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Sample records for intensive goal-directed activity-focused

  1. Early goal-directed nutrition versus standard of care in adult intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Wiis, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the effects of early goal-directed nutrition (EGDN) vs. standard nutritional care in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: We randomised acutely admitted, mechanically ventilated ICU patients expected to stay longer than 3 days in the ICU. In the EGDN group we...... estimated nutritional requirements by indirect calorimetry and 24-h urinary urea aiming at covering 100% of requirements from the first full trial day using enteral and parenteral nutrition. In the standard of care group we aimed at providing 25 kcal/kg/day by enteral nutrition. If this was not met by day 7......, patients were supplemented with parenteral nutrition. The primary outcome was physical component summary (PCS) score of SF-36 at 6 months. We performed multiple imputation for data of the non-responders. Results: We randomised 203 patients and included 199 in the intention-to-treat analyses; baseline...

  2. EARLY GOAL DIRECTED THERAPY AT SEPTIC SYOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Widyanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is the most commom cause of death in children with critically ill. Using WHO criteria (severe sepsis defined as sepsis with acidosis, hypotension or both, it was determined that in 1995 there were more than 42.000 cases of severe sepsis in children in the United States with mortality rate was 10.3%. To answer that finding, evicende based protocol was made, it called early goal directed therapy (EGDT. EGDT is a comprehensive strategy to evaluate patient with septic shock include, challenge of fluid, antibiotic, vasopressor, measurement of central vein oxygen saturation, PRC transfusion, administering inotropic dan mechanic ventilation. All of these must be done in the first 6 hours since sepsis or septic shock was found, because if there is a delay of resuscitation, anything we do to increase oxygenation level of the cell will be useless.

  3. Infants Show Stability of Goal-Directed Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C.; Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that infants selectively reproduce observed actions and have argued that this selectivity reflects understanding of intentions and goals, or goal-directed imitation. We reasoned that if selective imitation of goal-directed actions reflects understanding of intentions, infants should demonstrate stability across…

  4. Habitual versus goal-directed action control in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Sanne; Barker, Roger A; Dickinson, Anthony D; Cools, Roshan

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the first direct investigation of the hypothesis that dopamine depletion of the dorsal striatum in mild Parkinson disease leads to impaired stimulus-response habit formation, thereby rendering behavior slow and effortful. However, using an instrumental conflict task, we show that patients are able to rely on direct stimulus-response associations when a goal-directed strategy causes response conflict, suggesting that habit formation is not impaired. If anything our results suggest a disease severity-dependent deficit in goal-directed behavior. These results are discussed in the context of Parkinson disease and the neurobiology of habitual and goal-directed behavior.

  5. Goal Direction and Effectiveness, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and…

  6. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    According to dual-system theories, instrumental learning is supported by dissociable goal-directed and habitual systems. Previous investigations of the dual-system balance in healthy aging have yielded mixed results. To further investigate this issue, we compared performance of young (17-24 years)

  7. A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten; Grobauer, Bernd

    2001-01-01

    Goal-directed evaluation, as embodied in Icon and Snobol, is built on the notions of backtracking and of generating successive results, and therefore it has always been something of a challenge to specify and implement. In this article, we address this challenge using computational monads and par...

  8. Goal-Directed Decision Making with Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Lengyel, Máté

    2016-02-03

    Behavioral and neuroscientific data on reward-based decision making point to a fundamental distinction between habitual and goal-directed action selection. The formation of habits, which requires simple updating of cached values, has been studied in great detail, and the reward prediction error theory of dopamine function has enjoyed prominent success in accounting for its neural bases. In contrast, the neural circuit mechanisms of goal-directed decision making, requiring extended iterative computations to estimate values online, are still unknown. Here we present a spiking neural network that provably solves the difficult online value estimation problem underlying goal-directed decision making in a near-optimal way and reproduces behavioral as well as neurophysiological experimental data on tasks ranging from simple binary choice to sequential decision making. Our model uses local plasticity rules to learn the synaptic weights of a simple neural network to achieve optimal performance and solves one-step decision-making tasks, commonly considered in neuroeconomics, as well as more challenging sequential decision-making tasks within 1 s. These decision times, and their parametric dependence on task parameters, as well as the final choice probabilities match behavioral data, whereas the evolution of neural activities in the network closely mimics neural responses recorded in frontal cortices during the execution of such tasks. Our theory provides a principled framework to understand the neural underpinning of goal-directed decision making and makes novel predictions for sequential decision-making tasks with multiple rewards. Goal-directed actions requiring prospective planning pervade decision making, but their circuit-level mechanisms remain elusive. We show how a model circuit of biologically realistic spiking neurons can solve this computationally challenging problem in a novel way. The synaptic weights of our network can be learned using local plasticity rules

  9. Early management of sepsis with emphasis on early goal directed therapy: AME evidence series 002

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Hong, Yucai; Smischney, Nathan J.; Kuo, Han-Pin; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Rello, Jordi; Kuan, Win Sen; Jung, Christian; Robba, Chiara; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Leone, Marc; Spapen, Herbert; Grimaldi, David; Van Poucke, Sven; Simpson, Steven Q.

    2017-01-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients entering the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU). Despite substantial efforts to improve patient outcome, treatment of sepsis remains challenging to clinicians. In this context, early goal directed therapy (EGDT) represents an important concept emphasizing both early recognition of sepsis and prompt initiation of a structured treatment algorithm. As part of the AME evidence series on seps...

  10. Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder

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    Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  11. A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Grobauer, Bernd; Rhiger, Morten

    2001-01-01

    semantics coincides with Gudeman’s continuation semantics of Icon. We then compile Icon programs by specializing their interpreter (i.e., by using the first Futamura projection), using type-directed partial evaluation. Through various back ends, including a run-time code generator, we generate ML code, C......Goal-directed evaluation, as embodied in Icon and Snobol, is built on the notions of backtracking and of generating successive results, and therefore it has always been something of a challenge to specify and implement. In this article, we address this challenge using computational monads...... code, and OCaml byte code. Binding-time analysis and partial evaluation of the continuation-based interpreter automatically give rise to C programs that coincide with the result of Proebsting’s optimized compiler....

  12. Goal-directed, habitual and Pavlovian prosocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip eGęsiarz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although prosocial behaviors have been widely studied across disciplines, the mechanisms underlying them are not fully understood. Evidence from psychology, biology and economics suggests that prosocial behaviors can be driven by a variety of seemingly opposing factors: altruism or egoism, intuition or deliberation, inborn instincts or learned dispositions, and utility derived from actions or their outcomes. Here we propose a framework inspired by research on reinforcement learning and decision making that links these processes and explains characteristics of prosocial behaviors in different contexts. More specifically, we suggest that prosocial behaviors inherit features of up to three decision-making systems employed to choose between self- and other- regarding acts: a goal-directed system that selects actions based on their predicted consequences, a habitual system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history, and a Pavlovian system that emits reflexive responses based on evolutionarily prescribed priors. This framework, initially described in the field of cognitive neuroscience and machine learning, provides insight into the potential neural circuits and computations shaping prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, it identifies specific conditions in which each of these three systems should dominate and promote other- or self- regarding behavior.

  13. Mediodorsal thalamus hypofunction impairs flexible goal-directed behavior.

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    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Taylor, Kathleen; Bolkan, Scott S; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive inflexibility is a core symptom of several mental disorders including schizophrenia. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients performing cognitive tasks have reported decreased activation of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Using a pharmacogenetic approach to model MD hypofunction, we recently showed that decreasing MD activity impairs reversal learning in mice. While this demonstrates causality between MD hypofunction and cognitive inflexibility, questions remain about the elementary cognitive processes that account for the deficit. Using the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs system, we reversibly decreased MD activity during behavioral tasks assessing elementary cognitive processes inherent to flexible goal-directed behaviors, including extinction, contingency degradation, outcome devaluation, and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (n = 134 mice). While MD hypofunction impaired reversal learning, it did not affect the ability to learn about nonrewarded cues or the ability to modulate action selection based on the outcome value. In contrast, decreasing MD activity delayed the ability to adapt to changes in the contingency between actions and their outcomes. In addition, while Pavlovian learning was not affected by MD hypofunction, decreasing MD activity during Pavlovian learning impaired the ability of conditioned stimuli to modulate instrumental behavior. Mediodorsal thalamus hypofunction causes cognitive inflexibility reflected by an impaired ability to adapt actions when their consequences change. Furthermore, it alters the encoding of environmental stimuli so that they cannot be properly utilized to guide behavior. Modulating MD activity could be a potential therapeutic strategy for promoting adaptive behavior in human subjects with cognitive inflexibility. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early goal-directed nutrition in icU patients (EAT-ICU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Wiis, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    -energy nutrition based on measured requirements on short-term clinical outcomes and long-term physical quality of life in ICU patients. METHODS: The EAT-ICU trial is a single-centre, randomised, parallel-group trial with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment. A total of 200 consecutive, acutely...... admitted, mechanically ventilated intensive care patients will be randomised 1:1 to early goal-directed nutrition versus standard of care to show a potential 15% relative risk reduction in the primary outcome measure (physical function) at six months (two-sided significance level α = 0.05; power β = 80......%). Secondary outcomes include energy- and protein balances, metabolic control, new organ failure, use of life support, nosocomial infections, ICU- and hospital length of stay, mortality and cost analyses. CONCLUSION: The optimal nutrition strategy for ICU patients remains unsettled. The EAT-ICU trial...

  15. Reliance on habits at the expense of goal-directed control following dopamine precursor depletion

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Sanne; Standing, Holly R.; DeVito, Elise E.; Robinson, Oliver J.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Robbins, Trevor W.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Dopamine is well known to play an important role in learning and motivation. Recent animal studies have implicated dopamine in the reinforcement of stimulus?response habits, as well as in flexible, goal-directed action. However, the role of dopamine in human action control is still not well understood. Objectives We present the first investigation of the effect of reducing dopamine function in healthy volunteers on the balance between habitual and goal-directed action control. Metho...

  16. Sleep Deprivation Promotes Habitual Control over Goal-Directed Control: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-12-06

    Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group. fMRI data were collected. We found that one night of sleep deprivation led to greater responsiveness to stimuli that were associated with devalued outcomes in the slips-of-action test, indicating a deficit in the formation of goal-directed control and an overreliance on habits. Furthermore, sleep deprivation had no effect on the expression of acquired goal-directed action. The level of goal-directed action after sleep deprivation was positively correlated with baseline working memory capacity. The neuroimaging data indicated that goal-directed learning mainly recruited the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), the activation of which was less pronounced during goal-directed learning after sleep deprivation. Activation of the vmPFC during goal-directed learning during training was positively correlated with the level of goal-directed action performance. The present study suggests that people rely predominantly on habits at the expense of goal-directed control after sleep deprivation, and this process involves the vmPFC. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of sleep loss on decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation has become extremely important over the past half century, given the continued decline in sleep duration in industrialized societies. Our results provide novel evidence that goal-directed action may be

  17. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  18. Outcomes of implementation of enhanced goal directed therapy in high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery

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    Lakshmi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Advanced monitoring targeting haemodynamic and oxygenation variables can improve outcomes of surgery in high-risk patients. We aimed to assess the impact of goal directed therapy (GDT targeting cardiac index (CI and oxygen extraction ratio (O 2 ER on outcomes of high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods: In a prospective randomised trial, forty patients (American Society of Anaesthesiologists II and III undergoing major abdominal surgeries were randomised into two groups. In-Group A mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg, central venous pressure ≥ 8-10 mmHg, urine output ≥ 0.5 mL/kg/h and central venous oxygen saturation ≥ 70% were targeted intra-operatively and 12 h postoperatively. In-Group-B (enhanced GDT, in addition to the monitoring in-Group-A, CI ≥ 2.5 L/min/m 2 and O 2 ER ≤ 27% were targeted. The end-points were lactate levels and base deficit during and after surgery. The secondary end points were length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital stay and postoperative complications. Wilcoxon Mann Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for statistical assessment. Results: Lactate levels postoperatively at 4 and 8 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. The mean base deficit at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h intra-operatively and postoperatively after 4, 8 and 12 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in ICU stay (2.10 ± 1.52 vs. 2.90 ± 2.51 days or hospital stay (10.85 + 4.39 vs. 13.35 + 6.77 days between Group A and B. Conclusions: Implementation of enhanced GDT targeting CI and OER was associated with improved tissue oxygenation.

  19. Mirroring "meaningful" actions: sensorimotor learning modulates imitation of goal-directed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-06-19

    Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions. One reason for the lack of research on goal-directed actions is that imitation of such actions is commonly confounded with the tendency to respond in a spatially compatible manner. However, since the most prominent account of mirror neuron function, and hence of imitation, suggests that these cells encode goal-directed actions, it is important to establish whether sensorimotor learning can also modulate imitation of goal-directed actions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that imitation of goal-directed grasping can be measured while controlling for spatial compatibility, and Experiment 2 showed that this imitation effect can be modulated by sensorimotor training. Together these data support the hypothesis that the capacity for behavioural imitation, and the properties of the mirror neuron system, are constructed in the course of development through associative learning.

  20. Resolution of conflict between goal-directed actions: outcome encoding and neural control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Sanne; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    According to O-R theory of instrumental learning, incongruent biconditional discriminations should be impossible to solve in a goal-directed manner because the event acting as the outcome of one response also acts as a discriminative stimulus for an opposite response. Each event should therefore be associated with two competing responses. However, Dickinson and de Wit (2003) have presented evidence that rats can learn incongruent discriminations. The present study investigated whether rats were able to engage additional processes to solve incongruent discriminations in a goal-directed manner. Experiment 1 provides evidence that rats resolve the response conflict that arises in the incongruent discrimination by differentially encoding events in their roles as discriminative stimulus and as outcome. Furthermore, Experiment 2 shows that once goal-directed control has been established the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is not directly involved in its maintenance but rather plays a central role in conflict resolution processes.

  1. Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Holte, Kathrine; Secher, N H

    2007-01-01

    (n = 725) found a reduced hospital stay. Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and ileus were reduced in three studies and complications were reduced in four studies. Of the monitors that may be applied for goal-directed therapy, only oesophageal Doppler has been tested adequately; however......, several other options exist. CONCLUSION: Goal-directed therapy with the maximization of flow-related haemodynamic variables reduces hospital stay, PONV and complications, and facilitates faster gastrointestinal functional recovery. So far, oesophageal Doppler is recommended, but other monitors...

  2. Emotion, Intent and Voluntary Movement in Children with Autism. an Example: The Goal Directed Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuet, Sophie; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Oreve, Marie-Joelle; Chamot, Jean-Marc; Vernazza-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of intentionality on goal directed locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Closely linked with emotions and motivation, it is directly connected with movement planning. Is planning only preserved when the goal of the action appears motivating for healthy and autistic children? Is movement programming similar…

  3. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Liu

    Full Text Available Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes.

  4. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  5. Corticostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in the balance between habitual and goal-directed action control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, S. de; Watson, A.J.P.; Harsay, H.A.; Cohen, M.X.; Vijver, I. van de; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Why are some individuals more susceptible to the formation of inflexible habits than others? In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate that brain connectivity predicts individual differences in relative goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in humans.

  6. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Dickinson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning, can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind

  7. Product behavior and appearance effects on experienced engagement during experimental and goal-directed tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, M.C.; Keyson, D.V.; Ridder, de H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how digital products can be designed towards increased levels of experienced engagement. An experiment was conducted in which 24 participants were asked to interact with a videogame that varied in behavior and appearance aspects during experiential and goal-directed tasks.

  8. Object-based processes in the planning of goal-directed hand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H.; Pratt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Theories in motor control suggest that the parameters specified during the planning of goal-directed hand movements to a visual target are defined in spatial parameters like direction and amplitude. Recent findings in the visual attention literature, however, argue widely for early object-based

  9. Goal-Directed Action Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls…

  10. Four Weeks of Goal-Directed Learning in Primary Physical Education Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platvoet, Sebastiaan W. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Kannekens, Rianne; de Niet, Mark; Visscher, Chris

    Relatively little is known about how practice relates to children's improvement in gross motor skill performance. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent 6- and 7-year-old children improve their gross motor skill performance in a four-week period, in which goal-directed learning is

  11. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; de Wit, S.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum

  12. Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Holte, Kathrine; Secher, N H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to avoid peri-operative hypovolaemia or fluid overload, goal-directed therapy with individual maximization of flow-related haemodynamic parameters has been introduced. The objectives of this review are to update research in the area, evaluate the effects on outcome and assess...

  13. Reliance on habits at the expense of goal-directed control following dopamine precursor depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Standing, H.R.; DeVito, E.E.; Robinson, O.J.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Robbins, T.W.; Sahakian, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Dopamine is well known to play an important role in learning and motivation. Recent animal studies have implicated dopamine in the reinforcement of stimulus-response habits, as well as in flexible, goal-directed action. However, the role of dopamine in human action control is still not

  14. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Kuschpel, Maxim S; Rapp, Michael A; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes.

  15. Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Kathryn M; Angus, Derek C; Bailey, Michael; Barnato, Amber E; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Canter, Ruth R; Coats, Timothy J; Delaney, Anthony; Gimbel, Elizabeth; Grieve, Richard D; Harrison, David A; Higgins, Alisa M; Howe, Belinda; Huang, David T; Kellum, John A; Mouncey, Paul R; Music, Edvin; Peake, Sandra L; Pike, Francis; Reade, Michael C; Sadique, M Zia; Singer, Mervyn; Yealy, Donald M

    2017-06-08

    After a single-center trial and observational studies suggesting that early, goal-directed therapy (EGDT) reduced mortality from septic shock, three multicenter trials (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe) showed no benefit. This meta-analysis of individual patient data from the three recent trials was designed prospectively to improve statistical power and explore heterogeneity of treatment effect of EGDT. We harmonized entry criteria, intervention protocols, outcomes, resource-use measures, and data collection across the trials and specified all analyses before unblinding. After completion of the trials, we pooled data, excluding the protocol-based standard-therapy group from the ProCESS trial, and resolved residual differences. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included 1-year survival, organ support, and hospitalization costs. We tested for treatment-by-subgroup interactions for 16 patient characteristics and 6 care-delivery characteristics. We studied 3723 patients at 138 hospitals in seven countries. Mortality at 90 days was similar for EGDT (462 of 1852 patients [24.9%]) and usual care (475 of 1871 patients [25.4%]); the adjusted odds ratio was 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.14; P=0.68). EGDT was associated with greater mean (±SD) use of intensive care (5.3±7.1 vs. 4.9±7.0 days, P=0.04) and cardiovascular support (1.9±3.7 vs. 1.6±2.9 days, P=0.01) than was usual care; other outcomes did not differ significantly, although average costs were higher with EGDT. Subgroup analyses showed no benefit from EGDT for patients with worse shock (higher serum lactate level, combined hypotension and hyperlactatemia, or higher predicted risk of death) or for hospitals with a lower propensity to use vasopressors or fluids during usual resuscitation. In this meta-analysis of individual patient data, EGDT did not result in better outcomes than usual care and was associated with higher hospitalization costs across a broad range of patient and

  16. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  17. Impaired cognitive plasticity and goal-directed control in adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Gottwald, Julia; de Wit, Sanne; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Cormack, Francesca; Sule, Akeem; Limmer, Winifred; Morris, Anna Conway; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2018-01-22

    Youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience severe distress and impaired functioning at school and at home. Critical cognitive domains for daily functioning and academic success are learning, memory, cognitive flexibility and goal-directed behavioural control. Performance in these important domains among teenagers with OCD was therefore investigated in this study. A total of 36 youths with OCD and 36 healthy comparison subjects completed two memory tasks: Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) and Paired Associates Learning (PAL); as well as the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED) task to quantitatively gauge learning as well as cognitive flexibility. A subset of 30 participants of each group also completed a Differential-Outcome Effect (DOE) task followed by a Slips-of-Action Task, designed to assess the balance of goal-directed and habitual behavioural control. Adolescent OCD patients showed a significant learning and memory impairment. Compared with healthy comparison subjects, they made more errors on PRM and PAL and in the first stages of IED involving discrimination and reversal learning. Patients were also slower to learn about contingencies in the DOE task and were less sensitive to outcome devaluation, suggesting an impairment in goal-directed control. This study advances the characterization of juvenile OCD. Patients demonstrated impairments in all learning and memory tasks. We also provide the first experimental evidence of impaired goal-directed control and lack of cognitive plasticity early in the development of OCD. The extent to which the impairments in these cognitive domains impact academic performance and symptom development warrants further investigation.

  18. Reliance on habits at the expense of goal-directed control following dopamine precursor depletion.

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    de Wit, Sanne; Standing, Holly R; Devito, Elise E; Robinson, Oliver J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine is well known to play an important role in learning and motivation. Recent animal studies have implicated dopamine in the reinforcement of stimulus-response habits, as well as in flexible, goal-directed action. However, the role of dopamine in human action control is still not well understood. We present the first investigation of the effect of reducing dopamine function in healthy volunteers on the balance between habitual and goal-directed action control. The dietary intervention of acute dietary phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) was adopted to study the effects of reduced global dopamine function on action control. Participants were randomly assigned to either the APTD or placebo group (ns = 14) to allow for a between-subjects comparison of performance on a novel three-stage experimental paradigm. In the initial learning phase, participants learned to respond to different stimuli in order to gain rewarding outcomes. Subsequently, an outcome-devaluation test and a slips-of-action test were conducted to assess whether participants were able to flexibly adjust their behaviour to changes in the desirability of the outcomes. APTD did not prevent stimulus-response learning, nor did we find evidence for impaired response-outcome learning in the subsequent outcome-devaluation test. However, when goal-directed and habitual systems competed for control in the slips-of-action test, APTD tipped the balance towards habitual control. These findings were restricted to female volunteers. We provide direct evidence that the balance between goal-directed and habitual control in humans is dopamine dependent. The results are discussed in light of gender differences in dopamine function and psychopathologies.

  19. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

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    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  20. Executive control of stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory.

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    Hu, Yanmei; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    We examined the role of executive control in stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory using probed recall of a series of objects, a task that allows study of the dynamics of storage through analysis of serial position data. Experiment 1 examined whether executive control underlies goal-directed prioritization of certain items within the sequence. Instructing participants to prioritize either the first or final item resulted in improved recall for these items, and an increase in concurrent task difficulty reduced or abolished these gains, consistent with their dependence on executive control. Experiment 2 examined whether executive control is also involved in the disruption caused by a post-series visual distractor (suffix). A demanding concurrent task disrupted memory for all items except the most recent, whereas a suffix disrupted only the most recent items. There was no interaction when concurrent load and suffix were combined, suggesting that deploying selective attention to ignore the distractor did not draw upon executive resources. A final experiment replicated the independent interfering effects of suffix and concurrent load while ruling out possible artifacts. We discuss the results in terms of a domain-general episodic buffer in which information is retained in a transient, limited capacity privileged state, influenced by both stimulus-driven and goal-directed processes. The privileged state contains the most recent environmental input together with goal-relevant representations being actively maintained using executive resources.

  1. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

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    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  2. Goal-Directed Fluid Resuscitation Protocol Based on Arterial Waveform Analysis of Major Burn Patients in a Mass Burn Casualty.

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    Chiao, Hao-Yu; Chou, Chang-Yi; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

    2018-02-01

    Adequate fluid titration during the initial resuscitation period of major burn patients is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol that used hourly urine output plus the arterial waveform analysis FloTrac (Edwards LifeSciences, Irvine, Calif) system for major burns to avoid fluid overload. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 major burn patients at the Tri-Service General Hospital after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion on June 27, 2015. Because of the limited capacity of intensive care units (ICUs), 23 intubated patients were transferred from the burn wards or emergency department to the ICU within 24 hours. Fluid administration was adjusted to achieve a urine output of 30 to 50 mL/h, cardiac index greater than 2.5 L/min/m, and stroke volume variation (SVV) less than 12%. The hourly crystalloid fluid infusion rate was titrated based on SVV and hourly urine output. Of the 23 critically burned patients admitted to the ICU, 13 patients who followed the goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol within 12 hours postburn were included in the analysis. The mean age (years) was 21.8, and the mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned (%) was 68.0. The mean Revised Baux score was 106.8. All patients sustained inhalation injury. The fluid volumes administered to patients in the first 24 hours and the second 24 hours (mL/kg/% total body surface area) were 3.62 ± 1.23 and 2.89 ± 0.79, respectively. The urine outputs in the first 24 hours and the second 24 hours (mL/kg/h) were 1.13 ± 0.66 and 1.53 ± 0.87, respectively. All patients achieved the established goals within 32 hours postburn. In-hospital mortality rate was 0%. The SVV-based goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol leads to less unnecessary fluid administration during the early resuscitation phase. Clinicians can efficaciously manage the dynamic body fluid changes in major burn patients under the guidance of the protocol.

  3. Predictors of Unattempted Central Venous Catheterization in Septic Patients Eligible for Early Goal-directed Therapy

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    David R. Vinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central venous catheterization (CVC can be an important component of the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. CVC, however, is a time- and resource-intensive procedure associated with serious complications. The effects of the absence of shock or the presence of relative contraindications on undertaking central line placement in septic emergency department (ED patients eligible for early goal-directed therapy (EGDT have not been well described. We sought to determine the association of relative normotension (sustained systolic blood pressure >90 mmHg independent of or in response to an initial crystalloid resuscitation of 20 mL/kg, obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30, moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50,000 per μL, and coagulopathy (international normalized ratio ≥2.0 with unattempted CVC in EGDT-eligible patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 421 adults who met EGDT criteria in 5 community EDs over a period of 13 months. We compared patients with attempted thoracic (internal jugular or subclavian CVC with those who did not undergo an attempted thoracic line. We also compared patients with any attempted CVC (either thoracic or femoral with those who did not undergo any attempted central line. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted odd ratios (AORs. Results: In our study, 364 (86.5% patients underwent attempted thoracic CVC and 57 (13.5% did not. Relative normotension was significantly associated with unattempted thoracic CVC (AOR 2.6 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.3, as were moderate thrombocytopenia (AOR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1 and coagulopathy (AOR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6. When assessing for attempted catheterization of any central venous site (thoracic or femoral, 382 (90.7% patients underwent attempted catheterization and 39 (9.3% patients did not. Relative normotension (AOR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5 and moderate thrombocytopenia (AOR 3.9; 95

  4. Goal-directed diuresis: A case - control study of continuous furosemide infusion in critically ill trauma patients

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    Daniel Dante Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive crystalloid administration is common and associated with negative outcomes in critically ill trauma patients. Continuous furosemide infusion (CFI to remove excessive fluid has not been previously described in this population. We hypothesized that a goal-directed CFI is more effective for fluid removal than intermittent bolus injection (IBI diuresis without excess incidence of hypokalemia or renal failure. Materials and Methods: CFI cases were prospectively enrolled between November 2011 and August 2012, and matched to historic IBI controls by age, gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS, and net fluid balance (NFB at diuresis initiation. Paired and unpaired analyses were performed to compare groups. The primary endpoints were net fluid balance, potassium and creatinine levels. Secondary endpoints included intensive care unit (ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS, ventilator-free days (VFD, and mortality. Results: 55 patients were included, with 19 cases and 36 matched controls. Mean age was 54 years, mean ISS was 32.7, and mean initial NFB was +7.7 L. After one day of diuresis with CFI vs. IBI, net 24 h fluid balance was negative (−0.55 L vs. +0.43 L, P = 0.026 only for the CFI group, and there was no difference in potassium and creatinine levels. Cumulative furosemide dose (59.4mg vs. 25.4mg, P < 0.001 and urine output (4.2 L vs. 2.8 L, P < 0.001 were also significantly increased with CFI vs. IBI. There were no statistically significant differences in ICU LOS, hospital LOS, VFD, or mortality. Conclusions: Compared to IBI, goal-directed diuresis by CFI is more successful in achieving net negative fluid balance in patients with fluid overload with no detrimental side effects on renal function or patient outcome.

  5. Dynamical Intention: Integrated Intelligence Modeling for Goal-directed Embodied Agents

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    Eric Aaron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent embodied robots are integrated systems: As they move continuously through their environments, executing behaviors and carrying out tasks, components for low-level and high-level intelligence are integrated in the robot's cognitive system, and cognitive and physical processes combine to create their behavior. For a modeling framework to enable the design and analysis of such integrated intelligence, the underlying representations in the design of the robot should be dynamically sensitive, capable of reflecting both continuous motion and micro-cognitive influences, while also directly representing the necessary beliefs and intentions for goal-directed behavior. In this paper, a dynamical intention-based modeling framework is presented that satisfies these criteria, along with a hybrid dynamical cognitive agent (HDCA framework for employing dynamical intentions in embodied agents. This dynamical intention-HDCA (DI-HDCA modeling framework is a fusion of concepts from spreading activation networks, hybrid dynamical system models, and the BDI (belief-desire-intention theory of goal-directed reasoning, adapted and employed unconventionally to meet entailments of environment and embodiment. The paper presents two kinds of autonomous agent learning results that demonstrate dynamical intentions and the multi-faceted integration they enable in embodied robots: with a simulated service robot in a grid-world office environment, reactive-level learning minimizes reliance on deliberative-level intelligence, enabling task sequencing and action selection to be distributed over both deliberative and reactive levels; and with a simulated game of Tag, the cognitive-physical integration of an autonomous agent enables the straightforward learning of a user-specified strategy during gameplay, without interruption to the game. In addition, the paper argues that dynamical intentions are consistent with cognitive theory underlying goal-directed behavior, and

  6. SHOULD I STAY OR SHOULD I GO? CONCEPTUAL UNDERPINNINGS OF GOAL-DIRECTED ACTIONS

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    GIOVANNI eMIRABELLA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviours that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (rewards in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: i the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and ii the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution.In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations.

  7. Tryptophan Depletion Promotes Habitual over Goal-Directed Control of Appetitive Responding in Humans.

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    Worbe, Yulia; Savulich, George; de Wit, Sanne; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Robbins, Trevor W

    2015-02-05

    Optimal behavioral performance results from a balance between goal-directed and habitual systems of behavioral control, which are modulated by ascending monoaminergic projections. While the role of the dopaminergic system in behavioral control has been recently addressed, the extent to which changes in global serotonin neurotransmission could influence these 2 systems is still poorly understood. We employed the dietary acute tryptophan depletion procedure to reduce serotonin neurotransmission in 18 healthy volunteers and 18 matched controls. We used a 3-stage instrumental learning paradigm that includes an initial instrumental learning stage, a subsequent outcome-devaluation test, and a slip-of-action stage, which directly tests the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. We also employed a separate response inhibition control test to assess the behavioral specificity of the results. Acute tryptophan depletion produced a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding as indexed by performance on the slip-of-action test. Moreover, greater habitual responding in the acute tryptophan depletion group was predicted by a steeper decline in plasma tryptophan levels. In contrast, acute tryptophan depletion left intact the ability to use discriminative stimuli to guide instrumental choice as indexed by the instrumental learning stage and did not impair inhibitory response control. The major implication of this study is that serotonin modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. Our findings thus imply that diminished serotonin neurotransmission shifts behavioral control towards habitual responding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  8. Speed/accuracy trade-off between the habitual and the goal-directed processes.

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    Mehdi Keramati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental responses are hypothesized to be of two kinds: habitual and goal-directed, mediated by the sensorimotor and the associative cortico-basal ganglia circuits, respectively. The existence of the two heterogeneous associative learning mechanisms can be hypothesized to arise from the comparative advantages that they have at different stages of learning. In this paper, we assume that the goal-directed system is behaviourally flexible, but slow in choice selection. The habitual system, in contrast, is fast in responding, but inflexible in adapting its behavioural strategy to new conditions. Based on these assumptions and using the computational theory of reinforcement learning, we propose a normative model for arbitration between the two processes that makes an approximately optimal balance between search-time and accuracy in decision making. Behaviourally, the model can explain experimental evidence on behavioural sensitivity to outcome at the early stages of learning, but insensitivity at the later stages. It also explains that when two choices with equal incentive values are available concurrently, the behaviour remains outcome-sensitive, even after extensive training. Moreover, the model can explain choice reaction time variations during the course of learning, as well as the experimental observation that as the number of choices increases, the reaction time also increases. Neurobiologically, by assuming that phasic and tonic activities of midbrain dopamine neurons carry the reward prediction error and the average reward signals used by the model, respectively, the model predicts that whereas phasic dopamine indirectly affects behaviour through reinforcing stimulus-response associations, tonic dopamine can directly affect behaviour through manipulating the competition between the habitual and the goal-directed systems and thus, affect reaction time.

  9. Real-time decreased sensitivity to an audio-visual illusion during goal-directed reaching.

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    Luc Tremblay

    Full Text Available In humans, sensory afferences are combined and integrated by the central nervous system (Ernst MO, Bülthoff HH (2004 Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 162-169 and appear to provide a holistic representation of the environment. Empirical studies have repeatedly shown that vision dominates the other senses, especially for tasks with spatial demands. In contrast, it has also been observed that sound can strongly alter the perception of visual events. For example, when presented with 2 flashes and 1 beep in a very brief period of time, humans often report seeing 1 flash (i.e. fusion illusion, Andersen TS, Tiippana K, Sams M (2004 Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. 21: 301-308. However, it is not known how an unfolding movement modulates the contribution of vision to perception. Here, we used the audio-visual illusion to demonstrate that goal-directed movements can alter visual information processing in real-time. Specifically, the fusion illusion was linearly reduced as a function of limb velocity. These results suggest that cue combination and integration can be modulated in real-time by goal-directed behaviors; perhaps through sensory gating (Chapman CE, Beauchamp E (2006 J. Neurophysiol. 96: 1664-1675 and/or altered sensory noise (Ernst MO, Bülthoff HH (2004 Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 162-169 during limb movements.

  10. When Preferences Are in the Way: Children's Predictions of Goal-Directed Behaviors.

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    Yang, Fan; Frye, Douglas

    2017-12-18

    Across three studies, we examined 4- to 7-year-olds' predictions of goal-directed behaviors when goals conflict with preferences. In Study 1, when presented with stories in which a character had to act against basic preferences to achieve an interpersonal goal (e.g., playing with a partner), 6- and 7-year-olds were more likely than 4- and 5-year-olds to predict the actor would act in accordance with the goal to play with the partner, instead of fulfilling the basic preference of playing a favored activity. Similar results were obtained in Study 2 with scenarios that each involved a single individual pursuing intrapersonal goals that conflicted with his or her basic preferences. In Study 3, younger children's predictions of goal-directed behaviors did not increase for novel goals and preferences, when the influences of their own preferences, future thinking, or a lack of impulse control were minimized. The results suggest that between ages 4 and 7, children increasingly integrate and give more weight to other sources of motivational information (e.g., goals) in addition to preferences when predicting people's behaviors. This increasing awareness may have implications for children's self-regulatory and goal pursuit behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Is goal-directed attentional guidance just intertrial priming? A review.

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    Lamy, Dominique F; Kristjánsson, Arni

    2013-07-01

    According to most models of selective visual attention, our goals at any given moment and saliency in the visual field determine attentional priority. But selection is not carried out in isolation--we typically track objects through space and time. This is not well captured within the distinction between goal-directed and saliency-based attentional guidance. Recent studies have shown that selection is strongly facilitated when the characteristics of the objects to be attended and of those to be ignored remain constant between consecutive selections. These studies have generated the proposal that goal-directed or top-down effects are best understood as intertrial priming effects. Here, we provide a detailed overview and critical appraisal of the arguments, experimental strategies, and findings that have been used to promote this idea, along with a review of studies providing potential counterarguments. We divide this review according to different types of attentional control settings that observers are thought to adopt during visual search: feature-based settings, dimension-based settings, and singleton detection mode. We conclude that priming accounts for considerable portions of effects attributed to top-down guidance, but that top-down guidance can be independent of intertrial priming.

  12. INSTALLING AN ERP SYSTEM WITH A METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF GOAL DIRECTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT

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    Ioannis Zafeiropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a generic methodology to support the process of modelling, adaptation and implementation (MAI of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPS based on the principles of goal directed project management (GDPM. The proposed methodology guides the project manager through specific stages in order to successfully complete the ERPS implementation. The development of the proper MAI methodology is deemed necessary because it will simplify the installation process of ERPS. The goal directed project management method was chosen since it provides a way of focusing all changes towards a predetermined goal. The main stages of the methodology are the promotion and preparation steps, the proposal, the contract, the implementation and the completion. The methodology was applied as a pilot application by a major ERPS development company. Important benefits were the easy and effective guidance for all installation and analysis stages, the faster installation for the ERPS and the control and cost reduction for the installation, in terms of time, manpower, technological equipment and other resources.

  13. Differentiating neural systems mediating the acquisition versus expression of goal-directed and habitual behavioral control

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    Liljeholm, Mimi; Dunne, Simon; O'Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable behavioral data indicates that operant actions can become habitual, as evidenced by insensitivity to changes in the action-outcome contingency and in subjective outcome values. Notably, although several studies have investigated the neural substrates of habits, none has clearly differentiated the areas of the human brain that support habit formation from those that implement habitual control. We scanned participants with fMRI as they learned and performed an operant task in which the conditional structure of the environment encouraged either goal-directed encoding of the consequences of actions, or a habit-like mapping of actions to antecedent cues. Participants were also scanned during a subsequent assessment of insensitivity to outcome devaluation. We identified dissociable roles of the cerebellum and ventral striatum, across learning and test performance, in behavioral insensitivity to outcome devaluation. We also show that the inferior parietal lobule – an area previously implicated in several aspects of goal-directed action selection, including the attribution of intent and awareness of agency – predicts sensitivity to outcome devaluation. Finally, we reveal a potential functional homology between the human subgenual cortex and rodent infralimbic cortex in the implementation of habitual control. In summary, our findings suggest a broad systems division, at the cortical and subcortical levels, between brain areas mediating the encoding and expression of action-outcome and stimulus-response associations. PMID:25892332

  14. Habit strength is predicted by activity dynamics in goal-directed brain systems during training.

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    Zwosta, Katharina; Ruge, Hannes; Goschke, Thomas; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2018-01-15

    Previous neuroscientific research revealed insights into the brain networks supporting goal-directed and habitual behavior, respectively. However, it remains unclear how these contribute to inter-individual differences in habit strength which is relevant for understanding not only normal behavior but also more severe dysregulations between these types of action control, such as in addiction. In the present fMRI study, we trained subjects on approach and avoidance behavior for an extended period of time before testing the habit strength of the acquired stimulus-response associations. We found that stronger habits were associated with a stronger decrease in inferior parietal lobule activity for approach and avoidance behavior and weaker vmPFC activity at the end of training for avoidance behavior, areas associated with the anticipation of outcome identity and value. VmPFC in particular showed markedly different activity dynamics during the training of approach and avoidance behavior. Furthermore, while ongoing training was accompanied by increasing functional connectivity between posterior putamen and premotor cortex, consistent with previous assumptions about the neural basis of increasing habitualization, this was not predictive of later habit strength. Together, our findings suggest that inter-individual differences in habitual behavior are driven by differences in the persistent involvement of brain areas supporting goal-directed behavior during training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Neural systems analysis of decision making during goal-directed navigation.

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    Penner, Marsha R; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make adaptive decisions during goal-directed navigation is a fundamental and highly evolved behavior that requires continual coordination of perceptions, learning and memory processes, and the planning of behaviors. Here, a neurobiological account for such coordination is provided by integrating current literatures on spatial context analysis and decision-making. This integration includes discussions of our current understanding of the role of the hippocampal system in experience-dependent navigation, how hippocampal information comes to impact midbrain and striatal decision making systems, and finally the role of the striatum in the implementation of behaviors based on recent decisions. These discussions extend across cellular to neural systems levels of analysis. Not only are key findings described, but also fundamental organizing principles within and across neural systems, as well as between neural systems functions and behavior, are emphasized. It is suggested that studying decision making during goal-directed navigation is a powerful model for studying interactive brain systems and their mediation of complex behaviors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mapping the timecourse of goal-directed attention to location and colour in human vision.

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    Adams, Rachel C; Chambers, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Goal-directed attention prioritises perception of task-relevant stimuli according to location, features, or onset time. In this study we compared the behavioural timecourse of goal-directed selection to locations and colours by varying the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between cue and target in a strategic cueing paradigm. Participants reported the presence or absence of a target following prior information regarding its location or colour. Results revealed that preparatory selection by colour is more effective at enhancing perceptual sensitivity than selection by location, even though both types of cue provided equivalent overall information. More detailed analysis revealed that this advantage arose due a limitation of spatial attention in maintaining a sufficiently broad focus (>2°) for target detection across multiple stimuli. In contrast, when target stimuli fell within 2° of the spatial attention spotlight, the strategic advantages and speed of spatial and colour attention were equated. Our findings are consistent with the conclusion that, under spatially optimal conditions, prior spatial and colour information are equally proficient at guiding top-down selection. When spatial locations are ambiguous, however, colour-based selection is the more efficient mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action

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    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R.; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A.

    2016-01-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal “no-go” pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific

  18. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Balsam, Peter D; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal "no-go" pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific components of motivation. Here

  19. Goal-directed fluid therapy: stroke volume optimisation and cardiac dimensions in supine healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, O.; Tollund, C.; Bundgaard-Nielsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on maximisation of cardiac stroke volume (SV), peri-operative individualised goal-directed fluid therapy improves patient outcome. It remains, however, unknown how fluid therapy by this strategy relates to filling of the heart during supine rest as reference for the anaesthetised...... by thoracic electrical admittance, central venous oxygenation and pressure, and arterial plasma atrial natriuretic peptide. Also, muscle and brain oxygenation were assessed by near infrared spectroscopy (n=7). RESULTS: The HUT reduced the mentioned indices of CBV, the end-diastolic dimensions of the heart...... therapy is that when a maximal SV is established for patients, cardiac pre-load is comparable to that of supine healthy subjects Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  20. Dopaminergic modulation of positive expectations for goal-directed action: evidence from Parkinson’s disease

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    Noham eWolpe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD impairs the control of movement and cognition, including the planning of action and its consequences. This provides the opportunity to study the dopaminergic influences on the perception and awareness of action. Here we examined the perception of the outcome of a goal-directed action made by medicated patients with PD. A visuomotor task probed the integration of sensorimotor signals with the positive expectations of outcomes (Self priors, which in healthy adults bias perception towards success in proportion to trait optimism. We tested the hypotheses that (i the priors on the perception of the consequences of one’s own actions differ between patients and age- and sex-matched controls, and (ii that these priors are modulated by the levodopa dose equivalent in patients. There was no overall difference between patients and controls in the perceptual priors used. However, the precision of patient priors was inversely related to their levodopa dose equivalent. Patients with high levodopa dose equivalent showed more accurate priors, representing predictions that were closer to the true distribution of performance. Such accuracy has previously been demonstrated when observing the actions of others, suggesting abnormal awareness of action in these patients. These results confirm a link between dopamine and the positive expectation of the outcome of one’s own actions, and may have implications for the management of PD.

  1. The perceptual control of goal-directed locomotion: a common control architecture for interception and navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardenon, A; Montagne, G; Laurent, M; Bootsma, R J

    2004-09-01

    Intercepting a moving object while locomoting is a highly complex and demanding ability. Notwithstanding the identification of several informational candidates, the role of perceptual variables in the control process underlying such skills remains an open question. In this study we used a virtual reality set-up for studying locomotor interception of a moving ball. The subject had to walk along a straight path and could freely modify forward velocity, if necessary, in order to intercept-with the head-a ball moving along a straight path that led it to cross the agent's displacement axis. In a series of experiments we manipulated a local (ball size) and a global (focus of expansion) component of the visual flow but also the egocentric orientation of the ball. The experimental observations are well captured by a dynamic model linking the locomotor acceleration to properties of both global flow and egocentric direction. More precisely the changes in locomotor velocity depend on a linear combination of the change in bearing angle and the change in egocentric orientation, allowing the emergence of adaptive behavior under a variety of circumstances. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the control of different goal-directed locomotion tasks (i.e. steering and interceptive tasks) could share a common architecture.

  2. Monetary reward magnitude effects on behavior and brain function during goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, P; Bustamante, J C; Fuentes-Claramonte, P; Costumero, V; Benabarre, S; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2017-08-01

    Reward may modulate the cognitive processes required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality may affect reward modulation. Our aim was to test how different monetary reward magnitudes modulate brain activation and performance during goal-directed behavior, and whether individual differences in reward sensitivity affect this modulation. For this purpose, we scanned 37 subjects with a parametric design in which we varied the magnitude of monetary rewards (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5) in a blocked fashion while participants performed an interference counting-Stroop condition. The results showed that the brain activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum were modulated by increasing and decreasing reward magnitudes, respectively. Behavioral performance improved as the magnitude of monetary reward increased while comparing the non reward (€0) condition to any other reward condition, or the lower €0.01 to any other reward condition, and this improvement was related with individual differences in reward sensitivity. In conclusion, the locus of influence of monetary incentives overlaps the activity of the regions commonly involved in cognitive control.

  3. Dissociating Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Determinants in Attentional Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis K. H. Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional capture is now a commonplace finding, the exact roles played by goal-directed and stimulus-driven determents remain elusive. An unsettled issue is on the relative contribution of attentional set and visual saliency. In the present study, we investigated this issue by mixing color and orientation search trials, so that distractors of either feature dimension fell into the current attentional set. In our test, color features were more salient. As a result, in orientation search, whereas a color distractor produced huge capture (109 ms, an orientation distractor produced moderate capture (50 ms. With color targets, distractors were not interfering. On one hand, these results reflect that relative salience of the target and the distractor is critical for producing capture; on the other hand, a huge capture size associated with a nontarget dimension feature is novel. Similar previous measurements, but without matching the attentional set, consistently report attentional capture of only 20-30 ms. This comparison shows the role played by attentional set. Taken together, we suggest that visual saliency determines search order, and sets the platform for capture. However, attentional dwell time on the distractor is determined by how much it matches the current attentional set, and in turn explains the capture size.

  4. Purposeful Goal-Directed Movements Give Rise to Higher Tactile Discrimination Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Juravle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tactile perception is inhibited during goal-directed reaching movements (sensory suppression. Here, participants performed simple reaching or exploratory movements (where contact with the table surface was maintained. We measured tactile discrimination thresholds for vibratory stimuli delivered to participants' wrists while executing the movement, and while at rest. Moreover, we measured discrimination performance (in a same vs. different task for the materials covering the table surface, during the execution of the different movements. The threshold and discrimination tasks could be performed either singly or together, both under active movement and passive conditions (ie, no movement required, but with tactile stimulation. Thresholds measured at rest were significantly lower than thresholds measured during both active movements and passive touches. This provides a clear indication of sensory suppression during movement execution. Moreover, the discrimination data revealed main effects of task (single vs. dual, movement execution type (passive vs. active, and movement type (reach vs. exploration: Discrimination performance was significantly higher under conditions of single-tasking, active movements, as well as exploratory movements. Therefore, active movement of the hand with the purpose of gaining tactual information about the surface of the table gives rise to enhanced performance, thus suggesting that we feel more when we need to; It would appear that tactual information is prioritized when relevant for the movement being executed.

  5. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. PMID:25925271

  6. Flexibility to contingency changes distinguishes habitual and goal-directed strategies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie J; Keramati, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    Decision-making in the real world presents the challenge of requiring flexible yet prompt behavior, a balance that has been characterized in terms of a trade-off between a slower, prospective goal-directed model-based (MB) strategy and a fast, retrospective habitual model-free (MF) strategy. Theory predicts that flexibility to changes in both reward values and transition contingencies can determine the relative influence of the two systems in reinforcement learning, but few studies have manipulated the latter. Therefore, we developed a novel two-level contingency change task in which transition contingencies between states change every few trials; MB and MF control predict different responses following these contingency changes, allowing their relative influence to be inferred. Additionally, we manipulated the rate of contingency changes in order to determine whether contingency change volatility would play a role in shifting subjects between a MB and MF strategy. We found that human subjects employed a hybrid MB/MF strategy on the task, corroborating the parallel contribution of MB and MF systems in reinforcement learning. Further, subjects did not remain at one level of MB/MF behaviour but rather displayed a shift towards more MB behavior over the first two blocks that was not attributable to the rate of contingency changes but rather to the extent of training. We demonstrate that flexibility to contingency changes can distinguish MB and MF strategies, with human subjects utilizing a hybrid strategy that shifts towards more MB behavior over blocks, consequently corresponding to a higher payoff.

  7. Distinct roles of theta and alpha oscillations in the involuntary capture of goal-directed attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Dux, Paul E; Jones, Caelyn N; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-05-15

    Mechanisms of attention assign priority to sensory inputs on the basis of current task goals. Previous studies have shown that lateralized neural oscillations within the alpha (8-14Hz) range are associated with the voluntary allocation of attention to the contralateral visual field. It is currently unknown, however, whether similar oscillatory signatures instantiate the involuntary capture of spatial attention by goal-relevant stimulus properties. Here we investigated the roles of theta (4-8Hz), alpha, and beta (14-30Hz) oscillations in human goal-directed visual attention. Across two experiments, we had participants respond to a brief target of a particular color among heterogeneously colored distractors. Prior to target onset, we cued one location with a lateralized, non-predictive cue that was either target- or non-target-colored. During the behavioral task, we recorded brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG), with the aim of analyzing cue-elicited oscillatory activity. We found that theta oscillations lateralized in response to all cues, and this lateralization was stronger if the cue matched the target color. Alpha oscillations lateralized relatively later, and only in response to target-colored cues, consistent with the capture of spatial attention. Our findings suggest that stimulus induced changes in theta and alpha amplitude reflect task-based modulation of signals by feature-based and spatial attention, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feature Interactions Enable Decoding of Sensorimotor Transformations for Goal-Directed Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Deborah A.; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; Viswanathan, Shivakumar; Cieslak, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiology and neuroimaging evidence shows that the brain represents multiple environmental and body-related features to compute transformations from sensory input to motor output. However, it is unclear how these features interact during goal-directed movement. To investigate this issue, we examined the representations of sensory and motor features of human hand movements within the left-hemisphere motor network. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, we measured cortical activity as participants performed right-handed movements at the wrist, with either of two postures and two amplitudes, to move a cursor to targets at different locations. Using a multivoxel analysis technique with rigorous generalization tests, we reliably distinguished representations of task-related features (primarily target location, movement direction, and posture) in multiple regions. In particular, we identified an interaction between target location and movement direction in the superior parietal lobule, which may underlie a transformation from the location of the target in space to a movement vector. In addition, we found an influence of posture on primary motor, premotor, and parietal regions. Together, these results reveal the complex interactions between different sensory and motor features that drive the computation of sensorimotor transformations. PMID:24828640

  9. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Bidirectional modulation of goal-directed actions by prefrontal cortical dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcott, Paul K; Quinn, Jennifer J; Taylor, Jane R

    2007-12-01

    Instrumental actions are a vital cognitive asset that endows an organism with sensitivity to the consequences of its behavior. Response-outcome feedback allows responding to be shaped in order to maximize beneficial, and minimize detrimental, outcomes. Lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) result in behavior that is insensitive to changes in outcome value in animals and compulsive behavior in several human psychopathologies. Such insensitivity to changes in outcome value is a defining characteristic of instrumental habits: responses that are controlled by antecedent stimuli rather than goal expectancy. Little is known regarding the neurochemical substrates mediating this sensitivity. The present experiments used sensitivity to posttraining outcome devaluation to index the action-habit status of instrumental responding. Infusions of dopamine into the ventral mPFC (vmPFC), but not dorsal mPFC, restored outcome sensitivity bidirectionally-decreasing responding following outcome devaluation and increasing responding when the outcome was not devalued. This bidirectionality makes the possibility that these infusions nonspecifically dysregulated vmPFC dopamine transmission unlikely. VmPFC dopamine promoted instrumental responding appropriate to outcome value. Reinforcer consumption data indicated that this was not a consequence of altered sensitivity to the reinforcer itself. We suggest that vmPFC dopamine reengages attentional processes underlying goal-directed behavior.

  11. Non-goal-directed recall of specific events in apes after long delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy; Call, Josep; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-07-12

    We examined if apes spontaneously remember one-time, distinctive events across long delays when probed by discriminant cues. Apes witnessed an experimenter hide a cache of food, which they could then retrieve. They retrieved one of two food types; one more distinctive than the other. Two, 10 or 50 weeks later, the apes returned to the same enclosure and found a piece of the previously hidden food on the ground. An experimenter who had not hidden the food was also present. Apes immediately searched the location where the food was previously hidden (no food was here), showing recall of the event. One week later, apes returned to the same enclosure, with the same food on the ground, but now the experimenter that had hidden the food was present. Again, apes immediately searched the hiding location. Apes that had not witnessed the hiding event did not search. There was no significant effect of food type, and retention declined from exposure to the two-week delay, then levelled, consistent with the forgetting curve in humans (Ebbinghaus, H. 1964 Memory: a contribution to experimental psychology (transl. H.A. Ruger & C.E. Bussenvis). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1885.)). This is the first study to show apes can recall a one-time, non-goal-directed event longer than two weeks ago and that apes' recall declines in accordance with a standard retention function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Goal-directed behaviour and instrumental devaluation: a neural system-level computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mannella

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Devaluation is the key experimental paradigm used to demonstrate the presence of instrumental behaviours guided by goals in mammals. We propose a neural system-level computational model to address the question of which brain mechanisms allow the current value of rewards to control instrumental actions. The model pivots on and shows the computational soundness of the hypothesis for which the internal representation of instrumental manipulanda (e.g., levers activate the representation of rewards (or `action-outcomes', e.g. foods while attributing to them a value which depends on the current internal state of the animal (e.g., satiation for some but not all foods. The model also proposes an initial hypothesis of the integrated system of key brain components supporting this process and allowing the recalled outcomes to bias action selection: (a the sub-system formed by the basolateral amygdala and insular cortex acquiring the manipulanda-outcomes associations and attributing the current value to the outcomes; (b the three basal ganglia-cortical loops selecting respectively goals, associative sensory representations, and actions; (c the cortico-cortical and striato-nigro-striatal neural pathways supporting the selection, and selection learning, of actions based on habits and goals. The model reproduces and integrates the results of different devaluation experiments carried out with control rats and rats with pre- and post-training lesions of the basolateral amygdala, the nucleus accumbens core, the prelimbic cortex, and the dorso-medial striatum. The results support the soundness of the hypotheses of the model and show its capacity to integrate, at the system-level, the operations of the key brain structures underlying devaluation. Based on its hypotheses and predictions, the model also represents an operational framework to support the design and analysis of new experiments on the motivational aspects of goal-directed behaviour.

  13. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A Neurocomputational Model of Goal-Directed Navigation in Insect-Inspired Artificial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Manoonpong, Poramate; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha

    2017-01-01

    Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks. Although existing computational models reproduced similar behaviors, a neurocomputational model of vector navigation including the acquisition of vector representations has not been described before. Here we present a model of neural mechanisms in a modular closed-loop control-enabling vector navigation in artificial agents. The model consists of a path integration mechanism, reward-modulated global learning, random search, and action selection. The path integration mechanism integrates compass and odometric cues to compute a vectorial representation of the agent's current location as neural activity patterns in circular arrays. A reward-modulated learning rule enables the acquisition of vector memories by associating the local food reward with the path integration state. A motor output is computed based on the combination of vector memories and random exploration. In simulation, we show that the neural mechanisms enable robust homing and localization, even in the presence of external sensory noise. The proposed learning rules lead to goal-directed navigation and route formation performed under realistic conditions. Consequently, we provide a novel approach for vector learning and navigation in a simulated, situated agent linking behavioral observations to their possible underlying neural substrates.

  15. Obesity-related differences between women and men in brain structure and goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eHorstmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the regulation of body weight are well documented. Here, we assessed obesity-related influences of gender on brain structure as well as performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires evaluation of both immediate rewards and long-term outcomes and thus mirrors the trade-off between immediate reward from eating and the long-term effect of overeating on body weight. In women, but not in men, we show that the preference for salient immediate rewards in the face of negative long-term consequences is higher in obese than in lean subjects. In addition, we report structural differences in the left dorsal striatum (i.e. putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for women only. Functionally, both regions are known to play complimentary roles in habitual and goal-directed control of behavior in motivational contexts. For women as well as men, gray matter volume correlates positively with measures of obesity in regions coding the value and saliency of food (i.e. nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the hypothalamus (i.e. the brain's central homeostatic centre. These differences between lean and obese subjects in hedonic and homeostatic control systems may reflect a bias in eating behavior towards energy intake exceeding the actual homeostatic demand. Although we cannot infer from our results the etiology of the observed structural differences, our results resemble neural and behavioral differences well known from other forms of addiction, however, with marked differences between women and men. These findings are important for designing gender-appropriate treatments of obesity and possibly its recognition as a form of addiction.

  16. Flexibility to contingency changes distinguishes habitual and goal-directed strategies in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie J Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in the real world presents the challenge of requiring flexible yet prompt behavior, a balance that has been characterized in terms of a trade-off between a slower, prospective goal-directed model-based (MB strategy and a fast, retrospective habitual model-free (MF strategy. Theory predicts that flexibility to changes in both reward values and transition contingencies can determine the relative influence of the two systems in reinforcement learning, but few studies have manipulated the latter. Therefore, we developed a novel two-level contingency change task in which transition contingencies between states change every few trials; MB and MF control predict different responses following these contingency changes, allowing their relative influence to be inferred. Additionally, we manipulated the rate of contingency changes in order to determine whether contingency change volatility would play a role in shifting subjects between a MB and MF strategy. We found that human subjects employed a hybrid MB/MF strategy on the task, corroborating the parallel contribution of MB and MF systems in reinforcement learning. Further, subjects did not remain at one level of MB/MF behaviour but rather displayed a shift towards more MB behavior over the first two blocks that was not attributable to the rate of contingency changes but rather to the extent of training. We demonstrate that flexibility to contingency changes can distinguish MB and MF strategies, with human subjects utilizing a hybrid strategy that shifts towards more MB behavior over blocks, consequently corresponding to a higher payoff.

  17. Fronto-parietal coding of goal-directed actions performed by artificial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Iacoboni, Marco; Flanagin, Virginia; Huber, Markus; Kasparbauer, Anna; Baumgartner, Thomas; Hasler, Gregor; Schmidt, Florian; Borst, Christoph; Glasauer, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    With advances in technology, artificial agents such as humanoid robots will soon become a part of our daily lives. For safe and intuitive collaboration, it is important to understand the goals behind their motor actions. In humans, this process is mediated by changes in activity in fronto-parietal brain areas. The extent to which these areas are activated when observing artificial agents indicates the naturalness and easiness of interaction. Previous studies indicated that fronto-parietal activity does not depend on whether the agent is human or artificial. However, it is unknown whether this activity is modulated by observing grasping (self-related action) and pointing actions (other-related action) performed by an artificial agent depending on the action goal. Therefore, we designed an experiment in which subjects observed human and artificial agents perform pointing and grasping actions aimed at two different object categories suggesting different goals. We found a signal increase in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule and the premotor cortex when tool versus food items were pointed to or grasped by both agents, probably reflecting the association of hand actions with the functional use of tools. Our results show that goal attribution engages the fronto-parietal network not only for observing a human but also a robotic agent for both self-related and social actions. The debriefing after the experiment has shown that actions of human-like artificial agents can be perceived as being goal-directed. Therefore, humans will be able to interact with service robots intuitively in various domains such as education, healthcare, public service, and entertainment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ethanol seeking by Long Evans rats is not always a goal-directed behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A Mangieri

    Full Text Available Two parallel and interacting processes are said to underlie animal behavior, whereby learning and performance of a behavior is at first via conscious and deliberate (goal-directed processes, but after initial acquisition, the behavior can become automatic and stimulus-elicited (habitual. With respect to instrumental behaviors, animal learning studies suggest that the duration of training and the action-outcome contingency are two factors involved in the emergence of habitual seeking of "natural" reinforcers (e.g., sweet solutions, food or sucrose pellets. To rigorously test whether behaviors reinforced by abused substances such as ethanol, in particular, similarly become habitual was the primary aim of this study.Male Long Evans rats underwent extended or limited operant lever press training with 10% sucrose/10% ethanol (10S10E reinforcement (variable interval (VI or (VR ratio schedule of reinforcement, or with 10% sucrose (10S reinforcement (VI schedule only. Once training and pretesting were complete, the impact of outcome devaluation on operant behavior was evaluated after lithium chloride injections were paired with the reinforcer, or unpaired 24 hours later. After limited, but not extended instrumental training, lever pressing by groups trained under VR with 10S10E and under VI with 10S was sensitive to outcome devaluation. In contrast, responding by both the extended and limited training 10S10E VI groups was not sensitive to ethanol devaluation during the test for habitual behavior.Operant behavior by rats trained to self-administer an ethanol-sucrose solution showed variable sensitivity to a change in the value of ethanol, with relative insensitivity developing sooner in animals that received time-variable ethanol reinforcement during training sessions. One important implication, with respect to substance abuse in humans, is that initial learning about the relationship between instrumental actions and the opportunity to consume ethanol

  19. Drunk decisions: Alcohol shifts choice from habitual towards goal-directed control in adolescent intermediate-risk drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Elisabeth; Schad, Daniel J; Huys, Quentin Jm; Sebold, Miriam; Nebe, Stephan; Sommer, Christian; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2018-05-01

    Studies in humans and animals suggest a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. We therefore tested whether acute alcohol administration reduces goal-directed and promotes habitual decision-making, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported drinking problems. Fifty-three socially drinking males completed the two-step task in a randomised crossover design while receiving an intravenous infusion of ethanol (blood alcohol level=80 mg%), or placebo. To minimise potential bias by long-standing heavy drinking and subsequent neuropsychological impairment, we tested 18- to 19-year-old adolescents. Alcohol administration consistently reduced habitual, model-free decisions, while its effects on goal-directed, model-based behaviour varied as a function of drinking problems measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. While adolescents with low risk for drinking problems (scoring towards goal-directed decision-making, such that alcohol possibly even improved their performance. We assume that alcohol disrupted basic cognitive functions underlying habitual and goal-directed decisions in low-risk drinkers, thereby enhancing hasty choices. Further, we speculate that intermediate-risk drinkers benefited from alcohol as a negative reinforcer that reduced unpleasant emotional states, possibly displaying a novel risk factor for drinking in adolescence.

  20. Neuronal activity in primate prefrontal cortex related to goal-directed behavior during auditory working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Brosch, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been documented to play critical roles in goal-directed behaviors, like representing goal-relevant events and working memory (WM). However, neurophysiological evidence for such roles of PFC has been obtained mainly with visual tasks but rarely with auditory tasks. In the present study, we tested roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors by recording local field potentials in the auditory region of left ventrolateral PFC while a monkey performed auditory WM tasks. The tasks consisted of multiple events and required the monkey to change its mental states to achieve the reward. The events were auditory and visual stimuli, as well as specific actions. Mental states were engaging in the tasks and holding task-relevant information in auditory WM. We found that, although based on recordings from one hemisphere in one monkey only, PFC represented multiple events that were important for achieving reward, including auditory and visual stimuli like turning on and off an LED, as well as bar touch. The responses to auditory events depended on the tasks and on the context of the tasks. This provides support for the idea that neuronal representations in PFC are flexible and can be related to the behavioral meaning of stimuli. We also found that engaging in the tasks and holding information in auditory WM were associated with persistent changes of slow potentials, both of which are essential for auditory goal-directed behaviors. Our study, on a single hemisphere in a single monkey, reveals roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors similar to those in visual goal-directed behaviors, suggesting that functions of PFC in goal-directed behaviors are probably common across the auditory and visual modality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Verification of extended model of goal directed behavior applied on aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Vasková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to verify Model of Goal Directed Behavior (EMGB by Perugini and Bagozzi (2001 applied on aggression by Richetin, Richardson and Boykin (2011. Two different studies were performed. Firstly original form of model was verified. In the second study, modification of EMGB through new conceptualization of scale of perceived behavioral control was executed. The research sample consisted together from 385 students of University of P.J. Šafárik and High school in Košice (182 respondents (78 men, 104 women with average age 20,84 years and standard deviation 1,94, who were involved in first study and 203 students (49 men and 154 women, with average age 19,71 and standard deviation 1,99 participated in second study who were administrated questionnaire by Richetin et al. (2011 and Richardson Conflict Response Questionnaire (Richardson & Green, 2006. Expectancy of comparable relationships between particular factors of EMGB in comparison to its published original version was verified. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. In first study was shown insufficient fit of EMGB model. There were hypothesized two main sources of problems. At first, weak relationship between attitudes and behavioral desire was shown. Following statistical procedures confirmed its direct impact on intention, what is in correspondence with another studies (see Leone, Perugini & Ercolani, 2004, Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001, Richetin et al., 2011. Second source of problems was identified in factor named perceived behavioral control. Difficulties from our point of view lied in conceptualization of the term and its subsequent measurement. In the second study was involved new conceptualization of control. It corresponded with Baumeister´s understanding of selfcontrol as asserting control over one´s emotions, thoughts and behavior. After this modification sufficient fit of EMGB was shown. Besides this, factor of self-control was the strongest predictor of

  2. Hope and self-regulatory goals applied to an advertising context : promoting prevention stimulates goal-directed behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; Dewitte, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes the existence of two types of hope which differ in terms of self-regulatory goals: prevention hope and promotion hope. Consistent with the functional emotion approach and regulatory focus theory, we show that prevention hope generates more goal-directed behavior compared to

  3. Hope and self regulatory goals applied to an advertising context : promoting prevention stimulates goal-directed behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; Dewitte, S.; Astregaard, S.; Dwight, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes the existence of two types of hope which differ in terms of self-regulatory goals: prevention hope and promotion hope. Consistent with the functional emotion approach and regulatory focus theory, we show that prevention hope generates more goal-directed behavior compared to

  4. Movement Structure in Young and Elderly Adults during Goal-Directed Movements of the Left and Right Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Brach; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Barduson, Beth; Stelmach, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Elderly adults often exhibit performance deficits during goal-directed movements of the dominant arm compared with young adults. Recent studies involving hemispheric lateralization have provided evidence that the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere-arm systems are specialized for controlling different movement parameters and that hemispheric…

  5. Reinforcement Learning Approach to Generate Goal-directed Locomotion of a Snake-Like Robot with Screw-Drive Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Sromona; Nachstedt, Timo; Tamosiunaite, Minija

    2014-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper we apply a policy improvement algorithm called Policy Improvement using Path Integrals (PI2) to generate goal-directed locomotion of a complex snake-like robot with screw-drive units. PI2 is numerically simple and has an ability to deal with high dimensional systems. Here...

  6. Effects of psychosocial stress on the goal-directed and habit memory systems during learning and later execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marion; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Radel, Rémi

    2017-03-01

    Instrumental learning occurs through both goal-directed and habit memory systems, which are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Interestingly, stress may promote habits at the expense of goal-directed performance, since stress before training in an instrumental task was found to cause individuals to carry on with the learned association in spite of a devalued outcome. These findings nevertheless left pending questions, and it has been difficult to determine which system is primarily affected by stress (an improved habit system, an impaired goal-directed system, or both) and at what point the stress acts (at the moment of learning by making more resistant habits, or after devaluation by making individuals less sensitive to change in the outcome value). The present study (N=72 participants, 63 males and 9 females) aimed to answer these questions with (i) an instrumental task that dissociates the two memory systems and (ii) three conditions of psychosocial stress exposure (Trier Social Stress Test): stress induced before learning, before devaluation, and not induced for the control group. The study confirms that exposure to psychosocial stress leads to habitual performance. Moreover, it provides new insight into this effect by locating its origin as an impairment in the capacity of the goal-directed system rather than a reinforcement in habit learning. These results are discussed in light of recent neurobiological models of stress and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Outcome producing potential influences twelve-month-olds' interpretation of a novel action as goal-directed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coalter, Esther; Leslie, Alan M

    2014-11-01

    Learning about a novel, goal-directed action is a complex process. It requires identifying the outcome of the action and linking the action to its outcome for later use in new situations to predict the action or to anticipate its outcome. We investigated the hypothesis that linking a novel action to a salient change in the environment is critical for infants to assign a goal to the novel action. We report a study in which we show that 12-month-old infants, who were provided with prior experience with a novel action accompanied with a salient visible outcome in one context, can interpret the same action as goal-directed even in the absence of the outcome in another context. Our control condition shows that prior experience with the action, but without the salient effect, does not lead to goal-directed interpretation of the novel action. We also found that, for the case of 9-month-olds infants, prior experience with the outcome producing potential of the novel action does not facilitate a goal-directed interpretation of the action. However, this failure was possibly due to difficulties with generalizing the learnt association to another context rather than with linking the action to its outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Goal-Directed Reaching in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. G. Salowitz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An unanswered question concerning the neural basis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD is how sensorimotor deficits in individuals with ASD are related to abnormalities of brain function. We previously described a robotic joystick and video game system that allows us to record functional magnetic resonance images (FMRI while adult humans make goal-directed wrist motions. We anticipated several challenges in extending this approach to studying goal-directed behaviors in children with ASD and in typically developing (TYP children. In particular we were concerned that children with autism may express increased levels of anxiety as compared to typically developing children due to the loud sounds and small enclosed space of the MRI scanner. We also were concerned that both groups of children might become restless during testing, leading to an unacceptable amount of head movement. Here we performed a pilot study evaluating the extent to which autistic and typically developing children exhibit anxiety during our experimental protocol as well as their ability to comply with task instructions. Our experimental controls were successful in minimizing group differences in drop-out due to anxiety. Kinematic performance and head motion also were similar across groups. Both groups of children engaged cortical regions (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital while making goal-directed movements. In addition, the ASD group exhibited task-related correlations in subcortical regions (cerebellum, thalamus, whereas correlations in the TYP group did not reach statistical significance in subcortical regions. Four distinct regions in frontal cortex showed a significant group difference such that TYP children exhibited positive correlations between the hemodynamic response and movement, whereas children with ASD exhibited negative correlations. These findings demonstrate feasibility of simultaneous application of robotic manipulation and functional imaging to study goal-directed

  9. Motivation and value influences in the relative balance of goal-directed and habitual behaviours in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Baek, K; Enander, J; Worbe, Y; Morris, L S; Harrison, N A; Robbins, T W; Rück, C; Daw, N

    2015-11-03

    Our decisions are based on parallel and competing systems of goal-directed and habitual learning, systems which can be impaired in pathological behaviours. Here we focus on the influence of motivation and compare reward and loss outcomes in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual behaviours using the two-step task. We further investigate the relationship with acquisition learning using a one-step probabilistic learning task. Forty-eight OCD subjects and 96 healthy volunteers were tested on a reward and 30 OCD subjects and 53 healthy volunteers on the loss version of the two-step task. Thirty-six OCD subjects and 72 healthy volunteers were also tested on a one-step reversal task. OCD subjects compared with healthy volunteers were less goal oriented (model-based) and more habitual (model-free) to reward outcomes with a shift towards greater model-based and lower habitual choices to loss outcomes. OCD subjects also had enhanced acquisition learning to loss outcomes on the one-step task, which correlated with goal-directed learning in the two-step task. OCD subjects had greater stay behaviours or perseveration in the one-step task irrespective of outcome. Compulsion severity was correlated with habitual learning in the reward condition. Obsession severity was correlated with greater switching after loss outcomes. In healthy volunteers, we further show that greater reward magnitudes are associated with a shift towards greater goal-directed learning further emphasizing the role of outcome salience. Our results highlight an important influence of motivation on learning processes in OCD and suggest that distinct clinical strategies based on valence may be warranted.

  10. Is gaze following purely reflexive or goal-directed instead? Revisiting the automaticity of orienting attention by gaze cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Paola; Carcagno, Samuele; Vallar, Giuseppe; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Distracting gaze has been shown to elicit automatic gaze following. However, it is still debated whether the effects of perceived gaze are a simple automatic spatial orienting response or are instead sensitive to the context (i.e. goals and task demands). In three experiments, we investigated the conditions under which gaze following occurs. Participants were instructed to saccade towards one of two lateral targets. A face distracter, always present in the background, could gaze towards: (a) a task-relevant target--("matching" goal-directed gaze shift)--congruent or incongruent with the instructed direction, (b) a task-irrelevant target, orthogonal to the one instructed ("non-matching" goal-directed gaze shift), or (c) an empty spatial location (no-goal-directed gaze shift). Eye movement recordings showed faster saccadic latencies in correct trials in congruent conditions especially when the distracting gaze shift occurred before the instruction to make a saccade. Interestingly, while participants made a higher proportion of gaze-following errors (i.e. errors in the direction of the distracting gaze) in the incongruent conditions when the distracter's gaze shift preceded the instruction onset indicating an automatic gaze following, they never followed the distracting gaze when it was directed towards an empty location or a stimulus that was never the target. Taken together, these findings suggest that gaze following is likely to be a product of both automatic and goal-driven orienting mechanisms.

  11. Alcohol-paired contextual cues produce an immediate and selective loss of goal-directed action in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean B Ostlund

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the presence of contextual cues paired with alcohol would disrupt rats’ capacity to express appropriate goal-directed action control. Rats were first given differential context conditioning such that one set of contextual cues was paired with the injection of ethanol and a second, distinctive set of cues was paired with the injection of saline. All rats were then trained in a third, neutral context to press one lever for grain pellets and another lever for sucrose pellets. They were then given two extinction tests to evaluate their ability to choose between the two actions in response to the devaluation of one of the two food outcomes with one test conducted in the alcohol-paired context and the other conducted in the control (saline-paired context. In the control context, rats exhibited goal-directed action control; i.e., they were able selectively to withhold the action that previously earned the now devalued outcome. However, these same rats were impaired when tested in the alcohol-paired context, performing both actions at the same rate regardless of the current value of their respective outcomes. Subsequent testing revealed that the rats were capable of overcoming this impairment if they were giving response-contingent feedback about the current value of the food outcomes. These results provide a clear demonstration of the disruptive influence that alcohol-paired cues can exert on decision-making in general and goal-directed action selection and choice in particular.

  12. Impairments in goal-directed actions predict treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Alvares

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive fear and habitual avoidance of social situations. Decision-making models suggest that patients with anxiety disorders may fail to exhibit goal-directed control over actions. We therefore investigated whether such biases may also be associated with social anxiety and to examine the relationship between such behavior with outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patients diagnosed with social anxiety and controls completed an instrumental learning task in which two actions were performed to earn food outcomes. After outcome devaluation, where one outcome was consumed to satiety, participants were re-tested in extinction. Results indicated that, as expected, controls were goal-directed, selectively reducing responding on the action that previously delivered the devalued outcome. Patients with social anxiety, however, exhibited no difference in responding on either action. This loss of a devaluation effect was associated with greater symptom severity and poorer response to therapy. These findings indicate that variations in goal-directed control in social anxiety may represent both a behavioral endophenotype and may be used to predict individuals who will respond to learning-based therapies.

  13. Implementation of a Goal-Directed Mechanical Ventilation Order Set Driven by Respiratory Therapists Improves Compliance With Best Practices for Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, Misty A; Wanta, Brendan T; Meyer, Todd J; Weber, Verlin W; Brown, Daniel R; Smischney, Nathan J; Diedrich, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Data regarding best practices for ventilator management strategies that improve outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are readily available. However, little is known regarding processes to ensure compliance with these strategies. We developed a goal-directed mechanical ventilation order set that included physician-specified lung-protective ventilation and oxygenation goals to be implemented by respiratory therapists (RTs). We sought as a primary outcome to determine whether an RT-driven order set with predefined oxygenation and ventilation goals could be implemented and associated with improved adherence with best practice. We evaluated 1302 patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (1693 separate episodes of invasive mechanical ventilation) prior to and after institution of a standardized, goal-directed mechanical ventilation order set using a controlled before-and-after study design. Patient-specific goals for oxygenation partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (Pao 2 ), ARDS Network [Net] positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]/fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] table use) and ventilation (pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide) were selected by prescribers and implemented by RTs. Compliance with the new mechanical ventilation order set was high: 88.2% compliance versus 3.8% before implementation of the order set ( P mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and in-hospital or ICU mortality. A standardized best practice mechanical ventilation order set can be implemented by a multidisciplinary team and is associated with improved compliance to written orders and adherence to the ARDSNet PEEP/Fio 2 table.

  14. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

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    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal-directed

  15. Goal directed worry rules are associated with distinct patterns of amygdala functional connectivity and vagal modulation during perseverative cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Meeten, Frances; Davey, Graham C L; Makovac, Elena; Watson, David R.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Ottaviani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Excessive and uncontrollable worry is a defining feature of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). An important endeavor in the treatment of pathological worry is to understand why some people are unable to stop worrying once they have started. Worry perseveration is associated with a tendency to deploy goal-directed worry rules (known as “as many as can” worry rules; AMA). These require attention to the goal of the worry task and continuation of worry until the aims of the “worry bout” are achi...

  16. Distributed coordination of heterogeneous agents using a semantic overlay network and a goal-directed graphplan planner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Luís Lopes

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a distributed coordination system that allows agents to seamlessly cooperate in problem solving by partially contributing to a problem solution and delegating the subproblems for which they do not have the required skills or knowledge to appropriate agents. The coordination mechanism relies on a dynamically built semantic overlay network that allows the agents to efficiently locate, even in very large unstructured networks, the necessary skills for a specific problem. Each agent performs partial contributions to the problem solution using a new distributed goal-directed version of the Graphplan algorithm. This new goal-directed version of the original Graphplan algorithm provides an efficient solution to the problem of "distraction", which most forward-chaining algorithms suffer from. We also discuss a set of heuristics to be used in the backward-search process of the planning algorithm in order to distribute this process amongst idle agents in an attempt to find a solution in less time. The evaluation results show that our approach is effective in building a scalable and efficient agent society capable of solving complex distributable problems.

  17. Combination of brain-computer interface training and goal-directed physical therapy in chronic stroke: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broetz, Doris; Braun, Christoph; Weber, Cornelia; Soekadar, Surjo R; Caria, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-09-01

    There is no accepted and efficient rehabilitation strategy to reduce focal impairments for patients with chronic stroke who lack residual movements. A 67-year-old hemiplegic patient with no active finger extension was trained with a brain-computer interface (BCI) combined with a specific daily life-oriented physiotherapy. The BCI used electrical brain activity (EEG) and magnetic brain activity (MEG) to drive an orthosis and a robot affixed to the patient's affected upper extremity, which enabled him to move the paralyzed arm and hand driven by voluntary modulation of micro-rhythm activity. In addition, the patient practiced goal-directed physiotherapy training. Over 1 year, he completed 3 training blocks. Arm motor function, gait capacities (using Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, Modified Ashworth Scale, 10-m walk speed, and goal attainment score), and brain reorganization (functional MRI, MEG) were repeatedly assessed. The ability of hand and arm movements as well as speed and safety of gait improved significantly (mean 46.6%). Improvement of motor function was associated with increased micro-oscillations in the ipsilesional motor cortex. This proof-of-principle study suggests that the combination of BCI training with goal-directed, active physical therapy may improve the motor abilities of chronic stroke patients despite apparent initial paralysis.

  18. From Creatures of Habit to Goal-Directed Learners: Tracking the Developmental Emergence of Model-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Johannes H; Otto, A Ross; Daw, Nathaniel D; Hartley, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical models distinguish two decision-making strategies that have been formalized in reinforcement-learning theory. A model-based strategy leverages a cognitive model of potential actions and their consequences to make goal-directed choices, whereas a model-free strategy evaluates actions based solely on their reward history. Research in adults has begun to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying these learning processes and factors that influence their relative recruitment. However, the developmental trajectory of these evaluative strategies has not been well characterized. In this study, children, adolescents, and adults performed a sequential reinforcement-learning task that enabled estimation of model-based and model-free contributions to choice. Whereas a model-free strategy was apparent in choice behavior across all age groups, a model-based strategy was absent in children, became evident in adolescents, and strengthened in adults. These results suggest that recruitment of model-based valuation systems represents a critical cognitive component underlying the gradual maturation of goal-directed behavior. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Bourgeois

    Full Text Available In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention.

  20. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention.

  1. Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex control in food-directed attention and goal-directed food choice in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Lieneke K; Duif, Iris; van Loon, Ilke; Wegman, Joost; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2017-02-01

    Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76 healthy human subjects with a wide body mass index (BMI) range (19-35kg/m 2 ) using fMRI. As a measure of obesity we calculated individual obesity scores based on BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio using principal component analyses. To investigate the automatic tendency to overeat directly, the same subjects performed a separate behavioral outcome devaluation task measuring the degree of goal-directed versus automatic food choices. We observed that increased obesity scores were associated with diminished lPFC responses during food attentional bias. This was accompanied by decreased goal-directed control of food choices following outcome devaluation. Together these findings suggest that deficient control of both food-directed attention and choice may contribute to obesity, particularly given our obesogenic environment with food cues everywhere, and the choice to ignore or indulge despite satiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational Properties of the Hippocampus Increase the Efficiency of Goal-Directed Foraging through Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chalmers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain is thought to use a version of Model-based Reinforcement Learning (MBRL to guide goal-directed behavior, wherein animals consider goals and make plans to acquire desired outcomes. However, conventional MBRL algorithms do not fully explain animals’ ability to rapidly adapt to environmental changes, or learn multiple complex tasks. They also require extensive computation, suggesting that goal-directed behavior is cognitively expensive. We propose here that key features of processing in the hippocampus support a flexible MBRL mechanism for spatial navigation that is computationally efficient and can adapt quickly to change. We investigate this idea by implementing a computational MBRL framework that incorporates features inspired by computational properties of the hippocampus: a hierarchical representation of space, forward sweeps through future spatial trajectories, and context-driven remapping of place cells. We find that a hierarchical abstraction of space greatly reduces the computational load (mental effort required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions, and allows efficient scaling to large problems. It also allows abstract knowledge gained at high levels to guide adaptation to new obstacles. Moreover, a context-driven remapping mechanism allows learning and memory of multiple tasks. Simulating dorsal or ventral hippocampal lesions in our computational framework qualitatively reproduces behavioral deficits observed in rodents with analogous lesions. The framework may thus embody key features of how the brain organizes model-based RL to efficiently solve navigation and other difficult tasks.

  3. The hemodynamic "target": a visual tool of goal-directed therapy for septic patients Alvo hemodinâmico: uma ferramenta visual de terapia "goal-directed" para pacientes sépticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Vallée

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of the hemodynamic status of patients with sepsis by nursing teams through the attainment of hemodynamic parameters using a pentaxial "target" diagram as a clinical tool. Parameters include cardiac index (CI, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2, mean arterial pressure (MAP, arterial blood lactate, and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2. METHODS: Design: Prospective descriptive study. Setting: The intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients: During a 6-month period, 38 intubated septic shock patients were included in the study. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared. Interventions: MAP, CI, SaO2, ScvO2 and lactate were measured at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Measurements were recorded on the target diagram along with the norepinephrine infusion rate and the hemoglobin (Hb level. The number of lactate and ScvO2 measurements achieved during the target period were compared to a 6-month retrospective control period just before starting the protocol. We assessed the nurse knowledge status prior to the introduction of target diagram. We then performed a post-test after implementing the new recording technique. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The nursing team expressed a positive attitude toward the target concept. The mean number of lactate and ScvO2 measurements performed for each patient during the control period was significantly lower than during the target period, and those values were rarely used as goal values before the introduction of the target diagram. At 24 hours, 46% of the survivors had achieved all the goal parameter values of the target diagram, compared to only 10% of nonsurvivors (P = .01. CONCLUSION: The target diagram is a visual multiparametric tool involving all the medical and nursing team that helps achieve goal-directed therapy for septic patients. The number of goal values reached at each time point during the first 48 hours was closely linked to mortality.OBJETIVO: Melhorar a

  4. Contexts Paired with Junk Food Impair Goal-Directed Behavior in Rats: Implications for Decision Making in Obesogenic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Michael D; Cheung, Ambrose M K; Raymond, Joel S; Corbit, Laura H

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context). Next, rats were food-deprived and trained to perform instrumental responses (lever-press) for two novel food rewards in a third, distinct context. Contextual influences on flexible control of food-seeking behavior were then assessed by outcome devaluation tests held in the JF, chow and training contexts. Devaluation was achieved using specific satiety and test order was counterbalanced. Rats exhibited goal-directed control over behavior when tested in the training and chow-paired contexts. Notably, performance was habitual (insensitive to devaluation) when tested in the JF context. In Experiment 2 we tested whether the impairment found in the JF context could be ameliorated by the presentation of a discrete auditory cue paired with the chow context, relative to a second cue paired with the JF context. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, the devaluation effect was not significant when rats were tested in the JF context with the JF cue. However, presenting the chow cue increased the impact of the devaluation treatment leading to a robust devaluation effect. Further tests confirmed that performance in the chow context was goal-directed and that sensory-specific satiety in the JF context was intact. These results show that environments paired with palatable foods can impair goal-directed control over food-seeking behavior, but that this deficit was improved by

  5. Contexts paired with junk food impair goal-directed behaviour in rats: implications for decision making in obesogenic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Kendig

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behaviour. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three ‘junk’ foods (JF context and another containing chow (Chow context. Next, rats were food-deprived and trained to perform instrumental responses (lever-press for two novel food rewards in a third, distinct context. Contextual influences on flexible control of food-seeking behaviour were then assessed by outcome devaluation tests held in the JF, chow, and training contexts. Devaluation was achieved using specific satiety and test order was counterbalanced. Rats exhibited goal-directed control over behaviour when tested in the training and chow-paired contexts. Notably, performance was habitual (insensitive to devaluation when tested in the JF context. In Experiment 2 we tested whether the impairment found in the JF context could be ameliorated by the presentation of a discrete auditory cue paired with the chow context, relative to a second cue paired with the JF context. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, the devaluation effect was not significant when rats were tested in the JF context with the JF cue. However, presenting the chow cue increased the impact of the devaluation treatment leading to a robust devaluation effect. Further tests confirmed that performance in the chow context was goal-directed and that sensory-specific satiety in the JF context was intact. These results show that environments paired with palatable foods can impair goal-directed control over food-seeking behaviour, but that this

  6. Training of goal directed arm movements with motion interactive video games in children with cerebral palsy - a kinematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Marlene; Domellöf, Erik; Grip, Helena; Rönnqvist, Louise; Häger, Charlotte K

    2014-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of goal-directed arm movements in 15 children with cerebral palsy (CP) following four weeks of home-based training with motion interactive video games. A further aim was to investigate the applicability and characteristics of kinematic parameters in a virtual context in comparison to a physical context. Kinematics and kinetics were captured while the children performed arm movements directed towards both virtual and physical targets. The children's movement precision improved, their centre of pressure paths decreased, as did the variability in maximal shoulder angles when reaching for virtual objects. Transfer to a situation with physical targets was mainly indicated by increased movement smoothness. Training with motion interactive games seems to improve arm motor control in children with CP. The results highlight the importance of considering both the context and the task itself when investigating kinematic parameters.

  7. The attribution of navigational- and goal-directed agency in dogs (Canis familiaris) and human toddlers (Homo sapiens).

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    Tauzin, Tibor; Csík, Andor; Lovas, Kata; Gergely, György; Topál, József

    2017-02-01

    Both human infants and nonhuman primates can recognize unfamiliar entities as instrumental agents ascribing to them goals and efficiency of goal-pursuit. This competence relies on movement cues indicating distal sensitivity to the environment and choice of efficient goal-approach. Although dogs' evolved sensitivity to social cues allow them to recognize humans as communicative agents, it remains unclear whether they have also evolved a basic concept of instrumental agency. We used a preferential object-choice procedure to test whether adult pet dogs and human toddlers can identify unfamiliar entities as agents based on different types of movement cues that specify different levels of agency. In the navigational agency condition, dogs preferentially chose an object that modified its pathway to avoid collision with obstacles over another object showing no evidence of distal sensitivity (regularly bumping into obstacles). However, in the goal-efficiency condition where neither object collided with obstacles as it navigated toward a distal target, but only 1 of them exhibited efficient goal-approach as well, toddlers, but not dogs, showed a preference toward the efficient goal-directed agent. These findings indicate that dogs possess a limited concept of environmentally sensitive navigational agency that they attribute to self-propelled entities capable of modifying their movement to avoid colliding with obstacles. Toddlers, in contrast, demonstrated clear sensitivity to cues of efficient variability of goal-approach as the basis for differentiating, attributing, and showing preference for goal-directed instrumental agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Using a virtual reality game to assess goal-directed hand movements in children: A pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabyzon, M Elboim; Engel-Yeger, B; Tresser, S; Springer, S

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality gaming environments may be used as a supplement to the motor performance assessment tool box by providing clinicians with quantitative information regarding motor performance in terms of movement accuracy and speed, as well as sensory motor integration under different levels of dual tasking. To examine the feasibility of using the virtual reality game `Timocco' as an assessment tool for evaluating goal-directed hand movements among typically developing children. In this pilot study, 47 typically-developing children were divided into two age groups, 4-6 years old and 6-8 years old. Performance was measured using two different virtual environment games (Bubble Bath and Falling Fruit), each with two levels of difficulty. Discriminative validity (age effect) was examined by comparing the performance of the two groups, and by comparing the performance between levels of the games for each group (level effect). Test-retest reliability was examined by reassessing the older children 3-7 days after the first session. The older children performed significantly better in terms of response time, action time, game duration, and efficiency in both games compared to the younger children. Both age groups demonstrated poorer performance at the higher game level in the Bubble Bath game compared to the lower level. A similar level effect was found in the Falling Fruit game for both age groups in response time and efficiency, but not in action time. The performance of the older children was not significantly different between the two sessions at both game levels. The discriminative validity and test-retest reliability indicate the feasibility of using the Timocco virtual reality game as a tool for assessing goal-directed hand movements in children. Further studies should examine its feasibility for use in children with disabilities.

  9. Towards a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour: a narrative review.

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    Venhorst, Andreas; Micklewright, Dominic; Noakes, Timothy D

    2017-08-23

    The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion. Thus, progress towards a comprehensive multidimensional model of perceived fatigability and exercise regulation is needed. Drawing on Gate Control Theory of pain, we propose a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour, which differentiates between sensory, affective and cognitive processes shaping the perceptual milieu during exercise. We propose that: (A) perceived mental strain and perceived physical strain are primary determinants of pacing behaviour reflecting sensory-discriminatory processes necessary to align planned behaviour with current physiological state, (B) core affect plays a primary and mediatory role in exercise and performance regulation, and its underlying two dimensions hedonicity and arousal reflect affective-motivational processes triggering approach and avoidance behaviour, and (C) the mindset-shift associated with an action crisis plays a primary role in volitional self-regulatory control reflecting cognitive-evaluative processes between further goal-pursuit and goal-disengagement. The proposed framework has the potential to enrich theory development in centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour by emphasising the multidimensional dynamic processes underpinning perceived fatigability and provides a practical outline for investigating the complex interplay between the psychophysiological determinants of pacing and performance during prolonged endurance exercise. © Article author

  10. Developing Mobile Clinical Decision Support for Nursing Home Staff Assessment of Urinary Tract Infection using Goal-Directed Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Wallace; Drake, Cynthia; Mack, David; Reeder, Blaine; Trautner, Barbara; Wald, Heidi

    2017-06-20

    Unique characteristics of nursing homes (NHs) contribute to high rates of inappropriate antibiotic use for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), a benign condition. A mobile clinical decision support system (CDSS) may support NH staff in differentiating urinary tract infections (UTI) from ASB and reducing antibiotic days. We used Goal-Directed Design to: 1) Characterize information needs for UTI identification and management in NHs; 2) Develop UTI Decide, a mobile CDSS prototype informed by personas and scenarios of use constructed from Aim 1 findings; 3) Evaluate the UTI Decide prototype with NH staff. Focus groups were conducted with providers and nurses in NHs in Denver, Colorado (n= 24). Qualitative descriptive analysis was applied to focus group transcripts to identify information needs and themes related to mobile clinical decision support for UTI identification and management. Personas representing typical end users were developed; typical clinical context scenarios were constructed using information needs as goals. Usability testing was performed using cognitive walk-throughs and a think-aloud protocol. Four information needs were identified including guidance regarding resident assessment; communication with providers; care planning; and urine culture interpretation. Design of a web-based application incorporating a published decision support algorithm for evidence-based UTI diagnoses proceeded with a focus on nursing information needs during resident assessment and communication with providers. Certified nursing assistant (CNA) and registered nurse (RN) personas were constructed in 4 context scenarios with associated key path scenarios. After field testing, a high fidelity prototype of UTI Decide was completed and evaluated by potential end users. Design recommendations and content recommendations were elicited. Goal-Directed Design informed the development of a mobile CDSS supporting participant-identified information needs for UTI assessment and communication

  11. The allocation of attention to learning of goal-directed actions: A cognitive neuroscience framework focusing on the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz eFranz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary brain functions have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called ‘split-brain’ (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres with a key focus on bimanual actions. The proposed multilevel cognitive-neural system of attention is built upon key processes of a highly-adaptive basal-ganglia-thalamic-cortical system. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged where appropriate, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains.

  12. Response of the Pre-oriented Goal-directed Attention to Usual and Unusual Distractors: A Preliminary Study

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    Golnaz Baghdadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, we investigated the distraction power of the unusual and usual images on the attention of 20 healthy primary school children. Methods: Our study was different from previous ones in that the participants were asked to fix the initial position of their attention on a pre-defined location after being presented with unusual images as distractors. The goals were presented in locations, which were far from the attraction basin of distractors. Our expectation was that the pre-orienting of the attention to the position of targets can reduce the attractive effect of unusual images compared to the usual ones. The percentage of correct responses and the reaction time have been measured as behavioral indicators of attention performance. Results: Results showed that using the goal-directed attention, subjects ignored both kinds of distractors nearly the same way. Conclusion: With regard to previous reports about the more attraction towards the unusual images, it is suggested that the dynamics of the visual attention system be sensitive to the initial condition. That is, changing the initial position of the attention can lead to the decrement of the unusual images’ effects. However, several other possibilities such as a probable delay in processing unusual features could explain this observation, too. 

  13. On the relationship between feelings and action tendencies in the emotional regulation of goal-directed behaviour

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    Robert eLowe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion research, over the past century and beyond, has tended to view feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: Attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling-action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic-visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions, updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is likely to do in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction-feedback loops (ATPFL which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotion regulation of goal-directed behaviour. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modellers and roboticists.

  14. Simulating real world functioning in schizophrenia using a naturalistic city environment and single-trial, goal-directed navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Zawadzki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a virtual reality platform that would serve as a functionally meaningful measure of cognition in schizophrenia that would complement standard batteries of cognitive tests during clinical trials for cognitive treatments in schizophrenia, be amenable to human neuroimaging research, yet lend itself to neurobiological comparison with rodent analogues.Method: Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls matched for age, sex, video gaming experience and education completed eight rapid, single-trial virtual navigation tasks within a naturalistic virtual city. Four trials tested their ability to find different targets seen during the passive viewing of a closed path that led them around different city blocks. Four subsequent trials tested their ability to return to four different starting points after viewing a path that took them several blocks away from the starting position. Results: Individuals with schizophrenia had difficulties in way-finding, measured as distance travelled to find targets previously encountered within the virtual city. They were also more likely not to notice the target during passive viewing, less likely to find novel shortcuts to targets and more likely to become lost and fail completely in finding the target. Total travel distances across all eight trials strongly correlated (negatively with neurocognitive measures and, for 49 participants who completed the Quality of Life Scale, psychosocial functioning. Conclusion: Single-trial, goal-directed navigation in a naturalistic virtual environment is a functionally meaningful measure of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

  15. Effects of Botulinum Toxin-A and Goal-Directed Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy GMFCS Levels I & II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwing, Kristina; Thews, Karin; Haglund-Åkerlind, Yvonne; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate short and long-term effects of botulinum toxin-A combined with goal-directed physiotherapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A consecutive selection of 40 children, ages 4-12 years, diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral CP, and classified in GMFCS levels I-II. During the 24 months, 9 children received one BoNT-A injection, 10 children two injections, 11 children three injections, and 10 children received four injections. 3D gait analysis, goal-attainment scaling, and body function assessments were performed before and at 3, 12, and 24 months after initial injections. A significant but clinically small long-term improvement in gait was observed. Plantarflexor spasticity was reduced after three months and remained stable, while passive ankle dorsiflexion increased after 3 months but decreased slightly after 12 months. Goal-attainment gradually increased, reached the highest levels at 12 months, and levels were maintained at 24 months. The treatments' positive effect on spasticity reduction was identified, but did not relate to improvement in gait or goal-attainment. No long-term positive change in passive ankle dorsiflexion was observed. Goal attainment was achieved in all except four children. The clinical significance of the improved gait is unclear. Further studies are recommended to identify predictors for positive treatment outcome.

  16. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task

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    Péter Kincses

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n=48 and healthy controls (n=52 were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC. Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics.

  17. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincses, Péter; Karádi, Kázmér; Feldmann, Ádám; Dorn, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Csathó, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC). Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics. PMID:28293444

  18. fMRI activities in the emotional cerebellum: a preference for negative stimuli and goal-directed behavior.

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    Schraa-Tam, Caroline K L; Rietdijk, Willem J R; Verbeke, Willem J M I; Dietvorst, Roeland C; van den Berg, Wouter E; Bagozzi, Richard P; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2012-03-01

    Several studies indicate that the cerebellum might play a role in experiencing and/or controlling emphatic emotions, but it remains to be determined whether there is a distinction between positive and negative emotions, and, if so, which specific parts of the cerebellum are involved in these types of emotions. Here, we visualized activations of the cerebellum and extracerebellar regions using high-field fMRI, while we asked participants to observe and imitate images with pictures of human faces expressing different emotional states or with moving geometric shapes as control. The state of the emotions could be positive (happiness and surprise), negative (anger and disgust), or neutral. The positive emotional faces only evoked mild activations of crus 2 in the cerebellum, whereas the negative emotional faces evoked prominent activations in lobules VI and VIIa in its hemispheres and lobules VIII and IX in the vermis. The cerebellar activations associated with negative emotions occurred concomitantly with activations of mirror neuron domains such as the insula and amygdala. These data suggest that the potential role of the cerebellum in control of emotions may be particularly relevant for goal-directed behavior that is required for observing and reacting to another person's (negative) expressions.

  19. Bonsai trees in your head: how the pavlovian system sculpts goal-directed choices by pruning decision trees.

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    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders.

  20. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards.

  1. Fast Track Open Partial Nephrectomy: Reduced Postoperative Length of Stay with a Goal-Directed Pathway Does Not Compromise Outcome

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    Bilal Chughtai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of reducing postoperative hospital stay following open partial nephrectomy through the implementation of a goal directed clinical management pathway. Materials and Methods. A fast track clinical pathway for open partial nephrectomy was introduced in July 2006 at our institution. The pathway has daily goals and targets discharge for all patients on the 3rd postoperative day (POD. Defined goals are (1 ambulation and liquid diet on the evening of the operative day; (2 out of bed (OOB at least 4 times on POD 1; (3 removal of Foley catheter on the morning of POD 2; (4 removal of Jackson Pratt drain on the afternoon of POD 2; (4 discharge to home on POD 3. Patients and family are instructed in the fast track protocol preoperatively. Demographic data, tumor size, length of stay, and complications were captured in a prospective database, and compared to a control group managed consecutively immediately preceding the institution of the fast track clinical pathway. Results. Data on 33 consecutive patients managed on the fast track clinical pathway was compared to that of 25 control patients. Twenty two (61% out of 36 fast track patients and 4 (16% out of 25 control patients achieved discharge on POD 3. Overall, fast track patients had a shorter hospital stay than controls (median, 3 versus 4 days; P = .012. Age (median, 55 versus 57 years, tumor size (median, 2.5 versus 2.5 cm, readmission within 30 days (5.5% versus 5.1%, and complications (10.2% versus 13.8% were similar in the fast track patients and control, respectively. Conclusions. In the present series, a fast track clinical pathway after open partial nephrectomy reduced the postoperative length of hospital stay and did not appear to increase the postoperative complication rate.

  2. Goal-directed control with cortical units that are gated by both top-down feedback and oscillatory coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Robert R.; Grayden, David B.; Thomas, Doreen A.; Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is able to flexibly select behaviors that adapt to both its environment and its present goals. This cognitive control is understood to occur within the hierarchy of the cortex and relies strongly on the prefrontal and premotor cortices, which sit at the top of this hierarchy. Pyramidal neurons, the principal neurons in the cortex, have been observed to exhibit much stronger responses when they receive inputs at their soma/basal dendrites that are coincident with inputs at their apical dendrites. This corresponds to inputs from both lower-order regions (feedforward) and higher-order regions (feedback), respectively. In addition to this, coherence between oscillations, such as gamma oscillations, in different neuronal groups has been proposed to modulate and route communication in the brain. In this paper, we develop a simple, but novel, neural mass model in which cortical units (or ensembles) exhibit gamma oscillations when they receive coherent oscillatory inputs from both feedforward and feedback connections. By forming these units into circuits that can perform logic operations, we identify the different ways in which operations can be initiated and manipulated by top-down feedback. We demonstrate that more sophisticated and flexible top-down control is possible when the gain of units is modulated by not only top-down feedback but by coherence between the activities of the oscillating units. With these types of units, it is possible to not only add units to, or remove units from, a higher-level unit's logic operation using top-down feedback, but also to modify the type of role that a unit plays in the operation. Finally, we explore how different network properties affect top-down control and processing in large networks. Based on this, we make predictions about the likely connectivities between certain brain regions that have been experimentally observed to be involved in goal-directed behavior and top-down attention. PMID:25152715

  3. Goal-directed control with cortical units that are gated by both top-down feedback and oscillatory coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Kerr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The brain is able to flexibly select behaviors that adapt to both its environment and its present goals. This cognitive control is understood to occur within the hierarchy of the cortex and relies strongly on the prefrontal and premotor cortices, which sit at the top of this hierarchy. Pyramidal neurons, the principal neurons in the cortex, have been observed to exhibit much stronger responses when they receive inputs at their soma/basal dendrites that are coincident with inputs at their apical dendrites. This corresponds to inputs from both lower-order regions (feedforward and higher-order regions (feedback, respectively. In addition to this, coherence between oscillations, such as gamma oscillations, in different neuronal groups has been proposed to modulate and route communication in the brain. In this paper, we develop a simple, but novel, neural mass model in which cortical units (or ensembles exhibit gamma oscillations when they receive coherent oscillatory inputs from both feedforward and feedback connections. By forming these units into circuits that can perform logic operations, we identify the different ways in which operations can be initiated and manipulated by top-down feedback. We demonstrate that more sophisticated and flexible top-down control is possible when the gain of units is modulated by not only top-down feedback but by coherence between the activities of the oscillating units. With these types of units, it is possible to not only add units to, or remove units from, a higher-level unit's logic operation using top-down feedback, but also to modify the type of role that a unit plays in the operation. Finally, we explore how different network properties affect top-down control and processing in large networks. Based on this, we make predictions about the likely connectivities between certain brain regions that have been experimentally observed to be involved in goal-directed behavior and top-down attention.

  4. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user’s loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards. PMID:27907134

  5. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rosell-Negre

    Full Text Available The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC, underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5. Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1 performance facilitation in both groups; (2 left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3 left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4 dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards.

  6. Evaluation of financial burden following complications after major surgery in France: Potential return after perioperative goal-directed therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, Alain; Morel, Morgane; Goldstein, Jacques; Loriau, Jerôme; Fresnel, Annie; Chevalier, Corinne; Rejasse, Gilles; Alfonsi, Pascal; Ecoffey, Claude

    2017-06-01

    Perioperative goal-directed therapy (PGDT) has been demonstrated to improve postoperative outcomes and reduce the length of hospital stays. The objective of our analysis was to evaluate the cost of complications, derived from French hospital payments, and calculate the potential cost savings and length of hospital stay reductions. The billing of 2388 patients who underwent scheduled high-risk surgery (i.e. major abdominal, gynaecologic, urological, vascular, and orthopaedic interventions) over three years was retrospectively collected from three French hospitals (one public-teaching, one public, and one private hospital). A relationship between mortality, length of hospital stays, cost/patient, and severity scores, based mainly on postoperative complications but also on preoperative clinical status, were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests or Wilcoxon tests. Our analyses determined that a severity score of 3 or 4 was associated with complications in 90% of cases and this represented 36% of patients who, compared with those with a score of 1 or 2, were associated with significantly increased costs (€ 8205±3335 to € 22,081±16,090; Prisk surgeries per year), the potential financial savings ranged from € 40M to € 68M, not including the costs of PGDT and its implementation. Our analysis demonstrates that patients with complications are significantly more expensive to care for than those without complications. In our model, it was projected that implementing PGDT during high-risk surgery may significantly reduce healthcare costs and the length of hospital stays in France while probably improving patient access to care and reducing waiting times for procedures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Dynamics of rapid dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine versus natural rewards.

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    Cameron, Courtney M; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies show that distinct subsets of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons differentially encode information about goal-directed behaviors for intravenous cocaine versus natural (food/water) rewards. Further, NAc rapid dopamine signaling occurs on a timescale similar to phasic cell firing during cocaine and natural reward-seeking behaviors. However, it is not known whether dopamine signaling is reinforcer specific (i.e., is released during responding for only one type of reinforcer) within discrete NAc locations, similar to neural firing dynamics. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure rapid dopamine release during multiple schedules involving sucrose reward and cocaine self-administration (n = 8 rats) and, in a separate group of rats (n = 6), during a sucrose/food multiple schedule. During the sucrose/cocaine multiple schedule, dopamine increased within seconds of operant responding for both reinforcers. Although dopamine release was not reinforcer specific, more subtle differences were observed in peak dopamine concentration [DA] across reinforcer conditions. Specifically, peak [DA] was higher during the first phase of the multiple schedule, regardless of reinforcer type. Further, the time to reach peak [DA] was delayed during cocaine-responding compared to sucrose. During the sucrose/food multiple schedule, increases in dopamine release were also observed relative to operant responding for both natural rewards. However, peak [DA] was higher relative to responding for sucrose than food, regardless of reinforcer order. Overall, the results reveal the dynamics of rapid dopamine signaling in discrete locations in the NAc across reward conditions, and provide novel insight into the functional role of this system in reward-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Of goals and habits: Age-related and individual differences in goal-directed decision-making

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    Ben eEppinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated age-related and individual differences in habitual (model-free and goal-directed (model-based decision-making. Specifically, we were interested in three questions. First, does age affect the balance between model-based and model-free decision mechanisms? Second, are these age-related changes due to age differences in working memory (WM capacity? Third, can model-based behavior be affected by manipulating the distinctiveness of the reward value of choice options? To answer these questions we used a two-stage Markov decision task in in combination with computational modeling to dissociate model-based and model-free decision mechanisms. To affect model-based behavior in this task we manipulated the distinctiveness of reward probabilities of choice options. The results show age-related deficits in model-based decision-making, which are particularly pronounced if unexpected reward indicates the need for a shift in decision strategy. In this situation younger adults explore the task structure, whereas older adults show perseverative behavior. Consistent with previous findings, these results indicate that older adults have deficits in the representation and updating of expected reward value. We also observed substantial individual differences in model-based behavior. In younger adults high WM capacity is associated with greater model-based behavior and this effect is further elevated when reward probabilities are more distinct. However, in older adults we found no effect of WM capacity. Moreover, age differences in model-based behavior remained statistically significant, even after controlling for WM capacity. Thus, factors other than decline in WM, such as deficits in the in the integration of expected reward value into strategic decisions may contribute to the observed impairments in model-based behavior in older adults.

  9. Dynamic muscle O2 saturation response is impaired during major non-cardiac surgery despite goal-directed haemodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldheiser, A; Hunsicker, O; Kaufner, L; Köhler, J; Sieglitz, H; Casans Francés, R; Wernecke, K-D; Sehouli, J; Spies, C

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with a vascular occlusion test (VOT) could indicate an impairment of microvascular reactivity (MVR) in septic patients by detecting changes in dynamic variables of muscle O2 saturation (StO2). However, in the perioperative context the consequences of surgical trauma on dynamic variables of muscle StO2 as indicators of MVR are still unknown. This study is a sub-analysis of a randomised controlled trial in patients with metastatic primary ovarian cancer undergoing debulking surgery, during which a goal-directed haemodynamic algorithm was applied using oesophageal Doppler. During a 3 min VOT, near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess dynamic variables arising from changes in muscle StO2. At the beginning of surgery, values of desaturation and recovery slope were comparable to values obtained in healthy volunteers. During the course of surgery, both desaturation and recovery slope showed a gradual decrease. Concomitantly, the study population underwent a transition to a surgically induced systemic inflammatory response state shown by a gradual increase in norepinephrine administration, heart rate, and Interleukin-6, with a peak immediately after the end of surgery. Higher rates of norepinephrine and a higher heart rate were related to a faster decline in StO2 during vascular occlusion. Using near-infrared spectroscopy combined with a VOT during surgery showed a gradual deterioration of MVR in patients treated with optimal haemodynamic care. The deterioration of MVR was accompanied by the transition to a surgically induced systemic inflammatory response state. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Based on Stroke Volume Variation in Patients Undergoing Major Spine Surgery in the Prone Position: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchin, Maria Renata; Ceria, Chiara Marta; Giannone, Sandra; Ghisi, Daniela; Stagni, Gaetano; Greggi, Tiziana; Bonarelli, Stefano

    2016-09-15

    A retrospective observational study. The aim of this study was to test whether a goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) protocol, based on stroke volume variation (SVV), applied in major spine surgery performed in the prone position, would be effective in reducing peri-operative red blood cells transfusions. Recent literature shows that optimizing perioperative fluid therapy is associated with lower complication rates and faster recovery. Data from 23 patients who underwent posterior spine arthrodesis surgery and whose intraoperative fluid administration were managed with the GDFT protocol were retrospectively collected and compared with data from 23 matched controls who underwent the same surgical procedure in the same timeframe, and who received a liberal intraoperative fluid therapy. Patients in the GDFT group received less units of transfused red blood cells (primary endpoint) in the intra (0 vs. 2.0, P = 0.0 4) and postoperative period (2.0 vs. 4.0, P = 0.003). They also received a lower amount of intraoperative crystalloids, had fewer blood losses, and lower intraoperative peak lactate. In the postoperative period, patients in the GDFT group had fewer pulmonary complications and blood losses from surgical drains, needed less blood product transfusions, had a shorter intensive care unit stay, and a faster return of bowel function. We found no difference in the total length of stay among the two groups. Our study shows that application of a GDFT based on SVV in major spine surgery is feasible and can lead to reduced blood losses and transfusions, better postoperative respiratory performance, shorter ICU stay, and faster return of bowel function. 3.

  11. Value of information: interim analysis of a randomized, controlled trial of goal-directed hemodynamic treatment for aged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, Erzsebet; Davidson, Thomas; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Carlsson, Per; Kalman, Sigridur

    2013-07-09

    A randomized, controlled trial, intended to include 460 patients, is currently studying peroperative goal-directed hemodynamic treatment (GDHT) of aged hip-fracture patients. Interim efficacy analysis performed on the first 100 patients was statistically uncertain; thus, the trial is continuing in accordance with the trial protocol. This raised the present investigation's main question: Is it reasonable to continue to fund the trial to decrease uncertainty? To answer this question, a previously developed probabilistic cost-effectiveness model was used. That model depicts (1) a choice between routine fluid treatment and GDHT, given uncertainty of current evidence and (2) the monetary value of further data collection to decrease uncertainty. This monetary value, that is, the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), could be used to compare future research costs. Thus, the primary aim of the present investigation was to analyze EVPI of an ongoing trial with interim efficacy observed. A previously developed probabilistic decision analytic cost-effectiveness model was employed to compare the routine fluid treatment to GDHT. Results from the interim analysis, published trials, the meta-analysis, and the registry data were used as model inputs. EVPI was predicted using (1) combined uncertainty of model inputs; (2) threshold value of society's willingness to pay for one, quality-adjusted life-year; and (3) estimated number of future patients exposed to choice between GDHT and routine fluid treatment during the expected lifetime of GDHT. If a decision to use GDHT were based on cost-effectiveness, then the decision would have a substantial degree of uncertainty. Assuming a 5-year lifetime of GDHT in clinical practice, the number of patients who would be subject to future decisions was 30,400. EVPI per patient would be €204 at a €20,000 threshold value of society's willingness to pay for one quality-adjusted life-year. Given a future population of 30,400 individuals

  12. The influence of goal-directed fluid therapy on the prognosis of elderly patients with hypertension and gastric cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zeng,* Yanzhen Li,* Min Liang, Youguang Gao, Hongda Cai, Caizhu LinDepartment of Anesthesia, the First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: We aimed to investigate the influence of perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT on the prognosis of elderly patients with gastric cancer and hypertension. Methods: Sixty elderly patients (>60 years old with primary hypertension who received gastric cancer radical surgery and who were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II or III were enrolled in the current study. Selected patients were divided randomly into two arms, comprising a conventional intraoperative fluid management arm (arm C, n=30 and a GDFT arm (arm G, n=30. Patients in arm C were infused with crystalloids or colloids according to the methods of Miller’s Anesthesia (6th edition, while those in arm G were infused with 200 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 15 minutes under the FloTrac/Vigileo monitoring system, with stroke volume variation between 8% and 13%. Hemodynamics and tissue perfusion laboratory indicators in patients were recorded continuously from 30 minutes before the operation to 24 hours after the operation. Results: Compared with arm C, the average intraoperative intravenous infusion quantity in arm G was significantly reduced (2,732±488 mL versus 3,135±346 mL, P<0.05, whereas average colloid fluid volume was significantly increased (1,235±360 mL versus 760±280 mL, P<0.05. In addition, there were more patients exhibiting intraoperatively and postoperatively stable hemodynamics and less patients with low blood pressure in arm G. Postoperative complications were less frequent, and the time of postoperative hospital stay shorter, in arm G. No significant differences were observed in mortality between the two arms.Conclusion: Our research showed that GDFT stabilized perioperative hemodynamics and reduced the

  13. The Neuro-Mechanical Processes That Underlie Goal-Directed Medio-Lateral APA during Gait Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Crisafulli, Oscar; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA. We hypothesized that controlled knee flexion of the stance leg contributes to the initial ML displacement of the CoP and to the calibration of the first step. Fourteen subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths of 15 cm (Small), 30 cm (Medium), and 45 cm (Large). Optoelectronic, force platform and electromyogram (EMG) measurements were performed. During APA, soleus activity diminished bilaterally, while tibialis anterior (TA) activity increased, more so in the stance leg than in the swing leg, and to a larger extent with increasing initial stance width. Knee flexion of the stance leg was observed during APA and correlated with the ML CoP displacement towards the swing leg. ML CoP and CoM displacements during APA increased with increasing stance width. The activity of stance-leg TA was correlated with the degree of knee flexion. Swing-leg tensor fasciae latae (TFL) was also active during APA. Across subjects, when stance-leg tibialis activity was low, TFL activity was large and vice versa. The modulation of the ML CoP position during APA allowed the gravity-driven torque to place the CoM just lateral to the stance foot during step execution. Accordingly, the gravity-driven torque, the ML CoM velocity during step execution, and the step width at foot contact (FC) were lower in the Small and greater in the Large condition. Consequently, the position of the stepping foot at FC remained close to the sagittal plane in all

  14. Slips of action and sequential decisions: a cross-validation study of tasks assessing habitual and goal-directed action control

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    Zsuzsika Sjoerds

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g. overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based and model-free learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. Model-based control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas model-free control did not. Interestingly, parameter estimates of model-based and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g. visual short-term memory. These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly mediate the association between model-based control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and model-based system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the model-free and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural

  15. Dissociable corticostriatal circuits underlie goal-directed vs. cue-elicited habitual food seeking after satiation : Evidence from a multimodal MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steenbergen, H.; Watson, P.; Wiers, R.W.; Hommel, B.; de Wit, S.

    The present multimodal MRI study advances our understanding of the corticostriatal circuits underlying goal-directed vs. cue-driven, habitual food seeking. To this end, we employed a computerized Pavlovian-instrumental transfer paradigm. During the test phase, participants were free to perform

  16. Pharmacological Blockade of Adenosine A2A but Not A1 Receptors Enhances Goal-Directed Valuation in Satiety-Based Instrumental Behavior

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    Yan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The balance and smooth shift between flexible, goal-directed behaviors and repetitive, habitual actions are critical to optimal performance of behavioral tasks. The striatum plays an essential role in control of goal-directed versus habitual behaviors through a rich interplay of the numerous neurotransmitters and neuromodulators to modify the input, processing and output functions of the striatum. The adenosine receptors (namely A2AR and A1R, with their high expression pattern in the striatum and abilities to interact and integrate dopamine, glutamate and cannabinoid signals in the striatum, may represent novel therapeutic targets for modulating instrumental behavior. In this study, we examined the effects of pharmacological blockade of the A2ARs and A1Rs on goal-directed versus habitual behaviors in different information processing phases of instrumental learning using a satiety-based instrumental behavior procedure. We found that A2AR antagonist acts at the coding, consolidation and expression phases of instrumental learning to modulate animals’ sensitivity to goal-directed valuation without modifying action-outcome contingency. However, pharmacological blockade and genetic knockout of A1Rs did not affect acquisition or sensitivity to goal-valuation of instrumental behavior. These findings provide pharmacological evidence for a potential therapeutic strategy to control abnormal instrumental behaviors associated with drug addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder by targeting the A2AR.

  17. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  18. Intact goal-directed control in treatment-seeking drug users indexed by outcome-devaluation and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer: Critique of habit theory.

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    Hogarth, Lee; Lam-Cassettari, Christa; Pacitti, Helena; Currah, Tara; Mahlberg, Justin; Hartley, Lucie; Moustafa, Ahmed

    2018-05-22

    Animal studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse impairs goal-directed control over action selection indexed by the outcome-devaluation and specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer procedures, suggesting this impairment might underpin addiction. However, there is currently only weak evidence for impaired goal-directed control in human drug users. Two experiments were undertaken in which treatment-seeking drug users and non-matched normative reference samples (controls) completed outcome-devaluation and specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer procedures notionally translatable to animal procedures (Experiment 2 used a more challenging biconditional schedule). The two experiments found significant outcome-devaluation and specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer effects overall and there was no significant difference between groups in the magnitude of these effects. Moreover, Bayes factor supported the null hypothesis for these group comparisons. Although limited by non-matched group comparisons and small sample sizes, the two studies suggest that treatment-seeking drug users have intact goal-directed control over action selection, adding uncertainty to already mixed evidence concerning the role of habit learning in human drug dependence. Neuro-interventions might seek to tackle goal-directed drug-seeking rather than habit formation in drug users. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Goal-directed fluid optimization based on stroke volume variation and cardiac index during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracoscopy lobectomy operations: a pilot study

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    Jian Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This pilot study was designed to utilize stroke volume variation and cardiac index to ensure fluid optimization during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomies. METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy were randomized into either a goal-directed therapy group or a control group. In the goal-directed therapy group, the stroke volume variation was controlled at 10%±1%, and the cardiac index was controlled at a minimum of 2.5 L.min-1.m-2. In the control group, the MAP was maintained at between 65 mm Hg and 90 mm Hg, heart rate was maintained at between 60 BPM and 100 BPM, and urinary output was greater than 0.5 mL/kg-1/h-1. The hemodynamic variables, arterial blood gas analyses, total administered fluid volume and side effects were recorded. RESULTS: The PaO2/FiO2-ratio before the end of one-lung ventilation in the goal-directed therapy group was significantly higher than that of the control group, but there were no differences between the goal-directed therapy group and the control group for the PaO2/FiO2-ratio or other arterial blood gas analysis indices prior to anesthesia. The extubation time was significantly earlier in the goal-directed therapy group, but there was no difference in the length of hospital stay. Patients in the control group had greater urine volumes, and they were given greater colloid and overall fluid volumes. Nausea and vomiting were significantly reduced in the goal-directed therapy group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that an optimization protocol, based on stroke volume variation and cardiac index obtained with a FloTrac/Vigileo device, increased the PaO2/FiO2-ratio and reduced the overall fluid volume, intubation time and postoperative complications (nausea and vomiting in thoracic surgery patients requiring one-lung ventilation.

  20. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control.

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    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms.

  1. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

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    Andy M Kazama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13 yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and a lack in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 years and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not, or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e. areas 14/25. Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear followed both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama & Bachevalier, 2013, the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  2. Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: “A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study”

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    Poonam Malhotra Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed therapy (GDT encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5–4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30–65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500–2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450–600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation 30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025, hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0.75 days, P = 0.012 was significantly less in the GDT group, compared to the control group. The extra volume added and the number of inotropic dose adjustments were

  3. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  4. Inter-individual differences in decision-making, flexible and goal-directed behaviors: novel insights within the prefronto-striatal networks.

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    Fitoussi, Aurélie; Renault, Prisca; Le Moine, Catherine; Coutureau, Etienne; Cador, Martine; Dellu-Hagedorn, Françoise

    2018-03-01

    Inflexible behavior is a hallmark of several decision-making-related disorders such as ADHD and addiction. As in humans, a subset of healthy rats makes poor decisions and prefers immediate larger rewards despite suffering large losses in a rat gambling task (RGT). They also display a combination of traits reminiscent of addiction, notably inflexible behavior and perseverative responses. The goal of the present work was twofold: (1) to elucidate if behavioral inflexibility of poor decision-makers could be related to a lower quality of goal-directed behavior (action-outcome associations); (2) to uncover the neural basis of inter-individual differences in goal-directed behavior. We specifically assessed inter-individual differences in decision-making in the RGT, flexibility in the RGT-reversed version and goal-directed behavior in a contingency degradation test, i.e., response adaptation when dissociating reward delivery from the animal's action. The contributions of the medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum to action-outcome associations were assessed using Zif268 immunodetection. Inflexible behavior was related to a lower sensitivity to contingency degradation in all poor decision-makers and only in a few good decision-makers. This poorer sensitivity was associated with a lower immunoreactivity in prelimbic and infralimbic cortices and a higher one in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum. These findings suggest that an imbalanced prefronto-striatal activity could underlie inaccurate goal representation in changing environments and may promote maladaptive habit formation among poor decision-makers. These data strengthen our previous work identifying biomarkers of vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders and demonstrate the relevance of inter-individual differences to model maladaptive behaviors.

  5. Counterfactual processing of economic action-outcome alternatives in obsessive-compulsive disorder: further evidence of impaired goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-04-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors affecting osteoarthritis patients' self-reported goal-directed drug information-seeking behaviors after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising from physicians and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Farris, Karen B; Doucette, William R

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate appraisal of means (ie, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and affect) in predicting patients' goal-directed behaviors of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA)-prompted drug-information search from physicians and the internet. One thousand patients were randomly selected from a nationwide sample frame of 3000 osteoarthritis patients. A self-administered survey assessed exposure to DTCA, drug-information search as goal, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain. After 6 weeks, another survey measured the behavior of drug-information search for respondents to the first survey. Study subjects were those who were exposed to DTCA in the previous month, and who set drug-information search as their goal. For each information source, a multiple regression analysis was conducted in which drug-information search was the dependent variable, and self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain were the independent variables. Among 454 patients who were exposed to DTCA, 174 patients set drug-information search as their goal and were the study subjects. The regression for physicians was not statistically significant. The regression for the internet was significant, accounting for 15% of behavior variance. Self-efficacy was a strong predictor of goal-directed drug-information search from the internet. Appraisal of means was useful to predict the goal-directed behavior of DTCA-prompted drug-information search from the internet. For patients who set drug-information search as a goal, actions to promote drug-information search from the internet need to focus on self-efficacy.

  7. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and albuminuria as predictors of acute kidney injury in patients treated with goal-directed haemodynamic therapy after major abdominal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Mr

    2013-10-11

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is emerging as a new biomarker for the early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI). There is also increasing evidence of an association between urinary albumin\\/creatinine ratio (ACR) and AKI. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of these biomarkers to predict AKI in a population of perioperative patients treated with goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDHT). Secondary aims were to examine NGAL and ACR as sensitive biomarkers to detect the effects of GDHT and to investigate the association of these biomarkers with secondary outcomes.

  8. Processing and Integration of Contextual Information in Monkey Ventrolateral Prefrontal Neurons during Selection and Execution of Goal-Directed Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Stefania; Giorgetti, Valentina; Bonini, Luca; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-08-26

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deemed to underlie the complexity, flexibility, and goal-directedness of primates' behavior. Most neurophysiological studies performed so far investigated PFC functions with arm-reaching or oculomotor tasks, thus leaving unclear whether, and to which extent, PFC neurons also play a role in goal-directed manipulative actions, such as those commonly used by primates during most of their daily activities. Here we trained two macaques to perform or withhold grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions, depending on the combination of two subsequently presented cues: an auditory go/no-go cue (high/low tone) and a visually presented target (food/object). By varying the order of presentation of the two cues, we could segment and independently evaluate the processing and integration of contextual information allowing the monkey to make a decision on whether or not to act, and what action to perform. We recorded 403 task-related neurons from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC): unimodal sensory-driven (37%), motor-related (21%), unimodal sensory-and-motor (23%), and multisensory (19%) neurons. Target and go/no-go selectivity characterized most of the recorded neurons, particularly those endowed with motor-related discharge. Interestingly, multisensory neurons appeared to encode a behavioral decision independently from the sensory modality of the stimulus allowing the monkey to make it: some of them reflected the decision to act or refraining from acting (56%), whereas others (44%) encoded the decision to perform (or withhold) a specific action (e.g., grasp-to-eat). Our findings indicate that VLPFC neurons play a role in the processing of contextual information underlying motor decision during goal-directed manipulative actions. We demonstrated that macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) neurons show remarkable selectivity for different aspects of the contextual information allowing the monkey to select and execute goal-directed

  9. A possible utilization of the mice forced swim test for modeling manic-like increase in vigor and goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit; Einat, Haim

    2009-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD) is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of new drug treatments. In line with the notion that BPD might represent a heterogeneous group of disorders, it was suggested that models for specific domains of BPD should be developed. The present study tested the possible utilization of the forced swim test (FST) as a model for the heightened vigor and goal-directed behavior domain of mania, using mice with low baseline immobility. Black Swiss mice were previously identified to have low immobility in the FST but similar spontaneous activity levels compared with several other mice strains. Thus, spontaneous activity and behavior in the FST were evaluated following treatment with the mood stabilizer valproate and the antidepressant imipramine. The results indicated that valproate increased immobility in the FST without affecting spontaneous activity whereas imipramine had no effect in the FST but increased spontaneous activity. These findings suggest that in mice with low baseline immobility scores, the FST might be a useful model for the elevated vigor and goal-directed behavior domain of mania. As such, this test might be well integrated into a battery of models for different domains of BPD.

  10. Neuromodulatory Adaptive Combination of Correlation-based Learning in Cerebellum and Reward-based Learning in Basal Ganglia for Goal-directed Behavior Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational...... and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role...... in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We...

  11. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive loading affects motor awareness and movement kinematics but not locomotor trajectories during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Alan Kannape

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants. We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations. Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.

  13. Cognitive loading affects motor awareness and movement kinematics but not locomotor trajectories during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannape, Oliver Alan; Barré, Arnaud; Aminian, Kamiar; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants). We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles) and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations). Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.

  14. Goal directed fluid therapy decreases postoperative morbidity but not mortality in major non-cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Anirban; Maitra, Souvik; Bhattacharjee, Sulagna; Baidya, Dalim K

    2017-02-01

    Optimum perioperative fluid administration may improve postoperative outcome after major surgery. This meta-analysis and systematic review has been aimed to determine the effect of dynamic goal directed fluid therapy (GDFT) on postoperative morbidity and mortality in non-cardiac surgical patients. Meta-analysis of published prospective randomized controlled trials where GDFT based on non-invasive flow based hemodynamic measurement has been compared with a standard care. Data from 41 prospective randomized trials have been included in this study. Use of GDFT in major surgical patients does not decrease postoperative hospital/30-day mortality (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.46-1.08, p = 0.11) length of post-operative hospital stay (SMD -0.14; 95 % CI -0.28, 0.00; p = 0.05) and length of ICU stay (SMD -0.12; 95 % CI -0.28, 0.04; p = 0.14). However, number of patients having at least one postoperative complication is significantly lower with use of GDFT (OR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.43, 0.75; p infection (p = 0.002) and postoperative hypotension (p = 0.04) are also decreased with used of GDFT as opposed to a standard care. Though patients who received GDFT were infused more colloid (p infection, abdominal complications and postoperative hypotension is reduced.

  15. External incentives and internal states guide goal-directed behavior via the differential recruitment of the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscarello, J M; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2010-10-13

    Goal-directed behavior is governed by internal physiological states and external incentives present in the environment (e.g. hunger and food). While the role of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system in behavior guided by environmental incentives has been well studied, the effect of relevant physiological states on the function of this system is less understood. The current study examined the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the kind of food-reinforced behaviors known to be sensitive to the internal state produced by food deprivation conditions. Operant lever-press reinforced on fixed ratio 1 (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules was tested after temporary inactivation of, or DA receptor blockade in, the prelimbic mPFC or NAcc core of rats with differing levels of food deprivation (0, 12 and 36-h). Food deprivation increased PR breakpoints, as well as the number of lever-presses emitted on the FR1 schedule. Both temporary inactivation and DA blockade of NAcc reduced breakpoints across deprivation conditions, while temporary inactivation and DA blockade of mPFC reduced breakpoints only in food-deprived rats. Neither manipulation of mPFC and NAcc had any effect on behavior reinforced on the FR1 schedule. Thus, mPFC and NAcc were differentially relevant to the behaviors tested-NAcc was recruited when the behavioral cost per reinforcer was rising or high regardless of food deprivation conditions, while mPFC was recruited when food-deprived animals behaved through periods of sparse reinforcement density in order to maximize available gain. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of early goal-directed therapy for septic shock: the ARISE, ProCESS and ProMISe Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, D C; Barnato, A E; Bell, D; Bellomo, R; Chong, C-R; Coats, T J; Davies, A; Delaney, A; Harrison, D A; Holdgate, A; Howe, B; Huang, D T; Iwashyna, T; Kellum, J A; Peake, S L; Pike, F; Reade, M C; Rowan, K M; Singer, M; Webb, S A R; Weissfeld, L A; Yealy, D M; Young, J D

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) reduces mortality compared with other resuscitation strategies for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with septic shock. Using a search strategy of PubMed, EmBase and CENTRAL, we selected all relevant randomised clinical trials published from January 2000 to January 2015. We translated non-English papers and contacted authors as necessary. Our primary analysis generated a pooled odds ratio (OR) from a fixed-effect model. Sensitivity analyses explored the effect of including non-ED studies, adjusting for study quality, and conducting a random-effects model. Secondary outcomes included organ support and hospital and ICU length of stay. From 2395 initially eligible abstracts, five randomised clinical trials (n = 4735 patients) met all criteria and generally scored high for quality except for lack of blinding. There was no effect on the primary mortality outcome (EGDT: 23.2% [495/2134] versus control: 22.4% [582/2601]; pooled OR 1.01 [95% CI 0.88-1.16], P = 0.9, with heterogeneity [I(2) = 57%; P = 0.055]). The pooled estimate of 90-day mortality from the three recent multicentre studies (n = 4063) also showed no difference [pooled OR 0.99 (95% CI 0.86-1.15), P = 0.93] with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0.0%; P = 0.97). EGDT increased vasopressor use (OR 1.25 [95% CI 1.10-1.41]; P < 0.001) and ICU admission [OR 2.19 (95% CI 1.82-2.65); P < 0.001]. Including six non-ED randomised trials increased heterogeneity (I(2) = 71%; P < 0.001) but did not change overall results [pooled OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.07); P = 0.33]. EGDT is not superior to usual care for ED patients with septic shock but is associated with increased utilisation of ICU resources.

  17. Protocolised Management In Sepsis (ProMISe): a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early, goal-directed, protocolised resuscitation for emerging septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouncey, Paul R; Osborn, Tiffany M; Power, G Sarah; Harrison, David A; Sadique, M Zia; Grieve, Richard D; Jahan, Rahi; Tan, Jermaine C K; Harvey, Sheila E; Bell, Derek; Bion, Julian F; Coats, Timothy J; Singer, Mervyn; Young, J Duncan; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2015-11-01

    Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) is recommended in international guidance for the resuscitation of patients presenting with early septic shock. However, adoption has been limited and uncertainty remains over its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The primary objective was to estimate the effect of EGDT compared with usual resuscitation on mortality at 90 days following randomisation and on incremental cost-effectiveness at 1 year. The secondary objectives were to compare EGDT with usual resuscitation for requirement for, and duration of, critical care unit organ support; length of stay in the emergency department (ED), critical care unit and acute hospital; health-related quality of life, resource use and costs at 90 days and at 1 year; all-cause mortality at 28 days, at acute hospital discharge and at 1 year; and estimated lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness. A pragmatic, open, multicentre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial with an integrated economic evaluation. Fifty-six NHS hospitals in England. A total of 1260 patients who presented at EDs with septic shock. EGDT (n = 630) or usual resuscitation (n = 630). Patients were randomly allocated 1 : 1. All-cause mortality at 90 days after randomisation and incremental net benefit (at £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year) at 1 year. Following withdrawals, data on 1243 (EGDT, n = 623; usual resuscitation, n = 620) patients were included in the analysis. By 90 days, 184 (29.5%) in the EGDT and 181 (29.2%) patients in the usual-resuscitation group had died [p = 0.90; absolute risk reduction -0.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.4 to 4.7; relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.20]. Treatment intensity was greater for the EGDT group, indicated by the increased use of intravenous fluids, vasoactive drugs and red blood cell transfusions. Increased treatment intensity was reflected by significantly higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and more advanced

  18. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT: A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Kent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual’s values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8% and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain.

  19. Comparison of cardiac output optimization with an automated closed-loop goal-directed fluid therapy versus non standardized manual fluid administration during elective abdominal surgery: first prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilot, Marc; Bellon, Amandine; Gueugnon, Marine; Laplace, Marie-Christine; Baffeleuf, Bruno; Hacquard, Pauline; Barthomeuf, Felicie; Parent, Camille; Tran, Thomas; Soubirou, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Philip; Bouvet, Lionel; Vassal, Olivia; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Piriou, Vincent

    2018-01-27

    An intraoperative automated closed-loop system for goal-directed fluid therapy has been successfully tested in silico, in vivo and in a clinical case-control matching. This trial compared intraoperative cardiac output (CO) in patients managed with this closed-loop system versus usual practice in an academic medical center. The closed-loop system was connected to a CO monitoring system and delivered automated colloid fluid boluses. Moderate to high-risk abdominal surgical patients were randomized either to the closed-loop or the manual group. Intraoperative final CO was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were intraoperative overall mean cardiac index (CI), increase from initial to final CI, intraoperative fluid volume and postoperative outcomes. From January 2014 to November 2015, 46 patients were randomized. There was a lower initial CI (2.06 vs. 2.51 l min -1 m -2 , p = 0.042) in the closed-loop compared to the control group. No difference in final CO and in overall mean intraoperative CI was observed between groups. A significant relative increase from initial to final CI values was observed in the closed-loop but not the control group (+ 28.6%, p = 0.006 vs. + 1.2%, p = 0.843). No difference was found for intraoperative fluid management and postoperative outcomes between groups. There was no significant impact on the primary study endpoint, but this was found in a context of unexpected lower initial CI in the closed-loop group.Trial registry number ID-RCB/EudraCT: 2013-A00770-45. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01950845, date of registration: 17 September 2013.

  20. Pacing and decision making in sport and exercise : The roles of perception and action in the regulation of exercise intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Benjamin L. M.; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    In pursuit of optimal performance, athletes and physical exercisers alike have to make decisions about how and when to invest their energy. The process of pacing has been associated with the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity across an exercise bout. The current review explores divergent

  1. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  2. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  3. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  4. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  5. Altered steering strategies for goal-directed locomotion in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals who have sustained a stroke can manifest altered locomotor steering behaviors when exposed to optic flows expanding from different locations. Whether these alterations persist in the presence of a visible goal and whether they can be explained by the presence of a perceptuo-motor disorder remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare stroke participants and healthy participants on their ability to control heading while exposed to changing optic flows and target locations. Methods Ten participants with stroke (55.6 ± 9.3 yrs) and ten healthy controls (57.0 ± 11.5 yrs) participated in a mouse-driven steering task (perceptuo-motor task) while seated and in a walking steering task. In the seated steering task, participants were instructed to head or ‘walk’ toward a target in the virtual environment by using a mouse while wearing a helmet-mounted display (HMD). In the walking task, participants performed a similar steering task in the same virtual environment while walking overground at their comfortable speed. For both experiments, the target and/or the focus of expansion (FOE) of the optic flow shifted to the side (±20°) or remained centered. The main outcome measure was net heading errors (NHE). Secondary outcomes included mediolateral displacement, horizontal head orientation, and onsets of heading and head reorientation. Results In the walking steering task, the presence of FOE shifts modulated the extent and timing of mediolateral displacement and head rotation changes, as well as NHE magnitudes. Participants overshot and undershot their net heading, respectively, in response to ipsilateral and contralateral FOE and target shifts. Stroke participants made larger NHEs, especially when the FOE was shifted towards the non-paretic side. In the seated steering task, similar NHEs were observed between stroke and healthy participants. Conclusions The findings highlight the fine coordination between rotational and translational steering mechanisms in presence of targets and FOE shifts. The altered performance of stroke participants in walking but not in the seated steering task suggests that an altered perceptuo-motor processing of optic flow is not a main contributing factor and that other stroke-related sensorimotor deficits are involved. PMID:23875969

  6. Goal-Directed Acupuncture in Sports—Placebo or Doping?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras I. Usichenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern pentathlon (MP, sports discipline including fencing, swimming, steeplechase and a cross-country run, requires a rapid change of central nervous and peripheral neuromuscular activity from one sport to another in order to achieve the best possible results. We describe the case where a top MP athlete was supported by a program of acupoint stimulation, which was directed to relieve the symptoms, preventing him from effective performance. Although the fact of acupoint stimulation was associated with improvement of his results, other factors like training effect, placebo and nonspecific physiological effects and their mechanisms in sports are discussed in a literature review. The popularity of complementary and alternative medicine methods among the athletes raises the question of their potential misuse as a doping in competitive sports.

  7. Goal-directed-perfusion in neonatal aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnjevar, Robert Anton; Purbojo, Ariawan; Muench, Frank; Juengert, Joerg; Rueffer, André

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of mortality and morbidity in congenital cardiac surgery has always been and remains a major target for the complete team involved. As operative techniques are more and more standardized and refined, surgical risk and associated complication rates have constantly been reduced to an acceptable level but are both still present. Aortic arch surgery in neonates seems to be of particular interest, because perfusion techniques differ widely among institutions and an ideal form of a so called "total body perfusion (TBP)" is somewhat difficult to achieve. Thus concepts of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), regional cerebral perfusion (RCP/with cardioplegic cardiac arrest or on the perfused beating heart) and TBP exist in parallel and all carry an individual risk for organ damage related to perfusion management, chosen core temperature and time on bypass. Patient safety relies more and more on adequate end organ perfusion on cardiopulmonary bypass, especially sensitive organs like the brain, heart, kidney, liver and the gut, whereby on adequate tissue protection, temperature management and oxygen delivery should be visualized and monitored.

  8. Habitual versus goal-directed action control in Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Barker, R.A.; Dickinson, A.D.; Cools, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first direct investigation of the hypothesis that dopamine depletion of the dorsal striatum in mild Parkinson disease leads to impaired stimulus-response habit formation, thereby rendering behavior slow and effortful. However, using an instrumental conflict task, we show that

  9. Functional corticostriatal connection topographies predict goal directed behaviour in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquand, A.F.; Haak, K.V.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many

  10. A computational neural model of goal-directed utterance selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael; Kamp, Hans; Palm, Guenther; Doya, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    It is generally agreed that much of human communication is motivated by extra-linguistic goals: we often make utterances in order to get others to do something, or to make them support our cause, or adopt our point of view, etc. However, thus far a computational foundation for this view on language use has been lacking. In this paper we propose such a foundation using Markov Decision Processes. We borrow computational components from the field of action selection and motor control, where a neurobiological basis of these components has been established. In particular, we make use of internal models (i.e., next-state transition functions defined on current state action pairs). The internal model is coupled with reinforcement learning of a value function that is used to assess the desirability of any state that utterances (as well as certain non-verbal actions) can bring about. This cognitive architecture is tested in a number of multi-agent game simulations. In these computational experiments an agent learns to predict the context-dependent effects of utterances by interacting with other agents that are already competent speakers. We show that the cognitive architecture can account for acquiring the capability of deciding when to speak in order to achieve a certain goal (instead of performing a non-verbal action or simply doing nothing), whom to address and what to say. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  12. Job Search as Goal-Directed Behavior: Objectives and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Saks, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job search objectives (finding a new job/turnover, staying aware of job alternatives, developing a professional network, and obtaining leverage against an employer) and job search methods (looking at job ads, visiting job sites, networking, contacting employment agencies, contacting employers, and…

  13. Consciousness, Representation, Action : The Importance of Being Goal-Directed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed fierce debates on the dependence of consciousness on interactions between a subject and the environment. Reviewing neuroscientific, computational, and clinical evidence, I will address three questions. First, does conscious experience necessarily depend on acute

  14. Facilitation of voluntary goal-directed action by reward cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovibond, Peter F; Colagiuri, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Reward-associated cues are known to influence motivation to approach both natural and man-made rewards, such as food and drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To model these processes in the laboratory with humans, we developed an appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedure with a chocolate reward. We used a single unconstrained response that led to an actual rather than symbolic reward to assess the strength of reward motivation. Presentation of a chocolate-paired cue, but not an unpaired cue, markedly enhanced instrumental responding over a 30-s period. The same pattern was observed with 10-s and 30-s cues, showing that close cue-reward contiguity is not necessary for facilitation of reward-directed action. The results confirm that reward-related cues can instigate voluntary action to obtain that reward. The effectiveness of long-duration cues suggests that in clinical settings, attention should be directed to both proximal and distal cues for reward.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  17. Evolução de variáveis hemodinâmicas e perfusionais durante o choque séptico experimental tratado com ressuscitação volêmica guiada por metas Hemodynamic and perfusion variables during experimental septic shock treated with goal-directed fluid resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Park

    2011-09-01

    gold standard in sepsis therapy, few studies have described hemodynamic and perfusion parameters during this procedure. This study aims to describe these parameters during septic shock without resuscitation and after 12 hours of goal-directed resuscitation. METHODS: Thirteen anesthetized pigs (35-45 kg had peritonitis caused by fecal inoculation (0.75 g/kg. After developing persistent hypotension, both groups were given antibiotics and randomized either to the control group (n=7 or the experimental group (n=6. In the control group, hemodynamic control was optimized to maintain a central venous pressure of 8-12 mmHg, a urinary output above 0.5 mL/kg/hour and a mean arterial blood pressure above 65 mmHg. The experimental group received the above target therapy in addition to maintaining a SvO2 above 65%. The interventions included lactated Ringer's solution and norepinephrine for both groups and dobutamine in the SvO2 group. The animals were treated for 12 hours or until death. RESULTS: Untreated sepsis was associated with significant reductions in SvO2, PvO2, cardiac output and central venous pressure in addition to increased arteriovenous oxygen saturation and veno-arterial CO2 differences. Following resuscitation, these parameters were corrected in both groups. Goal-directed resuscitation was associated with a better hemodynamic profile, characterized by higher SvO2, cardiac output and central venous pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Non-resuscitated sepsis showed a hemodynamic profile suggesting hypovolemia, with worsened perfusion and hemodynamics, which is reversed upon fluid resuscitation. Goal-directed resuscitation is associated with significantly improved hemodynamic and perfusion parameters

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  2. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  3. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  4. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence......In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the proposed...... for a joint latent factor and show that its inclusion allows for an improved and more parsimonious specification of the multivariate intensity process...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  6. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  7. Metabonomics and Intensive Care

    OpenAIRE

    Antcliffe, D; Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency medicine 2016. Other selected articles can be found online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2016. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming ... miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  3. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  4. Data-intensive science

    CERN Document Server

    Critchlow, Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan

  5. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  6. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  7. The intense neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1966-07-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through {mu}-, {pi}- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  8. The intense neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1966-01-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through μ-, π- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  9. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  10. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower ...

  12. Low-intensity laser irradiation use for oral and lip precancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Petrov, Anatoly; Erina, Stanislava V.; Pankova, Svetlana N.

    1996-09-01

    Precancer and background diseases of the oral mucosa and lips, such as lichen planus, chronic ulcers and fissures, meteorological heilit, lupus erythematosus, after radiation heilit were treated by low-intensity laser irradiation. Laser therapy of the over-mentioned diseases was combined with medicinal treatment. All the patients were selected and treated in the limits of dispensary system. THe choice of diagnostic methods were made according to each concrete nosological form. A great attention was paid to the goal- directly sanitation of the oral cavity and treatment of attended internal diseases. The etiological factors were revealed and statistically analyzed. The results received during our researches demonstrated high effectiveness of laser irradiation combined with medicinal therapy in the treatment of oral mucosa and lips precancer diseases.

  13. AGS intensity record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    As flashed in the September issue, this summer the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) reached a proton beam intensity of 4.05 x 10 13 protons per puise, claimed as the highest intensity ever achieved in a proton synchrotron. It is, however, only two-thirds of the way to its final goal of 6 x 10 13 . The achievement is the resuit of many years of effort. The Report of the AGS II Task Force, issued in February 1984, laid out a comprehensive programme largely based on a careful analysis of the PS experience at CERN. The AGS plan had two essential components: the construction of a new booster, and major upgrades to the AGS itself.

  14. Intensities of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissell, David; Vannini, Phillip; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the intensities of long-distance commuting journeys in order to understand how bodily sensibilities become attuned to the regular mobilities which they undertake. More people are travelling farther to and from work than ever before, owing to a variety of factors which relate...... to complex social and geographical dynamics of transport, housing, lifestyle, and employment. Yet, the experiential dimensions of long-distance commuting have not received the attention that they deserve within research on mobilities. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Australia, Canada, and Denmark...... this paper aims to further develop our collective understanding of the experiential particulars of long-distance workers or ‘supercommuters’. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in broad social patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions...

  15. Intensive culture”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2012-01-01

    Scott Lash argumenterer i bogen Intensive Culture for en vending fra ”ekstensiv” til ”intensiv” i den nutidige globalisering. Bogens udgangspunkt er en stadig mere ekstensiv og gennemtrængende globalisering af kultur, forbrugs- og vareformer, ”comtemporary culture, today’s capitalism – our global......, samlivsmøstre etc.; ”the sheer pace of life in the streets of today’s mega-city would seem somehow to be intensive”....

  16. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  17. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  18. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  19. Orchestrating intensities and rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Juelskjær, Malou

    2016-01-01

    environmentality and learning-centered governance standards has dramatic and performative effects for the production of (educational) subjectivities. This implies a shift from governing identities, categories and structures towards orchestrating affective intensities and rhythms. Finally, the article discusses...... and the making of subjects have held sway for many years; and it is also well known that schools have been some of the most regular purchasers of psychological methods, tests and classifications. Following but also elaborating upon governmentality studies, it is suggested that a current shift towards...

  20. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  1. A Theoretical Framework for Goal-directed Care within the Prison System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, B.H.; Vissers, A.W.T.M.; Oei, K.

    2008-01-01

    Mental health care in prisons involves many stakeholders. As a consequence, the goals involved are divergent but there is no sound theoretical framework that accounts for the complexity of care in prison. This paper considers a broad theory and its conceptual framework that differentiates between

  2. Goal-Directed Visual Attention Drives Health Goal Priming: An Eye-Tracking Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Laura N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Several lab and field experiments have shown that goal priming interventions can be highly effective in promoting healthy food choices. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms by which goal priming affects food choice. This experiment tested the hypothesis that goal priming affects

  3. Goal-directed hemostatic resuscitation for massively bleeding patients: the Copenhagen concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I

    2010-01-01

    Continued hemorrhage remains a major cause of mortality in massively transfused patients, many of whom develop coagulopathy. A review of transfusion practice for these patients at our hospital revealed that a significant proportion received suboptimal transfusion therapy. Survivors had higher pla...

  4. Fostering Sustainable Travel Behavior: Role of Sustainability Labels and Goal-Directed Behavior Regarding Touristic Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfriede Penz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals around the globe engage in sustainable consumption in their everyday life, e.g., when it comes to individual transportation. Although tourism behavior contributes to global carbon emissions to a considerable extent, consumers’ awareness of sustainability in the tourism industry is still underresearched. Placing eco-labels next to tourist offers on websites might direct consumer’s perception towards more sustainable offers. By employing eye-tracking techniques and surveys, this research aimed at linking information about sustainable tourist offers, perception of eco-labels and subsequent perception and preferences of tourism services. In Study 1, eight existing hotel offers with sustainability certification (four different labels were selected and their websites presented to 48 participants (four websites each, whose eye movements were tracked. After looking at each website, they rated the overall appearance of the website. Based on the results, in the second study, participants’ (n = 642 awareness of labels, their values and attitudes regarding sustainable behavior were found to influence their preference for certified tour operators. In addition, individuals’ ideas of their perfect holidays were captured to allow a better understanding of their motivation. This research proposes implementing appropriate sustainable labeling in the tourism industry to increase awareness about sustainability among travelers and subsequently increase sustainable travel behavior.

  5. The role of selective attention in short-term memory and goal-directed behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention enables the prioritization of goal-relevant aspects of our sensory environment in order to guide our actions, or to store goal-relevant information in short-term memory. Yet, it remains largely unclear how attention prioritizes goal-relevant information. For example, selective attention may enhance processing of goal-relevant information, suppress processing of distracting information, or both. The research presented in this dissertation examined the neurophysiological mec...

  6. Aging and goal-directed emotional attention: distraction reverses emotional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marisa; Seymour, Travis L; Gaunt, Joshua T; Baker, Christopher; Nesmith, Kathryn; Mather, Mara

    2007-11-01

    Previous findings reveal that older adults favor positive over negative stimuli in both memory and attention (for a review, see Mather & Carstensen, 2005). This study used eye tracking to investigate the role of cognitive control in older adults' selective visual attention. Younger and older adults viewed emotional-neutral and emotional-emotional pairs of faces and pictures while their gaze patterns were recorded under full or divided attention conditions. Replicating previous eye-tracking findings, older adults allocated less of their visual attention to negative stimuli in negative-neutral stimulus pairings in the full attention condition than younger adults did. However, as predicted by a cognitive-control-based account of the positivity effect in older adults' information processing tendencies (Mather & Knight, 2005), older adults' tendency to avoid negative stimuli was reversed in the divided attention condition. Compared with younger adults, older adults' limited attentional resources were more likely to be drawn to negative stimuli when they were distracted. These findings indicate that emotional goals can have unintended consequences when cognitive control mechanisms are not fully available.

  7. The role of selective attention in short-term memory and goal-directed behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention enables the prioritization of goal-relevant aspects of our sensory environment in order to guide our actions, or to store goal-relevant information in short-term memory. Yet, it remains largely unclear how attention prioritizes goal-relevant information. For example, selective

  8. Impedance is modulated to meet accuracy demands during goal-directed arm movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selen, L.P.J.; Beek, P.J.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The neuromuscular system is inherently noisy and joint impedance may serve to filter this noise. In the present experiment, we investigated whether individuals modulate joint impedance to meet spatial accuracy demands. Twelve subjects were instructed to make rapid, time constrained, elbow extensions

  9. Modeling Goal-Directed User Exploration in Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    sculptures architecture Theater Musicians & Composers Cinema , Television, & Broadcasting Music Dance Musical Instruments” The text entered for the...Pirolli, Chen & Pitkow, 2001), Scent- based Navigation and Information Foraging in the ACT cognitive architecture 1.0 (SNIF-ACT 1.0; Pirolli & Fu...2003) is the first of two process models of Web navigation based on Information Foraging Theory and implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture

  10. Electrophysiological evidence for flexible goal-directed cue processing during episodic retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Jane E; Evans, Lisa H; Wilding, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    A widely held assumption is that memory retrieval is aided by cognitive control processes that are engaged flexibly in service of memory retrieval and memory decisions. While there is some empirical support for this view, a notable exception is the absence of evidence for the flexible use of retrieval control in functional neuroimaging experiments requiring frequent switches between tasks with different cognitive demands. This absence is troublesome in so far as frequent switches between tasks mimic some of the challenges that are typically placed on memory outside the laboratory. In this experiment we instructed participants to alternate frequently between three episodic memory tasks requiring item recognition or retrieval of one of two different kinds of contextual information encoded in a prior study phase (screen location or encoding task). Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by unstudied items in the two tasks requiring retrieval of study context were reliably different, demonstrating for the first time that ERPs index task-specific processing of retrieval cues when retrieval goals change frequently. The inclusion of the item recognition task was a novel and important addition in this study, because only the ERPs elicited by unstudied items in one of the two context conditions diverged from those in the item recognition condition. This outcome constrains functional interpretations of the differences that emerged between the two context conditions and emphasises the utility of this baseline in functional imaging studies of retrieval processing operations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How does reward compete with goal-directed and stimulus-driven shifts of attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Bayle, Dimitri J; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e. endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e. exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational values of stimuli can also influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms. Here we designed a visual search paradigm in which goal-driven and stimulus-driven shifts of attention were manipulated by classic spatial cueing procedures, while an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus also appeared as a distractor and hence competed with both types of spatial attention during search. Our results demonstrated that stimuli previously associated with a high monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, mitigating the attentional orienting induced by both endogenous and exogenous cues.

  12. Deployment of spatial attention to a structural framework: exogenous (alerting) and endogenous (goal-directed) factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    The main question examined in the present work was whether spatial attention can be deployed to an appropriate structural framework not only endogenously when the framework is displayed continuously, as in previous work, but also exogenously, when it is displayed transiently 100 ms before the target. The results of five experiments answered that question in the negative. We found that the onset transient triggered by a brief presentation of the structural framework did enhance the response to the upcoming target. That enhancement, however, was due not to the framework itself but to the alerting effect produced by its sudden onset, witness the finding that the same enhancement was produced by an onset transient triggered by a featureless stimulus (i.e., by a brief dimming of the entire screen, in the absence of a structural framework). We conclude that spatial attention can be deployed to the region demarcated by a structural framework when it is deployed endogenously but not when it is deployed exogenously. A theoretical account of the results is proposed in terms of the temporal dynamics of the locus cœruleus/norepinephrine neuromodulatory system.

  13. A Curriculum and Software Design Scaffolding Goal Directed Teaching in Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    , the tool itself, and selected findings from qualitative and quantitative studies in the project. 2. International trends in goal oriented and data driven teaching The Danish curriculum reform builds on recent trends in school development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence...... development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence framework, learning goals and aggregation of classroom data to efficient teaching (Earl & Fullan 2003). Learning goals are supposed to support the student’s pace and sense of progression, inform classroom decisions, structure...... student has knowledge of text structure”). The curriculum can be presented in a number of graphical modes, e.g. in a matrix or in a hypertext structure. The curriculum reform was implemented in order to promote a goal oriented teaching and learning practice based heavily on research around data driven...

  14. Application of the System Identification Technique to Goal-Directed Saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-30

    incorrectly derived result. (4) BAG - KST BAG / KSEand ’ BANT - KST BAN /"SE Substituting these values into the expressions for 8, P0 Pip P2 and P3...found in Appendix Al, yields 47 8 - 5.0938109 x 107 -.’ ’ o . - . -.. .... * . * . s - - * ** . - -. .. . . 63 P3 W 1.548 x 10 P = 3.4455 x 10 P2 P1...absolute value of displacement for subject 2.I Fig.S. he tme nteral romthe tar of he accae t th the ime t pak vlocty v abslut vale o • - " " "-’. di

  15. Movement characteristics of upper extremity prostheses during basic goal-directed tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwsema, Hanneke; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    Background: After an upper limb amputation a prosthesis is often used to restore the functionality. However, the frequency of prostheses use is generally low. Movement kinematics of prostheses use might suggest origins of this low use. The aim of this study was to reveal movement patterns of

  16. Visual Illusions and the Control of Ball Placement in Goal-Directed Hitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caljouw, Simone R.; Van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2010-01-01

    When hitting, kicking, or throwing balls at targets, online control in the target area is impossible. We assumed this lack of late corrections in the target area would induce an effect of a single-winged Muller-Lyer illusion on ball placement. After extensive practice in hitting balls to different landing locations, participants (N = 9) had to hit…

  17. Functional integration processes underlying the instruction-based learning of novel goal-directed behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2013-03-01

    How does the human brain translate symbolic instructions into overt behavior? Previous studies suggested that this process relies on a rapid control transition from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the anterior striatum (aSTR) and premotor cortex (PMC). The present fMRI study investigated whether the transfer from symbolic to pragmatic stimulus-response (S-R) rules relies on changes in the functional coupling among these and other areas and to which extent action goal representations might get integrated within this symbolic-pragmatic transfer. Goal integration processes were examined by manipulating the contingency between actions and differential outcomes (i.e. action goals). We observed a rapid strengthening of the functional coupling between the LPFC and the basal ganglia (aSTR and putamen) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as between the LPFC and the anterior dorsal PMC (pre-PMd), the anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL), and the posterior superior parietal lobule (pSPL). Importantly, only some of these functional integration processes were sensitive to the outcome contingency manipulation, including LPFC couplings with aSTR, OFC, aIPL, and pre-PMd. This suggests that the symbolic-pragmatic rule transfer is governed by principles of both, instrumental learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aSTR/OFC) and ideomotor learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aIPL/pre-PMd). By contrast, increased functional coupling between LPFC and putamen was insensitive to outcome contingency possibly indicating an early stage of habit formation under instructed learning conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Neurocomputational Model of Goal-Directed Navigation in Insect-Inspired Artificial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Manoonpong, Poramate; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha

    2017-01-01

    in artificial agents. The model consists of a path integration mechanism, reward-modulated global learning, random search, and action selection. The path integration mechanism integrates compass and odometric cues to compute a vectorial representation of the agent's current location as neural activity patterns...

  19. On the imitation of goal directed movements of a humanoid robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Y.; Cuijpers, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Interacting with a social robot should give people a better understanding of the robot’s actions and intentions. In terms of human–human interaction (HHI), people can interpret actions of others in an effortless way. However, it is still unclear whether people can do the same with humanoid robots.

  20. Effect of visual impairment on goal-directed aiming movements in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Boonstra, F.N.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated potential differences in motor control between children with a visual impairment (diagnosed albinism; n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; seven males, four females,) and children with normal vision (n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; six males, five females). Mean near visual acuity

  1. Effect of visual impairment on goal-directed aiming movements in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Boonstra, F.N.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated potential differences in motor control between children with a visual impairment (diagnosed albinism; n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; seven males, four females,) and children with normal vision (n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; six males, five females). Mean near visual acuity

  2. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  3. Developing professional habits of hand hygiene in intensive care settings: An action-research intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giuseppe; Berto, Giuliana; Bazzo, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    To explore perceptions and unconscious psychological processes underlying handwashing behaviours of intensive care nurses, to implement organisational innovations for improving hand hygiene in clinical practice. An action-research intervention was performed in 2012 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of a public hospital in Italy, consisting of: structured interviews, semantic analysis, development and validation of a questionnaire, team discussion, project design and implementation. Five general workers, 16 staff nurses and 53 nurse students participated in the various stages. Social handwashing emerged as a structured and efficient habit, which follows automatically the pattern "cue/behaviour/gratification" when hands are perceived as "dirty". The perception of "dirt" starts unconsciously the process of social washing also in professional settings. Professional handwashing is perceived as goal-directed. The main concern identified is the fact that washing hands requires too much time to be performed in a setting of urgency. These findings addressed participants to develop a professional "habit-directed" hand hygiene procedure, to be implemented at beginning of workshifts. Handwashing is a ritualistic behaviour driven by deep and unconscious patterns, and social habits affect professional practice. Creating professional habits of hand hygiene could be a key solution to improve compliance in intensive care settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Turbulence Intensity Scaling: A Fugue

    OpenAIRE

    Basse, Nils T.

    2018-01-01

    We study streamwise turbulence intensity definitions using smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow measurements made in the Princeton Superpipe. Scaling of turbulence intensity with the bulk (and friction) Reynolds number is provided for the definitions. The turbulence intensity is proportional to the square root of the friction factor with the same proportionality constant for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow. Turbulence intensity definitions providing the best description of the measurements are i...

  5. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  6. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  7. Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsuk Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.

  8. [Intensive care treatment of traumatic brain injury in multiple trauma patients : Decision making for complex pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, H; Herzer, G; Schöchl, H; Voelckel, W G

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock due to uncontrolled bleeding are the major causes of death after severe trauma. Mortality rates are threefold higher in patients suffering from multiple injuries and additionally TBI. Factors known to impair outcome after TBI, namely hypotension, hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, coagulopathy and hypothermia are aggravated by the extent and severity of extracerebral injuries. The mainstays of TBI intensive care may be, at least temporarily, contradictory to the trauma care concept for multiple trauma patients. In particular, achieving normotension in uncontrolled bleeding situations, maintenance of normocapnia in traumatic lung injury and thromboembolic prophylaxis are prone to discussion. Due to an ongoing uncertainty about the definition of normotensive blood pressure values, a cerebral perfusion pressure-guided cardiovascular management is of key importance. In contrast, there is no doubt that early goal directed coagulation management improves outcome in patients with TBI and multiple trauma. The timing of subsequent surgical interventions must be based on the development of TBI pathology; therefore, intensive care of multiple trauma patients with TBI requires an ongoing and close cooperation between intensivists and trauma surgeons in order to individualize patient care.

  9. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment ( N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment ( N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment ( p competitive races.

  10. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic

  11. Intense electron and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Molokovsky, Sergey Ivanovich

    2005-01-01

    Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers and researchers.

  12. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  13. Intense low energy positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e + beams exist producing of the order of 10 8 - 10 9 e + /sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e + beams with intensities greater than 10 9 e + /sec and current densities of the order of 10 13 - 10 14 e + sec - 1 cm -2 . Intense e + beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B + moderators or by increasing the available activity of B + particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e + collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e + beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e + microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e + diffraction and other fields. Intense e + beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies

  14. Energy intensity: a new look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, H.

    1995-01-01

    Energy intensity is compared among different countries by dividing their energy use by their gross domestic product (GDP) in dollar terms. GDP (US$), being a varying monetary value, will have different meaning in different countries because of the varying means of converting it into dollars. Therefore distorted results of energy intensity are obtained. The newly devised concept of presenting GDP in terms of purchasing power parity in dollars (US PPP) goes a long way to solving this distortion. It also allows the energy intensity of developing countries to be presented in a more favourable way. (author)

  15. The Danish Intensive Care Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Møller, Morten Hylander; Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. STUDY POPULATION: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID) was established in 2007...... and standardized mortality ratios for death within 30 days after admission using case-mix adjustment (initially using age, sex, and comorbidity level, and, since 2013, using SAPS II) for all patients and for patients with septic shock. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The DID currently includes 335,564 ICU admissions during 2005...

  16. Transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of using intense bursts of heavy ions to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated interest in the transport of intense unneutralized heavy ion beams by quadrupole or solenoid systems. This problem was examined in some detail, using numerical integration of the coupled envelope equations for the quadrupole case. The general relations which emerge are used to develop examples of high energy transport systems and as a basis for discussing the limitations imposed by a transport system on achievable intensities for initial acceleration

  17. Intensive variable and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Xinqi; Yuan, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Opening with intensive variables theory, using a combination of static and dynamic GIS and integrating numerical calculation and spatial optimization, this book creates a framework and methodology for evaluating land use effect, among other concepts.

  18. Vacuum in intensive gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinian, S.G.

    1977-12-01

    The behaviour of vacuum in a covariantly constant Yang-Mills field is considered. The expressions for the effective Lagrangian in an intensive field representing the asymptotic freedom of the theory are found

  19. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  20. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. High-intensity laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohideen, U.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the effect of high intensity lasers on atoms, free electrons and the generation of X-rays from solid density plasmas. The laser produced 50 milli Joule 180 femto sec pulses at 5 Hz. This translates to a maximum intensity of 5 x 10 18 W/cm 2 . At such high fields the AC stark shifts of atoms placed at the focus is much greater than the ionization energy. The characteristics of multiphoton ionization of atoms in intense laser fields was studied by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Free electrons placed in high intensity laser fields lead to harmonic generation. This phenomenon of Nonlinear Compton Scattering was theoretically investigated. Also, when these high intensity pulses are focused on solids a hot plasma is created. This plasma is a bright source of a short X-ray pulse. The pulse-width of X-rays from these solid density plasmas was measured by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy

  2. Raman spectroscopy an intensity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Guozhen, Wu

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the highlights of our work on the bond polarizability approach to the intensity analysis. The topics covered include surface enhanced Raman scattering, Raman excited virtual states and Raman optical activity (ROA). The first chapter briefly introduces the Raman effect in a succinct but clear way. Chapter 2 deals with the normal mode analysis. This is a basic tool for our work. Chapter 3 introduces our proposed algorithm for the Raman intensity analysis. Chapter 4 heavily introduces the physical picture of Raman virtual states. Chapter 5 offers details so that the readers can have a comprehensive idea of Raman virtual states. Chapter 6 demonstrates how this bond polarizability algorithm is extended to ROA intensity analysis. Chapters 7 and 8 offer details on ROA, showing many findings on ROA mechanism that were not known or neglected before. Chapter 9 introduces our proposed classical treatment on ROA which, as combined with the results from the bond polarizability analysis, leads to a com...

  3. The Danish Intensive Care Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen CF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian Fynbo Christiansen,1 Morten Hylander Møller,2 Henrik Nielsen,1 Steffen Christensen3 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of Intensive Care 4131, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. Study population: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID was established in 2007 and includes virtually all ICU admissions in Denmark since 2005. The DID obtains data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, with complete follow-up through the Danish Civil Registration System. Main variables: For each ICU admission, the DID includes data on the date and time of ICU admission, type of admission, organ supportive treatments, date and time of discharge, status at discharge, and mortality up to 90 days after admission. Descriptive variables include age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index score, and, since 2010, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II. The variables are recorded with 90%–100% completeness in the recent years, except for SAPS II score, which is 73%–76% complete. The DID currently includes five quality indicators. Process indicators include out-of-hour discharge and transfer to other ICUs for capacity reasons. Outcome indicators include ICU readmission within 48 hours and standardized mortality ratios for death within 30 days after admission using case-mix adjustment (initially using age, sex, and comorbidity level, and, since 2013, using SAPS II for all patients and for patients with septic shock. Descriptive data: The DID currently includes 335,564 ICU admissions during 2005–2015 (average 31,958 ICU admissions per year. Conclusion: The DID provides a

  4. Intense beams of light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Results of experiments performed in order to accelerate intense beams of light and heavier ions are presented. The accelerating diodes are driven by existing pulsed power generators. Optimization of the generator structure is described in chapter I. Nuclear diagnostics of the accelerated light ion beams are presented in chapter II. Chapter III deals with the physics of intense charged particle beams. The models developed are applied to the calculation of the performances of the ion diodes described in the previous chapters. Chapter IV reports preliminary results on a multiply ionized carbon source driven by a 0.1 TW pulsed power generator. (author) [fr

  5. Prospective Observational Evaluation of Sedation and Pain Management Guideline Adherence Across New Jersey Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Alison; Cardinale, Maria; Andrews, Liza B; Kaplan, Justin B; Adams, Christopher; Opsha, Yekaterina; Brandt, Kimberly A; Dixit, Deepali; Nerenberg, Steven F; Saleh, Julie A

    2018-01-01

    The practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD) from the Society of Critical Care Medicine shifted from primarily focusing on the treatment of anxiety in 2002 to the treatment of pain in 2013. This prospective, observational, multicenter study aimed to assess the degree of practice adherence to the PAD guidelines for ventilated patients in New Jersey intensive care units (ICUs). Pharmacist investigators at 8 centers designated 4 days at least 10 days apart to evaluate all patients on mechanical ventilation. The primary outcomes included adherence to 4 guideline recommendations: treatment of pain before sedation, use of nonnarcotic analgesic medications, use of nonbenzodiazepine sedative medications, and use of goal-directed sedation. Of 138 patients evaluated, 50% had a primary medical diagnosis (as opposed to surgical, cardiac, or neurological diagnosis), and the median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 7. Pain was treated prior to administration of sedatives in 55.4% of subjects, with fentanyl being the primary analgesic used. In addition, 19% received no analgesia, and 11.5% received nonopioid analgesia. Sedative agents were administered to 87 subjects (48 nonbenzodiazepine and 39 benzodiazepine). Of those receiving benzodiazepines, 22 received intermittent bolus regimens and 16 received continuous infusions, of which 5 were for another indication besides sedation. Validated scales measuring the degree of sedation were completed at least once in 56 (81.6%) patients receiving sedatives. Current sedation practices suggest that integration of evidence-based PAD guidelines across New Jersey adult ICUs is inconsistent despite pharmacist involvement.

  6. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  7. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  8. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  9. Increasing upper limb training intensity in chronic stroke using embodied virtual reality: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Chevalley, Odile; Schmidlin, Thomas; Garipelli, Gangadhar; Serino, Andrea; Vuadens, Philippe; Tadi, Tej; Blanke, Olaf; Millán, José D R

    2017-11-17

    Technology-mediated neurorehabilitation is suggested to enhance training intensity and therefore functional gains. Here, we used a novel virtual reality (VR) system for task-specific upper extremity training after stroke. The system offers interactive exercises integrating motor priming techniques and embodied visuomotor feedback. In this pilot study, we examined (i) rehabilitation dose and training intensity, (ii) functional improvements, and (iii) safety and tolerance when exposed to intensive VR rehabilitation. Ten outpatient stroke survivors with chronic (>6 months) upper extremity paresis participated in a ten-session VR-based upper limb rehabilitation program (2 sessions/week). All participants completed all sessions of the treatment. In total, they received a median of 403 min of upper limb therapy, with 290 min of effective training. Within that time, participants performed a median of 4713 goal-directed movements. Importantly, training intensity increased progressively across sessions from 13.2 to 17.3 movements per minute. Clinical measures show that despite being in the chronic phase, where recovery potential is thought to be limited, participants showed a median improvement rate of 5.3% in motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity; FMA-UE) post intervention compared to baseline, and of 15.4% at one-month follow-up. For three of them, this improvement was clinically significant. A significant improvement in shoulder active range of motion (AROM) was also observed at follow-up. Participants reported very low levels of pain, stress and fatigue following each session of training, indicating that the intensive VR intervention was well tolerated. No severe adverse events were reported. All participants expressed their interest in continuing the intervention at the hospital or even at home, suggesting high levels of adherence and motivation for the provided intervention. This pilot study showed how a dedicated VR system could deliver high

  10. Issues of work intensity, pace, and sustainability in relation to work context and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which

  11. Spatiotemporal control of laser intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froula, Dustin H.; Turnbull, David; Davies, Andrew S.; Kessler, Terrance J.; Haberberger, Dan; Palastro, John P.; Bahk, Seung-Whan; Begishev, Ildar A.; Boni, Robert; Bucht, Sara; Katz, Joseph; Shaw, Jessica L.

    2018-05-01

    The controlled coupling of a laser to plasma has the potential to address grand scientific challenges1-6, but many applications have limited flexibility and poor control over the laser focal volume. Here, we present an advanced focusing scheme called a `flying focus', where a chromatic focusing system combined with chirped laser pulses enables a small-diameter laser focus to propagate nearly 100 times its Rayleigh length. Furthermore, the speed at which the focus moves (and hence the peak intensity) is decoupled from the group velocity of the laser. It can co- or counter-propagate along the laser axis at any velocity. Experiments validating the concept measured subluminal (-0.09c) to superluminal (39c) focal-spot velocities, generating a nearly constant peak intensity over 4.5 mm. Among possible applications, the flying focus could be applied to a photon accelerator7 to mitigate dephasing, facilitating the production of tunable XUV sources.

  12. The intense neutron generator study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1966-07-01

    The study has confirmed that a beam of 65 mA of protons at 1000 MeV, striking a molten lead-bismuth target surrounded by heavy water moderator, would give the desired flux of 10{sup 16} thermal neutrons per cm{sup 2} per second to provide intense beams of neutrons and also to produce radioisotopes. The proton beam passing through a thin auxiliary target would also produce beams of mesons. The design and construction of the ion source, injector, accelerator, target and auxiliaries present challenging technical problems. Moreover, continued development for improved life and economy promises to be rewarding. The high neutron intensity is sought for research in solid and liquid state physics and also for nuclear physics. Participation by universities and industry, both in development and use, is expected to be extensive. (author)

  13. How is intensive care reimbursed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Donnelly, Maria; van Zanten, Arthur Rh

    2013-01-01

    Reimbursement schemes in intensive care are more complex than in other areas of healthcare, due to special procedures and high care needs. Knowledge regarding the principles of functioning in other countries can lead to increased understanding and awareness of potential for improvement. This can...... be achieved through mutual exchange of solutions found in other countries. In this review, experts from eight European countries explain their respective intensive care unit reimbursement schemes. Important conclusions include the apparent differences in the countries' reimbursement schemes---despite all...... of them originating from a DRG system, the high degree of complexity found, and the difficulties faced in several countries when collecting the data for this collaborative work. This review has been designed to help the intensivist clinician and researcher to understanding neighbouring countries...

  14. The intense neutron generator study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1966-01-01

    The study has confirmed that a beam of 65 mA of protons at 1000 MeV, striking a molten lead-bismuth target surrounded by heavy water moderator, would give the desired flux of 10 16 thermal neutrons per cm 2 per second to provide intense beams of neutrons and also to produce radioisotopes. The proton beam passing through a thin auxiliary target would also produce beams of mesons. The design and construction of the ion source, injector, accelerator, target and auxiliaries present challenging technical problems. Moreover, continued development for improved life and economy promises to be rewarding. The high neutron intensity is sought for research in solid and liquid state physics and also for nuclear physics. Participation by universities and industry, both in development and use, is expected to be extensive. (author)

  15. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  16. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E; Glatstein, Eli

    2002-07-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an increasingly popular technical means of tightly focusing the radiation dose around a cancer. As with stereotactic radiotherapy, IMRT uses multiple fields and angles to converge on the target. The potential for total dose escalation and for escalation of daily fraction size to the gross cancer is exciting. The excitement, however, has greatly overshadowed a range of radiobiological and clinical concerns.

  17. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  18. Absolute intensities of supersonic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Habets, A.H.M.; Verster, N.F.

    1977-01-01

    In a molecular beam experiment the center-line intensity I(0) (particles s -1 sterad -1 ) and the flow rate dN/dt (particles s -1 ) of a beam source are important features. To compare the performance of different types of beam sources the peaking factor, kappa, is defined as the ratio kappa=π(I(0)/dN/dt). The factor π is added to normalize to kappa=1 for an effusive source. The ideal peaking factor for the supersonic flow from a nozzle follows from continuum theory. Numerical values of kappa are available. Experimental values of kappa for an argon expansion are presented in this paper, confirming these calculations. The actual center-line intensity of a supersonic beam source with a skimmer is reduced in comparison to this ideal intensity if the skimmer shields part of the virtual source from the detector. Experimental data on the virtual source radius are given enabling one to predict this shielding quantitatively. (Auth.)

  19. High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL) is a laboratory facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by EG ampersand G, Energy Measurements (EG ampersand G/EM). This document is intended as an overview -- primarily for external users -- of the general purposes and capabilities of HISL; numerous technical details are beyond its scope. Moreover, systems at HISL are added, deleted, and modified to suit current needs, and upgraded with continuing development. Consequently, interested parties are invited to contact the HISL manager for detailed, current, technical, and administrative information. The HISL develops and operates pulsed radiation sources with energies, intensities, and pulse widths appropriate for several applications. Principal among these are development, characterization, and calibration of various high-bandwidth radiation detectors and diagnostic systems. Hardness/vulnerability of electronic or other sensitive components to radiation is also tested. In this connection, source development generally focuses on attending (1) the highest possible intensities with (2) reasonably short pulse widths and (3) comprehensive output characterization

  20. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  1. Lean production of intensive cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad; Bojesen, Anders; Bramming, Pia

    2014-01-01

    turnover. This is analysed in terms of Italo Calvino's Invisible cities. It is argued that Calvino's themes and prose help us understand change as a multiplicity of temporal intensities producing ambivalence and affect. We describe this use of literary abstractions as a ‘hyperbolic social epistemology......’. Through the depiction of four intensifications of Lean Production, the metaphors of Calvino's cities show how reality and illusion; hope and poverty; dreams and death and utopia and dystopia are intricately mingled and produce temporary and equally ambivalent affects of alienation, hypocrisy, self...

  2. Light intensity modulation in phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanovich, P. A.; Zon, B. A.; Kunin, A. A.; Pankova, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    A hypothesis that blocking ATP synthesis is one of the main causes of the stimulating effect is considered based on analysis of the primary photostimulation mechanisms. The light radiation intensity modulation is substantiated and the estimates of such modulation parameters are made. An explanation is offered to the stimulation efficiency decrease phenomenon at the increase of the radiation dose during the therapy. The results of clinical research of the medical treatment in preventive dentistry are presented depending on the spectrum and parameters of the light flux modulation.

  3. INTENSITY DEPENDENT EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEI, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is currently under commissioning after a seven-year construction cycle. Unlike conventional hadron colliders, this machine accelerates, stores, and collides heavy ion beams of various combinations of species. The dominant intensity dependent effects are intra-beam scattering at both injection and storage, and complications caused by crossing transition at a slow ramp rate. In this paper, the authors present theoretical formalisms that have been used for the study, and discuss mechanisms, impacts, and compensation methods including beam cooling and transition jump schemes. Effects of space charge, beam-beam, and ring impedances are also summarized

  4. Plasmas and intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The present article begins with a description of the laser technology required to reach the high irradiances of interest and provides a brief outline of the more important diagnostic techniques used in investigating the plasmas. An introduction to plasma waves is given and the linear and nonlinear excitation of waves is discussed. The remainder of the article describes some of the experimental evidence supporting the interpretation of the plasma behaviour at high laser-light intensities in terms of the excitation of plasma waves and the subsequent heating of plasma by these waves. (author)

  5. Intensive and critical care medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aochi, Osamu; Amaha, Keisuke; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    Eight papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with the scientific use of the chest radiograph in intensive care unit, xenon computed tomography cerebral blood flow in diagnosis and management of symptomatic vasospasm and severe head injury, therapeutic relevance of MRI in acute head trauma, computerized tomography in the diagnosis of cerebral air embolism, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion during weaning from mechanical ventilation, thoracic computed tomography for ICU patients, and the effect of xenon inhalation upon internal carotid artery blood flow in awake monkeys. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. The intense proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko

    1990-01-01

    The Science and Technology Agency of Japan has formulated the OMEGA project, in which incineration of nuclear wastes by use of accelerators is defined as one of the important tasks. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been engaged for several years in basic studies in incineration technology with use of an intense proton linear accelerator. The intense proton accelerator program intends to provide a large scale proton linear accelerator called Engineering Test Accelerator. The principal purpose of the accelerator is to develop nuclear waste incineration technology. The accelerator will also be used for other industrial applications and applied science studies. The present report further outlines the concept of incineration of radio-activities of nuclear wastes, focusing on nuclear reactions and a concept of incineration plant. Features of Engineering Test Accelerator are described focusing on the development of the accelerator, and research and development of incineration technology. Applications of science and technology other than nuclear waste incineration are also discussed. (N.K.)

  7. Intensive outpatient treatment of elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira De Godoy, J M; Amador Franco Brigidio, P; Buzato, E; Fátima Guerreiro De Godoy, M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to report on a novel approach to the intensive outpatient treatment of elephantiasis of an underprivileged population. Prospective, random study, the diagnosis of lymphedema was clinical and the inclusion of patients was by order of arrival in the treatment center where all were invited to participate in the study. Intensive outpatient therapy was performed for 6 to 8 hours daily over a period of four weeks. Eleven legs with grade III elephantiasis of 8 patients were evaluated in a random prospective study. Three patients were men and five were women with ages ranging between 28 and 66 years old. Treatment included mechanical lymph drainage using the RAGodoy® apparatus for a period of 6 to 8 hours daily and the Godoy & Godoy cervical stimulation technique for 20 minutes per day, both associated to the use of a home-made medical compression stocking using a low-stretch cotton-polyester material. Additionally, manual lymph drainage using the Godoy & Godoy technique was performed for one hour. Perimetry was used to compare measurements made before and after treatment, of the three points of the limb with the largest circumferences. The paired t-test was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error greater than 5% (P-value elephantiasis.

  8. Beam intensity increases at the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Norem, J.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system has managed a 40% increase in time average beam current over the last two years. Currents of up to 15.6μA (3.25 x 10 12 protons at 30 Hz) have been successfully accelerated and cleanly extracted. Our high current operation demands low loss beam handling to permit hands-on maintenance. Synchrotron beam handling efficiencies of 90% are routine. A new H - ion source which was installed in March of 1983 offered the opportunity to get above 8 μA but an instability caused unacceptable losses when attempting to operate at 10 μA and above. Simple techniques to control the instabilities were introduced and have worked well. These techniques are discussed below. Other improvements in the regulation of various power supplies have provided greatly improved low energy orbit stability and contributed substantially to the increased beam current

  9. Time variations in geomagnetic intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2003-03-01

    After many years spent by paleomagnetists studying the directional behavior of the Earth's magnetic field at all possible timescales, detailed measurements of field intensity are now needed to document the variations of the entire vector and to analyze the time evolution of the field components. A significant step has been achieved by combining intensity records derived from archeological materials and from lava flows in order to extract the global field changes over the past 12 kyr. A second significant step was due to the emergence of coherent records of relative paleointensity using the remanent magnetization of sediments to retrace the evolution of the dipole field. A third step was the juxtaposition of these signals with those derived from cosmogenic isotopes. Contemporaneous with the acquisition of records, new techniques have been developed to constrain the geomagnetic origin of the signals. Much activity has also been devoted to improving the quality of determinations of absolute paleointensity from volcanic rocks with new materials, proper selection of samples, and investigations of complex changes in magnetization during laboratory experiments. Altogether these developments brought us from a situation where the field changes were restricted to the past 40 kyr to the emergence of a coherent picture of the changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment for at least the past 1 Myr. On longer timescales the field variability and its average behavior is relatively well documented for the past 400 Myr. Section 3 gives a summary of most methods and techniques that are presently used to track the field intensity changes in the past. In each case, current limits and potential promises are discussed. The section 4 describes the field variations measured so far over various timescales covered by the archeomagnetic and the paleomagnetic records. Preference has always been given to composite records and databases in order to extract and discuss major and global geomagnetic

  10. Intensive Care for Eclampic Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment of puerperas with eclampic coma, by substantiating, developing, and introducing new algorithms for correction of systemic hemodynamic, metabolic disturbances, and perfusion-metabolic changes in brain tissues. Subjects and methods. Studies were conducted in 18 puerperas with eclampic coma (Group 2 in whom the authors used a new treatment algorithm aimed at maintaining baseline cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, restoring volemic levels at the expense of interstitial fluid. A control group (Group 1 included 30 patients who received conventional standard therapy. Regional cerebral circulation was measured by a non-invasive (inhalation radioisotopic method, by applying the tracer 131Xe, as described by V. D. Obrist et al., on a modified КПРДИ-1 apparatus (USSR. The rate of brain oxygen uptake was determined from the oxygen content between the artery and the internal jugular vein. Central hemodynamic parameters were studied by the direct method of right heart catheterization using a flow-directed Swan-Ganz catheter. The volumes of total and extracellular fluids were estimated using 20% urea and mannitol solutions, respectively, at 0.2 g/kg weight by the procedure of V. M. Mogen. Circulating blood volume (CBV was determined by a radioisotopic method using 131iodine albumin on an УPI-7 apparatus (USSR. Cerebral spinal fluid pressure was measured by an ИиНД apparatus. Studies were made in four steps: 1 on admission; 2 on days 2—3; 3 during emergence from coma; 4 before transition. Results. The use of the new algorithm for intensive care for eclampic coma, which is aimed at improving the perfusion metabolic provision of brain structures, with a reduction in mean blood pressure by 10—15% of the baseline level, by administering magnesium sulfate and nimodipine, and at compensating for CBV by high-molecular-weight hydroxyethylated starch (stabizol, ensured early emergence from a comatose state

  11. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...... patients. We were not able to further reduce the already existing low noise levels in the ICU and did not find any association between the environmental intervention and the presence of normal sleep characteristics in the PSG....

  12. Jet target intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    A jet target Intense Neutron Source (INS) is being built by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with DOE/MFE funding in order to perform radiation damage experiments on materials to be used in fusion power reactors. The jet target can be either a supersonic or a subsonic jet. Each type has its particular advantages and disadvantages, and either of the jets can be placed inside the spherical blanket converter which will be used to simulate a fusion reactor neutron environment. Preliminary mock-up experiments with a 16-mA, 115 keV, H + ion beam on a nitrogen gas supersonic jet show no serious problems in the beam formation, transport, or jet interaction

  13. Human Influence on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity.We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  14. Global intensity correction in dynamic scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Schutte, K.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Changing image intensities causes problems for many computer vision applications operating in unconstrained environments. We propose generally applicable algorithms to correct for global differences in intensity between images recorded with a static or slowly moving camera, regardless of the cause

  15. The patient experience of intensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Berit

    2015-01-01

    : Nordic intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in Nordic intensive care units. METHODS: We performed a literature search of qualitative studies of the patient experience of intensive care based on Nordic publications in 2000-2013. We searched the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Psyc...

  16. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  17. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  18. Analytical theory of intensity fluctuations in SASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.H.; Krinsky, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1997-07-01

    Recent advances in SASE experiments stimulate interest in quantitative comparison of measurements with theory. Extending the previous analysis of the SASE intensity in guided modes, the authors provide an analytical description of the intensity fluctuations by calculating intensity correlation functions in the frequency domain. Comparison of the results with experiment yields new insight into the SASE process.

  19. Enactment versus observation: item-specific and relational processing in goal-directed action sequences (and lists of single actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Schult

    Full Text Available What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as "apply the patch" by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2-3, Experiment 2. An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2. Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing.

  20. Effects of variability of practice in music: A pilot study on fast goal-directed movements in pianists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBangert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Practice (VOP refers to the acquisition of a particular target movement by practicing a range of varying targets rather than by focusing on fixed repetitions of the target only. VOP has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on transfer to a novel task and on skill consolidation. This study extends the line of research to musical practice. In a task resembling a barrier-knockdown paradigm, 36 music students trained to perform a wide left-hand interval leap on the piano. Performance at the target distance was tested before and after a 30-minute standardized training session. The high-variability group (VAR practiced 4 different intervals including the target. Another group (FIX practiced the target interval only. A third group (SPA performed spaced practice on the target only, interweaving with periods of not playing. Transfer was tested by introducing an interval novel to either group. After a 24-hour period with no further exposure to the instrument, performance was retested. All groups performed at comparable error levels before training, after training, and after the retention interval. At transfer, however, the FIX group, unlike the other groups, committed significantly more errors than in the target task. After the retention period, the effect was washed out for the FIX group but then was present for VAR. Thus, the results provide only partial support for the VOP hypothesis for the given setting. Additional exploratory observations suggest tentative benefits of VOP regarding execution speed, loudness, and performance confidence.We derive specific hypotheses and specific recommendations regarding sample selection and intervention duration for future investigations. Furthermore, the proposed leap task measurement is shown to be (a robust enough to serve as a standard framework for studies in the music domain, yet (b versatile enough to allow for a wide range of designs not previously investigated for music on a standardized basis.

  1. Effects of variability of practice in music: a pilot study on fast goal-directed movements in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Marc; Wiedemann, Anna; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Variability of Practice (VOP) refers to the acquisition of a particular target movement by practicing a range of varying targets rather than by focusing on fixed repetitions of the target only. VOP has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on transfer to a novel task and on skill consolidation. This study extends the line of research to musical practice. In a task resembling a barrier-knockdown paradigm, 36 music students trained to perform a wide left-hand interval leap on the piano. Performance at the target distance was tested before and after a 30-min standardized training session. The high-variability group (VAR) practiced four different intervals including the target. Another group (FIX) practiced the target interval only. A third group (SPA) performed spaced practice on the target only, interweaving with periods of not playing. Transfer was tested by introducing an interval novel to either group. After a 24-h period with no further exposure to the instrument, performance was retested. All groups performed at comparable error levels before training, after training, and after the retention (RET) interval. At transfer, however, the FIX group, unlike the other groups, committed significantly more errors than in the target task. After the RET period, the effect was washed out for the FIX group but then was present for VAR. Thus, the results provide only partial support for the VOP hypothesis for the given setting. Additional exploratory observations suggest tentative benefits of VOP regarding execution speed, loudness, and performance confidence. We derive specific hypotheses and specific recommendations regarding sample selection and intervention duration for future investigations. Furthermore, the proposed leap task measurement is shown to be (a) robust enough to serve as a standard framework for studies in the music domain, yet (b) versatile enough to allow for a wide range of designs not previously investigated for music on a standardized basis.

  2. Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex control in food-directed attention and goal-directed food choice in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Lieneke K.; Duif, Iris; Loon, van Ilke; Wegman, Joost; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76

  3. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; He, Zhimin; Chase, Henry W; Wills, Andy J; Troisi, Joseph; Leventhal, Adam M; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus-response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to produce that outcome. One differential prediction is that whereas the incentive learning account anticipates that negative mood induction could augment a novel tobacco-seeking response in an extinction test, the S-R account could not explain this effect because the extinction test prevents S-R learning by omitting experience of the reinforcer. To test this, overnight-deprived daily smokers (n = 44) acquired two instrumental responses for tobacco and chocolate points, respectively, before smoking to satiety. Half then received negative mood induction to raise the expected value of tobacco, opposing satiety, whilst the remainder received positive mood induction. Finally, a choice between tobacco and chocolate was measured in extinction to test whether negative mood could augment tobacco choice, opposing satiety, in the absence of direct experience of tobacco reinforcement. Negative mood induction not only abolished the devaluation of tobacco choice, but participants with a significant increase in negative mood increased their tobacco choice in extinction, despite satiety. These findings suggest that negative mood augments drug-seeking by raising the expected value of the drug through incentive learning, rather than through automatic S-R control.

  4. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, L; Zhimin, H; Chase, HW; Wills, AJ; Troisi II, J; Leventhal, M; Mathew, AR; Hitsman, B

    2015-01-01

    Background Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus?response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to ...

  5. Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James W; Wilson, Mark R; Skultety, Jessica K; Lyons, James L

    2018-04-01

    The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback ("play-it-safe"), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control ("go-for-it"). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue oxygenation as a target for goal-directed therapy in high-risk surgery : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Vos, Jaap Jan; Poterman, Marieke; Kalmar, Alain F.; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background:  Tissue hypoperfusion occurs frequently during surgery and may contribute to postoperative organ dysfunction. There is a need for perioperative treatment protocols aiming at improving tissue oxygenation (StO(2)). We hypothesised that intra-operative optimisation of StO(2) improves tissue

  7. Comparison between traditional and goal directed perfusion in cardiopulmonary by-pass. Adaptation of a differential cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Povero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A previous patient-level discrete event simulation (DES model was developed to perform an economic evaluation of GDP strategy with respect to TP in US. Aim of this supplement is provide results of the adaptations of the differential cost analysis to Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and UK. METHODS: A Discrete Event Simulation model was developed to compare TP and GDP strategy in patients undergoing CPB. National perspective was adopted to calculate costs associated to each event while GDP strategy was exploited the introduction of Sorin Heartlink (HL Card/GDP Card and Sorin Connect (electronic data management system. RESULTS: GDP reduces the total cost with respect to traditional perfusion; furthermore the cost of GDP strategy (Sorin GDPTM Monitor and Sorin ConnectTM is completely offset by the saving in hospital stay. CONCLUSION: GDP seems to improve significantly the main outcomes related to CPB surgery, when compared to TP techniques. Additional costs due to perform GDP strategy have no impact on the total cost since completely offset by the savings in hospital cost.

  8. Differential Effects of Systemic Cholinergic Receptor Blockade on Pavlovian Incentive Motivation and Goal-Directed Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-01-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing—used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value—we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  9. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity is related to Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Van Biesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ≤75 and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N= 36 and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N= 39, of which 47 were 400m runners (all male and 28 were 1500m-runners (15 male and 13 female. Pacing was analysed by means of 100m split times (for 400m races and 200m split times (for 1500m races. Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p<.05. Maximal velocity of elite 400m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ±0.2 m/s, and their overall pace was slower (F=120.7, p<.05. In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500m races. Whereas male 1500m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100m (7.2±0.1 m/s, slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6±0.1 m/s, and finished with an end sprint (+0.9±0.1 m/s; the 1500m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1±0.3 m/s, accelerated in the second segment (+ 0.2±0

  10. Pacing and decision making in sport and exercise: the roles of perception and action in the regulation of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Benjamin L M; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2014-06-01

    In pursuit of optimal performance, athletes and physical exercisers alike have to make decisions about how and when to invest their energy. The process of pacing has been associated with the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity across an exercise bout. The current review explores divergent views on understanding underlying mechanisms of decision making in pacing. Current pacing literature provides a wide range of aspects that might be involved in the determination of an athlete's pacing strategy, but lacks in explaining how perception and action are coupled in establishing behaviour. In contrast, decision-making literature rooted in the understanding that perception and action are coupled provides refreshing perspectives on explaining the mechanisms that underlie natural interactive behaviour. Contrary to the assumption of behaviour that is managed by a higher-order governor that passively constructs internal representations of the world, an ecological approach is considered. According to this approach, knowledge is rooted in the direct experience of meaningful environmental objects and events in individual environmental processes. To assist a neuropsychological explanation of decision making in exercise regulation, the relevance of the affordance competition hypothesis is explored. By considering pacing as a behavioural expression of continuous decision making, new insights on underlying mechanisms in pacing and optimal performance can be developed.

  11. The Canadian intense neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, P R

    1967-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. has proposed construction of an Intense Neutron-Generator. The generator would produce uniquely-intense beams of thermal neutrons for solid-state and low-energy nuclear studies and would yield significant quantities of radioisotopes of both research and commercial value; it would also produce copious sources of mesons and energetic nucleons for use in intermediate-energy nuclear physics and in nuclear-structure studies. The primary neutron source of 10{sup 19}/sec would be generated by bombarding a heavy-element target with a continuous beam of 65 mA of 1 GeV protons. The target of circulating and cooled Pb-Bi eutectic would be surrounded by a tank of heavy water moderator yielding a maximum useful flux of 10{sup 16} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec in the region where neutron beams can be extracted. This high-energy spallation process for producing neutrons is nearly four times more efficient in producing neutrons per unit of thermal energy released in the neutron source compared with a fission reactor. Nevertheless, if energy costs for producing the 65 MW proton beam are to be within reason, the machine producing the beam must be efficient. A D.C. machine is in principle ideal but practical achievement of 1 GV is not likely within the time desired. An accelerator where the protons gain energy from radio-frequency fields is the most likely prospect. We have selected a linear accelerator as our reference design and detailed theoretical and experimental studies are in progress. The machine is based on the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility design reoptimized for continuous rather than pulsed operation. It is approximately one mile long and is expected to achieve nearly 50 percent overall efficiency. There are two major portions, an 'Alvarez' Section operating at 200 MHz accelerating the beam to about 150 MeV, followed by a 'Waveguide' section operating at 800 MHz. Protons are initially injected by an 0.75 MV D.C. accelerator. The Alvarez

  12. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  13. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  14. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  15. Latitudinal variation of the solar photospheric intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Rast, Mark P.; Ortiz, Ada; Meisner, Randle W.

    2007-01-01

    We have examined images from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in search of latitudinal variation in the solar photospheric intensity. Along with the expected brightening of the solar activity belts, we have found a weak enhancement of the mean continuum intensity at polar latitudes (continuum intensity enhancement $\\sim0.1 - 0.2%$ corresponding to a brightness temperature enhancement of $\\sim2.5{\\rm K}$). This appears to be thermal in ...

  16. Energy Intensity of the Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy intensity is a dependency between continuous energy intensity and energy intensity of movement. In the paper it is proposed analyze energy intensity of the movement, as the size specifying the power demand to the wheel drive and presented the balance of power of an electric car moving in the urban cycle. The object of the test was the hybrid vehicle with an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The measurements were carried out for 4 speeds and 2 driving profiles.

  17. Hurricane feedback research may improve intensity forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Forecasts of a hurricane's intensity are generally much less accurate than forecasts of its most likely path. Large-scale atmospheric patterns dictate where a hurricane will go and how quickly it will get there. The storm's intensity, however, depends on small-scale shifts in atmospheric stratification, upwelling rates, and other transient dynamics that are difficult to predict. Properly understanding the risk posed by an impending storm depends on having a firm grasp of all three properties: translational speed, intensity, and path. Drawing on 40 years of hurricane records representing 3090 different storms, Mei et al. propose that a hurricane's translational speed and intensity may be closely linked.

  18. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J.L.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Collar, J.; de Gouvea, A.; Essig, R.; Grossman, Y.; Haxton, W.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Pitts, K.; Ligeti, Z.; Patterson, J.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Ritchie, J.L.; Roodman, A.; Scholberg, K.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Zeller, G.P.; Aefsky, S.; Afanasev, A.; Agashe, K.; Albright, C.; Alonso, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Aoki, M.; Arguelles, C.A.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Armendariz, J.R.; Armendariz-Picon, C.; Arrieta Diaz, E.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.M.; Babu, K.S.; Bailey, K.; Baker, O.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Bass, M.; Batell, B.; Beacham, J.; Behr, J.; Berger, N.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Bernstein, R.; Bevan, A.J.; Bishai, M.; Blanke, M.; Blessing, S.; Blondel, A.; Blum, T.; Bock, G.; Bodek, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boyce, J.; Breedon, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Brice, S.J.; Briere, R.A.; Brodsky, S.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Browder, T.E.; Bryman, D.A.; Buckley, M.; Burnstein, R.; Caden, E.; Campana, P.; Carlini, R.; Carosi, G.; Castromonte, C.; Cenci, R.; Chakaberia, I.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, C.H.; Choudhary, B.; Christ, N.H.; Christensen, E.; Christy, M.E.; Chupp, T.E.; Church, E.; Cline, D.B.; Coan, T.E.; Coloma, P.; Comfort, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cowan, R.; Cowen, D.F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Datta, A.; Davies, G.S.; Demarteau, M.; DeMille, D.P.; Denig, A.; Dermisek, R.; Deshpande, A.; Dewey, M.S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, M.R.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dobbs, S.; Duraisamy, M.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Eads, M.; Echenard, B.; Elliott, S.R.; Escobar, C.; Fajans, J.; Farooq, S.; Faroughy, C.; Fast, J.E.; Feinberg, B.; Felde, J.; Feldman, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Filippone, B.; Fisher, P.; Flemming, B.T.; Flood, K.T.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.J.; Freyberger, A.; Friedland, A.; Gandhi, R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, F.G.; Gardner, S.; Garrison, L.; Gasparian, A.; Geer, S.; Gehman, V.M.; Gershon, T.; Gilchriese, M.; Ginsberg, C.; Gogoladze, I.; Gonderinger, M.; Goodman, M.; Gould, H.; Graham, M.; Graham, P.W.; Gran, R.; Grange, J.; Gratta, G.; Green, J.P.; Greenlee, H.; Group, R.C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gudkov, V.; Guenette, R.; Haas, A.; Hahn, A.; Han, T.; Handler, T.; Hardy, J.C.; Harnik, R.; Harris, D.A.; Harris, F.A.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnett, J.; He, B.; Heckel, B.R.; Heeger, K.M.; Henderson, S.; Hertzog, D.; Hill, R.; Hinds, E.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Holt, R.J.; Holtkamp, N.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huber, P.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imber, J.; Irastorza, I.; Jaeckel, J.; Jaegle, I.; James, C.; Jawahery, A.; Jensen, D.; Jessop, C.P.; Jones, B.; Jostlein, H.; Junk, T.; Kagan, A.L.; Kalita, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karle, A.; Katori, T.; Kayser, B.; Kephart, R.; Kettell, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.; Kneller, J.; Kobach, A.; Kohl, M.; Kopp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Korsch, W.; Kourbanis, I.; Krisch, A.D.; Krizan, P.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, K.S.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lamm, M.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Langacker, P.; Lazarevic, S.; Le, T.; Lee, K.; Lesko, K.T.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, M.; Lindner, A.; Link, J.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.S.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, C.Y.; Loinaz, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Louis, W.C.; Lozier, J.; Ludovici, L.; Lueking, L.; Lunardini, C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Machado, P.A.N.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Maloney, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Marsh, W.; Marshak, M.; Martin, J.W.; Mauger, C.; McFarland, K.S.; McGrew, C.; McLaughlin, G.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Meadows, B.T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Melconian, D.; Merkel, H.; Messier, M.; Miller, J.P.; Mills, G.; Minamisono, U.K.; Mishra, S.R.; Mocioiu, I.; Sher, S.Moed; Mohapatra, R.N.; Monreal, B.; Moore, C.D.; Morfin, J.G.; Mousseau, J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, P.; Muether, M.; Mumm, H.P.; Munger, C.; Murayama, H.; Nath, P.; Naviliat-Cuncin, O.; Nelson, J.K.; Neuffer, D.; Nico, J.S.; Norman, A.; Nygren, D.; Obayashi, Y.; O'Connor, T.P.; Okada, Y.; Olsen, J.; Orozco, L.; Orrell, J.L.; Osta, J.; Pahlka, B.; Paley, J.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papucci, M.; Parke, S.; Parker, R.H.; Parsa, Z.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Pati, J.C.; Patterson, R.B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Paz, Gil; Perdue, G.N.; Perevalov, D.; Perez, G.; Petti, R.; Pettus, W.; Piepke, A.; Pivovaroff, M.; Plunkett, R.; Polly, C.C.; Pospelov, M.; Povey, R.; Prakesh, A.; Purohit, M.V.; Raby, S.; Raaf, J.L.; Rajendran, R.; Rajendran, S.; Rameika, G.; Ramsey, R.; Rashed, A.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rebel, B.; Redondo, J.; Reimer, P.; Reitzner, D.; Ringer, F.; Ringwald, A.; Riordan, S.; Roberts, B.L.; Roberts, D.A.; Robertson, R.; Robicheaux, F.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Rott, C.; Rubin, P.; Saito, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schellman, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, D.W.; Schneps, J.; Schopper, A.; Schuster, P.; Schwartz, A.J.; Schwarz, M.; Seeman, J.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Seth, K.K.; Shafi, Q.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Sharpe, S.R.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Sigurdson, K.; Sikivie, P.; Singh, J.; Sivers, D.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Song, Y.H.; Soni, A.; Souder, P.; Sousa, A.; Spitz, J.; Stancari, M.; Stavenga, G.C.; Steffen, J.H.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoeckinger, D.; Stone, S.; Strait, J.; Strassler, M.; Sulai, I.A.; Sundrum, R.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tanedo, P.; Taneja, S.; Tang, J.; Tanner, D.B.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I.; Thomas, J.; Thorn, C.; Tian, X.; Tice, B.G.; Tobar, M.; Tolich, N.; Toro, N.; Towner, I.S.; Tsai, Y.; Tschirhart, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Tzanov, M.; Upadhye, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahsen, S.; Vainshtein, A.; Valencia, E.; Van de Water, R.G.; Van de Water, R.S.; Velasco, M.; Vogel, J.; Vogel, P.; Vogelsang, W.; Wah, Y.W.; Walker, D.; Weiner, N.; Weltman, A.; Wendell, R.; Wester, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitmore, J.; Widmann, E.; Wiedemann, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winter, W.; Wise, M.B.; Wodin, J.; Wojcicki, S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wongjirad, T.; Worcester, E.; Wurtele, J.; Xin, T.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yavin, I.; Yeck, J.; Yeh, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, E.; Zioutas, K.; Zisman, M.; Zupan, J.; Zwaska, R.; Intensity Frontier Workshop

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  19. Intense, ultrashort light and dense, hot matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article presents an overview of the physics and applications of the interaction of high intensity laser light with matter. It traces the crucial advances that have occurred over the past few decades in laser technology and nonlinear optics and then discusses physical phenomena that occur in intense laser fields and their ...

  20. African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is to provide a medium for the dissemination of original works in Africa and other parts of the world about anaesthesia and intensive care including the application of basic sciences ...

  1. Development and comparison of different intensity duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... Microsoft Excel software was used to develop exponential, logarithmic and power intensity-duration-frequency models for return period (T) of duration-frequency models for return period (T) of between 2 years and 100 years using rainfall intensity data for durations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, ...

  2. Treatment intensity and childhood apraxia of speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    BackgroundIntensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. AimTo investigate the

  3. Government expenditure and energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuxiang, Karl; Chen, Zhongchang

    2010-01-01

    The recent economic stimulus package of China has raised growing concern about its potential impact on energy demand and efficiency. To what extent does such expansion of government expenditure influence energy intensity? This question has not been well answered by the previous research. Using provincial panel data, this paper provides some evidence of a link between government expenditure and energy intensity in China. The empirical results demonstrate that the expansion of government expenditure since Asian financial crisis has exerted a significant influence on energy intensity. An increase in government expenditure in China leads to an increase in energy intensity. Further analysis compares such relationships in different economic situations. The comparison shows that such positive effect of government expenditure remains significant after the alteration in economic situation. Therefore, the results suggest introducing some measures to consolidate China's existing gains in energy efficiency. The analysis also explains why the downward trend in energy intensity is reversed in China since 2002. (author)

  4. [Quality management in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Braun, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of critical ill patients in the intensive care unit is tantamount to well-designed risk or quality management. Several tools of quality management and quality assurance have been developed in intensive care medicine. In addition to extern quality assurance by benchmarking with regard to the intensive care medicine, peer review procedures have been established for external quality assurance in recent years. In the process of peer review of an intensive care unit (ICU), external physicians and nurses visit the ICU, evaluate on-site proceedings, and discuss with the managing team of the ICU possibilities for optimization. Furthermore, internal quality management in the ICU is possible based on the 10 quality indicators of the German Interdisciplinary Society for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI, "Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin"). Thereby every ICU has numerous possibilities to improve their quality management system.

  5. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  6. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1980-04-01

    Relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays were evaluated for 16 nuclides, 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 133 Ba, 139 Ce, sup(180m)Hf, 198 Au, 203 Hg and 207 Bi. For most of these nuclides disintegration rates can be determined by means of β-γ or X-γ coincidence method. Since decay schemes of these nuclides are established, intensities per decay of strong gamma rays were accurately evaluated by using weak beta-ray branching ratios, relative gamma-ray intensities and internal conversion coefficients. Half-lives of the nuclides were also evaluated. Use of the nuclides, therefore, are recommended for precision intensity calibration of the detectors. (author)

  7. [Quality assurance concepts in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, A; Braun, J P; Riessen, R; Dubb, R; Kaltwasser, A; Bingold, T M

    2015-11-01

    Intensive care medicine (ICM) is characterized by a high degree of complexity and requires intense communication and collaboration on interdisciplinary and multiprofessional levels. In order to achieve good quality of care in this environment and to prevent errors, a proactive quality and error management as well as a structured quality assurance system are essential. Since the early 1990s, German intensive care societies have developed concepts for quality management and assurance in ICM. In 2006, intensive care networks were founded in different states to support the implementation of evidence-based knowledge into clinical routine and to improve medical outcome, efficacy, and efficiency in ICM. Current instruments and concepts of quality assurance in German ICM include core intensive care data from the data registry DIVI REVERSI, quality indicators, peer review in intensive care, IQM peer review, and various certification processes. The first version of German ICM quality indicators was published in 2010 by an interdisciplinary and interprofessional expert commission. Key figures, indicators, and national benchmarks are intended to describe the quality of structures, processes, and outcomes in intensive care. Many of the quality assurance tools have proved to be useful in clinical practice, but nationwide implementation still can be improved.

  8. Dynamic jump intensities and risk premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Ornthanalai, Chayawat; Jacobs, Kris

    2012-01-01

    We build a new class of discrete-time models that are relatively easy to estimate using returns and/or options. The distribution of returns is driven by two factors: dynamic volatility and dynamic jump intensity. Each factor has its own risk premium. The models significantly outperform standard...... models without jumps when estimated on S&P500 returns. We find very strong support for time-varying jump intensities. Compared to the risk premium on dynamic volatility, the risk premium on the dynamic jump intensity has a much larger impact on option prices. We confirm these findings using joint...

  9. Innovation system and knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this deliverable is to investigate the properties and the nature of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship as a largely distributed phenomenon at firm, sector and national levels in Denmark. Following the guidelines previously developed in the Deliverable 2.2.1 “Innovation systems...... and knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship: Analytical framework and guidelines for case study research” I will investigate the interplay between national innovation systems and knowledge- intensive entrepreneurship by focusing on two main sectors: machine tools, and computer and related activities....

  10. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  11. Intense Ion Pulses for Radiation Effects Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    induction linear accelerator that has been developed to deliver intense, up to 50 nC/pulse/mm2, sub-ns pulses of light ions with kinetic energy up to 1.2...II induction linear accelerator for intense ion beam pulses at Berkeley Lab. Figure 3. Helium current and integrated charge versus time at the...under contracts DE-AC02-205CH11231 and DE-AC52-07NA27344. JOURNAL OF RADIATION EFFECTS, Research and Engineering Vol. 35, No. 1, April 2017 158 INTENSE

  12. Generation of intensity duration frequency curves and intensity temporal variability pattern of intense rainfall for Lages/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Orli Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the frequency distribution and intensity temporal variability of intense rainfall for Lages/SC from diary pluviograph data. Data on annual series of maximum rainfalls from rain gauges of the CAV-UDESC Weather Station in Lages/SC were used from 2000 to 2009. Gumbel statistic distribution was applied in order to obtain the rainfall height and intensity in the following return periods: 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. Results showed intensity-duration-frequency curves (I-D-F for those return periods, as well as I-D-F equations: i=2050.Tr0,20.(t+30-0,89, where i was the intensity, Tr was the rainfall return periods and t was the rainfall duration. For the intensity of temporal variability pattern along of the rainfall duration time, the convective, or advanced pattern was the predominant, with larger precipitate rainfalls in the first half of the duration. The same pattern presented larger occurrences in the spring and summer stations.

  13. A personalized, intense physical rehabilitation program improves walking in people with multiple sclerosis presenting with different levels of disability: a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Nitzani, Dalia; Magalashvili, David; Dolev, Mark; Menascu, Shay; Stern, Yael; Rosenblum, Uri; Pasitselsky, Diana; Frid, Lior; Zeilig, Gabi; Barmatz, Caroline; Givon, Uri; Achiron, Anat

    2015-03-04

    People with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) endure walking limitations. To address this restriction, various physical rehabilitation programs have been implemented with no consensus regarding their efficacy. Our objective was to report on the efficacy of an integrated tailored physical rehabilitation program on walking in people with multiple sclerosis categorized according to their level of neurological disability. Retrospective data were examined and analyzed. Specifically, data obtained from all patients who participated in the Multiple Sclerosis Center's 3 week rehabilitation program were extracted for in depth exploration. The personalized rehabilitation program included three major components modified according to the patient's specific impairments and functional needs: (a) goal directed physical therapy (b) moderately intense aerobic exercise training on a bicycle ergometer and (c) aquatic therapy chiefly oriented to body structures appropriate to movement. Gait outcome measurements included the 10 meter, 20 meter, Timed up and go and 2 minute walking tests measured pre and post the rehabilitation program. Three hundred and twelve people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were included in the final analysis. Patients were categorized into mild (n = 87), moderate (n = 104) and severely (n = 121) disabled groups. All clinical walking outcome measurements demonstrated statistically significant improvements, however, only an increase in the 2 minute walking test was above the minimal clinical difference value. The moderate and severe groups considerably improved compared to the mild gait disability group. Mean change scores (%) of the pre-post intervention period of the 2 minute walking test were 19.0 (S.E. = 3.4) in the moderate group, 16.2 (S.E. = 5.4) in the severe group and 10.9 (S.E. = 2.3) in the mild gait disability group. We presented comprehensive evidence verifying the effects of an intense goal-directed physical

  14. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Data Intensive Systems (DIS) Benchmark Performance Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musmanno, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    .... However, elements such as larger caches, prefetching, and multithreading do not address the needs of data-intensive DoD applications, which consequently operate at rates far below the peak processor- capacity...

  16. Intensive care patient diaries in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Storli, Sissel Lisa; Åkerman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness and intensive care therapy are often followed by psychological problems such as nightmares, hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, depression, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Intensive care patient diaries have been kept by nurses and the patients' family since the early 1990s...... in the Scandinavian countries to help critically ill patients come to terms with their illness after hospital discharge. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the emergence and evolution of intensive care patient diaries in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The study had a comparative international design using...... secondary analysis of qualitative data generated by key-informant telephone interviews with intensive care nurses (n=114). The study showed that diaries were introduced concurrently in the three Scandinavian countries as a grass-roots initiative by mutual cross-national inspiration. The concept has evolved...

  17. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  18. Intensive Care Management of Patients with Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jody C

    2018-06-01

    Cirrhosis is a major worldwide health problem which results in a high level of morbidity and mortality. Patients with cirrhosis who require intensive care support have high mortality rates of near 50%. The goal of this review is to address the management of common complications of cirrhosis in the ICU. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increase in hospitalizations due to advanced liver disease with an associated increase in intensive care utilization. Given an increasing burden on the healthcare system, it is imperative that we strive to improve our management cirrhotic patients in the intensive care unit. Large studies evaluating the management of patients in the intensive care setting are lacking. To date, most recommendations are based on extrapolation of data from studies in cirrhosis outside of the ICU or by applying general critical care principles which may or may not be appropriate for the critically ill cirrhotic patient. Future research is required to answer important management questions.

  19. Physiotherapy patients in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Miszewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the Minister of Health dated 20/12/2012 on medical standards of conduct in the field of Anaesthesiology and intensive therapy, for carrying out the activities of healing in section § 2.2 intense therapy defines as: "any proceedings to maintain vital functions, and treatment of patients in life-threatening States, caused by potentially reversible renal failure one or more basic body systems, in particular the respiration, cardiovascular, central nervous system". However, in point § 12.1. We read that "Treatment of patients under intensive care in the hospital is an interdisciplinary". Annex 1 to this regulation refers to the work of physiotherapist in the ICU (INTENSIVE CARE UNITS and reads as follows: "the equivalent of at least 0.5 FTE-physical therapist-up to a range of benefits to be performed (the third reference level". [6

  20. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1978-03-01

    Results of literature survey and evaluation of relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays are presented. Evaluations were made for 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 48 V, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 203 Hg, and 207 Bi. For eight of the nuclides, the half-lives were also evaluated. (auth.)

  1. Solar flares and the cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity during solar cycle 20 is discussed. A model is developed whereby it is possible to simulate the observed cosmic ray intensity from the observed number of solar flares of importance >= 1. This model leads to a radius for the modulation region of 60-70 AU. It is suggested that high speed solar streams also made a small contribution to the modulation of cosmic rays during solar cycle 20. (orig.)

  2. Developing data-intensive applications on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Hribar, Rok

    2011-01-01

    Facebook applications are becoming an important asset to companies in marketing and promotion of their services or products. For easier and more efficient marketing for companies there are many different data-intensive Facebook applications that businesses can use. Data-intensive applications require large amounts of data, the greater part of the implementation is used primarily for searching and transfering data from database. In my graduation thesis I focused on the development, transfe...

  3. Early stages of technology intensive companies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhos, M. (Matti)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to clarify the early development stages of technology intensive companies. The current literature does not offer an extensive review of stage perspectives for company growth – the overall picture of the field is somewhat vague. The evolution of this field remains unclear as well as the current state. Further, recent empirical stage models focusing on technology intensive companies have not been delineated. As companies move through their early stages, they face ev...

  4. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  5. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  6. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Elsner

    Full Text Available The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93 [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  7. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  8. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  9. A savanna response to precipitation intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S Berry

    Full Text Available As the atmosphere warms, precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense. A three-year experiment in Kruger National Park, South Africa, found that fewer, more intense precipitation events encouraged woody plant encroachment. To test whether or not these treatment responses persisted over time, here, we report results from all five years of that experiment. Grass growth, woody plant growth, total fine root number and area and hydrologic tracer uptake by grasses and woody plants were measured in six treated plots (8 m by 8 m and six control plots. Treatment effects on soil moisture were measured continuously in one treated and one control plot. During the fourth year, increased precipitation intensity treatments continued to decrease water flux in surface soils (0-10 cm, increase water flux in deeper soils (20+ cm, decrease grass growth and increase woody plant growth. Greater root numbers at 20-40 cm and greater woody plant uptake of a hydrological tracer from 45-60 cm suggested that woody plants increased growth by increasing root number and activity (but not root area in deeper soils. During the fifth year, natural precipitation events were large and intense so treatments had little effect on precipitation intensity or plant available water. Consistent with this effective treatment removal, there was no difference in grass or woody growth rates between control and treated plots, although woody plant biomass remained higher in treated than control plots due to treatment effects in the previous four years. Across the five years of this experiment, we found that 1 small increases in precipitation intensity can result in large increases in deep (20-130 cm soil water availability, 2 plant growth responses to precipitation intensity are rapid and disappear quickly, and 3 because woody plants accumulate biomass, occasional increases in precipitation intensity can result in long-term increases in woody plant biomass (i.e., shrub

  10. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INTENSITY EFFECTS ON TFP INTENSITY OF ASEAN 5 PLUS 2

    OpenAIRE

    Elsadig Musa Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) intensity through decomposition of labour productivity growth into contributions of capital deepening, increased usage of foreign direct investment (FDI) intensity, and the simultaneous contribution of the quality of these factors. This has expressed as the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) intensity growth in achieving productivity driven growth in ASEAN 5 (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore and...

  11. Numerical evaluation of the intensity transport equation for well-known wavefronts and intensity distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Granados-Agustín, Fermín.; Cornejo-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván.

    2013-11-01

    In order to obtain a clearer interpretation of the Intensity Transport Equation (ITE), in this work, we propose an algorithm to solve it for some particular wavefronts and its corresponding intensity distributions. By simulating intensity distributions in some planes, the ITE is turns into a Poisson equation with Neumann boundary conditions. The Poisson equation is solved by means of the iterative algorithm SOR (Simultaneous Over-Relaxation).

  12. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  13. Steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Alan Anwar; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition. A number of existing schemes such as binary, Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, Lucas, and Catalan-Fibonacci (CF) are evaluated in terms of payload capacity and stego quality. A new technique based on a specific representation is proposed to decompose pixel intensity values into 16 (virtual) bit-planes suitable for embedding purposes. The proposed decomposition has a desirable property whereby the sum of all bit-planes does not exceed the maximum pixel intensity value, i.e. 255. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers an effective compromise between payload capacity and stego quality of existing embedding techniques based on pixel intensity value decomposition. Its capacity is equal to that of binary and Lucas, while it offers a higher capacity than Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, and CF when the secret bits are embedded in 1st Least Significant Bit (LSB). When the secret bits are embedded in higher bit-planes, i.e., 2nd LSB to 8th Most Significant Bit (MSB), the proposed scheme has more capacity than Natural numbers based embedding. However, from the 6th bit-plane onwards, the proposed scheme offers better stego quality. In general, the proposed decomposition scheme has less effect in terms of quality on pixel value when compared to most existing pixel intensity value decomposition techniques when embedding messages in higher bit-planes.

  14. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  15. Analgesia, sedation, and memory of intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, M; Pinamonti, A; Cingolani, E; Grassi, L; Bianconi, M; Contu, P; Gritti, G; Alvisi, R

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationship between analgesia, sedation, and memory of intensive care. One hundred fifty-two adult, cooperative intensive care unit (ICU) patients were interviewed 6 months after hospital discharge about their memory of intensive care. The patient was considered to be cooperative when he/she was aware of self and environment at the interview. The patients were grouped as follows: A (45 patients) substantially no sedation, B (85) morphine, and C (22) morphine and other sedatives. The patients having no memory of intensive care were 38%, 34%, and 23% respectively, in the three groups. They were less ill, according to SAPS II (P memories was not different among the three groups. Females reported at least one emotional memory more frequently than males (odds ratio 4.17; 95% CI 10.97-1.59). The patients receiving sedatives in the ICU are not comparable with those receiving only opiates or nothing, due to the different clinical condition. The lack of memory of intensive care is present in one third of patients and is influenced more by length of stay in ICU than by the sedation received. Sedation does not influence the incidence of factual, sensation, and emotional memories of ICU admitted patients. Females have higher incidences of emotional memories than males. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  16. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M M [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A; Jovanovic, M

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  17. Infrared line intensities of chlorine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Faris, J. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute infrared line intensities of several ClO lines in the rotational-vibrational (1-0) band were measured using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy near 12 microns. A measurement technique using combined ultraviolet absorption and infrared line measurements near 9.5 microns and 12 microns permitted an accurate determination of the column densities of O3 and ClO in the absorption cell and thus improved ClO line intensities. Results indicate ClO line and band intensities approximately 2.4 times lower than previous experimental results. Effects of possible failure of local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the absorption cell and the implication of the results for stratospheric ClO measurements in the infrared are discussed.

  18. Changing land use intensity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Sluis, Theo; Pedroli, Bas; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the intensification of agricultural production in many European countries has been one of the key components of land-use change. The impact of agricultural intensification varies according to national and local contexts and a greater understanding of the drivers of intensification...... will help to mitigate against its negative impacts and harness potential benefits. This paper analyses changes in land use intensity in six case studies in Europe. A total of 437 landowners were interviewed and their responses were analysed in relation to changes in land use intensity and agricultural...... use intensity) versus those in the Netherlands, Denmark and Greece (decreasing). In the Mediterranean cases we observe a process where agriculture is becoming increasingly marginalised, at the same time as changes in function with regard to urbanisation and recreational land uses have taken place...

  19. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  20. Making thermodynamic functions of nanosystems intensive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassimi, A M; Parsafar, G A

    2007-01-01

    The potential energy of interaction among particles in many systems is proportional to r -α . In systems for which α< d, we encounter nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions, where d is the space dimension. A scaling parameter, N-tilde, has been introduced to make the nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions of such systems extensive (intensive). Our simulation results show that this parameter is not capable of making the thermodynamic functions of a nanosystem extensive (intensive). Here we have presented a theoretical justification for N-tilde. Then we have generalized this scaling parameter to be capable of making the nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions of nanosystems extensive (intensive). This generalized parameter is proportional to the potential energy per particle at zero temperature

  1. Spin and radiation in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, M.W.; Urbach, D.J.; Hatsagortsyan, K.Z.; Hu, S.X.; Keitel, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    The spin dynamics and its reaction on the particle motion are investigated for free and bound electrons in intense linearly polarized laser fields. Employing both classical and quantum treatments we analytically evaluate the spin oscillation of free electrons in intense laser fields and indicate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the motion of the electron. In Mott scattering an estimation for the spin oscillation is derived. In intense laser ion dynamics spin signatures are studied in detail with emphasis on high-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime. First- and second-order calculations in the ratio of electron velocity and the speed of light show spin signatures in the radiation spectrum and spin-orbit effects in the electron polarization

  2. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency......The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm......, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation...

  3. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  4. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. © 2014 John Wiley

  5. The future of intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, L; Annane, D; Antonelli, M; Chiche, J D; Cuñat, J; Girard, T D; Jiménez, E J; Quintel, M; Ugarte, S; Mancebo, J

    2013-03-01

    Intensive care medical training, whether as a primary specialty or as secondary add-on training, should include key competences to ensure a uniform standard of care, and the number of intensive care physicians needs to increase to keep pace with the growing and anticipated need. The organisation of intensive care in multiple specialty or central units is heterogeneous and evolving, but appropriate early treatment and access to a trained intensivist should be assured at all times, and intensivists should play a pivotal role in ensuring communication and high-quality care across hospital departments. Structures now exist to support clinical research in intensive care medicine, which should become part of routine patient management. However, more translational research is urgently needed to identify areas that show clinical promise and to apply research principles to the real-life clinical setting. Likewise, electronic networks can be used to share expertise and support research. Individuals, physicians and policy makers need to allow for individual choices and priorities in the management of critically ill patients while remaining within the limits of economic reality. Professional scientific societies play a pivotal role in supporting the establishment of a defined minimum level of intensive health care and in ensuring standardised levels of training and patient care by promoting interaction between physicians and policy makers. The perception of intensive care medicine among the general public could be improved by concerted efforts to increase awareness of the services provided and of the successes achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Wilson, Shona; Kariuki, H. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the "greedy growth scan" is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis...... for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis...

  7. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2--3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10--15% relative to its mean value realized during a broad 9-year period contered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this 9-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small in relation to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant

  8. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  9. Data-Intensive Science and Research Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C; Soranno, Patricia A; Smith, Elise M

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we consider questions related to research integrity in data-intensive science and argue that there is no need to create a distinct category of misconduct that applies to deception related to processing, analyzing, or interpreting data. The best way to promote integrity in data-intensive science is to maintain a firm commitment to epistemological and ethical values, such as honesty, openness, transparency, and objectivity, which apply to all types of research, and to promote education, policy development, and scholarly debate concerning appropriate uses of statistics.

  10. Beam monitoring system for intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring system realizing novel principle of operation and allowing to register a two-dimensional beam current distribution within entire aperture (100...200 mm) of ion pipe for a time in nanosecond range has been designed and accomplished for beam control of the INR intense neutron source, for preventing thermo-mechanical damage of its first wall. Key unit of the system is monitor of two-dimensional beam current distribution, elements of which are high resistant to heating by the beam and to radiation off the source. The description of the system and monitor are presented. Implementation of the system for the future sources with more high intensities are discussed. (author)

  11. Intense positron beams and possible experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Frieze, W.E.

    1983-07-01

    In this paper, we survey some of the ideas that have been proposed regarding the production of intense beams of low energy positrons. Various facilities to produce beams of this type are already under design or construction and other methods beyond those in use have been previously discussed. Moreover, a variety of potential experiments utilizing intense positron beams have been suggested. It is to be hoped that this paper can serve as a useful summary of some of the current ideas, as well as a stimulation for new ideas to be forthcoming at the workshop. 31 references

  12. Intense particle beam and multiple applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Machida, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Multiple Application Intense Particle Beam project is an experiment in which an injector of high energy neutral or ionized particles will be used to diagnose high density and high temperature plasmas. The acceleration of the particles will be carried out feeding a diode with a high voltage pulse produced by a Marx generator. Other apllications of intense particle beam generated by this injector that could be explored in the future include: heating and stabilization of compact toroids, treatment of metallic surfaces and ion implantation. (author) [pt

  13. Beam-intensity limitations in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent demand for high-intensity beams of various particles has renewed interest in the investigation of beam current and beam quality limits in linear RF and induction accelerators and beam-transport channels. Previous theoretical work is reviewed, and new work on beam matching and stability is outlined. There is a real need for extending the theory to handle the time evolution of beam emittance; some present work toward this goal is described. The role of physical constraints in channel intensity limitation is emphasized. Work on optimizing channel performance, particularly at low particle velocities, has resulted in major technological advances. The opportunities for combining such channels into arrays are discussed. 50 references

  14. Does intensity of physical activity moderate interrelationships among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine whether perceived intensity of training ... intensity of training and functional capacity with various measures of health. Perceived intensity of training had marginally moderating effects on physical ...

  15. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  16. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkman Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunions occur in 5-10% of fractures and are characterized by the failure to heal without further intervention. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy has been developed as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of nonunions. We describe a systematic review on trials of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy for healing of nonunions. We searched the electronic databases Medline and the Cochrane library for articles on ultrasound and healing of nonunions published up to 2008. Trials selected for the review met the following criteria: treatment of at least one intervention group with low intensity pulsed ultrasound; inclusion of patients (humans with one or more nonunions (defined as "established" or as a failure to heal for a minimum of eight months after initial injury; and assessment of healing and time to healing, as determined radiographically. The following data were abstracted from the included studies: sample size, ultrasound treatment characteristics, nonunion location, healing rate, time to fracture healing, fracture age, and demographic information. We found 79 potentially eligible publications, of which 14 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies were used for data abstraction. Healing rates averaged 87%, (range 65.6%-100% among eight trials. Mean time to healing was 146.5 days, (range 56-219 days. There is evidence from trials that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be an effective treatment for healing of nonunions. More homogeneous and larger controlled series are needed to further investigate its efficacy.

  17. Particle theory and intense hadron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, J.N.

    1989-05-01

    A brief overview of particle physics that can be done at an intense hadron facility (IHF) is given. The emphasis is placed on testing the standard model, light Higgs boson searches and CP violation, which are areas an IHF can do especially well

  18. Managing the overflow of intensive care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsbergen, M.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Litvak, Nelli

    2005-01-01

    Many hospitals in the Netherlands are confronted with capacity problems at their Intensive Care Units (ICUs) resulting in cancelling operations, overloading the staff with extra patients, or rejecting emergency patients. In practice, the last option is a common choice because juridically, as well as

  19. Patients' experiences of intensive care diaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Bagger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore patients' experiences and perceptions of receiving intensive care diaries. A focus group and intensive care diaries for four former ICU patients were analysed to understand what works and what needs further development for patients who receive a diary. The stud......-ICU patients to gradually construct or reconstruct their own illness narrative, which is pieced together by their fragmented memory, the diary, the pictures, the hospital chart and the accounts from family and friends.......The aim of the study was to explore patients' experiences and perceptions of receiving intensive care diaries. A focus group and intensive care diaries for four former ICU patients were analysed to understand what works and what needs further development for patients who receive a diary. The study...... that the diary alone provided incomplete information and reading the diary did not necessarily bring back memories, but helped complete their story. The patients needed to know what they had gone through in ICU and wished to share their story with their family. We conclude that diaries might help post...

  20. Application of superconductivity to intense proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrichs, H.

    1996-01-01

    Three examples of proposed superconducting linacs for intense particle beams are presented, and in two cases compared to normal conducting counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of both types are discussed. Suggestions for future developments are presented. Finally a comparison of estimated operational costs of the normal and the superconducting linac for the ESS is given. (R.P.)

  1. Engineering Education in Research-Intensive Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, E.; Jones, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of engineering education in research-intensive institutions are reported and key areas for developmental focus identified. The work is based on a questionnaire and session summaries used during a two-day international conference held at Imperial College London. The findings highlight several common concerns, such as…

  2. Spectral intensity distribution of trapped fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trapped fermions; local density approximation; spectral intensity distribution function. ... Thus, cold atomic systems allow us to study interesting ... In fermions, synthetic non-Abelian gauge ... energy eigenstates of the isotropic harmonic oscillator [26–28]. ... d i=1. (ni + 1. 2. )ω0. In calculating the SIDF exactly these eigenfunc-.

  3. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The determinants of subjective emotional intensity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Sonnemans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that emotional intensity is determined jointly by variables from the following 4 classes: concerns (strength and relevance), appraisal, regulation, and individual response propensities. For 6 wks, 37 college students reported an emotion every week and answered questions on a

  5. Moderately acurate oscillator strengths from NBS intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    An earlier paper explored the calibration of NBS Monograph 145 intensity measurements for the purpose of obtaining useful oscillator strengths. In the present work we investigate the question of a single 'temperature' for the copper arc light sources. Statistical arguments support rejection of the null hypothesis of a single temperature. Evidence is found for a mild correction to the intensity scale, but there is no indication that the intensities drift with wave length. We reinforce earlier findings that very useful gf-values can be derived from Monograph 145 intensities for any spectrum in which there are enough accurate measurements for a calibration. For the present, it seems that such calibrations must be made individually for each spectrum, and the predictions should not be extrapolated beyond the calibration domains. A table lists interpolation coefficients for Fe I, Co I, Ni I, Ti I, Zr II, Y II, Nd II and U II. An improved formula is given to transform the Corliss-Tech Fe I oscillator strengths to the Oxford system. (author)

  6. An intensive tree-ring experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Hevia, Andrea; Camarero, J.J.; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, Dave; Crivellaro, Alan; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta; Hellman, Lena; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Kaye, Margot; Akhmetzyanov, Linar; Ashiq, Muhammad Waseem; Bhuyan, Upasana; Bondarenko, Olesia; Camisón, Álvaro; Camps, Sien; García, Vicenta Constante; Vaz, Filipe Costa; Gavrila, Ionela G.; Gulbranson, Erik; Huhtamaa, Heli; Janecka, Karolina; Jeffers, Darren; Jochner, Matthias; Koutecký, Tomáš; Lamrani-Alaoui, Mostafa; Lebreton-Anberrée, Julie; Seijo, María Martín; Matulewski, Pawel; Metslaid, Sandra; Miron, Sergiu; Morrisey, Robert; Opdebeeck, Jorgen; Ovchinnikov, Svyatoslav; Peters, Richard; Petritan, Any M.; Popkova, Margarita; Rehorkova, Stepanka; Ariza, María O.R.; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Linden, Van der Marjolein; Vannoppen, Astrid; Volařík, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The European Dendroecologial Fieldweek (EDF) provides an intensive learning experience in tree-ring research that challenges any participant to explore new multidisciplinary dendro-sciences approaches within the context of field and laboratory settings. Here we present the 25th EDF, held in

  7. Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, Karen L. van der; Mosk, Allard P.; Lagendijk, Ad

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantitative experimental and theoretical study of intensity fluctuations in the emitted light of a random laser that has different realizations of disorder for every pump pulse. A model that clarifies these intrinsic fluctuations is developed. We describe the output versus input power graphs of the random laser with an effective spontaneous emission factor (β factor)

  8. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit

  9. Heating of underdense plasmas by intense lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1972-08-01

    In this note we show that two intense driving fields with frequency much greater than the electron plasma frequency (ω/sub pe/), but with a frequency separation of nearly ω/sub pe/, will couple electron and ion plasma waves and drive them unstable. 6 refs

  10. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  11. [Medication errors in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Martín, M C; Alonso, A; Gutiérrez, I; Alvarez, J; Becerril, F

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of medication errors in Spanish intensive care units. Post hoc study of the SYREC trial. A longitudinal observational study carried out during 24 hours in patients admitted to the ICU. Spanish intensive care units. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit participating in the SYREC during the period of study. Risk, individual risk, and rate of medication errors. The final study sample consisted of 1017 patients from 79 intensive care units; 591 (58%) were affected by one or more incidents. Of these, 253 (43%) had at least one medication-related incident. The total number of incidents reported was 1424, of which 350 (25%) were medication errors. The risk of suffering at least one incident was 22% (IQR: 8-50%) while the individual risk was 21% (IQR: 8-42%). The medication error rate was 1.13 medication errors per 100 patient-days of stay. Most incidents occurred in the prescription (34%) and administration (28%) phases, 16% resulted in patient harm, and 82% were considered "totally avoidable". Medication errors are among the most frequent types of incidents in critically ill patients, and are more common in the prescription and administration stages. Although most such incidents have no clinical consequences, a significant percentage prove harmful for the patient, and a large proportion are avoidable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  13. Alexithymia and Affect Intensity of Fine Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Marion; Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Research on creative artists has examined mainly their personality traits or cognitive abilities. However, it seems important to explore also their emotional traits to complete the profile. This study examines two emotional characteristics: alexithymia and affect intensity. Even if most research suggests that artists are less alexithymic and…

  14. State of the Profession: Intensive English Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the current state of the ESL profession for teachers in Intensive English Programs (IEPs). Because the IEP context may be unfamiliar to some readers, the author first gives an overview of the characteristics and goals of these types of programs. Second, an examination of how administrators and programs are striving to…

  15. Message Control Intensity: Rationale and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. Edna; And Others

    The discussions of four family-related topics by 85 married couples were recorded and analyzed to test the validity of an expanded version of the relational communication coding system developed by L. Edna Rogers and Richard V. Farace. The expanded version of the system is based on the implicit intensity continuum that underlies the communication…

  16. Material properties under intensive dynamic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Cherne, Frank J; Zhernokletov, Mikhail V; Glushak, B L; Zocher, Marvin A

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the physical and thermomechanical response of materials subjected to intensive dynamic loading is a challenge of great significance in engineering today. This volume assumes the task of gathering both experimental and diagnostic methods in one place, since not much information has been previously disseminated in the scientific literature.

  17. On calculating intensity from XPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, Janos

    2006-01-01

    The intensity calculation is the basis for all quantitative applications of electron spectroscopy. Unfortunately, some misinterpreted terms are used and correctly interpreted terms are misused in the overwhelming majority of publications in XPS, including most textbooks as well as accepted and proposed standards. Due to this mistake the number of the detected electrons is given as having dimension of energy (?) and also the formulas for calculating the peak area and its standard deviation are wrong. Since in all other spectroscopic fields the number of the detected particles is dimensionless, continuing this practice leads to isolating XPS from both other measurement sciences and theory, because the measured total intensity in XPS is simply not comparable to the ones derived with other spectroscopic methods or theoretically. Therefore, the basic measuring processes and terms are critically reviewed and their physically correct interpretation is given. This interpretation reveals that the error is hidden in the incorrect interpretation of both the measurement process and the measured quantity. It is shown that through using the correct interpretation both the dimensions of the intensity calculated from electron spectroscopic measurements as well as the formulas related to the intensity and its standard deviation will agree with all other spectroscopic fields

  18. Teamwork in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero

    2013-01-01

    Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…

  19. Photonuclear physics with low intensity photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments in photonuclear physics are discussed that require a low intensity photon beam and large acceptance detectors. This combination is especially suitable for the investigation of photoprocesses on nucleons and light nuclei. A specific experimental setup for the electron stretcher ring ELSA is presented. (orig.)

  20. Cofactors Influencing Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine samples were collected from 657 individuals and analyzed by centrifugation, and the number of ova was determined by microscopy. ... Cattle rearing (OR=9.01; CI=4.00-20.75; P=0.00) and farming (OR=3.14; CI=1.82-5.43; P=0.00) showed significant association with the prevalence and intensity of the disease.

  1. Power curve report - with turbulence intensity normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn; Vesth, Allan

    , additional shear and turbulence intensitity filters are applied on the measured data. Secondly, the method for normalization to a given reference turbulence intensity level (as described in Annex M of the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [3]) is applied. The measurements have been performed using DTU...

  2. Radiologic protection in intensive therapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, H.; Juliana, C.; Gerusa, R.; Laurete, M.B.; Suelen, S.; Derech, Rodrigo D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of X-ray was a great achievement for humanity, especially for the medical community. In Intensive Care Units (ICUs), the RX tests, performed with mobile devices, add immense value to the diagnosis of inpatients who do not have the option to carry them out of bed. Following the technology and its improvements, fatalities arose from misuse of ionizing radiation, which mostly gave up for lack of knowledge of the biological effects caused by them, which leads to fear among professionals and often prevents a quick job and effectively by professionals of radiological techniques. The research it is a systematic review of the literature and justified by the scarcity of materials that reflect on the radiological protection in ICUs. For this study we found the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Pubmed were indexed terms radiological protection and intensive care units, the search in Portuguese and English terms were used radiological protection and intensive care unit. The study aims to inform professionals of ICUs on the main aspects that refer to X-rays in hospital beds, the standards of radiological protection and personal protective equipment, thus avoiding possible damage to the biological health of workers, addressing subjects in rules and laws about the X radiation, emphasizing the protection of professionals in intensive care. It is clear, finally, that little research is conducted in the context of radiological protection of workers ICU's and this is a place that receives daily RX equipment, deserving more attention to protect the worker. (author)

  3. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  4. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  5. Intensity attenuation for active crustal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.; Worden, C. Bruce

    2012-07-01

    We develop globally applicable macroseismic intensity prediction equations (IPEs) for earthquakes of moment magnitude M W 5.0-7.9 and intensities of degree II and greater for distances less than 300 km for active crustal regions. The IPEs are developed for two distance metrics: closest distance to rupture ( R rup) and hypocentral distance ( R hyp). The key objective for developing the model based on hypocentral distance—in addition to more rigorous and standard measure R rup—is to provide an IPE which can be used in near real-time earthquake response systems for earthquakes anywhere in the world, where information regarding the rupture dimensions of a fault may not be known in the immediate aftermath of the event. We observe that our models, particularly the model for the R rup distance metric, generally have low median residuals with magnitude and distance. In particular, we address whether the direct use of IPEs leads to a reduction in overall uncertainties when compared with methods which use a combination of ground-motion prediction equations and ground motion to intensity conversion equations. Finally, using topographic gradient as a proxy and median model predictions, we derive intensity-based site amplification factors. These factors lead to a small reduction of residuals at shallow gradients at strong shaking levels. However, the overall effect on total median residuals is relatively small. This is in part due to the observation that the median site condition for intensity observations used to develop these IPEs is approximately near the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program CD site-class boundary.

  6. Collimator setting optimization in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Hoban, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of collimator angle and bixel size settings in IMRT when using the step and shoot method of delivery. Of particular interest is minimisation of the total monitor units delivered. Beam intensity maps with bixel size 10 x 10 mm were segmented into MLC leaf sequences and the collimator angle optimised to minimise the total number of MU's. The monitor units were estimated from the maximum sum of positive-gradient intensity changes along the direction of leaf motion. To investigate the use of low resolution maps at optimum collimator angles, several high resolution maps with bixel size 5 x 5 mm were generated. These were resampled into bixel sizes, 5 x 10 mm and 10 x 10 mm and the collimator angle optimised to minimise the RMS error between the original and resampled map. Finally, a clinical IMRT case was investigated with the collimator angle optimised. Both the dose distribution and dose-volume histograms were compared between the standard IMRT plan and the optimised plan. For the 10 x 10 mm bixel maps there was a variation of 5% - 40% in monitor units at the different collimator angles. The maps with a high degree of radial symmetry showed little variation. For the resampled 5 x 5 mm maps, a small RMS error was achievable with a 5 x 10 mm bixel size at particular collimator positions. This was most noticeable for maps with an elongated intensity distribution. A comparison between the 5 x 5 mm bixel plan and the 5 x 10 mm showed no significant difference in dose distribution. The monitor units required to deliver an intensity modulated field can be reduced by rotating the collimator and aligning the direction of leaf motion with the axis of the fluence map that has the least intensity. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  7. Intensive meditation for refractory pain and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Madhav; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Levine, David; Becker, Diane; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Ford, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess patient interest in intensive meditation training for chronic symptoms. This was a cross-sectional anonymous survey among six chronic disease clinics in Baltimore including Chronic Kidney Disease, Crohn's Disease, Headache, Renal Transplant Recipients, General Rheumatology, and lupus clinic. Subjects were 1119 consecutive patients registering for their appointments at these clinics. Outcome measures were 6-month pain, global symptomatology, four-item perceived stress scale, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, and attitudes toward use of meditation for managing symptoms. We then gave a scripted description of an intensive, 10-day meditation training retreat. Patient interest in attending such a retreat was assessed. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of patients approached completed the survey. Fifty-three percent (53%) of patients reported moderate to severe pain over the past 6 months. Eighty percent (80%) reported use of some CAM therapy in the past. Thirty-five percent (35%) thought that learning meditation would improve their health, and 49% thought it would reduce stress. Overall, 39% reported interest in attending the intensive 10-day meditation retreat. Among those reporting moderate to severe pain or stress, the percentages were higher (48% and 59%). In a univariate analysis, higher education, nonworking/disabled status, female gender, higher stress, higher pain, higher symptomatology, and any CAM use were all associated with a greater odds of being moderately to very interested in an intensive 10-day meditation retreat. A multivariate model that included prior use of CAM therapies as predictors of interest in the program fit the data significantly better than a model not including CAM therapies (p = 0.0013). Over 50% of patients followed in chronic disease clinics complain of moderate to severe pain. Patients with persistent pain or stress are more likely to be interested in intensive meditation.

  8. [Intensive care medicine-survival and prospect of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, A

    2017-10-01

    Intensive care medicine has achieved a significant increase in survival rates from critical illness. In addition to short-term outcomes like intensive care unit or hospital mortality, long-term prognosis and prospect of life of intensive care patients have recently become increasingly important. Pure survival is no longer a sole goal of intensive care medicine. The prediction of an intensive care patient's individual course should include the period after intensive care. A relevant proportion of all intensive care patients is affected by physical, psychological, cognitive, and social limitations after discharge from the intensive care unit. The prognosis of the status of the patient after discharge from the intensive care unit is an important part of the decision-making process with respect to the implementation or discontinuation of intensive care measures. The heavy burden of intensive care treatment should not solely be argued by pure survival but an anticipated sound prospect of life.

  9. Exercise intensity of cycle-touring events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, G; Pfister, R; Mitterbauer, G; Gaenzer, H; Sturm, W; Eibl, G; Hoertnagl, H

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exercise intensity of recreational cyclists participating in a cycling-touring event. In 14 male healthy recreational cyclists heart rate (HR) monitoring was performed during the Otztal Radmarathon 1999 (distance: 230 km; altitude difference: 5500 m) in order to evaluate the HR response and to estimate the cardiopulmonary strains for the less-trained athlete confronted with such a marathon. Four different exercise intensities were defined as percentages of maximal HR (HR(max)) as follows: recovery HR (HR(re)) 90 %. All athletes finished the competition successfully. The mean racing time was 10 h 14 min, the average speed 22.5 km/h. The mean HR(max) was 188 bpm, the average value of the measured HRs (HR(average)) was 145 bpm resulting in a mean HR(average)/HR(max) ratio of 0.77. Athletes spent 18.5 % (1 h 54 min) of total race time within HR(re), 28 % (2 h 52 min) within HR(ma), 39.5 % (4 h 02 min) within HR(ia), and 14 % (1 h 26 min) within HR(an). The vast majority of exercise was done under "aerobic conditions" (HR(re) + HR(ma) + HR(ia) = 86 % or 8 h 48 min) - confirming the knowledge that the aerobic energy supply is crucial for the performance of long-term exercise. The large amount of high exercise intensities (HR(ia) + HR(an) = 53.5 % or 5 h 30 min), however, features the intense cardiopulmonary strains evoked by such competitions. The HR response was related to the course profile with HRs significantly declining in all subjects to an extent of 10 % during the course of race. Our findings show that the exercise intensity borne by recreational cyclists during a cycle-touring event is high and very similar to that of professionals. With respect to the high cardiovascular strains a thorough medical screening is advisable for any participant of such an event combining both high volume and high intensity loads.

  10. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  11. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science XIII

    CERN Document Server

    III, Wendell; Paulus, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This thirteenth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field and high-order harmonics generation and their applications. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, the interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries.   .

  12. Symmetry tests with intense hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.W.

    1994-08-01

    The Government of Canada has pulled the plug on funding of the KAON facility in Canada. But the science opportunities for symmetry tests with the kinds of beams that KAON would have provided remain. For example, the full intensity of kaons, which KAON would have provided, is needed to find the magnitude and phase of V td and therefore to describe direct CP violation. The combination of K + → π + ν ν - and K L o → π o ν ν - serve this purpose. A variety of other symmetry tests are possible with the kind of intense beams of kaons, antinucleons, other hadrons and neutrinos which KAON would have provided. A perspective will be given for such experiments and their future prospects, now that KAON will not be built. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelei

    2015-08-01

    The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment is aimed at surveying the northern sky 21cm intensity at mid-redshifts, thus map out the neutral hydrogen distribution. The experiment is named "Tianlai" which means "heavenly sound" in classic Chinese, because its ultimate goal is to use the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the correlation function or power spectrum of large scale structure to constrain the cosmic expansion rate, and determine the nature of dark energy.The pathfinder experiment consists three cylinder reflectors of 15m wide x 40m long, and 16 dishes of 6 meter aperture, for testing the basic principle and key technologies. A radio-quiet site in Hongliuxia, Xinjiang of north-west China is selected, currently the facilities are under construction, and the prototype is expected to start commissioning later this year. The experiment is run by NAOC, with members from France, USA and Canada.

  14. Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.; Quere, F.; Levy, A.; Ceccotti, T.; Monot, P.; Bougeard, M.; Reau, F.; D'Oliveira, P.; Martin, PH.; Geindre, J.P.; Audebert, P.; Marjoribanks, R.; Marjoribanks, R.

    2007-01-01

    Specular reflection is one of the most fundamental processes of optics. At moderate light intensities generated by conventional light sources this process is well understood. But at those capable of being produced by modern ultrahigh-intensity lasers, many new and potentially useful phenomena arise. When a pulse from such a laser hits an optically polished surface, it generates a dense plasma that itself acts as a mirror, known as a plasma mirror (PM). PMs do not just reflect the remainder of the incident beam, but can act as active optical elements. Using a set of three consecutive PMs in different regimes, we significantly improve the temporal contrast of femtosecond pulses, and demonstrate that high-order harmonics of the laser frequency can be generated through two distinct mechanisms. A better understanding of these processes should aid the development of laser-driven atto-second sources for use in fields from materials science to molecular biology. (authors)

  15. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows

  16. Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaury, C; Quere, F; Levy, A; Ceccotti, T; Monot, P; Bougeard, M; Reau, F; D' Oliveira, P; Martin, PH [CEA, DSM, DRECAM, Serv Photons Atomes and Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Geindre, J P; Audebert, P [Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Utilisat Lasers Inst, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France); Marjoribanks, R [Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, (Canada); Marjoribanks, R [Univ Toronto, Inst Opt Sci, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Specular reflection is one of the most fundamental processes of optics. At moderate light intensities generated by conventional light sources this process is well understood. But at those capable of being produced by modern ultrahigh-intensity lasers, many new and potentially useful phenomena arise. When a pulse from such a laser hits an optically polished surface, it generates a dense plasma that itself acts as a mirror, known as a plasma mirror (PM). PMs do not just reflect the remainder of the incident beam, but can act as active optical elements. Using a set of three consecutive PMs in different regimes, we significantly improve the temporal contrast of femtosecond pulses, and demonstrate that high-order harmonics of the laser frequency can be generated through two distinct mechanisms. A better understanding of these processes should aid the development of laser-driven atto-second sources for use in fields from materials science to molecular biology. (authors)

  17. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Li, Ruxin; Chin, See Leang

    2009-01-01

    The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This fourth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on strong field ionization of atoms; excitation, ionization and fragmentation of molecules; nonlinear intense optical phenomena and attosecond pulses; and laser - solid interactions and photoemission.

  18. ELISE, a code for intensity dependent effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1991-01-01

    The Electron ring Limits on Intensity, Stability, and Emittance (ELISE) code described in this paper computes many of the intensity dependent effects of interest to the builder of a small electron storage ring. ELISE is a program, developed largely for the author's own use, which duplicates many of the functions provided by the more general program ZAP developed by the Berkeley group. The motivation for the code was to provide an interactive system for quick answers that could be used during accelerator commissioning. A lattice program, IDA, developed earlier by the author while at Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a good model of the type of user friendly interaction that would be desirable in such a code

  19. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science III

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This third volume covers a diverse range of disciplines, focusing on such topics as strong field ionization of atoms, ionization and fragmentation of molecules and clusters, generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, filamentation and laser plasma interaction, and the development of ultrashort and ultrahigh-intensity light sources.

  20. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  1. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  2. Radiation control through licensing and intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-H.; Yang, Y.-C.; Wu, T.-Y.; Weng, P.-S.

    1982-01-01

    Various types of intensive training courses to suit radiation workers in different fields were sponsored by both the Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan and the National Health Administration of Executive Yuan, Republic of China during the past seven years. During the years 1974-79, the number of radiation workers attending each training course, their age, sex and educational background are presented in detail. The typical course contents for both medical and non-medical radiation workers are given. A summary of the percentage of passes and failures of the final examination given at the end of each training course is also given. The present status of licensing for radiation facilities and workers is described, and its results are indicated. The successful control of ionizing radiation through this kind of intensive training and licensing is evidenced in the film badge records given by a centralized service laboratory located at the National Tsing Hua University. (author)

  3. Intensive integrated therapy of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The macro- and microvascular burden of type 2 diabetes is well established. A number of recent single risk factor intervention trials targeting hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulation, microalbumuria, and existing cardiovascular disorders have, however, shown major beneficial...... effects on long-term outcome. The results from these studies are anticipated to change the future management of type 2 diabetes, and most of the updated national guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes recommend a multipronged approach driven by ambitious treatment targets. The outcome...... of this intensive integrated therapy has, however, only been investigated in a few studies of patients with type 2 diabetes. One of these trials, the Steno-2 Study, showed that intensive intervention for an average of 7.8 years cuts cardiovascular events as well as nephropathy, retinopathy, and autonomic neuropathy...

  4. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VIII

    CERN Document Server

    Nisoli, Mauro; Hill, Wendell; III, III

    2012-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand. These are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This eighth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on molecules interacting with ultrashort and intense laser fields, advanced technologies for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses and their applications, laser plasma formation and laser acceleration.

  5. Resolving Tropical Cyclone Intensity in Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. A.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, global weather forecast models and global climate models have begun to depict intense tropical cyclones, even up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. In light of the limitation of horizontal resolution in such models, the author performs calculations, using the extended Best Track data for Atlantic tropical cyclones, to estimate the ability of models with differing grid spacing to represent Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity statistically. Results indicate that, under optimistic assumptions, models with horizontal grid spacing of one fourth degree or coarser should not produce a realistic number of category 4 and 5 storms unless there are errors in spatial attributes of the wind field. Furthermore, the case of Irma (2017) is used to demonstrate the importance of a realistic depiction of angular momentum and to motivate the use of angular momentum in model evaluation.

  6. Very high intensity reaction chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    The problem of achieving very high intensity irradiation by light in minimal regions was studied. Three types of irradiation chamber are suggested: the common laser-reaction chamber, the folded concentric or near-concentric resonator, and the asymmetric confocal resonator. In all designs the ratio of high-intensity illuminated volume to other volume is highly dependent (to the 3 / 2 power) on the power and fluence tolerances of optical elements, primarily mirrors. Optimization of energy coupling is discussed for the common cavity. For the concentric cavities, optimization for both coherent and incoherent beams is treated. Formulae and numerical examples give the size of chambers, aspect ratios, maximum pass number, image sizes, fluences, and the like. Similarly for the asymmetric confocal chamber, formulae and numerical examples for fluences, dimensions, losses, and totally contained pass numbers are given

  7. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  8. Reducing nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eileen; Alderdice, Fiona; McCall, Emma; Jenkins, John; Craig, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    Nosocomial infection is a common problem in neonatal intensive care. A pilot quality improvement initiative focussing on hand hygiene and aimed at reducing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants was introduced in five Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Line associated laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection (LCBSI) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) were chosen as main outcome measures. In VLBW infants, the rate of line associated LCBSI per 1000 central venous catheter days fell by 24%. The rate of VAP per 1000 ventilator days in VLBW infants fell by 38%. Pre- and post-intervention questionnaires showed a statistically significant increase in use of alcohol-based gels and increased knowledge of hand hygiene.

  9. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  10. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VI

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Bandrauk, André D

    2010-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This sixth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on responses of molecules to ultrashort intense laser pulses, generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and high-order harmonics, and filamentation and laser-plasma interaction.

  11. Computed radiography in neonatal intensive care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlo, L.; Bighi, S.; Cervi, P.M.; Lupi, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Authors report their experience in the employment of a computerized digital radiographic system in Neonatal Intensive Care. The analog screen-film system is replaced by photosensitive imaging plates, scanned after X-ray exposure by a laser that releases the digital image, which can then be manipulated on computer work-stations. In a period of twelve months about 200 chest-abdomen X-ray examinations in Neonatal Intensive Care have been performed using this method with good technical and diagnostic results. The use of digital radiography in the neonatal area is of high interest: this system produces good quality images, there is a reduction in radiation dose and 'retakes', the system allows selective enhancement of different structures and their magnification. (orig.)

  12. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science XII

    CERN Document Server

    Roso, Luis; Li, Ruxin; Mathur, Deepak; Normand, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This  volume covers a broad range of topics focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field, laser induced filamentation, and laser plasma interaction and application. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. .

  13. Energy intensity, target level of energy intensity, and room for improvement in energy intensity: An application to the study of regions in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2014-01-01

    While the previous literature shows that a decline in energy intensity represents an improvement in energy use efficiency, it does not provide a target level of energy intensity, nor what room for improvement in terms of energy intensity could entail. This study establishes an indicator of such room for improvement in terms of energy intensity by measuring the difference between the target level of energy intensity and the actual energy intensity and thereby monitors energy use efficiency. The traditional indicator of energy intensity, defined as energy use over GDP, mainly estimates energy use efficiency, but is a partial effect between the energy input and GDP output. However, our proposed indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity is the total-factor effects based on the multiple-inputs model. By taking the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency using the indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity, this study concludes that an improvement in energy intensity does not fully depend on a decline in energy intensity, and we instead need to confirm whether the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity decreases. This finding is particularly relevant for energy policy-makers. - Highlights: • This paper establishes an indicator for the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity. • This study takes the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency. • A different result appears by using our proposed indicator

  14. An intense transmission spectrometer for ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newport, R.J.; Howells, W.S.

    1986-07-01

    The report seeks to outline a design for an intense transmission spectrometer (ITS) suitable for installation on the pulsed neutron source ISIS. The performance of the instrument is evaluated and several examples of the areas of science made accessible are discussed. It is shown that the proposed design will represent a scientifically valuable and cost-effective addition to the present suite of ISIS instruments. (author)

  15. Intensive Care Nursing And Time Management

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCANLI, Derya; İLGÜN, Seda

    2008-01-01

    Time is not like other resources, because it can not be bought, sold, stolen, borrowed, stored, saved, multiplied or changed. All it can be done is spent. Time management means the effective use of resources, including time, in such a way that indi- viduals are effective in achieving important personal goals. With the increasing emphasis on efficiency in health care, how a nurse manages her time is an important consideration. Since intensive care nurs- ing is focused on the care and tr...

  16. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)

  17. Making thermodynamic functions of nanosystems intensive

    OpenAIRE

    Nassimi, Ali Mohammad; Parsafar, Gholamabbas

    2006-01-01

    The interaction potential energy among particles in many systems is of the form of r^-(alpha), at least at long distances. It has been argued that, in systems for which (alpha) < d (d is the space dimension) we encounter with nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions. A scaling parameter N~ has been introduced to make nonextensive (nonintensive) thermodynamic functions of such systems extensive (intensive) functions. Our simulation results show that this parameter is not capable of ...

  18. Frontiers of particle beams: Intensity limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, M.; Month, M.; Turner, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present volume is the proceedings of the latest of these joint schools, held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, in 1990. This course dealt with intensity limitations and was centered on a series of lectures which could be divided into the following main categories: Self and environmental fields, Coherent instabilities and their simulation, Beam-beam interaction, Other multiparticle effects, Beam source limitations, Engineering limitations. (orig.)

  19. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    OpenAIRE

    Piccolo, D.; Di Marcantonio, D.; Crisman, G.; Cannarozzo, G.; Sannino, M.; Chiricozzi, A.; Chimenti, S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL) represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne), due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases), port-wine stain (PWS) (10 cases), disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases), pilonidal cyst (3 cases), seborrheic keratosis (10 cases), hype...

  20. Burnout Among Anesthetists and Intensive Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalauskas, Audrius; Benetis, Rimantas; Širvinskas, Edmundas; Andrejaitienė, Judita; Kinduris, Šarūnas; Macas, Andrius; Padaiga, Žilvinas

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and low personal accomplishment. Little is known about burnout in physicians. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of burnout among anesthetists and intensive care physicians, and associations between burnout and personal, as well as professional, characteristics. In total, 220 anesthetists and intensive care physicians were contacted by email, asking them to participate in the study. For depression screening the PHQ-2 questionnaire, for problem drinking, CAGE items were used. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Overall, 34% anesthetists and intensive care physicians indicated high levels of emotional exhaustion, 25% indicated high levels of depersonalization, and 38% showed low personal accomplishment. Burnout was found more frequent among subjects with problem drinking (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8), depressiveness (OR 10.2, 95% CI 4.6-22.6), cardiovascular disorders (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and digestive disorders (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0). Some favorite after-work activities positively correlated with burnout, such as sedative medications abuse (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.5), alcohol abuse (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5), eating more than usual (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), and transferring the accumulated stress to relatives (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5). In contrast, reading of non-medical literature seemed to have a protective effect (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Burnout was highly prevalent among anesthetists and intensive care physicians with two fifths of them meeting diagnostic criteria. It was strongly correlated with problem drinking, depressiveness, cardiovascular and digestive disorders, use of sedatives and overeating.

  1. Trade Exposure of Energy Intensive Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korteland, M.H.; Nelissen, D.; De Bruyn, S.M.

    2010-04-01

    In this report we analysed the origin and destinations of trade flows between EU and non-EU countries with respect to eight industrial sectors. In addition we looked at the political pledges made during the Copenhagen negotiations last December. If we combine these two types of insights, we get an idea of the risk of carbon leakage due to EU climate policies. Our analysis shows that the EU often trades with countries that have climate policy in place. As these major trading partners of the EU can be expected to adopt similar stringent climate policies, CO2 might get a price in these markets as well and the risk of carbon leakage is reduced/absent. Trade intensities should be corrected for that. In case the EU will adopt a -30% emission reduction target, trade with Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland, Brazil and Mexico, need to be excluded from the calculation of trade intensities since those countries will adopt comparable climate policies. The average downward correction on trade intensities is 3%. If the EU eventually decides to adopt a -20% reduction scenario, trade flows with Russia, Canada and the USA should also be excluded. Those countries will then have policies of similar stringency. The average correction on trade intensities is then -8,5%. These findings have direct consequences on the allocation mechanism for some sectors, which will no longer receive free emission rights as they do not qualify as 'exposed' to international competition anymore. These sectors are listed in Table 4 (-30% scenario) and Table 5 (-20% scenario) on page 31. Yet, those sectors that are expected to face large cost increases (>5%) due to EU ETS, will still receive free allocation.

  2. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  3. Statistics of spatially integrated speckle intensity difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Yura, Harold

    2009-01-01

    We consider the statistics of the spatially integrated speckle intensity difference obtained from two separated finite collecting apertures. For fully developed speckle, closed-form analytic solutions for both the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function are derived...... here for both arbitrary values of the mean number of speckles contained within an aperture and the degree of coherence of the optical field. Additionally, closed-form expressions are obtained for the corresponding nth statistical moments....

  4. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  5. Health, Work Intensity, and Technological Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Raouf Boucekkine; Natali Hritonenko; Yuri Yatsenko

    2013-01-01

    Work significantly affects human life and health. Overworking may decrease the quality of life and cause direct economic losses. Technological innovations encourage modernization of firms' capital and improve labor productivity in the workplace. The paper investigates the optimal individual choice of work intensity under improving technology embodied in new equipment leading to shorter lifetime of capital goods (obsolescence). The balanced growth trajectories are analyzed in this context to f...

  6. Knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship and financial capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses various financial issues of relevance in the context of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship. The study can be seen as an empirical test of parts of a theoretical framework previously developed which aims at identifying and explaining some of the key factors affecting...... investigated (IT and life sciences). In closing, the paper briefly touches upon implications for policy makers, investors and business managers and for research....

  7. Intensity-modulated arc therapy simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Eugene; Chen, Jeff Z.; Greenland, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We present a treatment planning strategy for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using gantry arcs with dynamic multileaf collimator, previously termed intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Methods and Materials: The planning strategy is an extension of the photon bar arc and asymmetric arc techniques and is classified into three levels of complexity, with increasing number of gantry arcs. This principle allows us to generalize the analysis of the number of arcs required for intensity modulation for a given treatment site. Using a phantom, we illustrate how the current technique is more flexible than the photon bar arc technique. We then compare plans from our strategy with conventional three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for three sites: prostate (prostate plus seminal vesicles), posterior pharyngeal wall, and chest wall. Results: Our strategy generates superior IMAT treatment plans compared to conventional three-dimensional conformal plans. The IMAT plans spare critical organs well, and the trade-off for simplicity is that the dose uniformity in the target volume may not rival that of true inverse treatment plans. Conclusions: The analyses presented in this paper give a better understanding of IMAT plans. Our strategy is easier to understand and more efficient in generating plans than inverse planning systems; our plans are also simpler to modify, and quality assurance is more intuitive

  8. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  9. LHC Report: Intensity ramp-up

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The first stable beams at 4 TeV were declared on Thursday, 5 April with 3 bunches per beam. This marked the start of the intensity ramp-up, which aims to get back up to 1380 bunches per beam as quickly as is safely possible.   The next couple of days saw fills with 47, 84 and 264 bunches per beam and on Sunday, 8 April the move was made to 624 bunches. With the squeeze to 60 cm in place, 624 bunches with reasonably high bunch intensities of around 1.3 to 1.4 x1011 protons per bunch have already yielded respectable peak luminosities of up to 2.5 x1033 cm-2s-1. Following a lot of hard work during the Christmas technical stop, machine availability is very good at the moment. The ramp-up in the number of bunches is accompanied by a series of checks aimed to make sure the machine protection systems and operational procedures are in a good enough shape to safely deal with the beam intensity. 624 bunches at 4 TeV already represents an energy over 50 MJ and serious damage potential. The next few days sh...

  10. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  11. High intensity hadron facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1989-01-01

    There is a large and growing community of particle and nuclear physicists around the world who are actively lobbying for the construction of an accelerator that could provide 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in proton intensity above that of the present AGS. There have been a series of proposals from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the USA. They can all be characterized as machines varying in energy from 12-60 GeV and intensities of 30-100 μA. The community of physicists using the AGS are in a unique position however. The AGS is the only machine available that can provide the beams to execute the physics program that this large international community is interested in. The BNL approach to the communities interests involves a stepwise intensity upgrade program. At present the AGS slow extracted beam current is 1 μA. With the completion of the Booster in 1990 and the associated AGS modifications, the current will rise to 4-5 μA. With the subsequent addition of the Stretcher which is under design, the current will rise to 8-10 μA and approximately 100% duty factor. The possibility of a further enhancement to a current level of 40-50 μA CW is now being examined. 2 figures, 6 tables

  12. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe 48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe 26+ approximately 4x10 10 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 10 12 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C 6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 10 10 from the 5x10mm 2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe 15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached [ru

  13. Intensity dependence of focused ultrasound lesion position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Paul M.; Cahill, Mark D.; ter Haar, Gail R.

    1998-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of intensity loss from an ultrasonic beam is critical to predicting lesion formation in focused ultrasound surgery. To date most models have used linear propagation models to predict the intensity profiles needed to compute the temporally varying temperature distributions. These can be used to compute thermal dose contours that can in turn be used to predict the extent of thermal damage. However, these simulations fail to adequately describe the abnormal lesion formation behavior observed for in vitro experiments in cases where the transducer drive levels are varied over a wide range. For these experiments, the extent of thermal damage has been observed to move significantly closer to the transducer with increasing transducer drive levels than would be predicted using linear propagation models. The simulations described herein, utilize the KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) nonlinear propagation model with the parabolic approximation for highly focused ultrasound waves, to demonstrate that the positions of the peak intensity and the lesion do indeed move closer to the transducer. This illustrates that for accurate modeling of heating during FUS, nonlinear effects must be considered.

  14. A Methodological Approach to Quantifying Plyometric Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark M; Graham-Smith, Phil; Comfort, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Jarvis, MM, Graham-Smith, P, and Comfort, P. A Methodological approach to quantifying plyometric intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2522-2532, 2016-In contrast to other methods of training, the quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a range of neuromuscular and mechanical variables to describe the intensity of plyometric exercises. Seven male recreationally active subjects performed a series of 7 plyometric exercises. Neuromuscular activity was measured using surface electromyography (SEMG) at vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). Surface electromyography data were divided into concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases of movement. Mechanical output was measured by ground reaction forces and processed to provide peak impact ground reaction force (PF), peak eccentric power (PEP), and impulse (IMP). Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability intraclass correlation coefficient and sensitivity smallest detectable difference of all variables. Mean values of SEMG demonstrate high reliability (r ≥ 0.82), excluding ECC VL during a 40-cm drop jump (r = 0.74). PF, PEP, and IMP demonstrated high reliability (r ≥ 0.85). Statistical power for force variables was excellent (power = 1.0), and good for SEMG (power ≥0.86) excluding CON BF (power = 0.57). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in CON SEMG between exercises. Eccentric phase SEMG only distinguished between exercises involving a landing and those that did not (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction [%MVIC] = no landing -65 ± 5, landing -140 ± 8). Peak eccentric power, PF, and IMP all distinguished between exercises. In conclusion, CON neuromuscular activity does not appear to vary when intent is maximal, whereas ECC activity is dependent on the presence of a landing. Force characteristics provide a reliable and sensitive measure enabling precise description of intensity

  15. River flooding due to intense precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, James C.

    2014-01-01

    River stage can rise and cause site flooding due to local intense precipitation (LIP), dam failures, snow melt in conjunction with precipitation or dam failures, etc. As part of the re-evaluation of the design basis as well as the PRA analysis of other external events, the likelihood and consequence of river flooding leading to the site flooding need to be examined more rigorously. To evaluate the effects of intense precipitation on site structures, the site watershed hydrology and pond storage are calculated. To determine if river flooding can cause damage to risk-significant systems, structures, and components (SSC), water surface elevations are analyzed. Typically, the amount and rate of the input water is determined first. For intense precipitation, the fraction of the rainfall in the watershed drainage area not infiltrated into the ground is collected in the river and contributes to the rise of river water elevation. For design basis analysis, the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) is evaluated using the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) based on the site topography/configuration. The peak runoff flow rate and water surface elevations resulting from the precipitation induced flooding can then be estimated. The runoff flow hydrograph and peak discharge flows can be developed using the synthetic hydrograph method. The standard step method can then be used to determine the water surface elevations along the river channel. Thus, the flood water from the local intense precipitation storm and excess runoff from the nearby river can be evaluated to calculate the water surface elevations, which can be compared with the station grade floor elevation to determine the effects of site flooding on risk-significant SSCs. The analysis needs to consider any possible diversion flow and the effects of changes to the site configurations. Typically, the analysis is performed based on conservative peak rainfall intensity and the assumptions of failure of the site drainage facilities

  16. Provincial energy intensity in China: The role of urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese policymakers have attached great importance to energy intensity reduction. However, the unprecedented urbanization process exercises additional pressure on the realization of energy intensity reduction targets. A better understanding of the impacts of urbanization is necessary for designing effective policies aimed at reaching the next energy intensity reduction targets. This paper empirically investigates the impacts of urbanization on China's aggregate and disaggregated energy intensities using a balanced panel dataset of 30 provinces covering the period from 2000 to 2012 and panel estimation techniques. The results show that urbanization significantly increases aggregate energy intensity, electricity intensity and coal intensity. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the determinants of China's energy intensity. • Urbanization is responsible for the increase in China's energy intensity. • The fluctuation in China's energy intensity is also affected by other key factors.

  17. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-{beta} region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the {phi}{sub s}=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs

  18. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal

  19. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-β region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the φ s =0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs, no beam

  20. Intense harmonic generation from various ablation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Elouga, L.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.; Ganeev, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which can produce soft x-rays within the spectral 'water-window' (between 2.3 and 4.4 nm), and ultimately short pulses with attosecond duration. However, the intensity of present-day harmonics is still low, and serious applications will need an increase of the conversion efficiency. Instead of using gas media, one can also use ablation material, produced on solid targets using a low-intensity prepulse, as the nonlinear medium to generate high-order harmonics. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated the generation of up to the 63 rd harmonic (λ = 12.6 nm) of a Ti:sapphire laser radiation using boron ablation, and a strong enhancement in the intensity of the 13 th harmonic from indium ablation. These harmonics were generated with a modest laser (10 mJ, 150 fs) and with the pre-pulse to main pulse energy ratio constant. In this paper, we perform systematic investigations of ablation harmonics, using the 200 mJ, 30 fs Ti:sapphire beam line of the Canadian Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS) facility. ALLS allows studying ablation harmonics over wider experimental parameters, and with independent control over the pre-pulse and main pulse energies. The 10 Hz, 200 mJ Ti:sapphire beam line of ALLS is divided into two beams. Each beam has its own energy control system, which allows independent control over the energy of each beam. One of the beams is used as a pre-pulse for creating ablation, which is focused onto the solid target without pulse compression, with pulse duration of 200 ps. The second beam is used as the main pulse for harmonic generation. The main pulse is delayed in time relative to the pre-pulse by propagating through an optical delay line, and then sent through a pulse compressor. The compressed pulse duration have typical pulse duration of 30 fs FWHM, which is then focused onto the ablation medium using MgF 2

  1. Active Provenance in Data-intensive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Mihajlovski, Andrej; Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm

    2017-04-01

    Scientific communities are building platforms where the usage of data-intensive workflows is crucial to conduct their research campaigns. However managing and effectively support the understanding of the 'live' processes, fostering computational steering, sharing and re-use of data and methods, present several bottlenecks. These are often caused by the poor level of documentation on the methods and the data and how users interact with it. This work wants to explore how in such systems, flexibility in the management of the provenance and its adaptation to the different users and application contexts can lead to new opportunities for its exploitation, improving productivity. In particular, this work illustrates a conceptual and technical framework enabling tunable and actionable provenance in data-intensive workflow systems in support of reproducible science. It introduces the concept of Agile data-intensive systems to define the characteristic of our target platform. It shows a novel approach to the integration of provenance mechanisms, offering flexibility in the scale and in the precision of the provenance data collected, ensuring its relevance to the domain of the data-intensive task, fostering its rapid exploitation. The contributions address aspects of the scale of the provenance records, their usability and active role in the research life-cycle. We will discuss the use of dynamically generated provenance types as the approach for the integration of provenance mechanisms into a data-intensive workflow system. Enabling provenance can be transparent to the workflow user and developer, as well as fully controllable and customisable, depending from their expertise and the application's reproducibility, monitoring and validation requirements. The API that allows the realisation and adoption of a provenance type is presented, especially for what concerns the support of provenance profiling, contextualisation and precision. An actionable approach to provenance

  2. Nitrification inhibitors mitigated reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in intensive vegetable soils from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changhua; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2018-01-15

    Nitrification inhibitors, a promising tool for reducing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) losses and promoting nitrogen use efficiency by slowing nitrification, have gained extensive attention worldwide. However, there have been few attempts to explore the broad responses of multiple reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions of N 2 O, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) and vegetable yield to nitrification inhibitor applications across intensive vegetable soils in China. A greenhouse pot experiment with five consecutive vegetable crops was performed to assess the efficacies of two nitrification inhibitors, namely, nitrapyrin and dicyandiamide on reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions, vegetable yield and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in four typical vegetable soils representing the intensive vegetable cropping systems across mainland China: an Acrisol from Hunan Province, an Anthrosol from Shanxi Province, a Cambisol from Shandong Province and a Phaeozem from Heilongjiang Province. The results showed soil type had significant influences on reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity, with reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and yield mainly driven by soil factors: pH, nitrate, C:N ratio, cation exchange capacity and microbial biomass carbon. The highest reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity were in Acrisol while the highest vegetable yield occurred in Phaeozem. Nitrification inhibitor applications decreased N 2 O and NO emissions by 1.8-61.0% and 0.8-79.5%, respectively, but promoted NH 3 volatilization by 3.2-44.6% across all soils. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between inhibited N 2 O+NO and stimulated NH 3 emissions with nitrification inhibitor additions across all soils, indicating that reduced nitrification posed the threat of NH 3 losses. Additionally, reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity was significantly reduced in the Anthrosol and Cambisol due to the reduced reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and increased

  3. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  4. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Garceau, Luke R; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-12-01

    Ebben, WP, Fauth, ML, Garceau, LR, and Petushek, EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3288-3298, 2011-Quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is necessary to understand the characteristics of these exercises and the proper progression of this mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises. This study also sought to assess gender differences in these variables. Twenty-six men and 23 women with previous experience in performing plyometric training served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24-cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJs), loaded CMJs equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum squat, depth jumps normalized to the subject's jump height (JH), and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were assessed with a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric exercise were evaluated. These variables included the peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) during takeoff, the time to takeoff, flight time, JH, peak power, landing rate of force development, and peak vertical GRF during landing. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type and all outcome variables (p ≤ 0.05) and for the interaction between gender and peak vertical GRF during takeoff (p ≤ 0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the outcome variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings can be used to guide the progression of plyometric training by incorporating exercises of increasing intensity over the course of a program.

  5. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Capital effectiveness in a capital intensive project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarossi, M.E. (IPA Institute, The Hague (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    The technical difficulty of incorporating new technology in capital intensive projects has been underestimated. Bio-refineries projects are no exemption. These projects in many occasions have assigned inadequate project resources, such as lean project teams and overly optimistic contingencies. Furthermore, project developers have set unrealistic expectations; for example: aggressive schedule duration, low cost targets and optimistic operability targets. These project drivers set before project's authorization compromise the project's outcome. In many cases, this translates into lower return on investment, higher costs, and lower operability. In order to counteract these outcomes, it is critical for capital intensive projects, like bio-refineries, to have a well define project which will enable to increase its chance of success. IPA's research has shown that bio-refineries projects have poor project performance due to poor project practices, lack of owner project controls and inadequate change management. An adequate risk analysis during definition is a critical component of a project's success, especially when there is new technology, like biomass conversion. It is of outmost importance to asses this technology and set realistic expectations. parallel to this, there is a need to have a well established execution strategy, which should be maintained throughout the execution of the project. In conclusion, IPA's research has indicated that bio-refineries, as any other capital intensive project, need to assign adequate resources at an early state of project development, by making sure there is and adequate team in place, reasonable schedule, technical difficulties evaluation, and keeping control during execution. Although these elements might be seen as common practices that should be taken into account when developing a project, many projects being their execution without having a proper foundation, and thus affecting the project

  7. Origin of transient cosmic ray intensity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, S.P.; Pomerantz, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new approach to determining the solar progenitor of transient cosmic ray intensity variations has revealed that in a statistical sense, solar flares, heretofore regarded as the predominant source of the modulation, actually do not precede the reduction in flux observed at earth. Superposed epoch analysis of the cosmic ray data with respect to the time of occurrence of all 379 solar flares of importance (Imp) < or =2 observed during solar cycle 20 (1964-1974 inclusive) shows that the onset of a decrease in the composite nucleonic intensity at polar stations occurs prior to the zero day (i.e., time of the flare) well before the arrival in the vicinity of earth of the associated solar plasma. The statistical significance of this result is confirmed by comparing the pooled variance determined from Chree analysis of an equal number of random epochs with that of the curve representing the flare epochs. Subdivision of the latter into three groups according to the heliographic longitude of the flares shows that whereas eastern flares might be associated with cosmic ray decreases, central (30degree to -30degree) and western flares cannot be thus related. A similar analysis of all flares of Imp< or =2 that occurred in a selected set of 24 extraordinary flare-rich active centers during 1964--1974 confirms these results and shows that the observed cosmic ray intensity decrease is, in fact, associated with the central meridian passage ( +- 1 day) of the active regions. Thus earlier conclusions concerning relationships between the heliolongitude of flares and their apparent effectiveness in producing Forbush decreases require reevaluation. The specific feature associated with solar active centers that is actually the principal source of transient modulations remanins to be identified

  8. Hand hygiene in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare

  9. Method of enhancing cyclotron beam intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Ed D.; Mallory, Merrit L.

    1977-01-01

    When an easily ionized support gas such as xenon is added to the cold cathode in sources of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, large beam enhancements are produced. For example, .sup.20 Ne.sup.7+ is increased from 0.05 enA to 27 enA, and .sup.16 O.sup.5+ intensities in excess of 35 e.mu.A have been extracted for periods up to 30 minutes. Approximately 0.15 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas feed line and the primary gas flow is reduced by about 30%.

  10. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for pasteurisation are high intensity pulsed electric fields aiming for minimal heat load, with an electric field strength (E) in the range of 15 − 20 kV/cm and pulse width (τ) between 2 − 20 μs. Alternativel...

  11. Status of the intense pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Crawford, R.K.; Rauchas, A.V.; Schulke, A.W.; Worlton, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1981 the average proton currents at IPNS has increased substantially. The reliability has averaged 91%. The moderator has changed from a room temperature polyethylene to cryogenic methane. This report details progress made at IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source) during the last two years. The topics discussed are the operating status of the accelerator systems, other accelerator activities (such as, IPNS participation in SDI), instrumentation operating at IPNS, chopper development at IPNS, data acquisition, Booster target, moderators and examples of recent scientific results. The ever increasing instrument capability, the Booster target and the very active involvement with the scientific user community guarantees a productive scientific future at IPNS. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science II

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    This book series addresses a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field, Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. Its progress is being stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Highlights of this second volume include Coulomb explosion and fragmentation of molecules, control of chemical dynamics, high-order harmonic generation, propagation and filamentation, and laser-plasma interaction. All chapters are authored by foremost experts in their fields and the texts are written at a level accessible to newcomers and graduate students, each chapter beginning with an introductory overview.

  13. Cloud computing for data-intensive applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing platforms for data-intensive scientific applications. It covers systems that deliver infrastructure as a service, including: HPC as a service; virtual networks as a service; scalable and reliable storage; algorithms that manage vast cloud resources and applications runtime; and programming models that enable pragmatic programming and implementation toolkits for eScience applications. Many scientific applications in clouds are also introduced, such as bioinformatics, biology, weather forecasting and social networks. Most chapters include case studie

  14. Interaction of Intense Lasers with Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Gennady

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses two important topics in nonlinear laser plasma physics: the interaction of intense lasers with a non thermal homogeneous plasma, the excitation of laser wakefields in hollow plasma channels, and the stability of channel guided propagation of laser pulses. In the first half of this thesis a new theoretical approach to the nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas is developed. Unlike previous treatments, this theory is three-dimensional, relativistically covariant, and does not assume that astudied. An experimental check of this calculation is suggested, based on the predicted non-linear polarization rotation (the second harmonic is emitted polarized perpendicularly to polarization of the incident signal). The concept of renormalization is applied to the plasma and electromagnetic radiation (photons and plasmons). To the lowest order, this corresponds to relativistically correcting the electron mass for its oscillation in an intense EM field and to replacing the vacuum dispersion relation by the usual relativistic plasma dispersion relation. This renormalization procedure is then carried to higher order in epsilon=omega_sp{p} {2}a^2/[(1+a^2/2)^ {3/2}omega^2]. This yields the nonlinear modification of the index of refraction of a strong electromagnetic wave and the dispersion of a weak probe in the presence of the wave. In the second part of this thesis the stability of short laser pulses propagating through parabolic channels and the wake excitation of hollow plasma channels are studied. The stability of a channel guided short laser pulse propagation is analyzed for the first time. Perturbations to the laser pulse are shown to modify the ponderomotive pressure, which distorts the dielectric properties of the plasma channel. The channel perturbation then further distorts the laser pulse. A set of coupled mode equations is derived, and a matrix dispersion relation is obtained analytically. The ponderomotive excitation

  15. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science XI

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Martin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance

  16. Particle physics in intense electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic field is reviewed giving a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. The possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by a strong electromagnetic environment are also discussed

  17. FBCT fast intensity measurement using TRIC cards

    CERN Document Server

    Allica, J C; Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Lenardon, F; SØby, L

    2015-01-01

    At the CERN PS complex, precise fast intensity measurements are very important in order to optimize the transfer efficiencies between the different accelerators. Over the last two years a complete renovation has been ongoing, where the old electronics, based on analogue integrators, have been replaced by a fully digital system enclosed in a single VME based card. This new system called TRIC (Transformer Integration Card) is based on a 12 bit, 212 MS/s ADC and an FPGA for the signal processing. Also located on the same board one finds a 250 V/1.5 W DCDC converter used to generate precise calibration pulses.

  18. Progress in ultrafast intense laser science

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Mathur, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance

  19. Exploring high-intensity QED at ELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, T. [Plymouth Univ., School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Ilderton, A. [School of Mathematics, Hamilton Building, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    We give a non-technical overview of quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects arising in the presence of ultra-strong electromagnetic fields highlighting the new prospects provided by a realisation of the ELI laser facility. Vacuum polarization is a genuine QED process describing the probability amplitude of a propagating photon fluctuating into a virtual electron-positron pair. It has measurable effects such as the Lamb shift and charge screening at short distances. Nonlinear Compton scattering that consists of processes of the type: e + ngamma{sub L} -> e' + gamma (where n counting the number of laser photons involved) is an intensity dependent effect that is accessible to experimental observation

  20. The utilization of high-intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research program is focused on the laser-plasma physics, on the generation of high pressures by means of laser shock heating, on the laser spectroscopy and on the laser implosions. Numerical simulation codes are developed. Concerning the atomic physics, the investigations on dense plasmas and the x-laser research developments are carried out. The research activities of the laboratory teams, the published papers, the national and international cooperations, are given [fr

  1. Computed tomography for neurological intensive care patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.; Neu, I.

    1977-01-01

    The first 100 computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the patients on the neurological intensive care ward are discussed and reported on the basis of selected typical findings. Characteristic patterns of the CT findings in determined cerebral diseases are explained. The possibility and necessity of CT observations of the development of inflammatory and cerebrovascular processes in particular are emphasized. A comparison of our experience with CT and other neuroradiological methods, is made. The clinical diagnoses, including the respective number of cases and the pertinent CT findings, are presented in a Table. (orig.) [de

  2. Antibiotic Policies in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Saltoglu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial management of patients in the Intensive Care Units are complex. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem. Effective strategies for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in ICUs have focused on limiting the unnecessary use of antibiotics and increasing compliance with infection control practices. Antibiotic policies have been implemented to modify antibiotic use, including national or regional formulary manipulations, antibiotic restriction forms, care plans, antibiotic cycling and computer assigned antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, infectious diseases consultation is a simple way to limit antibiotic use in ICU units. To improve rational antimicrobial using a multidisiplinary approach is suggested. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 299-309

  3. [Intensity of depression in pedagogy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Panek, Michał; Zielińska-Wyderkiewicz, Ewa; Kuna, Piotr; Górski, Paweł

    2012-03-01

    The teacher's profession is regarded to be susceptible to professional burnout. Its early markers include high neuroticism and tendency to depressive reactions. The aim of the study was to assess the depression intensity and the occurrence of mood disorders in the population of full-time and extramural course students of pedagogy aged 19-30, as well as the difference in intensity of the measured constructs between men and women. The study was carried out on the group of 223 women and 162 men aged 19-30 studying pedagogy at Piotrków Trybunalski Division of Jan Kochanowski Memorial University in Kielce in the years 2008-2011. The control group consisted of 76 women and 88 men studying economics. Students of full-time and extramural courses were included. All the participants were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory. Depression as a syndrome was diagnosed if the score of 10 of more was obtained. Among female students of pedagogy, 21 out of 223 obtained Beck Depression Inventory scores equal to, or above 10; whereas among female students of economics 1 out of 76 obtained such a result. The relative risk of developing depression (understood as Beck Depression Inventory result of 10 or more) was found to be significantly higher among female pedagogues (OR 7.797; CI 1.0306 to 58.9856) than among female economists. Among male pedagogy students, 2 out of 162 obtained 10 points, or more. It means that the risk of depression in female pedagogues was as much as over eight-fold higher than in male pedagogues (OR 8.3168; CI 1.9215 - 35.9979). The risk of depression in men studying pedagogy was not higher than in men studying economics, who obtained the Beck Depression Inventory scores of 10 or more in 1 case out of 88 (OR 1.1; CI 0.0983 to 12.3032). Considering all pedagogues irrespectively of gender versus all economists, the risk of depression in the group of pedagogues is over five-fold higher than among economists (OR 5.1464; CI 1.1991 to 22.0885). In the whole group of

  4. Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnichenko, V G; Sokolov, V O; Koltashev, V V; Dianov, E M; Grishin, I A; Churbanov, M F

    2005-05-15

    Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses doped with WO3, ZnO, GeO2, TiO2, MoO3, and Sb2O3 are measured. The intensity of bands in the Raman spectra of MoO3-TeO2 and MoO3-WO3-TeO2 glasses is shown to be 80-95 times higher than that for silica glass. It is shown that these glasses can be considered as one of the most promising materials for Raman fiber amplifiers.

  5. Raman overtone intensities measured for H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the vibrational fundamental, first overtone and second overtone transitions of the H 2 molecule were recorded using visible and ultraviolet argon--ion laser excitation. The ratios of transition polarizability matrix elements, α 01,21 /α 01,11 and α 01,31 /α 01,11 , were determined from the measured intensities of the Q(1) Raman lines v,J=0,1→v',1 for v'=1,2,3. The experimentally determined value of the Raman first overtone matrix element is in good agreement with the value from the best ab initio calculation

  6. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  7. Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Sakai, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecules in a seeded supersonic beam are aligned by the interaction between an intense nonresonant linearly polarized laser field and the molecular polarizability. We demonstrate the general applicability of the scheme by aligning I2, ICl, CS2, CH3I, and C6H5I molecules. The alignment is probed...... by mass selective two dimensional imaging of the photofragment ions produced by femtosecond laser pulses. Calculations on the degree of alignment of I2 are in good agreement with the experiments. We discuss some future applications of laser aligned molecules....

  8. High-intensity-laser-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed

  9. Quality of intensive care chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.; Wein, B.; Keulers, P.; Stargardt, A.; Guenther, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the image quality of a stimulable phosphorous plate system in intensive care chest radiography. Four radiologists examined 308 chest radiographs (200 conventional, 108 digital) according to the following criteria: visibility of catheters, tubes (artificial objects), bronchi, central and peripheral vessels, diaphragm, trachea, and retrocardial lung parenchyma. Detectability of these structures was classified as good, poor, or impossible to see. In addition, optical density was measured in the region of liver, heart, and lung. Results were evaluated by Student and υ test

  10. Unsteady thermal blooming of intense laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, J. T.; Ulrich, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    A four dimensional (three space plus time) computer program has been written to compute the nonlinear heating of a gas by an intense laser beam. Unsteady, transient cases are capable of solution and no assumption of a steady state need be made. The transient results are shown to asymptotically approach the steady-state results calculated by the standard three dimensional thermal blooming computer codes. The report discusses the physics of the laser-absorber interaction, the numerical approximation used, and comparisons with experimental data. A flowchart is supplied in the appendix to the report.

  11. Intensity of interprofessional collaboration among intensive care nurses at a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gemes, G; Rich-Ruiz, M

    To measure the intensity of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in nurses of an intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital, to check differences between the dimensions of the Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire, and to identify the influence of personal variables. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 63 intensive care nurses selected by simple random sampling. Explanatory variables: age, sex, years of experience in nursing, years of experience in critical care, workday type and work shift type; variable of outcome: IPC. The IPC was measured by: Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis (IPC and its dimensions with explanatory variables). 73.8% were women, with a mean age of 46.54 (±6.076) years. The average years experience in nursing and critical care was 23.03 (±6.24) and 14.25 (±8.532), respectively. 77% had a full time and 95.1% had a rotating shift. 62.3% obtained average IPC values. Statistically significant differences were found (P<.05) between IPC (overall score) and overall assessment with years of experience in critical care. This study shows average levels of IPC; the nurses with less experience in critical care obtained higher IPC and overall assessment scores. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Nuclear energy = more jobs. [Capital-intensive vs labor-intensive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1979-07-01

    In the April 1979 issue of Energy Manager, Dr. David Elliott of Open University says capital-intensive systems employ less labor per unit of output, concluding that nuclear energy represented a poor bargain in terms of money invested per job created. Responding to this earlier article, Dr. Brookes argues that capital-intensive systems may employ less labor per unit of output, but they also produce more output and income per worker. Dr. Brookes uses a simple analysis to illustrate how progress results by increasing capital investment and disagrees strongly with Elliotts conclusions - says output must become more capital-intensive to provide more employment opportunities. Further, he feels that Elliott and other antinuclear and environmentalist writers have fallen into the trap of the fallacy of composition - assuming that what is true for a small number of constituent parts taken singly is true also for the total system taken as a whole. Examples can be found in economics of microeconomic elements which do not add up to the expected macroeconomic composition, which explains why some capital-intensive strategies are good and others are not. The excess income produced by capital-intensive energy strategies supports the service and public administration sectors. 3 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  14. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  15. Data privacy considerations in Intensive Care Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Jesus; Dikaiakos, Marios D; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Bilas, Angelos; Marazakis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    Novel eHealth systems are being designed to provide a citizen-centered health system, however the even demanding need for computing and data resources has required the adoption of Grid technologies. In most of the cases, this novel Health Grid requires not only conveying patient's personal data through public networks, but also storing it into shared resources out of the hospital premises. These features introduce new security concerns, in particular related with privacy. In this paper we survey current legal and technological approaches that have been taken to protect a patient's personal data into eHealth systems, with a particular focus in Intensive Care Grids. However, thanks to a security analysis applied over the Intensive Care Grid system (ICGrid) we show that these security mechanisms are not enough to provide a comprehensive solution, mainly because the data-at-rest is still vulnerable to attacks coming from untrusted Storage Elements where an attacker may directly access them. To cope with these issues, we propose a new privacy-oriented protocol which uses a combination of encryption and fragmentation to improve data's assurance while keeping compatibility with current legislations and Health Grid security mechanisms.

  16. Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Celis, M.; Larraga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields

  17. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-μs accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance

  18. Nutritional Care in Iranian Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) provides intensive treatment medicine to avoid complications such as malnutrition, infection and even death. As very little is currently known about the nutritional practices in Iranian ICUs, this study attempted to assess the various aspects of current nutrition support practices in Iranian ICUs. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 150 critically ill patients at 18 ICUs in 12 hospitals located in 2 provinces of Iran from February 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected through interview with supervisors of ICUs, medical record reviews and direct observation of patients during feeding. Our study showed that hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas are the main formulas used in Iranian hospitals. None of the dietitians worked exclusively an ICU and only 30% of patients received diet counselling. Regular monitoring of nutritional status, daily energy and protein intake were not recorded in any of the participating ICUs. Patients were not monitored for anthropometric measurements such as mid-arm circumference (MAC) and electrolyte status. The nasogastric tube was not switched to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/PEGJ) in approximately 85% of patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition (EN) support. Our findings demonstrated that the quality of nutritional care was inappropriate in Iranian ICUs and improvement of nutritional care services within Iranian ICUs is necessary. PMID:29713622

  19. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  20. Intense microwave pulses II. SPIE Volume 2154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this conference was to present and critically evaluate new and ongoing research on the generation and transmission of intense microwave pulses. Significant progress was reported on high-power, high-current relativistic klystron amplifier research and design. Other work presented at the conference, include research on a high-power relativistic magnetron driven by a high-current linear induction accelerator, derivation of a Pierce-type dispersion relation describing the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a corrugated cylindrical slow-wave structure, experiments on an X-band backward-wave cyclotron maser oscillator, and observation of frequency chirping in a free electron laser amplifier. Other presentations included work on multiwave Cerenkov generator experiments, analysis of resonance characteristics of slow-wave structures in high-power Cerenkov devices, linear analysis and numerical simulation of Doppler-shifted cyclotron harmonics in a cyclotron autoresonance klystron, high-power virtual cathode oscillator theory and experiments, design of a sixth-harmonic gyrofrequency multiplier as a millimeter-wave source, and experiments on dielectric-loaded and multiwave slotted gyro-TWT amplifiers. A review was presented on innovative concepts which employ high-power microwaves in propulsion of space vehicles. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers of this conference