light is a crucial environmental signal for fungi. In this work, the effects of different light intensities and colors on biomass, Monascus pigments (MPs) and citrinin production of Monascus ruber M7 were investigated. We have demonstrated that low intensity of blue light (500 lx) decreased Monascus biomass, increased MPs accumulation via upregulation of MpigA, MpigB, and MpigJ genes expression, but had no significant influence on citrinin production. High intensity of blue light (1500 lx) decreased citrinin accumulation but had no significant influence on biomass and MPs production after 14 days cultivation. Low intensity of green light (500 lx) stimulated citrinin production via upregulation of pksCT, mrl1, mrl2, and ctnA genes expression. One putative red light photoreceptor and two putative green light photoreceptors were identified in M. ruber M7. These observations will not only guide the practical production of Monascus but also contribute to our understanding light effects on Monascus.

  19. Controlling Malaria Using Livestock-Based Interventions: A One Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana O.; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Rowland, Mark; Coleman, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Where malaria is transmitted by zoophilic vectors, two types of malaria control strategies have been proposed based on animals: using livestock to divert vector biting from people (zooprophylaxis) or as baits to attract vectors to insecticide sources (insecticide-treated livestock). Opposing findings have been obtained on malaria zooprophylaxis, and despite the success of an insecticide-treated livestock trial in Pakistan, where malaria vectors are highly zoophilic, its effectiveness is yet to be formally tested in Africa where vectors are more anthropophilic. This study aims to clarify the different effects of livestock on malaria and to understand under what circumstances livestock-based interventions could play a role in malaria control programmes. This was explored by developing a mathematical model and combining it with data from Pakistan and Ethiopia. Consistent with previous work, a zooprophylactic effect of untreated livestock is predicted in two situations: if vector population density does not increase with livestock introduction, or if livestock numbers and availability to vectors are sufficiently high such that the increase in vector density is counteracted by the diversion of bites from humans to animals. Although, as expected, insecticide-treatment of livestock is predicted to be more beneficial in settings with highly zoophilic vectors, like South Asia, we find that the intervention could also considerably decrease malaria transmission in regions with more anthropophilic vectors, like Anopheles arabiensis in Africa, under specific circumstances: high treatment coverage of the livestock population, using a product with stronger or longer lasting insecticidal effect than in the Pakistan trial, and with small (ideally null) repellency effect, or if increasing the attractiveness of treated livestock to malaria vectors. The results suggest these are the most appropriate conditions for field testing insecticide-treated livestock in an Africa region with

  20. Livestock Fadama users' access to information on selected livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FUGs members never had access to information on key livestock technologies like artificial insemination, automated feeding, feed formulation and creep feeding. Farmers' number of years of formal education (r = -0.09) and family size (r= 0.09) had no significant relationships with respondents' access to information on ...

  1. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  2. The Intensity of using production factors in Romania. Estimates from Cobb-Douglas and CES Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Zaman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The production function explains the mechanism through which inputs are changed into outputs and the partial efficiency of labour and capital. It also allows for understanding the elasticity of substitution, which measures the percentage change in factor proportions due to a percentage change in the marginal rate of technical substitution. In this research we have used aggregate production functions of Cobb-Douglas type in different time-series and cross-section analysis of Romania’s economic growth from the standpoint of the intensity of using capital and labour factors, as determinant elements for the level of production and GDP. We have also applied the two factor Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES production function, which is considered to be the generalised form of the Cobb-Douglas function. Using the available statistical data regarding Romania’s economy in the 1990-2005 period, we have performed time-series and cross-section analysis based on the aggregated production functions at the national level.

  3. LivestockPlus: Forages, sustainable intensification, and food security in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K; Paul, Birthe; White, Douglas; Rao, I M; Van Der Hoek, Rein; Castro, Aracely; Boval, Maryline; Lerner, Amy; Schneider, Laura; Peters, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The increased use of grain-based feed for livestock during the last two decades has contributed, along with other factors, to a rise in grain prices that has reduced human food security. This circumstance argues for feeding more forages to livestock, particularly in the tropics where many livestock are reared on small farms. Efforts to accomplish this end, referred to as the 'LivestockPlus' approach, intensify in sustainable ways the management of grasses, shrubs, trees, and animals. By decoupling the human food and livestock feed systems, these efforts would increase the resilience of the global food system. Effective LivestockPlus approaches take one of two forms: (1) simple improvements such as new forage varieties and animal management practices that spread from farmer to farmer by word of mouth, or (2) complex sets of new practices that integrate forage production more closely into farms' other agricultural activities and agro-ecologies.

  4. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  5. LivestockPlus - The Sustainable Intensification of forage-based agricultural systems to improve livelihoods and ecosystem services in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, I.; Peters, M.; Castro, A.; Paul, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    As global demand for livestock products (such as meat, milk and eggs) is expected to double by 2050, necessary increases to future production must be reconciled with negative environmental impacts that livestock cause. This paper describes the LivestockPlus concept and demonstrates how the sowing of

  6. High resolution study of the inclusive production of massive muon pairs by intense pion beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures with high resolution and large acceptance the inclusive production of massive muon pairs with the intense pion beam (up to $10^{10} \\pi/$pulse) in the experimental hall ECN3. The experiment explores extended M$^{2}$/s, x and transverse momentum ranges. The study of the departures of the lepton-pair production cross- section from scaling constitutes a good test of QCD ideas; in the framework of the 'Drell-Yan' process, the experiment allows a detailed study of the pion parton distribution functions. The detector consists of a beam dump, a pulsed toroidal a magnet, MWPC's and scintillator hodoscopes. Its $\\sim 2$% mass resolution at 10 GeV is adequate for the substraction of resonances in the high-mass region.

  7. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF IRRIGATED CACTUS PEAR UNDER DIFFERENT CUTTING INTENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME FERREIRA DA COSTA LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different cutting intensities and years of harvesting on the morphological characteristics and production of fresh (FMP and dry matter (DMP of cactus pear cv. Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill under conditions of irrigation, high planting density and fertilization, with 12 months of regrowth. The experimental was completely randomized in a factorial design (3 × 2 with 12 replicates. The treatments were three cutting intensities (preserving the mother cladode (PMC, primary cladodes (PPC, or secondary cladodes (PSC, and two years of harvesting. The soil was classified as Cambisol Haplicum and the irrigation water was classified as C4S1 (EC 5.25 dS.m-1 density of 50,000 plants ha-1. The research evaluated plant height, number of cladodes per plant (NCP, length, width, perimeter and thickness of the cladodes, cladode area (CA, cladode area index (CAI, FMP and DMP. There was no significant interaction between treatments (P > 0.05 for the variables plant height, NCP, CAI and FMP. The variables related to cladode morphology showed a significant interaction (P < 0.05. The treatment PSC resulted in a greater DMP (P < 0.05 with a mean of 27.17 Mg ha-1 yr-1, compared to PPC (18.58 Mg ha-1 yr-1 or PMC (11.78 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The treatment PSC promoted greater NCP and forage productivity at harvest and can be considered as a management practice for the sustainability of cactus pear cv. Gigante under irrigation. The more important morphological characteristics were also influenced by the lower cutting intensities.

  9. Influence of Light Intensity on Growth and Pigment Production by Monascus ruber in Submerged Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Rose Marie Meinicke; Müller, Bruna Luíse; Moritz, Denise Esteves; Vendruscolo, Francielo; de Oliveira, Debora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-07-01

    To reduce environmental problems caused by glycerine accumulation and to make the production of biodiesel more profitable, crude glycerin without treatment was used as substrate for obtaining higher value-added bioproducts. Monascus ruber is a filamentous fungus that produces pigments, particularly red ones, which are used for coloring foods (rice wine and meat products). The interest in developing pigments from natural sources is increasing due to the restriction of using synthetic dyes. The effects of temperature, pH, microorganism morphology, aeration, nitrogen source, and substrates have been studied in the cultivation of M. ruber. In this work, it was observed that light intensity is also an important factor that should be considered for understanding the metabolism of the fungus. In M. ruber cultivation, inhibition of growth and pigment production was observed in Petri dishes and blaffed flasks exposed to direct illumination. Growth and pigment production were higher in Petri dishes and flasks exposed to red light and in the absence of light. Radial growth rate of M. ruber in plates in darkness was 1.50 mm day(-1) and in plates exposed to direct illumination was 0.59 mm day(-1). Maximum production of red pigments (8.32 UA) and biomass (8.82 g L(-1)) were obtained in baffled flasks covered with red film and 7.17 UA of red pigments, and 7.40 g L(-1) of biomass was obtained in flasks incubated in darkness. Under conditions of 1248 lux of luminance, the maximum pigment production was 4.48 UA, with production of 6.94 g L(-1) of biomass, indicating that the fungus has photoreceptors which influence the physiological responses.

  10. Factores de éxito y fracaso en el comportamiento innovador de las empresas ganaderas cubanas Success and failure factors in the innovating performance of the Cuban livestock production enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Suárez

    2007-09-01

    de éxito y fracaso de la innovación en el sector ganadero cubano son muy similares a los obtenidos en el sector industrial y referidos en la literatura internacionalWith the objective of learning the factors that favor the success of innovation and those that cause its failure, in the Cuban livestock production sector, a questionnaire was applied to the directors of a non probabilistic sample of 34 livestock production enterprises (36% of the sector, which comprised the different geographical zones of the country, all the types of production systems existing in Cuban livestock production, organizations in the different stages of the Enterprise Improvement process and the different enterprise sizes. The internal factors with the highest incidence on the success of innovation in the enterprises were considered to be: A Top Management opened to new ideas and inclined to assuming risks, the decentralization in decision-making and a participatory management, motivation and commitment to innovation in the managers, constant training of the personnel and execution of team work; while the external factors were the dynamics and turbulence of the surroundings, which demand changes in the enterprise, the establishment of cooperation links and networks in the country, the existence of state policies of support to innovation, having facility of access to international funding sources and possibilities of national financing for the development of innovation. Regarding the obstacles that constrain to a higher extent innovation in the enterprises, they are: scarcity of financial resources, external pressures on the enterprise, which have incidence on the productive and management processes, the possession of insufficient scientific and technological information, problems of availability and utilization of computing equipment, lack of efficient financing mechanisms for innovation, as well as insufficient mechanisms of incentives that encourage to innovate and establish links with

  11. Zoonoses risk: AHWs and Livestock keepers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... loss of markets because of decreased consumer confidence (McDermott & Arimi, ..... Some of the traditional livestock keepers reported eating meat from animals .... G. & Nilsen, R. (2003) The role of livestock keeping in tuberculosis trends in ...

  12. African Journal of Livestock Extension: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original articles not published elsewhere are invited in the following areas relating to all species of livestock. • Breeding and Genetic improvements ... livestock husbandry e.g. cane rat, snail, guinea pig, honey bee, silkworm etc.

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Lovera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels.Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported.Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid

  15. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  16. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  17. Livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions: impacts and options for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that livestock account for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global consumption of livestock products is growing rapidly. This paper reviews the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to quantifying these emissions and argues that, given the dynamic complexity of our food system, it offers a limited understanding of livestock's GHG impacts. It is argued that LCA's conclusions need rather to be considered within a broader conceptual framework that incorporates three key additional perspectives. The first is an understanding of the indirect second order effects of livestock production on land use change and associated CO 2 emissions. The second compares the opportunity cost of using land and resources to rear animals with their use for other food or non-food purposes. The third perspective is need-the paper considers how far people need livestock products at all. These perspectives are used as lenses through which to explore both the impacts of livestock production and the mitigation approaches that are being proposed. The discussion is then broadened to consider whether it is possible to substantially reduce livestock emissions through technological measures alone, or whether reductions in livestock consumption will additionally be required. The paper argues for policy strategies that explicitly combine GHG mitigation with measures to improve food security and concludes with suggestions for further research.

  18. The role of reproductive technologies in breeding schemes for livestock populations in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The world is faced with the challenge to meet the increasing demand for livestock products while conserving animal genetic resource diversity and maintaining environmental integrity. Genetic improvement of local breeds can help to improve the livelihood of the livestock keepers, to increase the

  19. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading, transporting...

  20. 9 CFR 329.5 - Movement of article or livestock detained; removal of official marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of article or livestock...; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.5 Movement of article or livestock detained; removal of official marks. (a) No... it is located when so detained, for refrigeration, freezing, or storage purposes if such movement has...

  1. Challenges and priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens in the context of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özkan, Şeyda; Vitali, Andrea; Lacetera, Nicola; Amon, Barbara; Bannink, André; Bartley, Dave J.; Blanco-penedo, Isabel; Haas, De Yvette; Dufrasne, Isabelle; Elliott, John; Eory, Vera; Fox, Naomi J.; Garnsworthy, Phil C.; Gengler, Nicolas; Hammami, Hedi; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Leclère, David; Lessire, Françoise; Macleod, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P.; Ruete, Alejandro; Sandars, Daniel L.; Shrestha, Shailesh; Stott, Alistair W.; Twardy, Stanislaw; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Ahmadi, Bouda Vosough; Weindl, Isabelle; Wheelhouse, Nick; Williams, Adrian G.; Williams, Hefin W.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Østergaard, Søren; Kipling, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to impair livestock health, with consequences for animal welfare, productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and human livelihoods and health. Modelling has an important role in assessing the impacts of climate change on livestock systems and the efficacy of potential

  2. Single-dose vaccines save livestock and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa's industry accounts for approximately 49% of agricultural gross domestic product, with an average annual turnover of US$13 billion. Vaccines for healthier livestock Vaccination is a critical tool to help reduce the number of livestock losses to viral infections. This project builds on the Canadian International Food ...

  3. Habitat shift and time budget of the Tibetan argali: the influence of livestock grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is the primary source of livelihood and income in most of the high steppe and alpine regions of the Indian Trans-Himalaya. In some areas, especially those established or proposed for biodiversity conservation, recent increases in populations of domestic livestock, primarily

  4. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    A major constraint to animal production in developing countries is poor nutrition due to inadequate or fluctuating nutrient supply. This results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Microbial cells formed as a result of rumen degradation of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions are a major source of protein for ruminants. They provide the majority of the amino acids that the host animal requires for tissue maintenance, growth and production. In roughage-fed ruminants, micro-organisms are virtually the only source of protein. Therefore, a knowledge of the microbial contribution to the nutrition of the host animal is essential to developing feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant production. While this factor has been recognized for many years, it has been extremely difficult to determine the microbial protein contribution to ruminant nutrition. The methods generally used for determining microbial protein production depend on the use of natural microbial markers such as RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DAPA (diamino-pimelic acid) or of isotopes 35 S, 15 N or 32 P. However, these methods involve surgical intervention such as post-rumen cannulation and complex procedures that require accurate and quantitative information on both digesta and microbial marker flow. A calorimetric technique using enzymatic procedures was developed for measuring purine derivatives (PD) in urine under a Technical Contract. With knowledge of the amount of PD excreted in the urine, the microbial protein supply to the host animal can be estimated. The principle of the method is that nucleic acids leaving the rumen are essentially of microbial origin. The nucleic acids are extensively digested in the small intestine and the resulting purines are absorbed

  5. Can farmers mitigate environmental impacts through combined production of food, fuel and feed? A consequential life cycle assessment of integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Birkved, Morten

    2018-01-01

    (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV). Digestate produced therefrom was assumed...... potential and freshwater ecotoxicity, compared to a conventional mixed crop-livestock system, without the biogas conversion facility and the GBR....

  6. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  7. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. 167.15 Section 167.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The...

  8. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity Program, and General... clarifying amendments and corrections to the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP) and the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) to clarify when...

  9. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which designates...

  10. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  11. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... according to the range unit Range Management Plan. (c) The grazing of livestock upon any land withdrawn from... approved by the Commissioner. (e) Grazing of livestock whose brand is not recorded in the range unit Range Management Plan. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the New Lands is liable to a civil penalty...

  12. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is intended for livestock farmers, as well as others who are wanting to learn about livestock farming. It is not intended to be a comprehensive livestock farming manual, but is rather aimed at giving some guidance on how to plan...

  13. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  14. Routes for the production of isotopes for PET with high intensity deuteron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Saavedra, F.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in accelerator science are opening new possibilities in different fields of physics. In particular, the development of compact linear accelerators that can provide charged particles of low-medium energy (few MeV) with high current (above mA) allows for the study of new possibilities in neutron production and for new routes for the production of radioisotopes. Keeping in mind how radioisotopes are actually produced in dedicated facilities, we have performed a study of alternative reactions to produce PET isotopes induced by low-energy deuterons. We have fitted the EXFOR cross sections data, used the fitted values of the stopping power by Andersen and Ziegler and calculated by numerical integration the production rate of isotopes for charged particles up to 20 MeV. The results for deuterons up to 3 MeV are compared with the ones from cyclotrons, which are able to provide higher energies to the charged projectiles but with lower intensities. Our results indicate that using linear accelerators may be a good alternative for producing PET isotopes, reducing the problem of neutron activation.

  15. Effect of grazing intensity and applied fertilizers on pasture production and animal gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Gudmundsson, O.; Arnalds, A.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Eiriksson, T.

    1983-01-01

    A 5-year study was conducted to determine the effect of grazing intensity and fertilizers on the production of twin lambs in Iceland. Three sites were selected: dry highland, dry lowland and lowland bog. Although increasing the stocking rate reduced the daily gain and carcass weight per lamb, these factors were markedly increased per unit area. Tritiated water was used to establish the body composition and water turnover rates in the lambs. The criteria for optimum use of a pasture could best be established by considering the condition of the sward. Fertilizer (78 to 92 kg N/ha and 18 to 80 kg P/ha) increased the carcass weight by a factor of three on the lowland bog, but by a factor of ten on the less productive highlands. Fertilizer increased standing vegetation by a factor of 11 to 18 and also increased forage quality by markedly increasing the protein and phosphorus content and the digestibility. Fertilizer restored and improved the species composition of the pasture in addition to its productivity. (author)

  16. The Sensory Quality of Meat, Game, Poultry, Seafood and Meat Products as Affected by Intense Light Pulses: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasevic, Igor; Rajkovic, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The effect of intense light pulses (ILP) on sensory quality of 16 different varieties of meat, meat products, game, poultry and seafood are reviewed. Changes induced by ILP are animal species, type of meat product and fluences applied dependent. ILP significantly deteriorates sensory quality of cooked meat products. It causes less change in the sensory properties of dry cured than cooked meat products while fermented sausage is least affected. The higher fluence applied significantly changes ...

  17. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  18. Monitoring changes in soil carbon resulting from intensive production, a non-traditional agricultural methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2013-03-01

    New Mexico State University and a group of New Mexico farmers are evaluating an innovative agricultural technique they call Intensive Production (IP). In contrast to conventional agricultural practice, IP uses intercropping, green fallowing, application of soil amendments and soil microbial inocula to sequester carbon as plant biomass, resulting in improved soil quality. Sandia National Laboratories role was to identify a non-invasive, cost effective technology to monitor soil carbon changes. A technological review indicated that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) best met the farmers objectives. Sandia partnered with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to analyze farmers test plots using a portable LIBS developed at LANL. Real-time LIBS field sample analysis was conducted and grab samples were collected for laboratory comparison. The field and laboratory results correlated well implying the strong potential for LIBS as an economical field scale analytical tool for analysis of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  19. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  20. Homocystein: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Kozat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is making great contributions to the world economy. Many different diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney and mineral substance insufficiency, cause huge losses in yield and production in the livestock sector. Early diagnosis is essential to combat these diseases. Today, homocysteine levels are used as biochemical markers in the diagnosis of the functions and diseases of many different organs in human medicine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that occurs in the process of methionine metabolism and does not enter the primary structure of proteins. Homocysteine is a biochemical marker used in the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases as well as other organ functions. In this review, homocysteine determination methods and detailed information about which organ and system diseases can be used in livestock sector will be given. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 319-332