WorldWideScience

Sample records for intensive energy cooperation

  1. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  2. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  3. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  4. Proceedings of the workshop of three large tokamak cooperation on energy confinement scaling under intensive auxiliary heating, May 18 ∼ 20, 1992, Naka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The workshop of three large tokamak cooperation W22 on 'Energy confinement scaling under intensive auxiliary heating' was held 18-20 May, 1992, at Naka Fusion Research Establishment. This proceedings compiles 14 synopses of contributions (5 from JET, 4 from JT-60, 3 from TFTR, and 1 each from DIII-D JFT-2M) and the summary of the workshop. Topic sections are ; (i) L-mode confinement and scaling, (ii) Confinement at high β P regimes, Supershots, High poloidal beta enhanced confinement mode etc., (iii) Confinement at various H-mode regimes and scaling (including the VH-mode), (iv) Characteristic time scales for present tokamak regimes, and (v) Theoretical comparison with experimental data. (author)

  5. EU Cooperation in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumas, T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union with 15 Member States at the end of the century and with 6 more countries in the accession phase has set up certain instruments which enhance energy cooperation among them and with third countries. The major dimensions of EU energy policy presented in the White Paper are the external dimension - globalization of markets, the increasing environmental concern, the technology developments and the EU institutional responsibilities. To contribute to these, certain EU initiatives and supporting actions are undertaken through the energy and the broader co-operation programmes like THERMIE, SYNERGY, SAVE, ALTENER, PHARE, etc. The THERMIE programme supports the demonstration application and dissemination of innovative and successful energy technologies. SYNERGY is a programme for energy co-operation with third countries in energy policy and strategy implementation issues. SAVE and ALTENER concentrate on the promotion and enhancement of energy efficiency practices and use of renewable respectively. PHARE is a technical assistance programme addressed to Eastern European Countries which are in the phase of transition to market economy. There are also other initiatives like the Transeuropean Energy Network (TEN) and the activities managed by the financial institutions namely the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). All this context of programmes and initiatives is modified from period to period in order to serve the EU energy policies and the developments in the energy markets. The recent agreement which came up from the Kyoto conference has actually influenced the direction of actions towards more intensive amelioration of environmental pollution. (author)

  6. Energy efficiency: From regional to global cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1994-01-01

    In developing, reforming and emerging countries in particular, institutional hurdles have hindered the introduction of energy efficient technology. The author develops the theme from two U.N. projects: A new institutional accessibility to supra-regional cooperation could provide an important stimulus for future worldwide cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. (orig.) [de

  7. Energy intensity: a new look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, H.

    1995-01-01

    Energy intensity is compared among different countries by dividing their energy use by their gross domestic product (GDP) in dollar terms. GDP (US$), being a varying monetary value, will have different meaning in different countries because of the varying means of converting it into dollars. Therefore distorted results of energy intensity are obtained. The newly devised concept of presenting GDP in terms of purchasing power parity in dollars (US PPP) goes a long way to solving this distortion. It also allows the energy intensity of developing countries to be presented in a more favourable way. (author)

  8. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Danish wind energy co-operatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranaes, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    An outline is given of the historical development of Danish wind energy cooperatives. Topics covered include wind turbine owners and their relations with parliament and public authorities, the power station companies and the wind turbine industry. Interest in the environment and support of popular cooperative activities in the local community are essential to success. (UK)

  10. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  11. Energy management and cooperation in microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Katayoun

    Microgrids are key components of future smart power grids, which integrate distributed renewable energy generators to efficiently serve the load demand locally. However, random and intermittent characteristics of renewable energy generations may hinder the reliable operation of microgrids. This thesis is thus devoted to investigating new strategies for microgrids to optimally manage their energy consumption, energy storage system (ESS) and cooperation in real time to achieve the reliable and cost-effective operation. This thesis starts with a single microgrid system. The optimal energy scheduling and ESS management policy is derived to minimize the energy cost of the microgrid resulting from drawing conventional energy from the main grid under both the off-line and online setups, where the renewable energy generation/load demand are assumed to be non-causally known and causally known at the microgrid, respectively. The proposed online algorithm is designed based on the optimal off-line solution and works under arbitrary (even unknown) realizations of future renewable energy generation/load demand. Therefore, it is more practically applicable as compared to solutions based on conventional techniques such as dynamic programming and stochastic programming that require the prior knowledge of renewable energy generation and load demand realizations/distributions. Next, for a group of microgrids that cooperate in energy management, we study efficient methods for sharing energy among them for both fully and partially cooperative scenarios, where microgrids are of common interests and self-interested, respectively. For the fully cooperative energy management, the off-line optimization problem is first formulated and optimally solved, where a distributed algorithm is proposed to minimize the total (sum) energy cost of microgrids. Inspired by the results obtained from the off-line optimization, efficient online algorithms are proposed for the real-time energy management

  12. Intense low energy positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e + beams exist producing of the order of 10 8 - 10 9 e + /sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e + beams with intensities greater than 10 9 e + /sec and current densities of the order of 10 13 - 10 14 e + sec - 1 cm -2 . Intense e + beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B + moderators or by increasing the available activity of B + particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e + collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e + beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e + microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e + diffraction and other fields. Intense e + beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies

  13. Energy Aware Computing in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Brødløs; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this work the idea of cooperation is applied to wireless communication systems. It is generally accepted that energy consumption is a significant design constraint for mobile handheld systems. We propose a novel method of cooperative task computing by distributing tasks among terminals over...... the unreliable wireless link. Principles of multi–processor energy aware task scheduling are used exploiting performance scalable technologies such as Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS). We introduce a novel mechanism referred to as D2VS and here it is shown by means of simulation that savings of 40% can be achieved....

  14. Energy and cooperation among the Scandinavian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milas, R

    1984-11-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long experience of functional cooperation in the field of energy. The oil crisis has been largely attenuated for Norway since the exploitation of the North Sea oil deposits. The future will be oil or nuclear, this is the characteristic of energy cooperation on the Scandinavian, European and international levels. In this connection, no level excludes another and the Scandinavian countries are going to patiently attempt to benefit from their Scandinavian dimension over the short range, their European vocation for research and development and their free trade ideology for the surveillance of markets on the level of international agencies.

  15. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-07-01

    East Asia has been the fastest growing region in the world since the early 1980's. Arguably, all countries in the region are set for a period of economic, to some extent demographic, and urban expansion. Since energy is a vital factor in driving economic growth, higher energy consumption can be expected in the coming decades in this part of the world. Although the strong growth is to a large extent due to China, Southeast Asian economies also record stellar economic performances and account for the dramatic rise in energy consumption. The Tokyo-based Asia-Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) projects that energy demand in the region (excluding Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar) will double from 252 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) to 525 mtoe between 1999 and 2020. How to best meet this demand poses a range of policy challenges for the region's governments not only at the individual but also at the regional level (Symon 2004). In Southeast Asia (SEA), energy sector development has implications for inter-governmental relations for a number of reasons. First, the pursuit of domestic energy goals can affect neighboring countries, as exemplified for instance by the construction of dams for hydropower in shared river systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Secondly, domestic gas and power systems are expected to be increasingly supported by pipelines and transmission links with other countries, thus opening the possibilities of system integration to meet demand at lower cost. Lastly, with fossil fuels as the primary source of energy supply, problems of environmental degradation as well as of availability (associated in particular with high oil dependency) are doomed to loom large in this part of the world and could be better met through intra-regional cooperation. A major characteristic of the region is the presence of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which is the only formal grouping of economic cooperation in Asia. Prima facie

  16. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-01-01

    East Asia has been the fastest growing region in the world since the early 1980's. Arguably, all countries in the region are set for a period of economic, to some extent demographic, and urban expansion. Since energy is a vital factor in driving economic growth, higher energy consumption can be expected in the coming decades in this part of the world. Although the strong growth is to a large extent due to China, Southeast Asian economies also record stellar economic performances and account for the dramatic rise in energy consumption. The Tokyo-based Asia-Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) projects that energy demand in the region (excluding Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar) will double from 252 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) to 525 mtoe between 1999 and 2020. How to best meet this demand poses a range of policy challenges for the region's governments not only at the individual but also at the regional level (Symon 2004). In Southeast Asia (SEA), energy sector development has implications for inter-governmental relations for a number of reasons. First, the pursuit of domestic energy goals can affect neighboring countries, as exemplified for instance by the construction of dams for hydropower in shared river systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Secondly, domestic gas and power systems are expected to be increasingly supported by pipelines and transmission links with other countries, thus opening the possibilities of system integration to meet demand at lower cost. Lastly, with fossil fuels as the primary source of energy supply, problems of environmental degradation as well as of availability (associated in particular with high oil dependency) are doomed to loom large in this part of the world and could be better met through intra-regional cooperation. A major characteristic of the region is the presence of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which is the only formal grouping of economic cooperation in Asia. Prima facie energy appears

  17. Promoting regional energy co-operation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Misra, Neha

    2007-01-01

    Energy is a key ingredient of the socio-economic development of any region. South Asia is not only one of the fastest growing regions in the world; it is also one of the poorest, which thus puts energy at the very heart of the development process in the region. This paper looks at the challenges faced by the South Asia sub-region for economic co-operation (SASEC) comprised of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and also at the role of greater regional energy co-operation therein. The region is characterized by pressures of growing economies and increasing population. While the per capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world, energy intensity continues to be very high. A large portion of the population lacks access to modern sources of energy and depends on traditional sources that are not only inefficient but also have severe health and environmental problems associated with them. Increasing oil import dependency and huge investment needs for energy market development pose a further challenge. The region has a good resource potential and tremendous scope for energy co-operation, which can play a key role in addressing many of these energy security concerns and in putting it on the path of sustainable development. It is ironic that the record in the area has been so limited and that too in the most basic form of co-operation, i.e. bilateral arrangements between countries. This paper puts forth a multi-pronged strategy for sub-regional energy co-operation encompassing softer options aimed at confidence building to more substantial and larger scale co-operation efforts. Delays in decision making to ensure stronger and mutually beneficial co-operation efforts are associated with high costs not only to the energy sector but also for the entire development agenda. With the precarious energy situation in the region and unprecedented increases in international oil prices seen in recent times, it is high time for policy makers, financing institutions, NGOs

  18. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past. [it

  19. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  20. Providing clean energy and energy access through cooperatives

    CERN Document Server

    Studies, International Institute of Labour

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a collection of case studies on cooperatives in energy production, distribution and consumption as a contribution to the on-going search for ways in which the goal of sustainable Energy for All can be turned into a reality.

  1. India-Australia energy cooperation: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Energy ties between India and Australia are centuries old and can be traced back to the days of East India Company of the British-Indian era. From the first commercial export in the form of a shipment of coal to India from Australia in 1797, energy cooperation has come a long way. For instance, apart from making unswerving attempts to get Australian yellowcake, attempts have been made by India to ensure greater supply of coal and natural gas. Both the countries are also trying to find ways and means to work jointly on increasing the production of geo-thermal and solar energy as also to enhance clean-energy technology cooperation among other things. Energy forms the core of a nation's national security as a country's economy is fuelled by energy resources and India is no exception in this respect. It holds a prime position as the Indian economy has been growing at a rate of six to seven per cent in the past few years. There is no denying that India has come a long way since independence in the energy sector. However greater levels of consumption, both industrial and domestic have led to a stage where the supply of energy falls short of the demand. The main focus of the government of late has been on capacity-building of the economy. Energy-intensive projects such as infrastructure development are the top priorities of the government; something which had been neglected in most parts of independent India. And this is where the importance of Australia for India lies, given its abundant energy resources. Indian companies are interested in investing in coal mining and oil and gas exploration in Australia. The five action plans that were signed in November 2008 with the Ministries of Power, Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Mines, and New and Renewable Energy are the buildings blocks to build on and to take forward the bilateral engagement in the energy sector

  2. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  3. Energy Intensity of the Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy intensity is a dependency between continuous energy intensity and energy intensity of movement. In the paper it is proposed analyze energy intensity of the movement, as the size specifying the power demand to the wheel drive and presented the balance of power of an electric car moving in the urban cycle. The object of the test was the hybrid vehicle with an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The measurements were carried out for 4 speeds and 2 driving profiles.

  4. Government expenditure and energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuxiang, Karl; Chen, Zhongchang

    2010-01-01

    The recent economic stimulus package of China has raised growing concern about its potential impact on energy demand and efficiency. To what extent does such expansion of government expenditure influence energy intensity? This question has not been well answered by the previous research. Using provincial panel data, this paper provides some evidence of a link between government expenditure and energy intensity in China. The empirical results demonstrate that the expansion of government expenditure since Asian financial crisis has exerted a significant influence on energy intensity. An increase in government expenditure in China leads to an increase in energy intensity. Further analysis compares such relationships in different economic situations. The comparison shows that such positive effect of government expenditure remains significant after the alteration in economic situation. Therefore, the results suggest introducing some measures to consolidate China's existing gains in energy efficiency. The analysis also explains why the downward trend in energy intensity is reversed in China since 2002. (author)

  5. Relay Selection for Cooperative Relaying in Wireless Energy Harvesting Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaiyan; Wang, Fei; Li, Songsong; Jiang, Fengjiao; Cao, Lijie

    2018-01-01

    Energy harvesting from the surroundings is a promising solution to provide energy supply and extend the life of wireless sensor networks. Recently, energy harvesting has been shown as an attractive solution to prolong the operation of cooperative networks. In this paper, we propose a relay selection scheme to optimize the amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative transmission in wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. The harvesting energy and channel conditions are considered to select the optimal relay as cooperative relay to minimize the outage probability of the system. Simulation results show that our proposed relay selection scheme achieves better outage performance than other strategies.

  6. Energy Reporting Practices among Top Energy Intensive Industries in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasrip, N. E.; Mat Husin, N.; Alrazi, B.

    2016-03-01

    This study content analyses the energy content in the corporate report of top 30 Malaysian energy-intensive companies. Motivated by the gap among prior corporate social responsibility and environmental reporting studies in respect of energy, this study provides evidence of Malaysian companies’ initiative to reduce energy consumption. While the evidence suggests that not all 30 companies have reported energy-related information, the findings provide an overview on the response of energy intensive companies in relation to Malaysian government initiatives on energy.

  7. Latin American cooperation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    The cooperation between Latin American countries on nuclear matters in which Brazil should play a significant role is presented. The possible areas for cooperation, particularly the nuclear law, are focused. The cooperation should be developed on bilateral or multilateral basis, by governmental and non governmental entities. (Author) [pt

  8. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  9. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  10. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  11. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike (Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, Lihu' e, HI); Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce

  12. Fifth Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation. Towards strengthening pacific energy cooperation (Participants list)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-02-27

    This is a list of participants in the above-named conference held at Tokyo Prince Hotel in the period February 27-28, 1991, and other people related to the event. The chairman of Committee for Energy Policy Promotion, president of IEE (Institute of Energy Economics), Minister for International Trade and Industry, and Minister for Foreign Affairs were in attendance. Speakers and chairpersons were from various organizations, such as the Petronas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Australia, PPT Migas, JCCP (Japan Cooperation Center Petroleum), Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc., Indonesia, Tokyo University, Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., Korea, Caltex Corporation, Thailand, Asian Development Bank, Latin America, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 16th Conference of World Energy Council organizing committee, etc. Key persons met from the governments of countries in the Asia-Pacific region, energy research organizations, business and economic circles, research institutes, etc. The names in the list are grouped into two sections, domestic and overseas, and are in the alphabetical order. Also mentioned are the names of the ambassadors of New Zealand, Indonesia, Columbia, Malaysia, Canada, Australia, U.K., China, and Venezuela. (NEDO)

  13. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S. N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  14. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  15. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  16. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on...

  17. Nuclear energy in Asia and regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing concern in East Asia about regional cooperation in the field of nuclear power. At the APEC conference in Osaka in 1995, APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) established an Energy Research Center. The center has started to perform joint research forecasts on energy supply and demand for the region. Japan proposed the inauguration of a Conference on Nuclear Safety in Asia at the Moscow Nuclear Energy Summit in 1996. The first conference was held in Tokyo that year. This year, the conference will be held in Seoul. Japan's Atomic Energy Commission sponsors the International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia every year. This year marks the eighth conference. The outstanding feature of this year's conference was that so many countries stressed regional cooperation. South Korea proposed the installation of a regional online radiation monitoring system. The Philippines asserted the need for a cooperative mechanism on the lines of ASIATOM. Why is so much concern now being focused on nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? What kind of regional cooperation is necessary, and what kind is possible? What are the unique features of nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? These are the points addressed in this paper. (author)

  18. Energy intensity, target level of energy intensity, and room for improvement in energy intensity: An application to the study of regions in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2014-01-01

    While the previous literature shows that a decline in energy intensity represents an improvement in energy use efficiency, it does not provide a target level of energy intensity, nor what room for improvement in terms of energy intensity could entail. This study establishes an indicator of such room for improvement in terms of energy intensity by measuring the difference between the target level of energy intensity and the actual energy intensity and thereby monitors energy use efficiency. The traditional indicator of energy intensity, defined as energy use over GDP, mainly estimates energy use efficiency, but is a partial effect between the energy input and GDP output. However, our proposed indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity is the total-factor effects based on the multiple-inputs model. By taking the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency using the indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity, this study concludes that an improvement in energy intensity does not fully depend on a decline in energy intensity, and we instead need to confirm whether the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity decreases. This finding is particularly relevant for energy policy-makers. - Highlights: • This paper establishes an indicator for the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity. • This study takes the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency. • A different result appears by using our proposed indicator

  19. Energy efficiency benchmarking of energy-intensive industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, David Yih-Liang; Huang, Chi-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical tool was applied to estimate the energy efficiency indicator of energy intensive industries in Taiwan. • The carbon dioxide emission intensity in selected energy-intensive industries is also evaluated in this study. • The obtained energy efficiency indicator can serve as a base case for comparison to the other regions in the world. • This analysis results can serve as a benchmark for selected energy-intensive industries. - Abstract: Taiwan imports approximately 97.9% of its primary energy as rapid economic development has significantly increased energy and electricity demands. Increased energy efficiency is necessary for industry to comply with energy-efficiency indicators and benchmarking. Benchmarking is applied in this work as an analytical tool to estimate the energy-efficiency indicators of major energy-intensive industries in Taiwan and then compare them to other regions of the world. In addition, the carbon dioxide emission intensity in the iron and steel, chemical, cement, textile and pulp and paper industries are evaluated in this study. In the iron and steel industry, the energy improvement potential of blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF–BOF) based on BPT (best practice technology) is about 28%. Between 2007 and 2011, the average specific energy consumption (SEC) of styrene monomer (SM), purified terephthalic acid (PTA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was 9.6 GJ/ton, 5.3 GJ/ton and 9.1 GJ/ton, respectively. The energy efficiency of pulping would be improved by 33% if BAT (best available technology) were applied. The analysis results can serve as a benchmark for these industries and as a base case for stimulating changes aimed at more efficient energy utilization

  20. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks u...

  1. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  2. Cooperative Energy Management for a Cluster of Households Prosumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, consumers become prosumers in which they internally generate and consume energy looking for an autonomous operation. This paper proposes an energy management system for coordinating the operation of distributed household prosumers. It was found that better performance is achieved when cooperative...... operation with other prosumers in a neighborhood environment is achieved. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed strategy by comparing the performance of islanded prosumers with the operation in cooperative mode....

  3. Cooperative relay-based multicasting for energy and delay minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-08-01

    Relay-based multicasting for the purpose of cooperative content distribution is studied. Optimized relay selection is performed with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption or the content distribution delay within a cluster of cooperating mobiles. Two schemes are investigated. The first consists of the BS sending the data only to the relay, and the second scheme considers the scenario of threshold-based multicasting by the BS, where a relay is selected to transmit the data to the mobiles that were not able to receive the multicast data. Both schemes show significant superiority compared to the non-cooperative scenarios, in terms of energy consumption and delay reduction. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Energy intensities of food products. Energie-intensiteiten van voedingsmiddelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, R.; Biesiot, W.; Wilting, H.C.

    1993-08-01

    The energy intensity of a product is the amount of primary energy used per Dutch guilder spent on consumer goods. The energy intensity can differ for each spending and varies from household to household. The aim of this study is to calculate the energy intensities and to provide an overview of the total package of consumer goods, including sociological categories and lifestyles, and the related use of primary energy to produce these goods. Use is made of the Energy Analysis Program (EAP) to calculate the energy intensities. EAP is based on the hybrid method: both the process analysis and the input-output analysis are applied in the model. The data input of the model consists of data from the Budget Survey 1990 of the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, which holds data of consumptions from 2767 households. In the chapters 4 to 10 energy intensities are given of the categories bread, pastry and groceries (chapter four), potatoes, vegetables and fruits (chapter five), sugary products and beverages (chapter six), oils and fats (chapter seven), meat, meat products and fish (chapter eight), dairy products (chapter nine), and other food products (chapter ten). The highest energy intensity is found for oils and fats (13.5 MJ per Dutch guilder). The energy intensities for the other products vary from 4.0 to 6.6 MJ/gld. It appears that most of the energy intensive products are products which do not use a large part of the primary energy, mainly because the consumption of these products is low. On the other hand many of the products that consume much of the primary energy (i.e. are consumed much themselves) are relatively energy extensive. The products that show a high consumption rate have relatively low energy intensities. Some of the options to shift towards a more energy extensive food package are the use of fresh products and outside grown products instead of treated products or greenhouse products and a more balanced diet. 5 figs., 18 tabs., 2 appendices, 52 refs.

  5. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  6. ISOL science is soaring. SCK-CEN promotes intensive cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of the particle accelerator that will be linked to the future MYRRHA reactor, make it possible to develop a new-generation ISOL facility (Isotope Separation On-Line) in parallel. ISOL at MYRRHA will use up to 5 per cent of the proton beam in MYRRHA for the production of radioactive ion beams which are 100 times more intense than what is possible in current European installations. Besides the technological development, it is also important to make scientists enthusiastic about using this in the future. The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is the driving force behind the Belgian EURISOL Consortium, an organisation whose mission is to support ISOL science in Belgium. At the same time, it will give an impulse to the development of ISOL at MYRRHA.

  7. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. International cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatkin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main forms of international cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy are described. IAEA represents the organization called to establish the cooperation. For the purposes of wide nuclear power usage IAEA provides technical assistance to developing countries, conducting of meetings and conferences, accomplishes wide publishing activity and nuclear information exchange with the use of different data bases, including the INIS system, and coordinates the operating group activity through the INTOR program. Cooperation of socialist countries is accomplished in the framework of the CMEA. JINR, intimately connected with scientific organization of other countries including CERN, represents the center of nuclear investigations in socialist countries

  9. Energy efficiency policy in a non-cooperative world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barla, Philippe; Proost, Stef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore energy efficiency policies in the presence of a global environmental problem and international cost interdependency associated with R and D activities. We develop a simple model with two regions where the cost of an appliance in one region depends upon the level of energy efficiency in that region and the level of R and D activities by the appliance industry. In our model, the cooperative outcome can be decentralized by imposing a tax on energy. However, we show that when regions do not cooperate, they have an incentive to adopt additional instruments to increase energy efficiency. The reason is that the lack of cooperation leads to under-taxation of the environmental externality which in turn creates an incentive to try to reduce emissions produced abroad. We illustrate this phenomenon with the Californian vehicle greenhouse gas standards.

  10. Broad Prospect for Sino-US Clean Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is in both China and the US's best interest to collaborate and have strategic alliance in developing clean energy.China and the US can result in a positive outcome for both countries if they decide to agree and cooperate on global energy-related concerns.

  11. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  12. Exploring energy saving policy measures by renewable energy supplying cooperatives (REScoops)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Hoppe, Thomas; Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Akasiadis, Charilaos

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives for renewable energy supply (REScoops) provide their members renewably generated energy within a cooperative model that enables members to co-decide on the cooperative’s future. REScoops do not only collectively own renewable energy production facilities and supply this to their

  13. New Cooperative Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superlow Energy External Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2005-01-01

    We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in whole system - nuclei+atoms+condensed matter can occur at smaller threshold then corresponding ones on free constituents. The cooperative processes can be induced and enhanced by low energy external fields. The excess heat is the emission of internal energy and transmutations at LENR are the result of redistribution inner energy of whole system.

  14. Denmark's Energy Cooperation with Emerging Powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Schvartzman, Yonatan; Jørgensen, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    of energy interplay with the traditional national protectionist policies pursued by governments in this strategic domain. Being a member of the European Union (EU), an entity that aspires to be world leader in the fight against climate change, Denmark’s energy policies are also defined and pursued...

  15. A Statistical Model for Energy Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaneh Issapour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach to improve scientific literacy in regards to global warming and climate change is using a simulation as part of a science education course. The simulation needs to employ scientific analysis of actual data from internationally accepted and reputable databases to demonstrate the reality of the current climate change situation. One of the most important criteria for using a simulation in a science education course is the fidelity of the model. The realism of the events and consequences modeled in the simulation is significant as well. Therefore, all underlying equations and algorithms used in the simulation must have real-world scientific basis. The "Energy Choices" simulation is one such simulation. The focus of this paper is the development of a mathematical model for "Energy Intensity" as a part of the overall system dynamics in "Energy Choices" simulation. This model will define the "Energy Intensity" as a function of other independent variables that can be manipulated by users of the simulation. The relationship discovered by this research will be applied to an algorithm in the "Energy Choices" simulation.

  16. 77 FR 61592 - Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-110-000] Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission.... 825(h), Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, and its two...

  17. Energy strategies for the world. A case for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with policy aspects on environmental protection. The conclusion of the paper goes on the cooperation between the Government and industry to lay the foundation for a common, cooperative energy future. To achieve security of energy supplies and environmental protection, there is a need of developing stable market and framework conditions. According to the author, a good example is development of gas where long term commercial relations are needed to develop production and markets. This should also be acknowledged by governments in their policy making

  18. German nuclear energy development and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author gives a brief survey on the short, but relatively successful story of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Like many other countries, FRG had to go through a very difficult period of political indecision and violent opposition from antinuclear groups, supported by large parts of the media. The licensing procedures have been streamlined, nuclear power plants are being built without major interference, and the FRG is making good progress in closing the fuel cycle. This means that nuclear power will play an important role in the energy supply system, although on a lower level than originally anticipated

  19. Energy and climate: the essential world cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    Considering the double challenge of energy supply for economic development and of greenhouse gas emission management to struggle against climate change, the author identifies what can be done at different levels: between governments and households (in terms of energy costs, public transport development, information and education), between governments and firms (in terms of standards, network leakage reductions, intellectual property on new technologies), and between governments. He identifies the related objectives for the European Union, the United States of America, Japan, Russia, China, India, Brazil, the Middle-East, and Sub-Saharan Africa

  20. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchard, Claire; Garreau, Enora; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Keilmann, Jenny-Claire; Janssen, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the German 'Energiewende' and the French 'Transition energetique' prompted both country's governments to sign various cooperation agreements. As both 'Energiewende' and 'Transition energetique' put a strong focus on decentralization of energy supply, establishing close inter-communal cooperation is particularly promising. The project TANDEM, which is jointly led by Klima-Buendnis and Energy Cities - both local authority networks - and co-funded by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the French Energy Agency ADEME provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to exchange experiences and create partnerships for climate protection having the following objectives: - Creating broad mutual understanding for the respective situation, challenges and framework in energy and climate policy; - Encourage exchanges with regard to obstacles and success factors concerning the realization of ambitious energy- and climate-goals and promoting mutual transfer of know-how; - Stimulating close collaboration between local authorities from both countries while involving and supporting local stakeholders and citizens; - Implementing initial stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and creating a foundation for long-term cooperation; - Raise awareness for demands, requirements and concerns of local authorities on a national and European level in order to strengthen their influence and enlarge their scope of action. In this document, the authors briefly present the French, German and European contexts and the organization of both countries regarding energy transition. Then, a parallel is made between the national energy-climate plans of both countries ('Klimaschutzkonzepte' and 'Plans Climat-Energie Territoriaux') to identify the similarities and differences in order to learn from each other and to be able to create cooperations between both policy mechanisms

  1. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  2. Provincial energy intensity in China: The role of urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese policymakers have attached great importance to energy intensity reduction. However, the unprecedented urbanization process exercises additional pressure on the realization of energy intensity reduction targets. A better understanding of the impacts of urbanization is necessary for designing effective policies aimed at reaching the next energy intensity reduction targets. This paper empirically investigates the impacts of urbanization on China's aggregate and disaggregated energy intensities using a balanced panel dataset of 30 provinces covering the period from 2000 to 2012 and panel estimation techniques. The results show that urbanization significantly increases aggregate energy intensity, electricity intensity and coal intensity. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the determinants of China's energy intensity. • Urbanization is responsible for the increase in China's energy intensity. • The fluctuation in China's energy intensity is also affected by other key factors.

  3. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  4. Cooperative Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superlow Energy External Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2006-01-01

    We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in whole system - nuclei+atoms+condensed matter can occur at smaller threshold energies then corresponding ones on free constituents. The cooperative processes can be induced and enhanced by low energy external fields. The excess heat is the emission of internal energy and transmutations at LENR are the result of redistribution inner energy of whole system.

  5. New cooperative mechanisms of low-energy nuclear reactions using super low-energy external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Zhidkova, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system, nuclei + atoms + condensed matter, can occur at a smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. The cooperative processes can be induced and enhanced by low-energy external fields. The excess heat is the emission of internal energy and transmutations at LENR are the result of redistribution of inner energy of the whole system. (author)

  6. New Cooperative Mechanisms of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Super Low-Energy External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    We propose a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system, nuclei + atoms + condensed matter, can occur at a smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. The cooperative processes can be induced and enhanced by low-energy external fields. The excess heat is the emission of internal energy and transmutations at LENR are the result of redistribution of inner energy of the whole system.

  7. US/Japan cooperation in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988-1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  8. Promotion of technical cooperation in the field of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Kyung; Jung, Duk Yung; Suh, Seong Seog; Park, Myung Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Cho, Moo Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to improve the quality of human resources and the capability of research and development through the promotion of technical cooperation with foreign energy organizations possessing advanced technologies, and at the same time to contribute to internationalizing energy technology through the active involvement in multilateral technical cooperation programs with international organizations. To attain these aims, practical cooperative relations has been strengthened with 34 organizations from 11 countries including 6 organizations with which new cooperative agreements has been concluded in 1995 from the USA, Australia, China, and Russia, through the promotion of the continuous exchange of information and personnel, and international joint projects. And also the positive participation in technical cooperation programs and research projects organized or sponsored by APEC, IEA, UNDP, UNESCO, WEC has been made. In addition, for the improvement in research capability, 200 researchers has been dispatched abroad for the presentation of papers, of for the discussion of joint research projects, and 30 foreign experts through diverse overseas personnel exchange programs including Brain Pool Program were invited for the contribution of advancing research projects. (author). 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  10. International cooperation for rational use of energy in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Papers discussed the experiences of OLADE, IEA and EEC member countries in the field of rational use of energy in a number of industrial sectors, such as textiles; generation, transmission and distribution of electricity; iron and steel; non-ferrous metals; cement; and sugar. Instruments and technologies for rational use of energy in industry were also discussed as well as possibilities for international cooperation in this field.

  11. Dynamics of final sectoral energy demand and aggregate energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern of change for aggregate energy intensity. The simulations performed show that there is no a priori reason for it to exhibit a bell-shape, as reported in the literature. Depending on initial conditions, the weight of basic needs in total consumption and the availability of modern commercial energy resources, various forms might emerge. - Research Highlights: → The residential sector accounts for most of final energy consumption at low income levels. → Its share drops at the benefit of the industrial, services and road transportation sectors in turn. → Sectoral shares' pattern is affected by changes in geographic, sociologic and economic factors. → Final energy intensity may show various shapes and does not exhibit necessarily a bell-shape.

  12. Energy price uncertainty, energy intensity and firm investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Hwan; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of energy price uncertainty on firm-level investment. An error correction model of capital stock adjustment is estimated with data on U.S. manufacturing firms. Higher energy price uncertainty is found to make firms more cautious by reducing the responsiveness of investment to sales growth. The result is robust to consideration of energy intensity by industry. The effect is greater for high growth firms. It must be emphasized that the direct effect of uncertainty is not estimated. Conditional variance of energy price is obtained from a GARCH model. Findings suggest that stability in energy prices would be conducive to greater stability in firm-level investment. (author)

  13. Globe report on energy in Central and Easter Europe and the CIS: An urgent need for international cooperation on energy efficiency improvement for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.; Baguenier, H.

    1998-01-01

    In comparison with European Union countries, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe as well as the Confederation of Independent States are characterized by a very high energy intensity i.e. ratio of energy consumption to gross domestic product. The paper deals with most important factors influencing this high energy intensity; variety of situations in different countries affecting the power supplies; an urgent need for energy efficiency policy and cooperation related to sustainable development; the necessary tools for energy efficiency implementation. Main energy data and global indicators are shown in the appendix

  14. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described. The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods. It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan. When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  15. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-10-07

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  16. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT. (note)

  17. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  18. Assuring nuclear energy's future through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    It is invited lecture as the introduction to the sixt international meeting entitled Nuclear Energy in Central Europe. Good commercial operation, public information and education are needed to win the confidence of the public, and to attract young people to take over the industry's founding generation. Stimulating international co-operation and transfer of best practices can assure this happens across the whole of the Europian nuclear industry

  19. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  20. Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Plummer, Joseph; Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important-rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities

  1. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  2. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  3. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  4. Power, Profits, and Politics: Energy Security and Cooperation in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyatets, Ekaterina

    This study explores varying outcomes of energy cooperation, defined as diplomatic relations, bilateral trade, and investment in oil and natural gas. Tests of theories pertinent to energy security - broadly speaking, realism, liberalism, and domestic politics---reveal that they alone can offer only a narrow and one-sided explanation, not embracing the complexity of energy issues. Nevertheless, using them as a starting point, this study outlined a structured framework that incorporates three variables---economic potential, geopolitical rivalry, and domestic interest groups---that are applied to the cases of U.S.-Russia, U.S.-Azerbaijan, and Russia-Germany energy ties. This study concludes that if the economic potential (defined by geographic proximity and resource availability) is very high, such as in the case of Russia-Germany, states can overcome geopolitical rivalries and historical enmities in favor of energy cooperation. However, if the economic potential is relatively low (because of geographic obstacles or easily available alternative suppliers, as in the cases of U.S.-Russia and U.S.-Azerbaijan), then geopolitics prevails---for example, to bypass Russia or to limit American access to contracts in Russia when U.S.-Russian relations are strained. In all the cases explored here, domestic interest groups have mixed influence: if they are united along energy issues, they usually successfully achieve their energy policy goals, although the impact of these groups often becomes intertwined with state interests. In other situations, when powerful interest groups are divided or focused on non-energy-related issues (such as ethnic priorities), their influence over energy deals is much lower.

  5. Energy options and regional cooperation on nuclear energy in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae In

    1986-10-01

    This paper reviews the extensive forms of Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power to develop and provide economical and reliable energy supply for sound economical growths of developing countries in this region, which has seen rapid growth of energy consumption more than anywhere else in recent years. Nuclear power has received keen attention from DCs because it can provide a self-reliable energy supply and promote development of high technology in the associated engineering and manufacturing industries locally. However, due to the particular characteristics in nuclear power technology, a close cooperation is required between the seller(industrialized) and buyer(developing) countries. The Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power is a step toward providing mutual benefits to the countries involved in this region, and this paper explores potential ways in formulating basic and systematic approaches and areas of full scope cooperation. (author)

  6. The situation of Chinese atomic energy and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Takao

    2003-01-01

    China will have 8.7 million kW atomic energy in 2005. Japan will complete with China in a sale war of international atomic energy and domestic power source. The position, development and situation of Chinese atomic energy and the future nuclear fuel cycle are reported. 5.4 million kW of 7 atomic power plants in China and 45.9 million kW of 53 plants in Japan are running. 3.3 million kW of 4 plants in China and 4 million kW of 4 plants in Japan are building. New type reactor, the fast breeder and high temperature gas-cooled reactor are developing. Radiation exposure to food, radiation therapy, Radio-pharmaceuticals, polymerization and treatment of sewage and smoke are carried out. The situation of atomic energy co-operation between China and Japan and other countries are stated. Japan has to change to advance mutual interests type co-operation with China. Construction of the nuclear community in Asia area and development of the international long big project are proposed. (S.Y.)

  7. Analysis of the overall energy intensity of alumina refinery process using unit process energy intensity and product ratio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-07-15

    Alumina refinery is an energy intensive industry. Traditional energy saving methods employed have been single-equipment-orientated. Based on two concepts of 'energy carrier' and 'system', this paper presents a method that analyzes the effects of unit process energy intensity (e) and product ratio (p) on overall energy intensity of alumina. The important conclusion drawn from this method is that it is necessary to decrease both the unit process energy intensity and the product ratios in order to decrease the overall energy intensity of alumina, which may be taken as a future policy for energy saving. As a case study, the overall energy intensity of the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant with Bayer-sinter combined method between 1995 and 2000 was analyzed. The result shows that the overall energy intensity of alumina in this plant decreased by 7.36 GJ/t-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over this period, 49% of total energy saving is due to direct energy saving, and 51% is due to indirect energy saving. The emphasis in this paper is on decreasing product ratios of high-energy consumption unit processes, such as evaporation, slurry sintering, aluminium trihydrate calcining and desilication. Energy savings can be made (1) by increasing the proportion of Bayer and indirect digestion, (2) by increasing the grade of ore by ore dressing or importing some rich gibbsite and (3) by promoting the advancement in technology. (author)

  8. Cooperation in research in the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marka, Philippe.

    1977-01-01

    This work studies the legal instruments for cooperative research granted to Euratom under the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, and the conditions whereby concrete use was made of these instruments. This assessment of Euratom's efforts to launch a community nuclear industry is accompanied by an analysis of the respective roles of the bodies of the Community, the Council and the Commission, as well as of the circumstances which, according to the author, have led to a paralysis of this institution. (NEA) [fr

  9. Renewable energy and decentralized power generation in Russia: an opportunity for German-Russian energy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Chukanov, Denis; Opitz, Petra; Pastukhova, Maria; Piani, Gianguido; Westphal, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Renewable and decentralized power generation are a centerpiece of Germany's domestic energy transition (Energiewende) and a major element of its international efforts to promote this goal. Recently, the renewables sector has also been advancing in Russia, albeit from a lower level. Thus, it is time to explore the status quo and analyze the potential for sustainable energy cooperation. In the context of the current deterioration in EURussian (energy) relations, crafting a sustainable energy pa...

  10. The unexpected challenges of using energy intensity as a policy objective: Examining the debate over the APEC energy intensity goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, Ralph D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Energy intensity (energy demand per unit of economic output) is one of the most widely used indicators of energy efficiency in energy policy discussions. Yet its application in real-world policymaking can be surprisingly problematical. This paper aims to provide guidance to governments and organizations considering using energy intensity as a policy objective. Scope: In 2007 the APEC community adopted, then in 2011 revised, an APEC region-wide energy intensity improvement goal. This paper presents a case study of that experience, focusing on three key ‘lessons learned’. These lessons are not original findings. However, none of them have received the recognition they deserve, and consequently, they came as a surprise to many of those involved in APEC's policy discussions. Conclusions: The three lessons are as follows: (1) Energy intensity improvement is happening surprisingly quickly, but not quickly enough to meet the world's energy challenges. (2) It is difficult to find a definition of energy intensity that can make it suitable for use as an indicator of regional energy efficiency. (3) Whether the GDP's of individual economies are converted to common currency using market exchange rates or purchasing power parity (PPP) can dramatically change regional energy intensity improvement calculations. - Highlights: • APEC adopted, then subsequently revised, an energy intensity reduction goal. • This is a case study of APEC's use of energy intensity as a policy objective. • Energy intensity is declining more rapidly than many policymakers realized. • The definition of energy intensity adopted can dramatically change the incentives. • Currency conversion methodologies can dramatically change the calculations

  11. German-Algerian relations. A revival through energy cooperation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partsch, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Bilateral relations between Germany and Algeria are officially described, by both sides, as good and friendly. Nevertheless, in Germany, errors in assessment of the 'Arab spring' led to a lack of interest in Algeria, and still affect German foreign policy. Furthermore, the lack of reform in Algeria isolates the country both politically and economically, while it looks as if the evolution of the world energy market will be decisive for its development. The two countries have under-exploited, even totally neglected, the possibilities for cooperation on the energy market. Algeria may currently be one of the most stable countries in North Africa, but it will undergo some turmoil within the next fifteen years. This perspective should provoke a stronger response from the whole of Europe, and Germany in particular, leading it to engage more with the biggest African country, and still the richest one. (author)

  12. Cooperative technology development: An approach to advancing energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.

    1989-09-01

    Technology development requires an enormous financial investment over a long period of time. Scarce national and corporate resources, the result of highly competitive markets, decreased profit margins, wide currency fluctuations, and growing debt, often preclude continuous development of energy technology by single entities, i.e., corporations, institutions, or nations. Although the energy needs of the developed world are generally being met by existing institutions, it is becoming increasingly clear that existing capital formation and technology transfer structures have failed to aid developing nations in meeting their growing electricity needs. This paper will describe a method for meeting the electricity needs of the developing world through technology transfer and international cooperative technology development. The role of nuclear power and the advanced passive plant design will be discussed. (author)

  13. Energy intensity and its determinants in China's regional economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yanrui

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the existing literature as well as policy debates by examining energy intensity and its determinants in China's regional economies. The analysis is based on a comprehensive database of China's regional energy balance constructed for this project. Through its focus on regional China, this study extends the existing literature, which mainly covers nationwide studies. It is found in this paper that energy intensity declined substantially in China. The main contributing factor is the improvement in energy efficiency. Changes in the economic structure have so far affected energy intensity modestly. Thus there is considerable scope to reduce energy intensity through the structural transformation of the Chinese economy in the future. - Highlights: ► First study examining energy intensity and its determinants using sectoral data in Chinese regions. ► Major findings. ► Decline in energy intensity is due to the rise in energy efficiency. ► Economic structural change has played little role. ► Growth in capital intensity alone would not lead to the decline in energy consumption.

  14. An Energy-Efficient Scheme for Multirelay Cooperative Networks with Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingcheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates an energy-efficient scheme in multirelay cooperative networks with energy harvesting where multiple sessions need to communicate with each other via the relay node. A two-step optimal method is proposed which maximizes the system energy efficiency, while taking into account the receiver circuit energy consumption. Firstly, the optimal power allocation for relay nodes is determined to maximize the system throughput; this is based on directional water-filling algorithm. Secondly, using quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO, a joint relay node selection and session grouping optimization is proposed. With this algorithm, sessions can be classified into multiple groups that are assisted by the specific relay node with the maximum energy efficiency. This approach leads to a better global optimization in searching ability and efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can improve the energy efficiency effectively compared with direct transmission and opportunistic relay-selected cooperative transmission.

  15. 76 FR 37809 - The Connecticut Transmission Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative; Notice of Request for Waiver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. TS11-4-000] The Connecticut Transmission Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative; Notice of Request for Waiver or Exemption Take notice that on June 8, 2011, the Connecticut Transmission Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative filed a petition...

  16. Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation Through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    New technologies will be critical in addressing current global energy challenges such as energy security. More must be done, however, to push forward the development and deployment of the technologies we need today and will need in the future. Government leaders have repeatedly underlined the crucial role of industry and businesses in advancing energy technologies and the importance of strong collaboration among all stakeholders to accelerate technology advances. To attain these goals, increased co-operation between industries, businesses and government energy technology research is indispensable. The public and private sectors must work together, share burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. The 42 multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements) supported by the IEA are a flexible and effective framework for IEA member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to research breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants, to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes -- in short to encourage technology-related activities that support energy security, economic growth and environmental protection. This publication highlights the significant accomplishments of the IEA Implementing Agreements.

  17. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hengyun; Oxley, Les; Gibson, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  18. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  19. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  20. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  1. China’s Energy Intensity, Determinants and Spatial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the shadow of the energy crisis and environmental degradation, energy intensity is a hot topic in academic circles in China. The energy intensity distribution map of China indicates the fairly large geographic disparities globally and clustering locally in some areas, ascending from the southeast regions to the northwest provinces. Although energy intensity and its determinants vary from place to place, few studies have been made from the spatial perspective. Determinates of energy intensity and spatial spillover effects should be taken into consideration. Controlling for seven exogenous variables (per capita GDP; the share of the secondary sector; foreign direct investment; international trade, energy price, the share of coal, and transport sector and their spatial lags, we apply a spatial Durbin model to test for spatial spillover effects among energy intensity and exogenous variables from a panel of 29 Chinese provinces over 1998 to 2014. We find that per capita GDP has an insignificant and negative direct and indirect effect, but has a significant and negative total effect on energy intensity. The share of the secondary sector and the share of coal are found to have significant and positive direct and indirect effects on energy intensity. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and Trade have significant and negative direct and indirect effects on energy intensity. The direct effect of energy price is found to be significantly positive while the indirect effect is negative. Only the direct effect of the Transport variable is significant and positive. The results of this study offer some theoretical evidence for differential localized policy making related to reduction in energy intensity.

  2. Energy Cooperation in Ultradense Network Powered by Renewable Energy Based on Cluster and Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Duo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method about renewable energy cooperation among small base stations (SBSs is proposed, which is for maximizing the energy efficiency in ultradense network (UDN. In UDN each SBS is equipped with energy harvesting (EH unit, and the energy arrival times are modeled as a Poisson counting process. Firstly, SBSs of large traffic demands are selected as the clustering centers, and then all SBSs are clustered using dynamic k-means algorithm. Secondly, SBSs coordinate their renewable energy within each formed cluster. The process of energy cooperation among SBSs is considered as Markov decision process. Q-learning algorithm is utilized to optimize energy cooperation. In the algorithm there are four different actions and their corresponding reward functions. Q-learning explores the action as much as possible and predicts better action by calculating reward. In addition, ε greedy policy is used to ensure the algorithm convergence. Finally, simulation results show that the new method reduces data dimension and improves calculation speed, which furthermore improves the utilization of renewable energy and promotes the performance of UDN. Through online optimization, the proposed method can significantly improve the energy utilization rate and data transmission rate.

  3. International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengfei, Shi

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

  4. Trade Exposure of Energy Intensive Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korteland, M.H.; Nelissen, D.; De Bruyn, S.M.

    2010-04-01

    In this report we analysed the origin and destinations of trade flows between EU and non-EU countries with respect to eight industrial sectors. In addition we looked at the political pledges made during the Copenhagen negotiations last December. If we combine these two types of insights, we get an idea of the risk of carbon leakage due to EU climate policies. Our analysis shows that the EU often trades with countries that have climate policy in place. As these major trading partners of the EU can be expected to adopt similar stringent climate policies, CO2 might get a price in these markets as well and the risk of carbon leakage is reduced/absent. Trade intensities should be corrected for that. In case the EU will adopt a -30% emission reduction target, trade with Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland, Brazil and Mexico, need to be excluded from the calculation of trade intensities since those countries will adopt comparable climate policies. The average downward correction on trade intensities is 3%. If the EU eventually decides to adopt a -20% reduction scenario, trade flows with Russia, Canada and the USA should also be excluded. Those countries will then have policies of similar stringency. The average correction on trade intensities is then -8,5%. These findings have direct consequences on the allocation mechanism for some sectors, which will no longer receive free emission rights as they do not qualify as 'exposed' to international competition anymore. These sectors are listed in Table 4 (-30% scenario) and Table 5 (-20% scenario) on page 31. Yet, those sectors that are expected to face large cost increases (>5%) due to EU ETS, will still receive free allocation.

  5. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate: 1997-2006?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hua; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2007-01-01

    China is the second largest energy consumer in the world. During 1997-2002, China's energy intensity declined by 33%. However, it rose by 10.7% over 2003-2005, and declined by 1.2% in 2006. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate so drastically? Industry accounts for approximately 70% of the total energy consumption in China. In this paper, we decompose China's industrial energy intensity changes between 1997 and 2002 into sectoral structural effects and efficiency effects (measured by sectoral energy intensities at two-digit level and including the shifts of product mix in the sub-sector or firm level), using Toernqvist and Sato-Vartia Index methods. The results show that in this period, efficiency effects possibly contributed to a majority of the decline, while the contribution from structural effects was less. During 2003-2005, the excessive expansion of high-energy consuming sub-sectors and the high investment ratio were foremost sources of the increasing energy intensity. Attributed to the government efforts, the energy intensity has started to decline slightly since July 2006. In future, to save more energy, in addition to technical progress, China should attach more importance to optimizing its sectoral structure, and lowering its investment ratio

  6. Cooperative procurement: market transformation for energy efficient products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.; Dreher, C.

    1999-07-01

    Cooperative procurement is a variation of public purchasing which may be used as an instrument to transform the market and stimulate innovation enhancing environmental performance. The core of the procedure is the following: Coordinated by a central agency a group of buyers - public administrations, but also private companies, associations, etc. - gets together and jointly formulates a catalogue of performance requirements for a specific product truly suiting their preferences. This catalogue may contain (combinations of) requirements not yet available on the market and includes energy efficiency and/or environmental performance among other preferences important to the users. On the basis of the product requirements the buyer group launches a call for tenders, evaluates the bids received from the manufacturers and commits to buying the winning product. Thus, a market is provided for the most successful innovators in a given area of technology. The paper discusses the effectiveness of cooperative procurement as a policy instrument in the context of innovation theory and learning curves and it presents some empirical results on the feasibility of the transfer of this policy instruments to a wider range of European countries and/or to the European level. (orig.)

  7. China–Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Its Regional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Myanmar is among the world’s oldest oil-producing countries, Chinese oil and gas companies did not start their oil and gas exploration projects there until recently. The most recent and significant China–Myanmar energy cooperation project is the oil and gas pipelines which got started in 2009. This paper will discuss the reasons and driving forces for this pipeline project and its broader objectives, and testify whether pipelines can deepen regional economic integration and strengthen bilateral relations. This paper concludes by saying that China might use the China–Myanmar pipeline construction as an opportunity to play a more constructive role in Myanmar’s domestic reforms, thus improving its image in Southeast Asia and strengthening its relations with Myanmar.

  8. Potential cooperation in renewable energy between China and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jun; Sheng, Pengfei; Li, Xuesong; Wang, Xingwu

    2014-01-01

    China and the United States of America (US) are developing renewable energy concurrently. In this paper, we seek the opportunities for potential cooperation between these two countries based on the analysis of annual economic data. A mathematical model has been established to characterize correlations among GDP, carbon dioxide emissions, energy prices and the renewable energy cooperation index. Based on statistical analyses, such cooperation can promote economic development, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, improve the environment and realize green growth. If US monetary and technology resources and Chinese markets are combined, benefits can be mutually gained. - Highlights: • An indicator called “renewable energy cooperation index” is introduced. • A model correlates GDP, CO 2 emission, energy price and the cooperation index. • The cooperation can stimulate economy and reduce CO 2 emission. • Combining US and Chinese resources will be mutually beneficial

  9. An integrated DEA PCA numerical taxonomy approach for energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Amalnick, M.S.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Asadzadeh, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT) for total energy efficiency assessment and optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors. Total energy efficiency assessment and optimization of the proposed approach considers structural indicators in addition conventional consumption and manufacturing sector output indicators. The validity of the DEA model is verified and validated by PCA and NT through Spearman correlation experiment. Moreover, the proposed approach uses the measure-specific super-efficiency DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical energy carriers. Four energy intensive manufacturing sectors are discussed in this paper: iron and steel, pulp and paper, petroleum refining and cement manufacturing sectors. To show superiority and applicability, the proposed approach has been applied to refinery sub-sectors of some OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. This study has several unique features which are: (1) a total approach which considers structural indicators in addition to conventional energy efficiency indicators; (2) a verification and validation mechanism for DEA by PCA and NT and (3) utilization of DEA for total energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization of energy intensive manufacturing sectors

  10. High energy bremsstrahlung in an intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlessinger, L.; Wright, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The cross section for bremsstrahlung emission and absorption by electrons in an intense laser field has been calculated in the Born approximation for the electron-ion potential. Typical numerical results are presented as a function of the ratio of the electron guiver energy to its energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the electron energy. The intense field correction factor for the rate of bremsstrahlung emission and absorption for electrons with a Boltzmann distribution of energies has been calculated. Numerical results for the correction factor are presented for the Boltzmann case as a function of the ratio of the electron quiver energy to its thermal energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the thermal energy. For typical laser fusion parameters, this correction factor which is the ratio of the thermal bremsstrahlung emission rate in the intense laser field to the rate at zero field can be quite significant. For a laser of wavelength 1.06 μm at an intensity of 3 x 10 15 w/cm 2 and an electron temperature of 1 keV, the correction factor varies from 0.98 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 100 V to greater than 5 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 10 keV

  11. US long-term energy intensity: Backcast and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, Hadi; Oravetz, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Energy intensity of the economy is often modeled as being determined by the combined effect of a fixed price elasticity of demand, and an exogenously specified, fixed technical change parameter denoted as the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI). Typically, the AEEI rate is set to 0.5-1.5% improvement per annum. Here, we study historic aggregate energy intensity trends for the US from 1954 to 1994. We show that the historic trends are inconsistent with an autonomous model of improved energy efficiency-especially when the model is used to inform policies that impact energy prices. As an alternative we propose a model of price-induced efficiency, π, in which aggregate energy intensity trends respond to changes in energy prices beyond price elasticity of demand ε. Our exercise reveals that the aggregate price elasticity of energy demand of the US economy has declined by roughly 15% over the past four decades. But beyond this decline, bringing our simulations and historical data into close correspondence requires π to change sign before and after 1974. Before 1974, after accounting for price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing less energy efficient. After 1974, after accounting for the price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing more energy efficient. Furthermore, since 1984, the rate of energy efficiency gain has been declining. When projections of long-term energy use are compared, those with a price-induced energy efficiency formulation generate significantly more price sensitive energy use and emissions trajectories. When in the business as usual scenario energy prices are expected to be rising, climate policies involve lower shadow carbon prices with π than with AEEI formulations. In scenarios where energy prices are relatively flat, energy intensity rises leading to CO 2 emissions far higher than standard business as usual projections utilizing AEEI assumptions

  12. US long-term energy intensity: backcast and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Oravetz, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Energy intensity of the economy is often modeled as being determined by the combined effect of a fixed price elasticity of demand, and an exogenously specified, fixed technical change parameter denoted as the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI). Typically, the AEEI rate is set to 0.5-1.5% improvement per annum. Here, we study historic aggregate energy intensity trends for the US from 1954 to 1994. We show that the historic trends are inconsistent with an autonomous model of improved energy efficiency - especially when the model is used to inform policies that impact energy prices. As an alternative we propose a model of price-induced efficiency, π, in which aggregate energy intensity trends respond to changes in energy prices beyond price elasticity of demandε. Our exercise reveals that the aggregate price elasticity of energy demand of the US economy has declined by roughly 15% over the past four decades. But beyond this decline, bringing our simulations and historical data into close correspondence requires π to change sign before and after 1974. Before 1974, after accounting for price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing less energy efficient. After 1974, after accounting for the price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing more energy efficient. Furthermore, since 1984, the rate of energy efficiency gain has been declining. When projections of long-term energy use are compared, those with a price-induced energy efficiency formulation generate significantly more price sensitive energy use and emissions trajectories. When in the business as usual scenario energy prices are expected to be rising, climate policies involve lower shadow carbon prices with π than with AEEI formulations. In scenarios where energy prices are relatively flat, energy intensity rises leading to CO 2 emissions far higher than standard business as usual projections utilizing AEEI assumptions. (Author)

  13. US long-term energy intensity: backcast and projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Oravetz, M.A. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2006-11-15

    Energy intensity of the economy is often modeled as being determined by the combined effect of a fixed price elasticity of demand, and an exogenously specified, fixed technical change parameter denoted as the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI). Typically, the AEEI rate is set to 0.5-1.5% improvement per annum. Here, we study historic aggregate energy intensity trends for the US from 1954 to 1994. We show that the historic trends are inconsistent with an autonomous model of improved energy efficiency - especially when the model is used to inform policies that impact energy prices. As an alternative we propose a model of price-induced efficiency, {pi}, in which aggregate energy intensity trends respond to changes in energy prices beyond price elasticity of demand{epsilon}. Our exercise reveals that the aggregate price elasticity of energy demand of the US economy has declined by roughly 15% over the past four decades. But beyond this decline, bringing our simulations and historical data into close correspondence requires {pi} to change sign before and after 1974. Before 1974, after accounting for price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing less energy efficient. After 1974, after accounting for the price elasticity of demand, the economy was growing more energy efficient. Furthermore, since 1984, the rate of energy efficiency gain has been declining. When projections of long-term energy use are compared, those with a price-induced energy efficiency formulation generate significantly more price sensitive energy use and emissions trajectories. When in the business as usual scenario energy prices are expected to be rising, climate policies involve lower shadow carbon prices with {pi} than with AEEI formulations. In scenarios where energy prices are relatively flat, energy intensity rises leading to CO{sub 2} emissions far higher than standard business as usual projections utilizing AEEI assumptions. (Author)

  14. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  15. Energy Management for Community Energy Network with CHP Based on Cooperative Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated energy system (IES has received increasing attention in micro grid due to the high energy efficiency and low emission of carbon dioxide. Based on the technology of combined heat and power (CHP, this paper develops a novel operation mechanism with community micro turbine and shared energy storage system (ESS for energy management of prosumers. In the proposed framework, micro-grid operator (MGO equipped with micro turbine and ESS provides energy selling business and ESS leasing business for prosumers. Prosumers can make energy trading with public grid and MGO, and ESS will be shared among prosumers when they pay for the rent to MGO. Based on such framework, we adopt a cooperative game for prosumers to determine optimal energy trading strategies from MGO and public grid for the next day. Concretely, a cooperative game model is formulated to search the optimal strategies aiming at minimizing the daily cost of coalition, and then a bilateral Shapley value (BSV is proposed to solve the allocation problem of coalition’s cost among prosumers. To verify the effectiveness of proposed energy management framework, a practical example is conducted with a community energy network containing MGO and 10 residential buildings. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to provide financial benefits to all prosumers, while providing peak load leveling for the grid.

  16. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemys?aw; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, s...

  17. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  18. Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Two Dimensional Cooperative Wireless Sensor Network with Relay Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kakitani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of non-cooperative and cooperative transmissions are investigated in a two-dimensional wireless sensor network, considering a target outage probability and the same end-to-end throughput for all transmission schemes. The impact of the relay selection method in the cooperative schemes is also analyzed. We show that under non line-of-sight conditions the relay selection method has a greater impact in the energy efficiency than the availability of a return channel. By its turn, under line-of-sight conditions a return channel is more valuable to the energy efficiency of cooperative transmission than the specific relay selection method. Finally, we demonstrate that the energy efficiency advantage of the cooperative over the non-cooperative transmission increases with the distance among nodes and with the nodes density.

  19. Effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Many energy-intensive process industries have complex material flows, which have a strong effect on the overall energy intensity of the final product (OEIF). This problem, however, has only been recognised qualitatively due to the lack of quantitative analysis methods. This paper presents an in-depth quantitative analysis of the effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries. Based on the concept of a standard material flow diagram (SMFD), as used in steel manufacturing, the SMFD for a generic process industry was first developed. Then material flow scenarios were addressed in a practical material flow diagram (PMFD) using the characteristics of practical process industries. The effect of each material flow deviating from a SMFD on the OEIF was analysed. The steps involved in analysing the effect of material flows in a PMFD on its energy intensity are also discussed in detail. Finally, using 1999 statistical data from the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant, the PMFD and SMFD for this plant were constructed as a case study. The effect of material flows on the overall energy intensity of alumina (OEIA) was thus analysed quantitatively. To decrease OEIA, the process variations which decrease the product ratios could be employed in all except in multi-supplied fraction cases. In these cases, the fractions from the stream with lower energy intensities should be increased. (author)

  20. The first Studsvik AB - JAEA meeting for cooperation in nuclear energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Yanagihara, Satoshi; Karlsson, Mikael; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Based on the implemental agreement between the Studsvik AB and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for cooperation in nuclear energy research and development, the first annual meeting was held at Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this meeting, information exchange on two cooperation areas, 'Radioactive waste treatment technology including recycling of materials' and 'Technical developments for the neutron irradiation experiments in materials testing reactors', was carried out, and future plan in cooperation was discussed. This report describes contents of information exchange and discussions in two cooperation areas. (author)

  1. Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation in the Baltic Sea region becomes a locomotive of the Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation, and, as a result, is capable of changing the quality of relations between the partners.

  2. Energy-Efficient Cooperative Techniques for Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen , Tuan-Duc; Berder , Olivier; Sentieys , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In wireless distributed networks, cooperative relay and cooperative Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) techniques can be used to exploit the spatial and temporal diversity gain in order to increase the performance or reduce the transmission energy consumption. The energy efficiency of cooperative MIMO and relay techniques is then very useful for the Infrastructure to Vehicle (I2V) and Infrastructure to Infrastructure (I2I) communications in Intelligent Transport Systems (I...

  3. Energy Profile and Perspectives on Northeast Asian Energy Co-operation of North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Energy policy of North Korea is basically based on the 'Principle of Self-reliance'. Throughout the active development of domestic energy sources, North Korea try to maximize the energy self-reliance as well as to minimize the outflow of currency for the import of energy. But, the 'Principle of Self-reliance' of energy sector brought about the excess dependency on coal and hydro, and eventually causes the contraction of oil and natural gas consumption. This kind of adverse reaction of the 'Principle of Self-reliance' is the major reason of overall weakness of national-wide economic system. It is not known actually what kinds of perspectives North Korea has on the Northeast Asian energy cooperation. But, it can be said that Northeast Asian energy cooperation can be the best chance for North Korea to solve current energy crisis and to transfer the economic system to capitalism for the recovery of national economy. 19 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  5. China's numerical management system for reducing national energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huimin; Zhao, Xiaofan; Yu, Yuqing; Wu, Tong; Qi, Ye

    2016-01-01

    In China, the national target for energy intensity reduction, when integrated with target disaggregation and information feedback systems, constitutes a numerical management system, which is a hallmark of modern governance. This paper points out the technical weaknesses of China's current numerical management system. In the process of target disaggregation, the national target cannot be fully disaggregated to local governments, sectors and enterprises without omissions. At the same time, governments at lower levels face pressure for reducing energy intensity that exceeds their respective jurisdictions. In the process of information feedback, information failure is inevitable due to statistical inaccuracy. Furthermore, the monitoring system is unable to correct all errors, and data verification plays a limited role in the examination system. To address these problems, we recommend that the government: use total energy consumption as the primary indicator of energy management; reform the accounting and reporting of energy statistics toward greater consistency, timeliness and transparency; clearly define the responsibility of the higher levels of government. - Highlights: •We assess drawbacks of China's numerical management system for energy intensity. •The national energy intensity target cannot be fully disaggregated without omissions. •Data distortion is due to failures in statistics, monitoring and examination system. •Lower-level governments’ ability to meet energy target is weaker than their pressure. •We provide three policy recommendations for China's policy-makers.

  6. Cooperation in energy acquisition; Kooperation in der Energiebeschaffung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnis, Erik; Holzinger, Sebastian [Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Increasing competition in the power industry has brought many utilities to reconsider their competitive standing. Long-term cooperations in electricity and gas acquisition are getting more important against this background as they will reduce the administrative expenditure, help develop new sources, and give more weight in business negotiations. Increasingly, cooperations are entered across national borders.

  7. Cooperation and competition on the path to fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The United States, the European Community, and Japan are actively considering whether worthwhile advantages lie in increased cooperation among their respective programs of research and development in magnetically confined fusion. To help answer that question for the United States, this report examines why cooperation is a policy option, what might be done, and how

  8. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S.N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  9. ROK-PRC Cooperation on Laser Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Yong Joo; Han, J. M.; Lee, S. M.; Nam, S. M.; Kwan, D. H.; Cha, Y. H.; Baek, S. H.

    2009-03-01

    International treaties on the reduction of green-house gases are now being established worldwide and Korea is supposed to join these treaties in a near future. Meanwhile the energy production via fission reactors proposed as a solution to this global environmental contamination has still inherent problems in that it also produces long-life radioactive nuclear waste in the long run, causing many serious social issues. Now the ultimate solution in this situation is believed to be the production of energy by the nuclear fusion reaction. In this project, the collaboration regarding high energy laser fusion has been carried out mainly at the Chinese facility such as ShengGuang II (SG II) laser facility, and ultrahigh intensity laser system of KAERI has been used for the small scale laser fusion and production of fast neutrons. Thomson scattering experiment to analyze the fusion plasma, opacity measurement to understand and develop the computer simulation techniques have been carried out at SG II facility, and experiments on implosion reaction which is basic to laser fusion as well as that of X-ray absorption and transmission have been done at the GEKKO XII facility of ILE, Japan. Satisfactory results both for Korea and China have been deduced by the strategy of project such that different approaches for high energy laser fusion and low energy laser fusion were applied. That is, Korean partner could get opportunities of doing experiments at the large laser facilities to get plasma diagnostic technologies and high density simulation technologies, besides the opportunity to participate in the K-C-J collaborative experiments of implosion and X-ray spectroscopy. And Chinese partner could solve their problem related to the laser fusion and neutron generation which were not successful even with their far high 300TW laser system

  10. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, D [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)

  11. Environmental Aspects as Assessment Criteria in Municipal Heat Energy Decisions - Case of Eno Energy Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakka, Asko [North Karelia Univ. of Applied Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide information whether it is possible to consider the sustainable development perspectives in the decision making of the district energy decision. The new EU-directives concerning public procurements allow the use of environmental aspects as selection criteria. The focus here is on small-scale district heating systems and their fuel-supply chains. The comparable fuels included the analysis are forest chips, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil and peat. The paper focuses to the concept of the sustainable development and establishes the indicators for ecological-, social- and economical aspects of the district heating. The indicators are utilized in the case study on the Eno Energy Cooperative. The equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and the combustion of the fuel, the employment impacts of the fuel production and the formation of the price of energy for the consumers are considered. After presenting the sustainable development indicators in the case of Eno Energy Cooperative, the investment models of heat entrepreneurship business are discussed. Finally, we also raise an attention into important aspects to be considered when establishing a local district heating scheme. The indicators used in this presentation show that the use of forest chips in energy production has positive effect through the reduced greenhouse gases. The use of wood in energy production also provides employment opportunities and is more favourable to consumers, because of the steady fuel price when compared to other alternative fuels.

  12. International cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacke, S.; Stein, G.

    1988-01-01

    The article in hand reviews the scenario and organisation of the conference together with the results achieved (non-proliferation strategies with regard to technological cooperation in the nuclear field, feasible means of cooperation), saying that judged by the non-favourable conditions at the start, the fruitful dialogue between developing countries and highly industrialised countries that has set in at this conference will have to be filed on the credit side. Another important result is that one came to realize that the transfer of know-how must be very carefully prepared and accompanied by very close cooperation right from the start. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Cooperation Agreement. The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  14. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  15. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  16. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  17. An Energy Efficient Cooperative Hierarchical MIMO Clustering Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  18. Longitudinal density modulation and energy conversion in intense beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J. R.; Neumann, J. G.; Tian, K.; O'Shea, P. G.

    2007-01-01

    Density modulation of charged particle beams may occur as a consequence of deliberate action, or may occur inadvertently because of imperfections in the particle source or acceleration method. In the case of intense beams, where space charge and external focusing govern the beam dynamics, density modulation may, under some circumstances, be converted to velocity modulation, with a corresponding conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Whether this will occur depends on the properties of the beam and the initial modulation. This paper describes the evolution of discrete and continuous density modulations on intense beams and discusses three recent experiments related to the dynamics of density-modulated electron beams

  19. Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Duro, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Theil's second measure to analyze international energy intensity differences. This index allows differences to be broken down within and between groups of countries in a consistent manner. An analysis of OECD countries for the period 1971-1999 shows some basic points: first, the fall in energy intensities differences is attributable both to within-group and between-group inequality components; second, between-group inequalities are currently the main contributor to the whole inequality value; finally, a detailed exploration on within-group inequalities reveals the significant explanatory role played by EU-countries

  20. Nuclear energy = more jobs. [Capital-intensive vs labor-intensive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1979-07-01

    In the April 1979 issue of Energy Manager, Dr. David Elliott of Open University says capital-intensive systems employ less labor per unit of output, concluding that nuclear energy represented a poor bargain in terms of money invested per job created. Responding to this earlier article, Dr. Brookes argues that capital-intensive systems may employ less labor per unit of output, but they also produce more output and income per worker. Dr. Brookes uses a simple analysis to illustrate how progress results by increasing capital investment and disagrees strongly with Elliotts conclusions - says output must become more capital-intensive to provide more employment opportunities. Further, he feels that Elliott and other antinuclear and environmentalist writers have fallen into the trap of the fallacy of composition - assuming that what is true for a small number of constituent parts taken singly is true also for the total system taken as a whole. Examples can be found in economics of microeconomic elements which do not add up to the expected macroeconomic composition, which explains why some capital-intensive strategies are good and others are not. The excess income produced by capital-intensive energy strategies supports the service and public administration sectors. 3 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  1. Wireless Powered Cooperative Communications: Power-Splitting Relaying With Energy Accumulation (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    decreasing power usage, while improving the transmission performance. A key concern of the energy harvesting enabled coop- erative relay communication is the...improving transmission performance via an efficient utiliza- tion of harvested power has been widely studied for conven- tional energy harvesting techniques...can be used as energy sources for cooperative nodes. Moreover, it has been illustrated in [6] that wireless -powered cooperative relay communications

  2. Robust Nash Dynamic Game Strategy for User Cooperation Energy Efficiency in Wireless Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is an emerging trend of addressing “energy efficiency” aspect of wireless communications. It has been shown that cooperating users relay each other's information to improve data rates. The energy is limited in the wireless cellular network, but the mobile users refuse to relay. This paper presents an approach that encourages user cooperation in order to improve the energy efficiency. The game theory is an efficient method to solve such conflicts. We present a cellular framework in which two mobile users, who desire to communicate with a common base station, may cooperate via decode-and-forward relaying. In the case of imperfect information assumption, cooperative Nash dynamic game is used between the two users' cooperation to tackle the decision making problems: whether to cooperate and how to cooperate in wireless networks. The scheme based on “cooperative game theory” can achieve general pareto-optimal performance for cooperative games, and thus, maximize the entire system payoff while maintaining fairness.

  3. A Study of Sino-Russian Energy Cooperation from the Perspective of Theories of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyue Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy cooperation is an important component in the Sino-Russia relationship. After more than a decade of efforts, China and Russia have made great progress in their cooperation in the area of oil and natural gas, which has not only promoted the economic developments in both countries, but also expanded their common interests to a large extent, resulting in a tremendous improvement of the two countries’ international strategies towards each other. Nevertheless, constrained and influenced by the evolution of contemporary international politics and economies, the Sino-Russia energy cooperation is facing some problems and barriers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to analyze the multiple elements affecting the Sino-Russia energy cooperation through the prism of Neo-realism, Neo-liberalism and Social Constructivism, hence a clear account of the opportunities and challenges that constitute this cooperation will be gained.

  4. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  5. The socio-economic power of renewable energy production cooperatives in Germany: Results of an empirical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Debor, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects the socio-economic power of renewable energy production cooperatives for a wider energy system transformation in Germany. Energy cooperatives have turned into important supporters of renewable and decentralised energy structures, due to their strong growth since the year 2006, their participation in local renewable energy projects and their democratic awareness. The cooperative form of coordinating regional energy projects applies to a decentralised energy system that is m...

  6. French-Polish energy cooperation in the face of climate and security challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloch, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The energy cooperation between Poland and France provides an opportunity to jointly organize the energy transition in the context of the gradual integration of the European energy market that both countries are calling for. The purpose of this note is to identify some pointers for a Franco-Polish energy partnership. (author)

  7. Modeling the cooperative energy transfer dynamics of quantum cutting for solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouw, Freddy T.; Meijerink, Andries

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative energy transfer (ET) is a quantum cutting (or downconversion) process where a luminescent center splits its excited state energy in two by simultaneous transfer to two nearby acceptor centers, thus yielding two low-energy photons for each high-energy photon absorbed. It has the potential

  8. 78 FR 29364 - Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., and Florida Municipal Power Agency v. Duke Energy Florida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-63-000] Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., and Florida Municipal Power Agency v. Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Notice of... of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 and sections 206, 306, and...

  9. Egypt--United States cooperative energy assessment: report on preliminary discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Egyptian and U.S. Government representatives met in Cairo during the period of February 14-22, 1978 to discuss a cooperative Egypt-U.S. assessment of the energy demand and supply options available to Egypt. This report summarizes those preliminary discussions. The discussions accomplished the following: the background and objectives of the U.S. initiative for a cooperative energy assessment with Egypt were explained; Egyptian electric energy activities and their priorities were presented; methods under consideration for the systematic identification and assessment of energy options available to Egypt were explained; the cooperation of Egyptian energy resource and planning organizations was assured; and arrangements to carry out the cooperative assessment were planned.

  10. Landscape of Future Accelerators at the Energy and Intensity Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M. J. [Northern Illinois U.; Chattopadhyay, S. [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-11-21

    An overview is provided of the currently envisaged landscape of charged particle accelerators at the energy and intensity frontiers to explore particle physics beyond the standard model via 1-100 TeV-scale lepton and hadron colliders and multi-Megawatt proton accelerators for short- and long- baseline neutrino experiments. The particle beam physics, associated technological challenges and progress to date for these accelerator facilities (LHC, HL-LHC, future 100 TeV p-p colliders, Tev-scale linear and circular electron-positron colliders, high intensity proton accelerator complex PIP-II for DUNE and future upgrade to PIP-III) are outlined. Potential and prospects for advanced “nonlinear dynamic techniques” at the multi-MW level intensity frontier and advanced “plasma- wakefield-based techniques” at the TeV-scale energy frontier and are also described.

  11. An example o French - Italian cooperation in the area of energy: ENEL in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremieux, M.

    2010-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization also allows to renew European industrial cooperation. As a symbol of such cooperation, Enel, the first both Italian and Spanish operator, develops an integrated position in France where industrial cooperation with Electricite de France in the EPR project goes with a business activity competing with the historical operator. Such industrial cooperation allows Enel to benefit by experience in all available technologies and is of crucial importance in light of the Italian government's choice to develop nuclear energy in Italy. Those industrial agreements, beneficial both for consumers and for the European development, cannot develop unless a number of economic properties are complied with. (author)

  12. On the Throughput and Energy Benefits of Network Coded Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative techniques in wireless mobile networks typically leverage short-range communication technologies, e.g., WiFi, to allow data exchange between devices forming a mobile cloud. These mobile clouds have been considered as a key to reduce the cost of multicast services for the network...

  13. The role of cooperatives in overcoming the barriers to adoption of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viardot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Recently, cooperatives have been created to promote the use of renewable energy (RE) most notably in Canada, the US, UK, Denmark or Germany. In order to develop the adoption of RE, the cooperatives have to seek to influence the behaviour of their members so that they switch from the use of traditional fossil energy to RE. This paper examines the various barriers to adoption of RE and the way cooperatives are circumventing those obstacles in order to develop the use of RE. This study surveyed a sample of 9 cooperatives from countries where governments are subsidizing the use of RE. The paper identifies a set of specific barriers to the adoption of RE by consumers. It also reveals that cooperatives effectively contribute to the uptake of RE with community-based social marketing initiatives that are lowering those barriers successfully. Those initiatives are related to educational communication, low prices, local offers with complementary services, and cooperative distribution. The paper put forwards a framework for the assessment of how each of those initiatives contributes to the diminishing of each of the barriers to adoption of RE. - Highlights: • We examine the barriers to adoption of renewable energy by RE cooperatives. • We have identified the main significant barriers to adoption of RE by consumers. • Cooperatives apply community-based marketing initiatives to ease the uptake of RE. • We evaluate how each marketing initiatives diminish the barriers to adoption of RE

  14. Asia-Europe cooperation on energy security an overview of options and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.; Godement, F.; Yakushiji, T

    2005-07-01

    Asian and European economies are major players on the international energy markets. Because of broad similarities in the energy situation in both regions, and also because of some existing major differences, there is definitely scope for joint discussions and cooperation on energy issues between the countries of the two regions, despite possible competing interests. This document aims at examining the conditions for this possible cooperation, as well as the major incentives and obstacles. After a brief reminder on the notion of energy security, a first section provides a synthesis of the energy situation and outlook in the two regions. The next section focuses more specifically on energy security issues and policies, emphasizing the diversity of strategies followed in the two regions. The last section concludes by sketching possible avenues for cooperation on energy issues between countries of the two regions.

  15. Asia-Europe cooperation on energy security an overview of options and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, F.; Godement, F.; Yakushiji, T.

    2005-01-01

    Asian and European economies are major players on the international energy markets. Because of broad similarities in the energy situation in both regions, and also because of some existing major differences, there is definitely scope for joint discussions and cooperation on energy issues between the countries of the two regions, despite possible competing interests. This document aims at examining the conditions for this possible cooperation, as well as the major incentives and obstacles. After a brief reminder on the notion of energy security, a first section provides a synthesis of the energy situation and outlook in the two regions. The next section focuses more specifically on energy security issues and policies, emphasizing the diversity of strategies followed in the two regions. The last section concludes by sketching possible avenues for cooperation on energy issues between countries of the two regions

  16. MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA REGION IN THE ENERGY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyacheslavovich Ishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the state of international cooperation is analysed in the field of energy in Black Sea besseyne. Problems and prospects of development of power communications, their influence, are examined on the level of international stability.

  17. Blind Cooperative Routing for Scalable and Energy-Efficient Internet of Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Multihop networking is promoted in this paper for energy-efficient and highly-scalable Internet of Things (IoT). Recognizing concerns related to the scalability of classical multihop routing and medium access techniques, the use of blind cooperation

  18. X-ray absorption intensity at high-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically discuss X-ray absorption intensity in high-energy region far from the deepest core threshold to explain the morphology-dependent mass attenuation coefficient of some carbon systems, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and fullerenes (C 60 ). The present theoretical approach is based on the many-body X-ray absorption theory including the intrinsic losses (shake-up losses). In the high-energy region the absorption coefficient has correction term dependent on the solid state effects given in terms of the polarization part of the screened Coulomb interaction W p . We also discuss the tail of the valence band X-ray absorption intensity. In the carbon systems C 2s contribution has some influence on the attenuation coefficient even in the high energy region at 20 keV.

  19. Report on Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation 2001. Energy Security in Asian Region; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi 2001 hokokusho. Asia chiiki no energy anzen hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    The Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation (SPEC), which started in 1986 to discuss energy problems and international cooperation on energy in the Pacific region, met for 2001 in Tokyo on February 20 and 21, 2001, to discuss Energy Security in Asian Region. The conference comprised two keynote addresses, four sessions, and a panel discussion. Twenty-four countries and an international organization were represented by a total of 785 participants who actively exchanged views and opinions. With Director Tsutomu Toichi, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, acting as chairman, two keynote addresses were delivered. Minister of Oil Bijan Namdar Zanganeh of Iran reported on The Role of I. R. Iran in Meeting the Growing Oil and Gas Demand in the Asia-Pacific Region and Potential Cooperation with the Region's Consumers. Managing Director Phil Watts of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group reported on Security in Trust - Meeting Asian Energy Needs in the 21st Century. (NEDO)

  20. The Energy Charter Treaty and Related Documents. A Legal Framework for International Energy Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Charter Treaty is a unique instrument for the promotion of international cooperation in the energy sector. Following its entry into force on 16 April 1998, the Treaty, together with the related documents contained in this booklet, provides an important legal basis for the creation of an open international energy market. The Charter process includes the countries of the enlarged European Union, Central and Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation, Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as Japan, Australia and Mongolia. The Treaty remains open for accession by all countries committed to observance of its principles. It is very positive in this regard that states such as China, Iran, South Korea and the countries of ASEAN are taking a close interest in the Charter process, thus opening up the prospect of a further extension of its geographical scope. The primary challenge facing the constituent members of the Energy Charter process in the coming years will be that of ensuring full implementation of the Treaty's commitments. This will entail increased focus on multilateral cooperation over transit, trade, investments, environmental protection and energy efficiency. By continuing to build on its existing work in these areas, the Charter process stands ready to play a key role in translating the aim of a truly open non-discriminatory energy market into reality. This publication reproduces the text of the following documents: Final Act of the European Energy Charter Conference with all Annexes thereto, as opened for signature in Lisbon on 17 December 1994 and corrected by the Protocol of Correction of 2 August 1996; the Chairman's Statement at Adoption Session on 17 December 1994, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Joint Memorandum of the Delegations of the Russian Federation and the European Communities on Nuclear Trade, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on

  1. The relationship between energy consumption structure, economic structure and energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Taiwen; Sun Linyan; Zhang Ying

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run equilibrium relationships, temporal dynamic relationships and causal relationships between energy consumption structure, economic structure and energy intensity in China. Time series variables over the periods from 1980 to 2006 are employed in empirical tests. Cointegration tests suggest that these three variables tend to move together in the long-run. In addition, Granger causality tests indicate that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy intensity to economic structure but not vice versa. Impulse response analysis provides reasonable evidences that one shock of the three variables will cause the periods of destabilized that followed. However, the impact of the energy consumption structure shock on energy intensity and the impact of the economic structure shock on energy consumption structure seem to be rather marginal. The findings have significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation and economic development. In order to decrease energy intensity, Chinese government must continue to reduce the proportion of coal in energy consumption, increase the utilization efficiency of coal and promote the upgrade of economic structure. Furthermore, a full analysis of factors that may relate to energy intensity (e.g. energy consumption structure, economic structure) should be conducted before making energy policies.

  2. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-02-24

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  3. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  4. Baryon acoustic oscillation intensity mapping of dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-03-07

    The expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating, and the mysterious antigravity agent of this acceleration has been called "dark energy." To measure the dynamics of dark energy, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used. Previous discussions of the BAO dark energy test have focused on direct measurements of redshifts of as many as 10(9) individual galaxies, by observing the 21 cm line or by detecting optical emission. Here we show how the study of acoustic oscillation in the 21 cm brightness can be accomplished by economical three-dimensional intensity mapping. If our estimates gain acceptance they may be the starting point for a new class of dark energy experiments dedicated to large angular scale mapping of the radio sky, shedding light on dark energy.

  5. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Kumar Ray, Binay

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO 2 emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: → The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. → It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. → The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO 2 emissions. → The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  6. Energy Efficient Four Level Cooperative Opportunistic Communication for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSN),energy is a scarce resource. Due to limited battery resources, the energy consumption is the critical issue for the transmission as well as reception of the signals in the wireless communication. WSNs are infrastructure-less shared network demanding more energy...... consumption due to collaborative transmissions. This paper proposes a new cooperative opportunistic four level model for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).The average per node energy consumption is observed merely about 0.17mJ for the cooperative wireless communication which proves...... the proposed mechanism to be energy efficient. This paper further proposes four levels of cooperative data transmission from source to destination to improve network coverage with energy efficiency....

  7. Action plan for Nordic energy co-operation 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Action Plan for Nordic Energy Co-operation 2006-2009 is targeted at creating a visible and sustainable contribution to solving the most important and politically most relevant energy policy challenges faced by the Nordic region. The plan concentrates on three main areas: Energy markets; Sustainable energy system; and Nordic impact on the international agenda. The Action Plan is the energy sector's contribution to the implementation of the Nordic strategy 'Sustainable Development - New Bearing for the Nordic Countries' and to a number of the Nordic Council's recommendations for the development of the Nordic energy sector. An important element of the implementation of the action plan is on-going contact and information sharing between the Nordic Energy Policy co-operation and the Nordic Energy Research. The continues dialogue between the Nordic Council of Energy Ministers and The Nordic Council on future energy policy challenges will likewise be an important part of the political process. (BA)

  8. The impacts of energy prices on energy intensity: Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Leiming; Tu, Meizeng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of the deregulation of energy prices in China between 1985 and 2004 and assess the impacts of changes in energy prices on aggregate energy intensity and coal/oil/electricity intensity. We used time series data to provide estimates of energy price elasticities. Empirical results showed that: (1) The own-price elasticities of coal, oil, and aggregate energy were negative in periods both before and after 1995, implying that higher relative prices of different energy types lead to the decrease in coal, oil, and aggregate energy intensities. However, the positive own-price elasticity of electricity after 1995 probably indicates that the price effect was weaker than other factors such as income effect and population effect. (2) The impacts of energy prices were asymmetric over time. (3) Sectoral adjustment also drove the decrease in aggregate energy intensity. Although raising energy prices to boost efficiency of energy use seems to be an effective policy tool, other policy implications concerned with energy prices, such as energy supply security and fuel poverty, must also be considered

  9. Tracking Energy Flow Using a Volumetric Acoustic Intensity Imager (VAIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Jacob; Williams, Earl G.; Valdivia, Nicolas P.

    2006-01-01

    A new measurement device has been invented at the Naval Research Laboratory which images instantaneously the intensity vector throughout a three-dimensional volume nearly a meter on a side. The measurement device consists of a nearly transparent spherical array of 50 inexpensive microphones optimally positioned on an imaginary spherical surface of radius 0.2m. Front-end signal processing uses coherence analysis to produce multiple, phase-coherent holograms in the frequency domain each related to references located on suspect sound sources in an aircraft cabin. The analysis uses either SVD or Cholesky decomposition methods using ensemble averages of the cross-spectral density with the fixed references. The holograms are mathematically processed using spherical NAH (nearfield acoustical holography) to convert the measured pressure field into a vector intensity field in the volume of maximum radius 0.4 m centered on the sphere origin. The utility of this probe is evaluated in a detailed analysis of a recent in-flight experiment in cooperation with Boeing and NASA on NASA s Aries 757 aircraft. In this experiment the trim panels and insulation were removed over a section of the aircraft and the bare panels and windows were instrumented with accelerometers to use as references for the VAIM. Results show excellent success at locating and identifying the sources of interior noise in-flight in the frequency range of 0 to 1400 Hz. This work was supported by NASA and the Office of Naval Research.

  10. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  11. The energy sector in Northeast Asia : new projects, delivery systems and prospects for co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the needs and opportunities for energy co-operation in Northeast Asia, with particular reference to development of resources in eastern Russia, Siberia and the Far East to supply energy to consumers in Northeast Asia. Given the high projected demand for energy resources, Japan, South Korea and China are compelled to consider diversifying their energy supplies and developing new links with eastern Russia. The environmental degradation caused by coal burning in China is another incentive for looking for sources of natural gas in Eurasia. Russia and Japan are concentrating on the Sakhalin oil and gas projects. China and Russia have agreed to work closely in the energy sector, focusing on a pipeline from the natural gas field near Irkutsk. The challenges lies in developing a co-ordinated approach to energy resource development and use, by modifying energy policies and long-term supply outlooks. Another challenge lies in the fact that private investors and intergovernmental co-operation are required to build an expensive cross-border infrastructure to transport natural gas, electricity and oil. Co-operation is also required to improve energy efficiency, modernize existing facilities and promote cleaner sources of energy, energy conservation and environmental protection. This report examined forecasted energy demand and imports in Northeast Asia and identified opportunities for co-operation. refs., tabs

  12. Benefits from increased cooperation and energy trade under CO2 commitments - The Nordic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Thomas; Ekvall, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, benefits from increasing cross-border cooperation under future CO 2 commitments in the Nordic countries are examined and evaluated. Cooperative strategies including border-free electricity trade, emission-permits trade and extending the natural gas transmission capacity considerably are valued separately and together under varying CO 2 commitments and three different scenarios for future energy demand. In conducting this analysis, the energy-systems engineering model MARKAL was used to model the Nordic energy system. It is shown that all cooperative strategies do lower the abatement costs considerably, especially if all three strategies mentioned are used simultaneously. Additional costs from meeting CO 2 commitments may be at least halved provided that all cooperative strategies are utilized at the same time. Benefits from cooperation are generally larger for scenarios including relatively high future energy demand, while they are lower for scenarios with relatively lower energy demand. In the model used, no specific trend connecting the size of the benefits from cooperation to the size of the CO 2 commitments could be observed

  13. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay kumar; jaya diptilal; S.V charhate

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other ...

  14. Autonomous Household Energy Management Based on a Double Cooperative Game Approach in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of two-way communication infrastructure and bidirectional energy trading between utility companies and customers in the future smart grid (SG, autonomous energy management programs become crucial to the demand-side management (DSM. Most of the existing autonomous energy management schemes are for the scenario with a single utility company or the scenario with one-way energy trading. In this paper, an autonomous household energy management system with multiple utility companies and multiple residential customers is studied by considering the bidirectional energy trading. To minimize the overall costs of both the utility companies and the residential customers, the energy management system is formulated as a double cooperative game. That is, the interaction among the residential users is formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the customers and the strategies are the daily schedules of their household appliances; and the interaction among the utility companies is also formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the suppliers and the strategies are the proportions of the daily total energy they provide for the customers. Without loss of generality, the bidirectional energy trading in the double cooperative game is formulated by allowing plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs to discharge and sell energy back. Two distributed algorithms will be provided to realize the global optimal performance in terms of minimizing the energy costs, which can be guaranteed at the Nash equilibriums of the formulated cooperative games. Finally, simulation results illustrated that the proposed double cooperative game can benefit both the utility companies and residential users significantly.

  15. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  16. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-10-29

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.

  17. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  18. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  19. Cooperative effects and slow dynamics of fluorescence intensity from quantum emitters in a dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozing, N.A.; Gladush, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    We study theoretically the possibility of spontaneous switching between dim and bright fluorescence modes from a cooperative ensemble of two-level atoms driven by a cw-laser. A numerical analysis of transient regimes and transformations of the fluorescence spectrum are reported.

  20. Renewable energy and power cooperation between China and six Latin American nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuetao; Yan, Bingzhong; Zhou, Shichun

    2018-02-01

    China has been entitled the biggest supplier and largest market of renewable energy for the past few years. With One Belt and One Road initiative carrying on, the China’s renewable energy industry is looking for opportunities across the world. Latin America, which has rich renewable energy resources and urge demand for a cleaner and more sustainable energy system, may become an important target market for China. The prospect and potential of renewable energy cooperation between China and Latin America are promising. In this paper, six Latin American nations of varied background were selected as study cases. Their nation profile, energy resources, power market, and energy development trends were analysed, and the cooperation prospect and potential between these nations and China in renewable energy sector were discussed. The results indicate that Argentina and Bolivia are most potential cooperation partners, and project development and equipment manufacturing of non-hydro renewable energy, along with power grid upgrading are the prioritized areas. In addition, recommendations and solutions addressing the issues and challenges incurred in the current bilateral energy cooperation between China and Latin American nations were proposed.

  1. Energy Efficient Authentication and Authorization for Multinode Cooperative Connectivity and Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.

    2013-01-01

    their effective QoS via cooperation. The performance of wireless networks is greatly affected by some of the channel parameters such as bandwidth and power scarcity, multi-user interference, non-reliability due to signal fading, vulnerability to the attacks, etc. The cooperative diversity mechanism makes use...... of the benefits of wireless sensor network scalability in terms of cooperative resource sharing wherein multiple diversity channels are created that results into the higher transmission rates, increased throughput and coverage range, improvement in reliability and end-to-end performance and much more. Cooperative......Wireless communication is a great revolution but it still suffers from limited battery life, broken connections from multi-path fading and insufficient coverage. Simple cooperation can mak a big difference in coverage range, energy and battery life. In CWC, the active nodes may increase...

  2. On the Throughput and Energy Benefits of Network Coded Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Nestor; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative techniques in wireless mobile networks typically leverage short-range communication technologies, e.g., WiFi, to allow data exchange between devices forming a mobile cloud. These mobile clouds have been considered as a key to reduce the cost of multicast services for the network operators as well as a means to deliver a better quality to the users. In fact, LTE-A includes Device-to-Device communication capabilities to enable such a direct communication between devices. The underly...

  3. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  4. Promotion of electricity from renewable energy in Europe post 2020. The economic benefits of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2013-08-15

    In Europe, the availability of renewable energies, especially from sun and wind, differs significantly across regions. Consequently, cooperation in the deployment of renewable energy among European countries potentially yields substantial efficiency gains. However, in order to achieve the 2020 renewable energy targets for electricity, Member States of the European Union almost purely rely on domestic production. For the period after 2020, a European renewable energy target has not yet been defined, but decarbonization pathways outlined in the Roadmap of the European Commission include renewable energy shares of electricity generation to be 50-60% by 2030. Therefore, we analyze the benefits of cooperation compared to continuing with national renewable energy support after 2020. We use a large-scale dynamic investment and dispatch model of the European electricity system and find that compared to a 2030 CO{sub 2}-only target (-40% compared to 1990 emission levels), electricity system costs increase by 5 to 7% when a European-wide renewable energy target for electricity generation (of around 55%) is additionally implemented. However, these additional costs are lower by 41 to 45% compared to the additional electricity system costs which would arise if the renewable energy target was reached through national support systems (without cooperation). Furthermore, we find that the cooperation gains (i.e., the cost reduction achieved by cooperation) are quite robust: They decrease only slightly when interconnectors are not further extended (compared to today) and depend only slightly on assumptions about investment cost developments of renewable energy technologies. With regard to the practical implementation of cooperation, however, unclear administrative issues and questions concerning the fair sharing of costs and benefits between the Member States represent major obstacles that need to be tackled in order to reach renewable energy targets at the lowest costs possible.

  5. The role of sustainable energy issues in development cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Buskens, V.W.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the need to reduce primary energy resource requirements to provide more affordable basic energy services to the developing countries. The relationship between energy supply and environment/developing issues (such as climate change, deforestation, poverty, health etc.) is discussed. The Bruntland Report and two UNCED agreements the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Agenda 21 are summarised and a brief assessment made of their coverage of sustainable energy issues. 27 refs

  6. Outline of new Japan-U.S. atomic energy cooperation agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Naotaka

    1988-01-01

    The former agreement was revised into the new Agreement between the Japanese Government and the U.S. Government for Cooperation Relating to Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy (simply referred as the new Japan-U.S. Atomic Energy Cooperation Agreement). The Implementation Convention between the Japanese Government and the U.S. Government Based on Article 11 of the Agreement between the Japanese Government and the U.S. Government for Cooperation Relating to Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy was also concluded. The new Agreement is intended to serve for long-term stabilization of the cooperative relationship for atomic energy between Japan and the U.S., strengthening of nuclear non-proliferation efforts, and improvement in the parity, regulation rights and bilateralism between the two countries. The Agreement states that the countries should cooperate in exchanging experts and information and supplying radioactive substance, that the specified nuclear substances can be stored, reprocessed, etc. after an agreement is made between the governments, that proper protection activities should be performed for the specified substances, that the cooperation under the Agreement is limited to peaceful purposes, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Benefits from increased cooperation and energy trade under CO2 commitments - the Nordic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, T.; Ekvall, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, benefits from increasing cross-border cooperation under future CO 2 commitments in the Nordic countries are examined and evaluated. Four cooperative strategies are analyzed and valued separately: cross-border electricity trade, cross-border emission-permit trade, the introduction of a trans-Nordic natural gas transmission grid, and, finally, utilization of all these three strategies simultaneously. The valuation is done under varying CO 2 commitments and under three different scenarios for future energy demand and technological development. In conducting this analysis, the energy-systems model-generator MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) was used to model the Nordic energy system. It is shown that all cooperative strategies do lower the abatement costs considerably, especially if the strategy including full cooperation is utilized. In this case, additional costs from meeting CO 2 targets may be at least halved for commitments less than 10% reduction until 2050 based on emissions in 1995. No significant difference between low and high CO 2 commitments could be observed in the size of the benefits from cooperation, expressed in billions (10 9 ) of Swedish crowns. Benefits from cooperation are generally larger for scenarios including relatively higher future energy demand. (author)

  8. Socio-technological innovations by energy cooperatives, a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, Henny; Abma, Albert-Jan; Ree, Karin; Jellema, Jaco; van der Schoor, Tineke; Tonen, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Initiatives in the field of local renewable energy appear to be very successful in several countries. Because of their activities, the share of renewable energy and the involvement of citizens and civil society organizations in energy transition have increased. Examples form Denmark are well known,

  9. Bio-Inspired Energy-Aware Protocol Design for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, Gian Paolo; Anggraeni, Puri Novelti; Wardana, Satya Ardhy

    2011-01-01

    In this work, bio-inspired cooperation rules are applied to wireless communication networks. The main goal is to derive cooperative behaviour rules to improve the energy consumption of each mobile device. A medium access control (MAC) protocol particularly designed for peer-to-peer communication...... be achieved by this architecture using game theoretic approaches. As an extension, this work explores the impact of the MAC protocol on the power saving capabilities. This result shows that standard MAC mechanisms are not optimised for the considered cooperative setup. A new MAC protocol is proposed...... among cooperative wireless mobile devices is described. The work is based on a novel communication architecture, where a group of mobile devices are connected both to a cellular base station and among them using short-range communication links. A prior work has investigated the energy saving that can...

  10. Energy-efficient cooperative protocols for full-duplex relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2013-12-01

    In this work, energy-efficient cooperative protocols are studied for full-duplex relaying (FDR) with loopback interference. In these protocols, relay assistance is only sought under certain conditions on the different link outages to ensure effective cooperation. Recently, an energy-efficient selective decode-And-forward protocol was proposed for FDR, and was shown to outperform existing schemes in terms of outage. Here, we propose an incremental selective decode-And-forward protocol that offers additional power savings, while keeping the same outage performance. We compare the performance of the two protocols in terms of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio cumulative distribution function via closed-form expressions. Finally, we corroborate our theoretical results with simulation, and show the relative relay power savings in comparison to non-selective cooperation in which the relay cooperates regardless of channel conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Energy-efficient cooperative protocols for full-duplex relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal; Ismail, Amr; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    In this work, energy-efficient cooperative protocols are studied for full-duplex relaying (FDR) with loopback interference. In these protocols, relay assistance is only sought under certain conditions on the different link outages to ensure effective cooperation. Recently, an energy-efficient selective decode-And-forward protocol was proposed for FDR, and was shown to outperform existing schemes in terms of outage. Here, we propose an incremental selective decode-And-forward protocol that offers additional power savings, while keeping the same outage performance. We compare the performance of the two protocols in terms of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio cumulative distribution function via closed-form expressions. Finally, we corroborate our theoretical results with simulation, and show the relative relay power savings in comparison to non-selective cooperation in which the relay cooperates regardless of channel conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  13. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  14. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  15. Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-15

    In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

  16. Calculated intensity of high-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Back, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The flux, energy and angular distributions of high-energy neutrons produced by in-flight spallation and fission of a 400 MeV/A 238 U beam and by the break-up of a 400 MeV/A deuteron beam are calculated. In both cases very intense secondary neutron beams are produced, peaking at zero degrees, with a relatively narrow energy spread. Such secondary neutron beams can be produced with the primary beams from the proposed rare isotope accelerator driver linac. The break-up of a 400 kW deuteron beam on a liquid-lithium target can produce a neutron flux of >10 10 neutrons/cm 2 /s at a distance of 10 m from the target

  17. QoS and energy aware cooperative routing protocol for wildfire monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Mohamed; Cherif, Sofiane; Besbes, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption.

  18. MED Programme and transnational cooperation contributions to marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean area: What next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gomez Prieto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The MED Programme is part of the EU Regional Policy and operates in the framework of the European Territorial Cooperation objective. In 2014, the MED Programme approved 14 thematic projects specifically targeted on maritime context with two of them addressing marine renewable energy and renewable energy in coastal areas: Bluene and Enercoast. These projects aim at contributing to the deployment of marine renewable energy technologies in the Mediterranean by gathering data, developing mapping activities, identifying policy gaps and addressing other obstacles hindering transnational cooperation potential. The objective of this article is to analyse the delivered results and outputs of these projects against the identified challenges and roadmap defined by the European Commission. Results were evaluated under a transferability and continuation approach applied to the period 2014–2020. This article also identifies and suggests ways in which transnational cooperation would enhance obtained results towards a higher implementation of marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean.

  19. An assessment of the sustainable energy investments in the framework of the EU-GCC cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Askounis, Dimitris T.

    2007-01-01

    The cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) should be broadened, deepened and become more interactive due to GCC states' accession to the Kyoto protocol in 2005. Nowadays, the GCC states start putting climate change and its business opportunities on the top of their priorities' list towards the accomplishment of the sustainable development goals. However, the level of development of sustainable energy investments (renewable energy, CO 2 sequestration and rational use of energy) is low until now in the GCC. For the above reason, the assessment of appropriate investments needs to be taken into account both by the governments in order to design the appropriate framework for supporting them and the project investors to identify the commercially profitable ones. In this framework, the aim of this paper is the identification and assessment of sustainable energy investments in the framework of the EU-GCC co-operation. (author)

  20. Green Mobile Clouds: Network Coding and User Cooperation for Improved Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the benefits of user cooperation and network coding for energy saving in cellular networks. It is shown that these techniques allow for reliable and efficient multicast services from both a user and network perspective. The working principles and advantages in terms of energy...

  1. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  2. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.D.; Donets, E.E.; Syresin, E.M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5x10 9 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production

  3. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  4. Interpretation of diffuse low-energy electron diffraction intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, D.K.; Pendry, J.B.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the diffuse low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) that occurs between sharp LEED beams can be used to determine the local bonding configuration near disordered surface atoms. Two approaches to the calculation of diffuse LEED intensities are presented for the case of lattice-gas disorder of an adsorbate on a crystalline substrate. The capabilities of this technique are most similar to those of near-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure, but avoid the restrictions due to the use of photons

  5. Effects of intense ultraviolet radiation on electrostatic energy analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, J.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Connor, K.A.; Schoch, P.M.; Hallock, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ultraviolet radiation from the plasma poses a significant problem for the implementation of heavy ion beam probe diagnostic systems on fusion-oriented confinement devices. The radiation enters the electrostatic energy analyzer used to detect secondary ions, resulting in both a distortion of the electric field inside the analyzer and noise generation in the detector channels. Data acquisition procedures and mechanical design techniques have been developed to significantly reduce these effects. We have also been successful in modelling the electric field distortion and have developed a data correction procedure based on this model. Methods for approaching the problems anticipated in future devices are also suggested

  6. Decomposition analysis of the change of energy intensity of manufacturing industries in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chontanawat, Jaruwan; Wiboonchutikula, Paitoon; Buddhivanich, Atinat

    2014-01-01

    The study computes and analyses the sources of the change of energy intensity of the manufacturing industries in Thailand during the period (1991–2011) using the decomposition method. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index is computed and the results show that the energy intensity in the period (1991–2000) increased greatly from the increased energy intensity of each industry. In the more recent period (2000–2011) the energy intensity declined a little. However the decline was mainly from the structural change effect with negligible contribution from decreased energy intensity of each industry. The findings imply the need to balance industrial restructuring policies with efforts to reduce energy intensity for a sustainable economic development. Besides, there is much room for individual industries to improve their energy efficiency. Policies on restructuring energy prices and other non-price related measures should be devised to induce individual industries, particularly the highly energy intensive ones, to reduce their energy intensity. - Highlights: • Decomposing change of energy intensity of Thai manufacturing industries, 1991–2011. • 1991–2000 energy intensity rose due to increased energy intensity of each industry. • 2000–2011 energy intensity declined due mainly to the structural change effect. • Need to balance industrial restructuring policies to reduce energy intensity

  7. Energy Technology Initiatives 2013. Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change cost-effectively are key global challenges. Tackling these issues will require efforts from stakeholders worldwide. To find solutions, the public and private sectors must work together, sharing burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-governmental organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes across the energy sector. This publication highlights the most significant recent achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. At the core of the IEA energy technology network, these initiatives are a fundamental building block for facilitating the entry of new and improved energy technologies into the marketplace.

  8. Some solutions to the Central Asian region's energy cooperation problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatulina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    It stands to reason that the resource-rich Central Asian Region (CAR), which is located at the crossroads between the Near and Middle East, South Asia, China, and Russia and is also in direct proximity to the countries experiencing "energy starvation," is of important geostrategic significance. It is a well-known fact that CAR has vast energy potential. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have large supplies of oil and gas resources, which enjoy demand on the world market. In particular,...

  9. Cooperative Content Distribution over Wireless Networks for Energy and Delay Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-06-01

    Content distribution with mobile-to-mobile cooperation is studied. Data is sent to mobile terminals on a long range link then the terminals exchange the content using an appropriate short range wireless technology. Unicasting and multicasting are investigated, both on the long range and short range links. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form. Moreover, the schemes are applied in public safety vehicular networks, where Long Term Evolution (LTE) network is used for the long range link, while IEEE 802.11 p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range links. Finally, relay-based multicasting is applied in high speed trains for energy and delay minimization. Results show that cooperative schemes outperform non-cooperative ones and other previous related work in terms of energy and delay savings. Furthermore, practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed.

  10. Cooper-pair size and binding energy for unconventional superconducting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinóla Neto, F.; Neto, Minos A.; Salmon, Octavio D. Rodriguez

    2018-06-01

    The main proposal of this paper is to analyze the size of the Cooper pairs composed by unbalanced mass fermions from different electronic bands along the BCS-BEC crossover and study the binding energy of the pairs. We are considering an interaction between fermions with different masses leading to an inter-band pairing. In addiction to the attractive interaction we have an hybridization term to couple both bands, which in general acts unfavorable for the pairing between the electrons. We get first order phase transitions as the hybridization breaks the Cooper pairs for the s-wave symmetry of the gap amplitude. The results show the dependence of the Cooper-pair size as a function of the hybridization for T = 0 . We also propose the structure of the binding energy of the inter-band system as a function of the two-bands quasi-particle energies.

  11. Calculating economy-wide energy intensity decline rate: The role of sectoral output and energy shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, Soham; Green, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We specify formulas for computing the rate of decline in economy-wide energy intensity by aggregating its two determinants-technical efficiency improvements in the various sectors of the economy, and shifts in economic activity among these sectors. The formulas incorporate the interdependence between sectoral shares, and establish a one-to-one relation between sectoral output and energy shares. This helps to eliminate future energy intensity decline scenarios which involve implausible values of either sectoral share. An illustrative application of the formulas is provided, using within-sector efficiency improvement estimates suggested by Lightfoot-Green and Harvey

  12. Low energy intense electron beams with extra-low energy spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.V.; Calabrese, R.; Ciullo, G.; Dikansky, N.S.; Guidi, V.; Kot, N.C.; Kudelainen, V.I.; Lamanna, G.; Lebedev, V.A.; Logachov, P.V.; Tecchio, L.; Yang, B.

    1994-01-01

    Maximum achievable intensity for low energy electron beams is a feature that is not very often compatible with low energy spread. We show that a proper choice of the source and the acceleration optics allows one to match them together. In this scheme, a GaAs photocathode excited by a single-mode infrared laser and adiabatic acceleration in fully magnetised optics enables the production of a low-energy-spread electron beam with relatively high intensity. The technological problems associated with the method are discussed together with its limitations. (orig.)

  13. Business cycle and economic-wide energy intensity: The implications for energy conservation policy in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of voluntary and involuntary energy conservation policies, developing countries in Africa continue to struggle to achieve energy efficiency targets. Consequently, energy intensity levels have risen threatening the security of the energy system. This raises the important question: is there an economic state that induces agents to be energy conscious? In this study, we study the case of Algeria's energy intensity from 1971 to 2010. First, the paper argues that there is a certain economic state that economic agents find investing in energy conservation a viable option. Any state different from that would mean not investing in energy conservation. Second, the paper argues that the economy can do better even with an infinitesimal reduction in fuel subsidy, and that the gains in revenue from the policy can compensate for the negative socio-economic and equity impacts associated with such a policy. Third, the paper argues that, so long as, industrial expansion in the country move parallel with investment in technological innovation, long-term sustainable growth and energy conservation targets are jointly feasible. Fourth, the paper shows that income elasticity evolves with the business cycle, and the absorptive capability of the host country affects how FDI (foreign direct inflows) impact energy intensity. - Highlights: • Low income states inhibit fuel substitution and investment in energy conservation. • Income elasticity evolves as we pass through boom and recessionary periods. • The goals of sustainable growth and energy conservation are not mutually exclusive. • Absorptive capability affects the impact of FDI on energy intensity

  14. Withholding or withdrawing therapy in intensive care units: improving interdisciplinary cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Ammentorp, Jette; Ørding, Helle

    INTRODUCTION. Decisions regarding withholding or withdrawing therapy are common in the intensive care units. The health care professionals involved in the decision-making process do not always assess the situation identically, leading to potential conflicts. Studies have suggested that improving...... (conducted at two hospitals) with participation of primary care physicians, anaesthesiologists (both with and without ICU as their main workplace) and intensive care nurses. A total of 29 participated in the audits. The participants received beforehand three complicated cases (borrowed from other hospitals...... unit conflicts: the conflicus study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med180:853-860. (2) Halvorsen K, Forde R, Nortvedt P (2009) Value choices and considerations when limiting intensive care treatment: a qualitative study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53:10-17 GRANT ACKNOWLEDGMENT. The study was supported...

  15. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  16. Mongolia's potential in international cooperation in the Asian energy space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Sereeter; Stennikov, Valery; Bat-Erdene, Bayar; Erdenebaatar, Altay

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the issues of interstate electric power interconnections to be created in the countries of Northeast Asia. The conditions are formulated, the problems are stated, and solutions for Mongolia's entry into the Asian energy space are proposed. The electricity consumption rates are growing, however, the Northeast Asia countries differ considerably in available energy resources to cope with this growth. Therefore, the need to build international electric power interconnections that take into account climatic features, seasonal peak load differences and other factors in order to rationally match power demand and supply is getting increasingly more obvious. Mongolia can take an active part in this process, as the country is rich in energy resources and interested in their development to meet their domestic needs and exchange with neighboring countries. The establishment of interstate power interconnections in the Northeast Asia countries represents a topical task whose solution will make it possible to meet the demand of this region for electricity on mutually beneficial terms. Mongolia has a good spatial position, energy resources and is interested in ensuring domestic energy balance. Therefore, the country can be an active participant in such an integration process.

  17. OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency. 25 years of international cooperation within the framework of the NEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadie, Klaus B. [OECD, Paris (France). Safety and Regulation

    2015-11-15

    The nuclear atomic association NEA of the OECD, to which 23 western industrial countries belong to, was established 25 years ago (1959) as ''Nuclear Energy Agency'', almost simultaneously with other large international nuclear energy organisations. The NEA undertook special tasks during the international cooperation, which have shifted over time. A special feature today is the cooperation by means of international committees, which are supported by a small own staff of the organisation. The focus points lie within the area of safety and regimentation and on chosen scientific and technical studies.

  18. Particle Physics at the Cosmic, Intensity, and Energy Frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven

    2018-04-06

    Major efforts at the Intensity, Cosmic, and Energy frontiers of particle physics are rapidly furthering our understanding of the fundamental constituents of Nature and their interactions. The overall objectives of this research project are (1) to interpret and develop the theoretical implications of the data collected at these frontiers and (2) to provide the theoretical motivation, basis, and ideas for new experiments and for new analyses of experimental data. Within the Intensity Frontier, an experimental search for a new force mediated by a GeV-scale gauge boson will be carried out with the $A'$ Experiment (APEX) and the Heavy Photon Search (HPS), both at Jefferson Laboratory. Within the Cosmic Frontier, contributions are planned to the search for dark matter particles with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other instruments. A detailed exploration will also be performed of new direct detection strategies for dark matter particles with sub-GeV masses to facilitate the development of new experiments. In addition, the theoretical implications of existing and future dark matter-related anomalies will be examined. Within the Energy Frontier, the implications of the data from the Large Hadron Collider will be investigated. Novel search strategies will be developed to aid the search for new phenomena not described by the Standard Model of particle physics. By combining insights from all three particle physics frontiers, this research aims to increase our understanding of fundamental particle physics.

  19. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  20. New Sunshine Project for fiscal 1997 on the international cooperation project. Cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other countries; 1997 nendo new sunshine keikaku kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the state of progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country, the memorandum concluded for the new project, and the activity report on the NEDO/MUERI project. The progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country is divided into that of the new project and that of the continued project. The former relates to the start of the long-term endurance test project for photovoltaic solar modules in Oman. The location of the endurance test is the Sultan Qaboos University in the suburb of Muscat. Modules subjected to the endurance test consist of ten modules of five types. The test will be performed on air temperature, humidity, wind directions, insolation on horizontal surface, insolation on slanted surface, ultraviolet ray intensity, module temperatures, and electric characteristics of the modules. The continued project is an outdoor endurance test for the photovoltaic solar modules begun in fiscal 1996, which is executed by the Murdock University Energy Research Institute (MUERI). The endurance test locations were selected at Darwin, Alice Springs and Perth. This paper reports the photovoltaic solar module endurance test and investigation, as well as the periodical consultations as the activity report of the NEDO/MUERI project. (NEDO)

  1. Shielding for high energy, high intensity electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warawas, C.; Chongkum, S.

    1997-03-01

    The utilization of electron accelerators (eBA) is gradually increased in Thailand. For instance, a 30-40 MeV eBA are used for tumor and cancer therapy in the hospitals, and a high current eBA in for gemstone colonization. In the near future, an application of eBA in industries will be grown up in a few directions, e.g., flue gases treatment from the coal fire-power plants, plastic processing, rubber vulcanization and food preservation. It is the major roles of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to regulate the public safety and protection of the environment. By taking into account of radiation safety aspect, high energy electrons are not only harmful to human bodies, but the radioactive nuclides can be occurred. This report presents a literature review by following the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report No.31. This reviews for parametric calculation and shielding design of the high energy (up to 100 MeV), high intensity electron accelerator installation

  2. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  3. Development of cooperation of the CIS member states in the peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A.Ye.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Cooperation platform: Attraction of potential investors; Promotion of national goods and services; Pursuit of national and commercial interests. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy is a nuclear cooperation body and the CIS intergovernmental coordinating and advisory authority. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy coordinates and expands the spheres of cooperation. Members of the Commission- state-appointed heads of the authorized CIS member state bodies in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Secretariat is the working body of the Commission. Expert work groups formed within the CIS members States Commission: On the status of the draft Agreement on Coordination of Interstate Relations in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in the CIS Territory; On the establishment of the CIS regional center for advanced training of medical physicists; Formation of an integrated system for the maintenance of safety of the nuclear research facilities. Issues of establishing the Coalition of the CIS Nuclear Research reactors; Formation of mechanisms for the convergence of the CIS member states legal and technical regulations in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Adaptation and introduction in the CIS members states of international standards in the field of using industrial radiation technologies and ensuring radiation safety; Basic forms of the CIS cooperation in ensuring economic security of projects for the peaceful use of atomic energy; Establishment of a system for the management of intellectual assets of the CIS members states; On the use of tele medical technologies of Ros atom State Cooperation- FMBA-MEPHI in diagnosis of oncologic diseases; Development of the major components of the Concept of Ensuring Nuclear, radiation and Radio ecological; Policy of the CIS Member States in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy; Joint implementation of the project to establish and implement a program of

  4. EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Tatyana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue, the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU — Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions for energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. This research is based on a political and legal analysis of various documents and employs various international relations theories (including integration theories. The article demonstrates that the EU nd Russia have made a transition to the integration agenda manifested in the Energy Dialogue (its current goal is the creation of a common European energy market. The author describes the process of gradual consolidation of transgovernmental and transnational institutions, which leads to depoliticization of cooperation and mutual socialization of the partners. Finally, legal discussions on the development of common rules have become more constructive. In sum, the current situation in EU — Russia energy relations is favourable and positively affects cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  5. Blind Cooperative Routing for Scalable and Energy-Efficient Internet of Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-02-26

    Multihop networking is promoted in this paper for energy-efficient and highly-scalable Internet of Things (IoT). Recognizing concerns related to the scalability of classical multihop routing and medium access techniques, the use of blind cooperation in conjunction with multihop communications is advocated herewith. Blind cooperation however is actually shown to be inefficient unless power control is applied. Inefficiency in this paper is projected in terms of the transport rate normalized to energy consumption. To that end, an uncoordinated power control mechanism is proposed whereby each device in a blind cooperative cluster randomly adjusts its transmit power level. An upper bound is derived for the mean transmit power that must be observed at each device. Finally, the uncoordinated power control mechanism is demonstrated to consistently outperform the simple point-to-point routing case. © 2015 IEEE.

  6. The second Studsvik AB - JAEA meeting for cooperation in nuclear energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Yanagihara, Satoshi; Karlsson, Mikael; Stenmark, Anders

    2010-03-01

    The second annual meeting was held at Studsvik AB in Sweden to exchange information on radioactive waste treatment technology including recycling of materials and technical developments for the neutron irradiation experiments in materials testing reactors. The information exchange meeting was held on the basis of the implemental agreement between the Studsvik AB and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for cooperation in nuclear energy research and development. The major items of the information exchange were the present status of waste treatment in both organizations including acceptance criteria of wastes in Studsvik facilities, experience and current status of RI production technology in both organizations as well as the sensor development. The future plan in cooperative program was also discussed. This report describes contents of the information exchange and discussions in two cooperation areas. (author)

  7. Energy consumption and energetic intensities in the Mato Grosso meso-region 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Silva, Ennio Peres da

    1999-01-01

    The energy intensity of a regional economy is dependent on its structure and degree of industrialization. Considering comparable general conditions it is also a measure for the efficient use of energy. Energy consumption contribute decisively to the modification of economical structures and to the decrease in energy intensity. In this context, the aim of the work was to evaluate the energy consumption and the energy intensity in a region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil

  8. Revisiting drivers of energy intensity in China during 1997–2007: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Lin; Xu, Ming; Liang, Sai; Zeng, Siyu; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    The decline of China's energy intensity slowed since 2000. During 2002–2005 it actually increased, reversing the long-term trend. Therefore, it is important to identify drivers of the fluctuation of energy intensity. We use input–output structural decomposition analysis to investigate the contributions of changes in energy mix, sectoral energy efficiency, production structure, final demand structure, and final demand category composition to China's energy intensity fluctuation during 1997–2007. We include household energy consumption in the study by closing the input–output model with respect to households. Results show that sectoral energy efficiency improvements contribute the most to the energy intensity decline during 1997–2007. The increase in China's energy intensity during 2002–2007 is instead explained by changes in final demand composition and production structure. Changes in final demand composition are mainly due to increasing share of exports, while changes in production structure mainly arise from the shift of Chinese economy to more energy-intensive industries. Changes in energy mix and final demand structure contribute little to China's energy intensity fluctuation. From the consumption perspective, growing exports of energy-intensive products and increasing infrastructure demands explain the majority of energy intensity increase during 2002–2007. - Highlights: • We analyzed energy intensity change from production and consumption perspectives. • We extended the research scope of energy intensity to cover household consumption. • Sectoral energy efficiency improvement contributed most to energy intensity decline. • Impact of production structure change on energy intensity varied at different times. • Growing export demand newly became main driver of China's energy intensity increase

  9. Evaluation of corporate energy management practices of energy intensive industries in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Seyithan Ahmet; Durakbasa, Numan M.

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is one of a number of countries who still lack a national management standard for energy. Industrial energy consumption accounts for 42% of Turkey's total energy consumption. With the help of a questionnaire and analytical framework, this paper investigates Industrial Energy Management Practice in Turkey and highlights significant bottlenecks and shortcomings of energy intensive industries in terms of energy management application. The survey was carried out as a multiple case study of the Turkish iron, steel, cement, paper, ceramics and textile industries. Outcomes of the questionnaire are evaluated according to the analytical framework which covers company characteristics, regulations, external relations of the companies and internal organizational conditions. After analyzing these elements on the basis of a minimum requirement list, it was found that only 22% of the surveyed companies actually practice corporate energy management in Turkey. The main barriers to proper energy management implementation were identified as lack of synergy between the stakeholders, the extent and scope of energy manager courses, and inadequate awareness of and lack of financial support for energy management activities. As a guideline to overcome present obstacles, a set of policy options are offered: strengthening and restructuring of legal and institutional frameworks, promotion of energy efficiency, education, training and capacity building and facilitating implementation of the international energy management standard ISO 50001. -- Highlights: ► Developing an analytical scheme to assess degree of Energy Management Application. ► Investigation of Energy Management Practices in Turkish Energy Intensive Industries. ► Analysis of challenges which hinder full implementation of energy management in Turkey. ► Presenting a set of essential policy options thought for all stakeholders.

  10. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc V; Nguyen, Thuong; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J M

    2017-11-29

    Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring.

  11. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc V. Le

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring.

  12. Symbiotic Sensing for Energy-Intensive Tasks in Large-Scale Mobile Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption is a critical performance and user experience metric when developing mobile sensing applications, especially with the significantly growing number of sensing applications in recent years. As proposed a decade ago when mobile applications were still not popular and most mobile operating systems were single-tasking, conventional sensing paradigms such as opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing do not explore the relationship among concurrent applications for energy-intensive tasks. In this paper, inspired by social relationships among living creatures in nature, we propose a symbiotic sensing paradigm that can conserve energy, while maintaining equivalent performance to existing paradigms. The key idea is that sensing applications should cooperatively perform common tasks to avoid acquiring the same resources multiple times. By doing so, this sensing paradigm executes sensing tasks with very little extra resource consumption and, consequently, extends battery life. To evaluate and compare the symbiotic sensing paradigm with the existing ones, we develop mathematical models in terms of the completion probability and estimated energy consumption. The quantitative evaluation results using various parameters obtained from real datasets indicate that symbiotic sensing performs better than opportunistic sensing and participatory sensing in large-scale sensing applications, such as road condition monitoring, air pollution monitoring, and city noise monitoring. PMID:29186037

  13. Going beyond energy intensity to understand the energy metabolism of nations: The case of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina; Ramos-Martin, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The link between energy consumption and economic growth has been widely studied in the economic literature. Understanding this relationship is important from both an environmental and a socio-economic point of view, as energy consumption is crucial to economic activity and human environmental impact. This relevance is even higher for developing countries, since energy consumption per unit of output varies through the phases of development, increasing from an agricultural stage to an industrial one and then decreasing for certain service based economies. In the Argentinean case, the relevance of energy consumption to economic development seems to be particularly important. While energy intensity seems to exhibit a U-Shaped curve from 1990 to 2003 decreasing slightly after that year, total energy consumption increases along the period of analysis. Why does this happen? How can we relate this result with the sustainability debate? All these questions are very important due to Argentinean hydrocarbons dependence and due to the recent reduction in oil and natural gas reserves, which can lead to a lack of security of supply. In this paper we study Argentinean energy consumption pattern for the period 1990–2007, to discuss current and future energy and economic sustainability. To this purpose, we developed a conventional analysis, studying energy intensity, and a non conventional analysis, using the Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM) accounting methodology. Both methodologies show that the development process followed by Argentina has not been good enough to assure sustainability in the long term. Instead of improving energy use, energy intensity has increased. The current composition of its energy mix, and the recent economic crisis in Argentina, as well as its development path, are some of the possible explanations. -- Highlights: ► We analyze Argentinean energy consumption and social metabolism using MuSIASEM.

  14. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Disha, E-mail: sawant@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: amati@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  15. Under new auspices: transition process and cooperation models in the French-German energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diechtl, Franca; Fischer, Severin

    2015-06-01

    Cooperation on energy matters has been a matter of priority in Franco-German consultations for some time. Not only is close coordination advisable due to the geographic proximity of Europe's two largest national energy markets. Their growing degree of economic (and energy) integration makes it necessary. The significance of energy policy for industrial policy on both sides of the Rhine is unmistakable. While policy approaches in the two countries' energy sectors have differed in the past and in some ways continue to do so, this has not diminished the topic's relevance or lessened the importance of cross-border cooperation. What is new is that both states are now pursuing the same goal: energy transformation (known as Energiewende, or 'transition energetique', depending on which side of the Rhine you are on). There are therefore plenty of good reasons to strive for closer cooperation on matters of energy policy and, in doing so, help bridge some of the gaps in the sputtering Franco-German relationship. (authors)

  16. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  17. Actinide data in the thermal energy range - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henri; Weigmann, H.; Sowerby, M.; Mattes, Margarete; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Halsall, M.J.; Weston, L.; Deruytter, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by a Subgroup investigating actinide data in the thermal energy range. Thermal nuclear constants for the primary actinides have been extensively studies, but the most recent evaluations are not in full agreement with thermal reactor calculations. The objective of the Subgroup was to identify the origin of these differences and to reassess the recent evaluations. A considerable effort was devoted to the η of U-235, where analysis of lattice temperature coefficient measurements has suggested an energy dependent shape below thermal energy

  18. Energy-efficient power allocation of two-hop cooperative systems with imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2015-06-08

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the green design of wireless communication systems using energy efficiency (EE) metrics that should capture all energy consumption sources to deliver the required data. In this paper, we formulate an accurate EE metric for cooperative two-hop systems that use the amplify-and-forward relaying scheme. Different from the existing research that assumes the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI) at the communication cooperative nodes, we assume a practical scenario, where training pilots are used to estimate the channels. The estimated CSI can be used to adapt the available resources of the proposed system in order to maximize the EE. Two estimation strategies are assumed namely disintegrated channel estimation, which assumes the availability of channel estimator at the relay, and cascaded channel estimation, where the relay is not equipped with channel estimator and only forwards the received pilot(s) in order to let the destination estimate the cooperative link. The channel estimation cost is reflected on the EE metric by including the estimation error in the signal-to-noise term and considering the energy consumption during the estimation phase. Based on the formulated EE metric, we propose an energy-aware power allocation algorithm to maximize the EE of the cooperative system with channel estimation. Furthermore, we study the impact of the estimation parameters on the optimized EE performance via simulation examples.

  19. The drivers of energy intensity in China : A spatial panel data approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Lei; Folmer, Henk; Ji, Minhe

    2014-01-01

    We use a panel of 29 Chinese provinces for the period 2003-2011 to estimate the drivers of energy intensity by means of a spatial Durbin error model. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between energy intensity and income (energy intensity Kuznets curve). Ten provinces, notably the developed

  20. Dexmedetomidine preserves attention/calculation when used for cooperative and short-term intensive care unit sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Haley E; Gill, Randeep S; Murakami, Peter N; Thompson, Carol B; Lewin, John J; Mirski, Marek A

    2013-12-01

    Differential effects on cognition were recently demonstrated between dexmedetomidine (DEX) and propofol (PRO) when used for cooperative sedation. Propofol was found to reduce cognition, whereas DEX improved cognition. To further discriminate these effects, we evaluated the effect of PRO vs DEX in selected areas of cognition. This is a post hoc analysis of the Acute Neurologic Intensive Care Unit Sedation Trial and an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, crossover study, comparing the effect of PRO and DEX on cognition measure by the Johns Hopkins Adapted Cognitive Exam (ACE). A linear model analysis accounting for within-patient correlation of measures was used to estimate differences in ACE subscales between drugs. Propofol diminished adjusted scores on all ACE subscales (P attention/calculation (3.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-5.61; P attention/calculation subscale in awake patients receiving cooperative sedation. This is in contrast to the deterioration in all mean ACE subscale scores observed using PRO, suggesting DEX preserved cognitive function with specific preservation of focus and attention and allows for greater cognition compared with PRO across all cognitive domains. © 2013.

  1. Realities of technical co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, A.; Villaros, P.; Naudet, G.

    1978-01-01

    The decision to develop the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially the generation of electricity, is usually based - particularly in the developing countries - on numerous considerations, mainly of an economic and political nature. Since the resources of nuclear technology are concentrated, relatively speaking, in the advanced countries, the use of nuclear energy by countries that have decided to go nuclear is based on effective co-operation between the exporting and importing countries. The present paper is intended as an additional contribution to consideration of the realities of such co-operation. The authors first mention the specific features of nuclear development, after which they consider, on the basis thereof, the different forms of co-operation required for the transfer of technological knowhow, and the conditions determining the effectiveness of such transfer. This effectiveness is not linked solely to the competence of the personnel concerned or to smooth organizational procedures, but also to decisive socio-psychological factors. Having analysed these factors, the authors examine the salient problems of co-operation arising during the process of nuclear development. Co-operation ever better adapted to the purpose and taking human considerations into account will enable importing countries to acquire the nuclear knowhow that will promote their economic and social development. (author)

  2. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  3. Technical cooperation on government base with developing countries in the field of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabe, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    Since the summer of the last year, the problems in the relation with developing countries have been actively discussed in the Atomic Energy Commission, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. As the background of this tendency, it is pointed out that Japanese nuclear industry has grown up to the level comparable with European and American counterparts and capable of advancing into the world market as the exporter of nuclear facilities, on the other hand, that Asian countries expect Japanese technical and economical power also in the field of atomic energy. In this report, the technical cooperation of the IAEA on funds, the dispatch of specialists, the supply of materials and training, the technical cooperation of Japanese International Cooperation Agency on the acceptance of trainees, the dispatch of specialists and others, and the fundamental way of thinking about the technical cooperation on government base are reported. It is very important to grasp the true needs of a partner country when a project is selected. In the cooperation, the effort of self-help by a developing country must be the major premise. (Kako, I.)

  4. Optimizing the Number of Cooperating Terminals for Energy Aware Task Computing in Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Brødløs; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    It is generally accepted that energy consumption is a significant design constraint for mobile handheld systems, therefore motivations for methods optimizing the energy consumption making better use of the restricted battery resources are evident. A novel concept of distributed task computing...... is previously proposed (D2VS), where the overall idea of selective distribution of tasks among terminals is made. In this paper the optimal number of terminals for cooperative task computing in a wireless network will be investigated. The paper presents an energy model for the proposed scheme. Energy...... consumption of the terminals with respect to their workload and the overhead of distributing tasks among terminals are taken into account. The paper shows, that the number of cooperating terminals is in general limited to a few, though alternating with respect to the various system parameters....

  5. Decoupling of industrial energy consumption and CO2-emissions in energy-intensive industries in Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Ryelund, Anders V.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2007-01-01

    As methodology the ex-post analysis deserves more attention as a device to calibrate energy sector models. This paper studies the impact of energy prices and taxes on energy efficiency and carbon emissions of ten industrial sectors in the three Scandinavian countries. A database with sector-specific energy prices and taxes has been established, which allows the analysis to take various price reductions and tax exemptions better into account. A translog factor demand system estimation for a cross industry pooled model is explored and fixed effects across industries and time is estimated. The findings here confirm recent analyses which indicate higher long-term elasticities for industries than normally assumed in Scandinavian energy-sector models. With the observations on differences in energy-intensities among sectors and countries the findings allow for some optimism as to the opportunities for further decoupling between trends in gross value added, carbon emissions and energy consumption

  6. Off Shore wind energy – Case study of cooperation mechanisms design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Jansen, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    This document reports activities and results of Task 3.3 of the Intelligent Energy Europe supported project RES4Less. This work is the initial analyses and survey of barriers for implementing cooperation mechanisms in the EU countries. This work builds on earlier Intelligent Energy Europe projects...... also shared and enriched by comments from other members of the RES4Less Team during internal meetings of the project....

  7. Co-operative research for future energy supply; Gemeinsam Forschen fuer die Energie der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, G.; Szczepanski, P. (comps.)

    2000-10-01

    The FVS ForschungsVerbund Sonnenenergie was founded in 1990 and covers the whole spectrum of solar and renewable energy sources, from solid state physics to agriculture and technology assessment. [German] Seit der Entstehnung des FVS ForschungsVerbund Sonnenenergie haben sich die Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Erforschung der solaren und erneuerbaren Energien verbessert: Sie wurden in den letzten Jahren weiter erschlossen und haben an Bekanntheit und Sympathie gewonnen. Die von der Bundesregierung angestrebte Energiewende bedeutet eine Zaesur in der deutschen Energieversorgung und fuehrt zu einer staerkeren Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien. Sie werden zunehmend als markt- und zukunftsfaehiger Wirtschaftsfaktor wahrgenommen, zu dessen Erschliessung intensive Forschung und Entwicklung notwendig ist. Der Verbund gewinnt daher verstaerkt die Industrie und die Energiewirtschaft als Kooperationspartner im Forschungssektor. Das Themenspektrum im FVS ForschungsVerbund Sonnenenergie umfasst weitgehend alle solaren und erneuerbaren Energien. Diese Themen beinhalten eine Fuelle von einzelnen wissenschaftlichen Problemstellungen von der Festkoerperphysik bis zu agrarwissenschaftlichen Fragen nachwachsender Energierohstoffe und zur Technologiebewertung. (orig.)

  8. China's energy economy. Situation, reforms, behavior, and energy intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [Henan Agricultural Univ., Zhengzhou (China). College of Economics and Management; Oxley, Les [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept of Economics and Finance

    2012-07-01

    In the new millennium, understanding China's energy economy is crucial for politicians, businesspeople and energy economists, as China's energy policy choices will mean both challenges and opportunities for the world in terms of an increasing share of primary energy consumption and investment. This book initially reviews the literature on China's energy economy and in so doing reveals that many important areas have been overlooked or are outdated in their coverage. Given the size of China and its global importance, the book then review s China's current energy situation and fills the gaps in the literature for those who are interested in and concerned about China's economic development and energy reform in the new millennium. The book is different from previous studies in several important ways: Firstly, it presents recent, pioneering research rather than a simple textbook, several sections of which have been published in high-quality energy journals. Secondly, the book first subdivides China's energy intensity change into aspects of budget constraint, technological change, factor substitution, energy demand and economic growth using a newly developed econometric approach. Thirdly, it provides many new and different econometric findings and derives many new policy implications for China's energy economy. And lastly, it brings to light a wealth of new knowledge for those who are interested in China's energy economy, the world energy market and global environmental and climate change issues.

  9. Future regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia: Energy security costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Hayes, Peter; Kang, Jungmin; Katsuta, Tadahiro

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in East Asia has rapidly increased regional energy, and especially, electricity needs. Many of the countries of East Asia have sought or are seeking to diversify their energy sources and bolster their energy supply and/or environmental security by developing nuclear power. Rapid development of nuclear power in East Asia brings with it concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation associated with uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel management. This article summarizes the development and analysis of four different scenarios of nuclear fuel cycle management in East Asia, including a scenario where each major nuclear power user develops uranium enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel individually, scenarios featuring cooperation in the full fuel cycle, and a scenario where reprocessing is avoided in favor of dry cask storage of spent fuel. The material inputs and outputs and costs of key fuel cycle elements under each scenario are summarized. - Highlights: → We evaluate four scenarios of regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia and the Pacific. → The scenarios cover fuel supply, enrichment, transport, reprocessing, and waste management. → We evaluate nuclear material flows, energy use, costs, and qualitative energy security impacts. → Regional cooperation on nuclear fuel cycle issues can help to enhance energy security. → A regional scenario in which reprocessing is rapidly phased out shows security and cost advantages.

  10. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  11. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  12. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  13. 75 FR 47627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ..., DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc. Under The Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that on...

  14. Geothermal energy technology: issues, R and D needs, and cooperative arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the National Research Council, through its Energy Engineering Board, formed the Committee on Geothermal Energy Technology. The committee's study addressed major issues in geothermal energy technology, made recommendations for research and development, and considered cooperative arrangements among government, industry, and universities to facilitate RandD under current severe budget constraints. The report addresses four types of geothermal energy: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. Hydrothermal systems are the only type that are now economically competitive commercially. Further technology development by the Department of Energy could make the uneconomical hydrothermal resources commercially attractive to the industry. The economics are more uncertain for the longer-term technologies for extracting energy from geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. For some sites, the cost of energy derived from geopressured and hot dry rock systems is projected within a commercially competitive range. The use of magma energy is too far in the future to make reasonable economic calculations.

  15. A Cooperative Communication Model Tailored for Energy Balance in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila F. Rêgo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN are characterized by their capacity of monitoring the environment, gathering and sharing information. Nodes in a WSN usually cooperate in the task of forwarding the sensed data to a sink node for later retrieval and analysis. The success of this task depends on the availability of efficient routes that meet the application requirements. As topology may change overtime, alternatives to improve and maintain network connectivity are highly desired. In this context, Cooperative Communication (CC emerged as an alternative to improve network connectivity. Despite its benefits, CC-links are known to have higher energy demands as compared to traditional, direct, links. In particular, CC-links require the source node to expend more power than others nodes, shortening their life span. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new Cooperative Communication model, capable of increasing the energy balance of the CC-links while improving network connectivity. Simulation results show that, compared to other CC schemes, the source node of a Cooperative Communication reduces the amount of expended energy by 68% in the evaluated settings.

  16. Determinants of innovation in energy intensive industry and implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, ChiUng; Oh, Wankeun

    2015-01-01

    Abstracts: The Korean government adopted “green growth” in 2008 as an environmentally friendly growth strategy. The energy efficiency of Korea, however, is still relatively low due to the large portion of energy intensive industry (EII) in its manufacturing sector. To improve energy efficiency in Korea, from an EII perspective a new approach has to be taken because restructuring entire industries would take too much time and be too costly. This study aims to emphasize the importance of innovation and analyze the effects of R&D on product and process innovations in EII in Korea. The Probit model is adopted to estimate the effects of eight determinants in the Korea Innovation Survey 2008 data. The results of this study demonstrate that one of the most important determinants, the R&D personnel ratio, has a strong positive effect on both product and process innovation, while another determinant, R&D intensity, only has a strong and positive effect on process innovation in EII. Because of the resulting innovation, energy policies should be enacted to enhance energy efficiency. Thus, the Korean government should keep providing incentives for firms in EII to invest more financial and human resources in their R&D activities. -- Highlights: •We analyze determinants on two innovations in energy intensive industry (EII). •The R&D personnel ratio is effective in product innovation in EII. •Both R&D intensity and R&D personnel are effective in process innovation in EII. •In less EII, R&D variables have positive effects on product and process innovations. •The Korean government should strongly support R&D to improve energy efficiency

  17. Using Large-Scale Cooperative Control to Manage Operational Uncertainties for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Rostampour, V.; Kwakkel, J. H.; Bloemendal, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) technology can help reduce the demand of energy for heating and cooling in buildings, and has become a popular option for larger buildings in northern Europe. However, the larger-scale deployment of this technology has evidenced some issues of concern for policymakers; in particular, recent research shows that operational uncertainties contribute to inefficient outcomes under current planning methods for ATES. For instance, systems in the Netherlands typically use less than half of their permitted pumping volume on an annual basis. This overcapacity gives users more flexibility to operate their systems in response to the uncertainties which drive building energy demand; these include short-term operational factors such as weather and occupancy, and longer-term, deeply uncertain factors such as changes in climate and aquifer conditions over the lifespan of the buildings. However, as allocated subsurface volume remains unused, this situation limits the adoption of the technology in dense areas. Previous work using coupled agent-based/geohydrological simulation has shown that the cooperative operation of neighbouring ATES systems can support more efficient spatial planning, by dynamically managing thermal interactions in response to uncertain operating conditions. An idealized case study with centralized ATES control thus showed significant improvements in the energy savings which could obtained per unit of allocated subsurface volume, without degrading the recovery performance of systems. This work will extend this cooperative approach for a realistic case study of ATES planning in the city of Utrecht, in the Netherlands. This case was previously simulated under different scenarios for individual ATES operation. The poster will compare these results with a cooperative case under which neighbouring systems can coordinate their operation to manage interactions. Furthermore, a cooperative game-theoretical framework will be

  18. Additional protocols and regional cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kwan Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The main object of this article is to clarify the relations between the implementation of the Protocols Additional to Safeguards Agreement (hereinafter referred to as the Additional Protocols) and the feasibility of the regional cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Northeast Asia (NEA). The regionalism has a strong tendency to be based in advance on regional cooperation. The regionalism has three main structural elements in its definition: geographical proximity, cultural resemblance, and cooperative attitudes among all the countries concerned. The Additional Protocols allow the IAEA to access to more detailed information and nuclear activities of a State party. The aspect that the Additional Protocols could increase the nuclear transparency will result in ultimately promoting the confidence among the regional nations concerned.

  19. Institutionalizing cross-border cooperatives on European level in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulusma, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The third energy package proposes the establishment of an Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) and the establishment of a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSOE) and a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG). This legislative initiative is a response to the need to further liberalise the energy sector and to create one single energy market. The proposals wish to remedy the lack of regulatory oversight for cross border issues and the existence of a regulatory gap on cross-border issues. This article addresses these proposals and places them in a historical context. The proposals indicate that the European legislator to some degree intends to institutionalize cross border cooperation of regulators and of transmission system operators. So far cross-border cooperation mostly has been brought about on a voluntary basis and not on the basis of European law. Also this cooperation takes place on a voluntary basis and largely outside the scope of the European Commission. If the proposals are excepted they will result in new forms of cooperation in the energy sector. The Agency will be a community body with legal personality that, besides having an advisory role, will in some circumstances be able to take binding decisions. Therefore it will entail more than voluntary cooperation and be a step closer to the establishment of a European regulator. With the creation of ENTSOG and ENTSOE cooperation between transmission system operators will for the first time be obligatory and take place on the basis of European legislation. It will therefore be a new phenomenon. Nevertheless, it is not always clear from the proposals what the result in practice will be nor how the new organizations will relate to each other, to the Commission and to the national regulators and transmission system operators. Currently, the main question is whether the proposals will be adopted by the Council and the European

  20. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  1. Outage Analysis of Cooperative Transmission with Energy Harvesting Relay: Time Switching versus Power Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyao Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the multiuser transmission network with an energy harvesting (EH cooperative relay, where a source transmits independent information to multiple destinations with the help of an energy constrained relay. The relay can harvest energy from the radio frequency (RF signals transmitted from the source, and it helps the multiuser transmission only by consuming the harvested energy. By adopting the time switching and the power splitting relay receiver architectures, we firstly propose two protocols, the time switching cooperative multiuser transmission (TSCMT protocol and the power splitting cooperative multiuser transmission (PSCMT protocol, to enable the simultaneous information processing and EH at the relay for the system. To evaluate the system performance, we theoretically analyze the system outage probability for the two proposed protocols and then derive explicit expressions for each of them, respectively. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the accuracy of our analytical results and reveal that compared with traditional noncooperative scheme our proposed protocols are green solutions to offer reliable communication and lower system outage probability without consuming additional energy. In particular, for the same transmit power at the source, the PSCMT protocol is superior to the TSCMT protocol to obtain lower system outage probability.

  2. Redistribution effects resulting from cross-border cooperation in support for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that international cooperation in achieving renewable energy targets, e.g., via a common tradable green certificate market, increases overall welfare. However, cooperation in the support of electricity from renewable energy sources also leads to regional price effects, from which some groups benefit while others lose. On a regional level, the introduction of cross-border cooperation in RES-E support generally has an opposite effect on support expenditures and wholesale electricity prices, as long as grid congestion between the different regions exists. In this paper, a theoretical model is used to analyze under which conditions different groups bene t or suffer from the introduction of cooperation. Findings of the analysis include that effects on consumers and total producers per country can only be clearly determined if no grid congestions between the countries exist. If bottlenecks in the transmission system exist, the relationship between the slopes of the renewable and the non-renewable marginal generation cost curves for electricity generation as well as the level of the RES-E target essentially determine whether these groups bene t or lose from the introduction of green certificate trading. In contrast, system-wide welfare always increases once cooperation in RES-E support is introduced. Similarly, welfare on the country level always increases (compared to a situation without RES-E cooperation) if the countries are perfectly or not at all physically interconnected. In the case of congested interconnectors, each country always at least potentially benefits from the introduction of certificate trade, taking into account possible distributions of congestion rents between the countries.

  3. Redistribution effects resulting from cross-border cooperation in support for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-15

    It has been shown that international cooperation in achieving renewable energy targets, e.g., via a common tradable green certificate market, increases overall welfare. However, cooperation in the support of electricity from renewable energy sources also leads to regional price effects, from which some groups benefit while others lose. On a regional level, the introduction of cross-border cooperation in RES-E support generally has an opposite effect on support expenditures and wholesale electricity prices, as long as grid congestion between the different regions exists. In this paper, a theoretical model is used to analyze under which conditions different groups bene t or suffer from the introduction of cooperation. Findings of the analysis include that effects on consumers and total producers per country can only be clearly determined if no grid congestions between the countries exist. If bottlenecks in the transmission system exist, the relationship between the slopes of the renewable and the non-renewable marginal generation cost curves for electricity generation as well as the level of the RES-E target essentially determine whether these groups bene t or lose from the introduction of green certificate trading. In contrast, system-wide welfare always increases once cooperation in RES-E support is introduced. Similarly, welfare on the country level always increases (compared to a situation without RES-E cooperation) if the countries are perfectly or not at all physically interconnected. In the case of congested interconnectors, each country always at least potentially benefits from the introduction of certificate trade, taking into account possible distributions of congestion rents between the countries.

  4. Design options for cooperation mechanisms under the new European renewable energy directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klessmann, Corinna; Lamers, Patrick; Ragwitz, Mario; Resch, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, a new EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) entered into effect. The directive 2009/28/EC, provides for three cooperation mechanisms that will allow member states to achieve their national RES target in cooperation with other member states: statistical transfer, joint projects, and joint support schemes. This article analyses the pros and cons of the three mechanisms and explores design options for their implementation through strategic and economic questions: How to counterbalance the major drawbacks of each mechanism? How to reflect a balance of costs and benefits between the involved member states? The analysis identifies a number of design options that respond to these questions, e.g. long term contracts to ensure sufficient flexibility for statistical transfers, a coordinated, standardised joint project approach to increase transparency in the European market, and a stepwise harmonisation of joint support schemes that is based on a cost-effective accounting approach. One conclusion is that the three cooperation mechanisms are closely interlinked. One can consider their relation to be a gradual transition from member state cooperation under fully closed national support systems in case of statistical transfers, to cooperation under fully open national support systems in a joint support scheme.

  5. Firm-level determinants of energy and carbon intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jing; Karplus, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, China's leaders have sought to coordinate official energy intensity reduction targets with new targets for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) intensity reduction. The Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006–2010) included for the first time a binding target for energy intensity, while a binding target for CO 2 intensity was included later in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015). Using panel data for a sample of industrial firms in China covering 2005 to 2009, we investigate the drivers of energy intensity reduction (measured in terms of direct primary energy use and electricity use) and associated CO 2 intensity reduction. Rising electricity prices were associated with decreases in electricity intensity and increases in primary energy intensity, consistent with a substitution effect. Overall, we find that energy intensity reduction by industrial firms during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan translated into more than proportional CO 2 intensity reduction because reducing coal use—in direct industrial use as well as in the power sector—was a dominant abatement strategy. If similar dynamics characterize the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015), the national 17 percent CO 2 intensity reduction target may not be difficult to meet—and the 16 percent energy intensity reduction target may result in significantly greater CO 2 intensity reduction. - Highlights: • We describe China's Eleventh Five-Year Plan energy policies. • We examine the drivers of energy, electricity and carbon intensity reduction. • Higher electricity prices correlated with reductions in industrial electricity intensity. • Energy intensity reduction efforts were effective at reducing carbon intensity

  6. The effect of increasing exports on industrial energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yingmei; Qi Jianhong; Chen Xiaoliang

    2011-01-01

    Given China's heavy reliance on fuel energy and the dominance of its industrial sector in the economy, improving energy efficiency remains one of the practical means for the country to decrease energy intensity and to fulfill its commitment made at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference to achieve a 40-45 percent reduction in CO 2 emission intensity by 2020. This study investigates the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity to explore the possibility of reducing energy intensity through greater exports. A panel varying-coefficient regression model with a dataset of China's 20 industrial sub-sectors over 1999-2007 suggests that in general, greater exports aggravate energy intensity of the industrial sector and that great divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. A panel threshold model further estimates the thresholds for the major determinants of energy intensity: exports, input in technological innovations, and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) intensity. Given the great differences in specific sub-sector characteristics and the changing roles played by different factors across sub-sectors, there is no general export policy that would work for all sub-sectors in reducing sub-sector energy intensity. Instead, policies and measures aiming to encourage more efficient use of energy should take into full consideration the characteristics and situations of individual sub-sectors. - Research highlights: → We examine the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity in China. → Greater exports increase industrial energy intensity as a whole. → Divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. → China should discard policies encouraging exports at the cost of energy efficiency. → Export policy to reduce energy intensity should cater to sub-sector characteristics.

  7. The effect of increasing exports on industrial energy intensity in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yingmei [School of Economics, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Qi Jianhong, E-mail: sducatherine@gmail.co [School of Economics, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Chen Xiaoliang [School of Economics, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Given China's heavy reliance on fuel energy and the dominance of its industrial sector in the economy, improving energy efficiency remains one of the practical means for the country to decrease energy intensity and to fulfill its commitment made at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference to achieve a 40-45 percent reduction in CO{sub 2} emission intensity by 2020. This study investigates the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity to explore the possibility of reducing energy intensity through greater exports. A panel varying-coefficient regression model with a dataset of China's 20 industrial sub-sectors over 1999-2007 suggests that in general, greater exports aggravate energy intensity of the industrial sector and that great divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. A panel threshold model further estimates the thresholds for the major determinants of energy intensity: exports, input in technological innovations, and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) intensity. Given the great differences in specific sub-sector characteristics and the changing roles played by different factors across sub-sectors, there is no general export policy that would work for all sub-sectors in reducing sub-sector energy intensity. Instead, policies and measures aiming to encourage more efficient use of energy should take into full consideration the characteristics and situations of individual sub-sectors. - Research highlights: {yields} We examine the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity in China. {yields} Greater exports increase industrial energy intensity as a whole. {yields} Divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. {yields} China should discard policies encouraging exports at the cost of energy efficiency. {yields} Export policy to reduce energy intensity should cater to sub-sector characteristics.

  8. International cooperation and nuclear development. On the approval of the Argentina - Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol Varela, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Argentina, with its National Atomic Energy Commission, has been maintaining during more than half a century an important activity for the development of nuclear energy and its peaceful applications. As a consequence of this tradition, it has strengthened its experience with the contribution to the international co-operation, as in the case of the Argentina-Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed on August 8th, 2001 and ratified by the Argentine Law No. 26.014. Both countries are parties of several international treaties and conventions: physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear accidents, fuel and wastes management, and others. These legal instruments are complemented by agreements for the applications of safeguards with the International Atomic Energy Agency. On the basis of these regulations the parties agreed to establish co-operation conditions in accordance with the pledge of non-proliferation. Furthermore the agreement states that the Governments have the power to designate the governmental organizations or individuals, as well as the legal entities, which will carry out the co-operation. The co-operation covers basic and applied research, development, design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other installations of the nuclear fuel cycle, its related technology as well as nuclear medicine, radioisotopes, etc [es

  9. China cuts energy intensity, but overall energy growth continues, report notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    A new report states that China has cut its energy intensity—defined as energy use per unit of economic output—by 19.1% from 2006 to 2010, reversing the previous upward trend. However, energy use and carbon emissions in the country continue to grow sharply, according to the Climate Policy Initiative's (CPI) Annual Review of Low-Carbon Development in China: 2010, the second of such reports. China nearly hit its goal of a 20% target reduction in energy intensity during that time period, which spanned the country's eleventh Five-Year Period (FYP) for social and economic development, but during that same period energy-related growth in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China increased by 33.6%, from 5.15 billion tons to 6.88 billion tons, said Qi Ye, CPI's Beijing office director, at a 2 February briefing held at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C.

  10. Dynamic energy spectrum and energy deposition in solid target by intense pulsed ion beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu; Xiao-Yun Le; Zheng Liu; Jie Shen; Yu I.Isakova; Hao-Wen Zhong; Jie Zhang; Sha Yan; Gao-Long Zhang; Xiao-Fu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A method for analyzing the dynamic energy spectrum of intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was proposed.Its influence on beam energy deposition in metal target was studied with IPIB produced by two types of magnetically insulated diodes (MID).The emission of IPIB was described with space charge limitation model,and the dynamic energy spectrum was further analyzed with time-of-flight method.IPIBs generated by pulsed accelerators of BIPPAB-450 (active MID) and TEMP-4M (passive MID) were studied.The dynamic energy spectrum was used to deduce the power density distribution of IPIB in the target with Monte Carlo simulation and infrared imaging diagnostics.The effect on the distribution and evolution of thermal field induced by the characteristics of IPIB dynamic energy spectrum was discussed.

  11. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  12. Energy transition: a new opportunity for the French-German cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    As France and Germany are both defining new energy policies, but in different ways (Germany has focused on a reform of the law on renewable energies, and France aims at a reduction of the nuclear share from 75 to 50 per cent by 2025), the author examines whether the French strategy is realistic and how it can be explained from a political point of view, how energy transition can be successfully implemented, and to what extent it may influence the German policy within the framework of present discussions on the EU energy-climate package and of bilateral cooperation. The author first outlines the powerful role of nuclear energy in the history of French energy policy, proposes a brief overview of the evolution of debates in France on energy policy from the beginning of the 2000's, indicates and discusses the main objectives of the present bill project on energy transition, and proposes a comparison of French and German objectives regarding energy transition by 2020, 2030 and 2050. He evokes some practical aspects (discussion about Fessenheim plant shutting down, issues of energy prices). He comments the planned implementation of a new economic model based on a green growth, discusses the issue of energy transition in the electricity sector and in the transport sector, and the relationship between energy transition and decentralisation. Perspectives are briefly discussed regarding the credibility of the French policy and the commitment of both countries in energy transition

  13. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  14. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  15. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  16. Bulgaria ,Boosting Energy Cooperation with China Interview with Deputy Minster Yaneva, Ministry of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Deputy Minister Yaneva of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria, a nice lady with outstanding talents, headed a delegation of Bulgaria to visit China in late June, for the participation at the 13th Bulgarian-Chinese Intergovernmental Commission for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Cooperation. As an important instrument, the Joint Commission played a significant role in promoting the overall development of the bilateral economic relations.

  17. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities

  18. Energy technology and opportunities for East-West co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garribba, S.

    1991-01-01

    The private sector is probably the principal Western actor in Central and Eastern Europe. The accelerated political reforms in the East have improved the prospects for Western partners to invest in the energy sector and collaborate on energy technology development and transfer while taking advantage of the specific local benefits offered. These benefits are primarily found on the energy production side where the specific knowledge of the Western partner may be employed for the development of energy markets in the East. Conversely, the Central and Eastern European countries appear to be looking to co-operation with Western partners to provide them with access to capital, technology and organizational know-how, as well as, to Western markets. The primary long-term economic aim of Central and Eastern European governments must be to promote a market based economy. This requires not merely the definition of an official energy price system, but also the presence of legal and other institutions to establish property rights, civil contractual laws, trade policy and framework conditions for the free development of market forces and private enterprise. The IEA, International Energy Agency, as an example of the effectiveness of international co-operation, may be in the position to provide some assistance on technical and policy matters

  19. Report of cooperative research programs in the field of ion-beam breeding between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Bilateral cooperative research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Zaiton; Oono, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes Bilateral Cooperative Research between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (a representative of the Government of Malaysia) implemented from 2002 to 2012 under 'THE IMPLEMENTING ARRANGEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA AND THE JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY ON THE RESEARCH COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIATION PROCESSING'. The research activities in two Cooperative Research Programs, 'Mutation Induction of Orchid Plants by Ion Beams' and 'Generating New Ornamental Plant Varieties Using Ion Beams' performed 2002-2007 and 2007-2012, respectively, are contained. The lists of steering committee meetings, irradiation experiments, and publications/presentations of each program are also attached in the Appendixes. (author)

  20. Model for prioritization of regional strategies within the technical cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da

    2017-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Cooperation Program is the main mechanism through which services are provided to its member states to help them build, strengthen and maintain their capabilities in the safe use of nuclear technology in support of socio-economic development. The technical cooperation program operates in four geographical regions, each regional program helps Member States to meet their specific needs, taking into account existing capacities and different operating conditions. The technical cooperation regions are Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. Developing activities together with the technical cooperation program we have the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL), which involves the majority of the members of the International Atomic Energy Agency of that region, for Technical Cooperation. All ARCAL's work is guided by the Regional Strategic Profile, which identifies the needs and problems of the region that require support projects. In the technical meeting of the Regional Strategic Profile, the needs and problems that are analyzed through indexes associated with severity, urgency, extension, relevance and difficulty are listed by different thematic areas. To these indexes, values are established by the technical staff on a continuous scale between 1 and 5. From these values an expression is used to arrive at a priority number for the needs and problems. In the face of many criticisms associated with similar approaches, such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Timing, Trend and Impact Matrix, the aim of this thesis is to propose a methodological approach that can assist in the prioritization of investments of technical cooperation projects and programs that take into account the budget available and the technical and strategic visions of the parties involved. For this, the Probabilistic Composition

  1. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  2. Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in

  3. ORC waste heat recovery in European energy intensive industries: Energy and GHG savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, F.; Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Baresi, M.; Fermi, A.; Rossetti, N.; Vescovo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate ORC industrial heat recovery potential is defined. • Heat recovery applications for different industrial processes are shown. • Cement, steel, glass and oil and gas applications are considered in EU27. • Savings in electricity costs and greenhouse gases are quantified. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology with important opportunities in heat recovery from energy intensive industrial processes. This paper represents the first comprehensive estimate of ORC units that can be installed in cement, steel, glass and oil and gas industries in the 27 countries of the European Union based on an accurate methodology related to real plants in operation or under construction. An evaluation of energy savings, depending on the number of operating hours per year and of the consequent decrease in CO 2 emission and electricity expenditure, is also provided. The study, carried out in the framework of an European research project on heat recovery in energy intensive industries, found that, in the most convenient considered scenario, up to about 20,000 GW h of thermal energy per year can be recovered and 7.6 M ton of CO 2 can be saved by the application of ORC technology to the investigated and most promising industrial sectors

  4. Energy markets in the 1990's and beyond: A comparison of energy intensity in the United States and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S. C.

    1989-10-01

    A comparative analysis is provided of energy intensity in the U.S. and Japan. According to aggregate International Energy Agency (IEA) data, the U.S. has one of the most energy-intensive economies while Japan has one of the least. Energy-intensity measures are constructed and examined which that are more detailed than aggregate measures used by the IEA to see if they can better explain these differences. The year chosen for this analysis is 1985. The issue of energy intensity may become particularly critical if scientific findings on global climate change and greenhouse emissions lead to negotiations on restricting carbon emissions. The burning of fossil fuels is the most important anthropogenic source of carbon emissions. As shown by this analysis, developing a consistent and fair set of goals for each country for carbon emissions, which are interlocked with energy intensity, may be a difficult task.

  5. CO2 emissions and economic activity: Short- and long-run economic determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Fredrik N.G.; Karpestam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the short-term and the long-term determinants of energy intensity, carbon intensity and scale effects for eight developed economies and two emerging economies from 1973 to 2007. Our results show that there is a difference between the short-term and the long-term results and that climate policy are more likely to affect emission over the long-term than over the short-term. Climate policies should therefore be aimed at a time horizon of at least 8 years and year-on-year changes in emissions contains little information about the trend path of emissions. In the long-run capital accumulation is the main driver of emissions. Productivity growth reduces the energy intensity while the real oil price reduces both the energy intensity and the carbon intensity. The real oil price effect suggests that a global carbon tax is an important policy tool to reduce emissions, but our results also suggest that a carbon tax is likely to be insufficient decouple emission from economic growth. Such a decoupling is likely to require a structural transformation of the economy. The key policy challenge is thus to build new economic structures where investments in green technologies are more profitable. - Highlights: • We model determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity. • Using band spectrum regressions, we separate between short and long run effects. • Different economic variables affect emission in the short and long run. • CO 2 reducing policies should have a long run horizon of (at least 8 years). • A low carbon society requires a structural transformation of the economy

  6. Improving Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Femtocell Networks via Base Station Switching Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woongsup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, energy efficiency (EE of cellular networks has become an important performance metric, and several techniques have been proposed to increase the EE. Among them, turning off base stations (BSs when not needed is considered as one of the most powerful techniques due to its simple operation and effectiveness. Herein, we propose a novel BS switching-off technique for cooperative femtocell networks where multiple femtocell BSs (FBSs simultaneously send packets to the same mobile station (MS. Unlike conventional schemes, cooperative operation of FBSs, also known as coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission, is considered to determine which BSs are turned off in the proposed technique. We first formulate the optimization problem to find the optimal set of FBSs to be turned off. Then, we propose a suboptimal scheme operating in a distributed manner in order to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal scheme. The suboptimal scheme is based on throughput ratio (TR which specifies the importance of a particular FBS for the cooperative transmission. Through simulations, we show that the energy consumption can be greatly reduced with the proposed technique, compared with conventional schemes. Moreover, we show that the suboptimal scheme also achieves the near-optimal performance even without the excessive computations.

  7. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P.; Lim, Gino; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  8. Energy intensity in road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrés, Lidia; Padilla, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that have influenced the energy intensity trend of the Spanish road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles over the period 1996–2012. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of these factors and to inform the design of measures to improve energy efficiency in road freight transport. The paper uses both annual single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition analysis. The results suggest that the decrease in the energy intensity of Spanish road freight in the period is explained by the change in the real energy intensity index (lower energy consumption per tonne-kilometre transported), which is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index (greater share in freight transport of those commodities the transportation of which is more energy intensive). The change in energy intensity is analysed in more depth by quantifying the contribution of each commodity through the attribution of changes in Divisia indices. -- Highlights: •We examine energy intensity of Spanish road freight transport over 1996–2012. •We employ single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition. •Energy intensity reduction is explained by the change in real energy intensity index. •This is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index. •The attribution of Divisia indices changes gives the contribution of each commodity

  9. Water-Energy Nexus in Shared River Basins: How Hydropower Shapes Cooperation and Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouangpalath Phimthong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of hydropower plants on transboundary rivers is seldom done with equal benefits to all riparians, and therefore presents coordination and cooperation challenges. Without a supra-national authority in charge of transboundary river basins, coordination between sectors (water, energy and environment and cooperation between countries largely depends on willingness of the individual nation states and the power relations between these countries. This paper discusses how the interests and relative power positions of actors in transboundary water management shape the outcomes, and what roles are played by River Basin Organisations and foreign investors (especially in hydropower development. These issues are illustrated with examples from the Mekong river in Southeast Asia (Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, the Euphrates-Tigris (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait and the Çoruh in Turkey and Georgia.

  10. Energy intensities, EROIs (energy returned on invested), and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weißbach, D.; Ruprecht, G.; Huke, A.; Czerski, K.; Gottlieb, S.; Hussein, A.

    2013-01-01

    The energy returned on invested, EROI, has been evaluated for typical power plants representing wind energy, photovoltaics, solar thermal, hydro, natural gas, biogas, coal and nuclear power. The strict exergy concept with no “primary energy weighting”, updated material databases, and updated technical procedures make it possible to directly compare the overall efficiency of those power plants on a uniform mathematical and physical basis. Pump storage systems, needed for solar and wind energy, have been included in the EROI so that the efficiency can be compared with an “unbuffered” scenario. The results show that nuclear, hydro, coal, and natural gas power systems (in this order) are one order of magnitude more effective than photovoltaics and wind power. - Highlights: ► Nuclear, “renewable” and fossil energy are comparable on a uniform physical basis. ► Energy storage is considered for the calculation, reducing the ERoEI remarkably. ► All power systems generate more energy than they consume. ► Photovoltaics, biomass and wind (buffered) are below the economical threshold

  11. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-11-20

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  14. Energy intensities of the Netherlands consumer expenditures in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, R.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-03-01

    The Energy Analysis Programme (EAP) is a method developed to calculate the direct and indirect fossil fuel energy consumption of consumer products. EAP is based on both the analysis of the process as the analysis of the input and output. This report is an update of the 1990 data of EAP. The data concern energy indicators of basic materials and packages, industrial and other sectors, transport, trade and services, energy sources and waste processing in the Netherlands [nl

  15. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of the nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Huffer, E.; David, S.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Martin, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that CO 2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GWe pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GWe pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (authors)

  16. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; David, S.; Martin, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that Co2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GW pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GW pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (author)

  17. The petrochemical industry and its energy use. Prospects for the Dutch energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, D.J.; Vos, D.; Van Dril, A.W.N.

    1996-04-01

    The current state and the future of the Dutch petrochemical industry are discussed. First, its current energy use, technology and its markets are analysed. Competitiveness of Dutch and Western European producers compared to foreign producers is shown. Main technological developments and other key issues (e.g. environmental issues) are discussed. Based on this analysis, a future scenario is derived for petrochemical industrial energy use for the period 2000-2015. This case study can be divided into an analysis of the current situation (Chapter 2-6) and alternatives for production and energy consumption of the Dutch petrochemical industry within its Western European context (Chapter 7-11). Chapter 2 analyses the current production structure and the historical developments. Chapter 3 discusses current technologies. Chapter 4 analyses markets for Dutch petrochemical products. Chapter 5 analyses the industry economics in the Netherlands in terms of costs and revenues. Chapter 6 provides information on institutional factors that influence industrial activities. Chapter 7 discusses global competition with special emphasis on competition for the European market. Chapter 8 analyses potential technology shifts. In Chapter 9, data from the preceding chapters on markets, competition, structure and technology are combined to compare competing production options. This is followed by a sensitivity analysis in Chapter 10. Based on a production volume forecast and the development of energy intensity of production, energy consumption of the Dutch petrochemical industry is forecast in Chapter 11. Finally, Chapter 12 provides conclusions and policy recommendations. 24 figs., 48 tabs., 103 refs., 2 appendices

  18. Intense neutron source facility for the fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.; Emigh, C.R.; Meier, K.L.; Meyer, E.A.; Schneider, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The intense neutron source is based on the ability of a supersonic flow of gas to dissipate an enormous quantity of heat generated in the neutron-producing target by multiple Coulomb collisions. A description is given of the principles involved in forming the supersonic jet, in forming the intense tritium-ion beam, in the vacuum systems, and in the tritium handling systems. An overview of the entire facility is included. It is believed that the facility can be operated with high reliability, ensuring a productive radiation damage program. (U.S.)

  19. The decline of sectorial components of the world's energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, José; Siqueira Prado, Luiz Tadeo

    2013-01-01

    The world's primary energy consumption in the last 40 years has been increasing at 2.2%/year while GDP growth has been 3.4%/years over the same period. The decline of the energy intensity (I=E/GDP) has been, therefore, of 1.2%/year. In order to reduce the world's consumption growth proposal have been made to reduce the world's energy intensity by 40% by 2030 which corresponds to a reduction of 2.5%/year, roughly the double of the historical decline. Our analysis shoes that such goal could only be achieved by an unprecedented reduction of the energy intensity of “services” (which represent less than half the world energy consumption) since energy intensity of industry has remained practically constant in the last 40 years. - Highlights: ► GDP and world's energy consumption are split in 2 main sectors: industry and “services”, etc. ► The evolution of the energy intensity for these sectors since 1971 is calculated. ► The energy intensity of the industry sector is practically constant since 1971. ► All the decline of the energy intensity since 1971 comes from the “services” sector

  20. The political importance of energy cooperation between Germany and Denmark on the European Union energy market

    OpenAIRE

    Ruszel Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Germany have similar goals of energy transition. Both states are going to implement a policy that is aimed at the transition from a fossil fuel-based system towards a renewable energy system with variable renewables generation. The main objective of the German energy transition is to cover more than 80% of the energy consumption with renewables by 2050. For comparison, Denmark is going to build a fossil fuel-free system, which would be able to cover 100% of energy consumption with...

  1. Quantum Geometry: Relativistic energy approach to cooperative electron-nucleary-transition spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Хецелиус

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced relativistic energy approach is presented and applied to calculating parameters of electron-nuclear 7-transition spectra of nucleus in the atom. The intensities of the spectral satellites are defined in the relativistic version of the energy approach (S-matrix formalism, and gauge-invariant quantum-electrodynamical perturbation theory with the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density-functional zeroth approximation.

  2. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  3. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  4. Social acceptance of renewable energy innovations: The role of technology cooperation in urban Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Much discussion of technology transfer and the adoption of renewable energy innovations overlooks the importance of social acceptance. Using mainly qualitative analytical techniques, empirical evidence was obtained from the experiences of those involved in solar water heaters in Mexico City (e.g. technicians, industry representatives, local government officials, community representatives/end users) in order to explain social acceptance of these renewable energy innovations. In particular, this paper evaluates Rogers' [2005. Diffusion of Innovations. Free Press, New York.] technology adoption model (using an 'active' definition of social acceptance), which claims that adoption comes about through a decision-making process occurring in stages-knowledge, persuasion, implementation and confirmation and can be traced to a number of factors such as relative advantage, complexity, and triability. This paper argues that while Rogers' technology adoption model is a useful tool to explain social acceptance, this approach needs to be revised to adequately reflect the effects of technology cooperation, an integral part of technology adoption. Furthermore, this paper asserts that those forms of technology cooperation in which active participants are from various sectors and interact continuously throughout the process is most effective in eliciting social acceptance of renewable energy innovations

  5. Renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation: Towards a relational understanding of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruckenberg, Lena J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a surge in international programmes established to assist the adoption of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in low and lower-middle income countries. So far, such programmes have yielded mixed success. While partnerships between international, national and local organisations have become the pre-eminent model for RET programmes, we know relatively little about their contribution. This article traces the role of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation, shifting the analytical emphasis from barriers and drivers to key actors and their relationships. It presents a relational approach for the analysis of development assistance for renewable energy, drawing on theories concerning the role of strong and weak ties in inter-organisational networks. Through an analysis of seven empirical cases from Central America, the article provides insights into how different forms of inter-organisational relationships can facilitate implementation of RET programmes but do not necessarily enhance the capacities of local organisations in a way to support a more sustainable adoption of RETs. On the basis of this analysis, theoretical and policy implications are given concerning the potential of relational approaches for researching technology diffusion processes, and the role of strong and weak ties for the success – or failure – of renewable energy partnerships. - Highlights: • Study of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation. • Relational framework for analysis of inter-organisational technology diffusion. • Empirical cases of renewable energy partnerships in Central America. • Different types of network relationships enable/inhibit sustainable adoption. • Three policy recommendations for programme development

  6. Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, R; Yadav, R S [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Naqvi, T H [Z.H. Engineering Coll., Aligarh (India); Ahmed, Rais [National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi (India)

    1975-12-01

    A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described.

  7. Free energy landscape and cooperatively rearranging region in a hard sphere glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshidome, Takashi; Yoshimori, Akira; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Exploiting the density functional theory, we calculate the free energy landscape (FEL) of the hard sphere glass in three dimensions. From the FEL, we estimate the number of the particles in the cooperatively rearranging region (CRR). We find that the density dependence of the number of the particles in the CRR is expressed as a power law function of the density. Analyzing the relaxation process in the CRR, we also find that the string motion is the elementary process for the structural relaxation, which leads to the natural definition of the simultaneously rearranging region as the particles displaced in the string motion.

  8. GCPSO in cooperation with graph theory to distribution network reconfiguration for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadian, Mehdi; Farsangi, Malihe M.; Nezamabadi-pour, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Network reconfiguration for loss reduction in distribution system is an important way to save energy. This paper investigates the ability of guaranteed convergence particle swarm optimization (GCPSO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) in cooperation with graph theory for network reconfiguration to reduce the power loss and enhancement of voltage profile of distribution systems. Numerical results of three distribution systems are presented which illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method by GCPSO and PSO using the graph theory. To validate the obtained results, genetic algorithm (GA) using graph theory is also applied and is compared with the proposed GCPSO and PSO using graph theory.

  9. A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the US: Methods, Data and Key Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-29

    This report provides an update to a previously published (Rev 1) report that describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2011 relative to a 1985 base year. Discussion of energy intensity indicators for each of the broad end-use sectors of the economy—residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation—is presented in the report. An analysis of recent changes in the efficiency of electricity generation in the U.S. is also included. A detailed appendix describes the data sources and methodology behind the energy intensity indicators for each sector.

  10. STATE AND PROSPECTS OF RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE COOPERATION IN NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev-Burgvits Mikhail Alekseevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the Vietnam government arrived at a decision to build the first nuclear power plant in the country Ninh Thuan 1 according to Russian project and with the help of Russian specialists. The construction of NPP in Vietnam will essentially relieve the deficit in energy production. The political leaders of Vietnam reckon upon the further growth of the economy. Energy of Vietnam is now generally held on big HPPs and TPPs. Small hydropower and such renewable energy sources as sun and wind play an important role in energy production. Because of the small amount of falls in the recent years in spite of monsoon climate, HPPs in Vietnam produce energy using not their full capacity. In TPP coal, diesel oil and gas is used as energy resources. The share of coal is still quite big (around 18 % and coal TPPs have a serious negative impact on the environment. That’s why the specialists count on the development of nuclear energy. The paper presents the plans for the construction of a nuclear power plant "Ninh Thuan" in Vietnam, the alleged NPP project, its advantage over other projects, prerequisites and prospects for cooperation between the Russian and Vietnamese governments in this field.

  11. Intense neutron source facility for the fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.; Emigh, C.R.; Meier, K.L.; Meyer, E.A.; Schneider, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Intense Neutron Source Facility, INS, has been proposed to provide a neutronic environment similar to that anticipated in a fully operational fusion-power reactor. The neutron generator will produce an intense flux of 14-MeV neutrons greater than 10 14 neutrons per cm 2 /sec from the collision of two intersecting beams, one of 1.1 A of 270 keV tritium ions and the other of a supersonic jet of deuterium gas. Using either the pure 14-MeV primary neutron spectrum or by tailoring the spectrum with appropriate moderators, crucial radiation-damage effects which are likely to occur in fusion reactors can be thoroughly explored and better understood

  12. The impact of the year-on-year variation in the intensity of solar radiation on the energy intensity of low-energy and passive houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubrt Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a significant segment of heat gains in the operation of buildings. The importance of this segment is highlighted by lowering the energy performance of buildings. The current condition of assessment considers the standard values of solar radiation but these are often very different from the fair values. In the contribution it draws attention to not only to on-year variation in solar fluctuations in the intensity of solar radiation and its significant long-term deviation from the standard values but also to the impact to energy building in reliance to its energy intensity. The attention will be focused also to different values in standards valid in the Czech Republic. This specification of energy assessment of buildings is not only necessary to approximate calculations of real state, but mainly because we can expect more disputes about if a building has declared calculating the parameters of a building with nearly zero-energy or passive house.

  13. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  14. Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Prasad, R.; Yadav, R.S.; Ahmed, Rais

    1975-01-01

    A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described. (author)

  15. A less energy intensive process for dehydrating onion

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jha, S. N.; Patil, R. T.; Dhatt, A. S.; Kaur, Amandeep; Jaiswal, P.

    2013-01-01

    Onion powder has an extensive demand and wide application worldwide as flavour additive in convenience foods and medicinal products. Conventionally onion powder is prepared by hot air drying of onion slices followed by grinding. Convective air drying when used alone demands longer drying time and thus has a high expense of energy. As bulk of onion is water (82–87 %), removal of moisture prior to drying can reduce moisture loading on dryer and hence the energy consumption. Keeping this in view...

  16. Profit Allocation of Hybrid Power System Planning in Energy Internet: A Cooperative Game Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of Energy Internet (EI has prompted numbers of generators to participate, leading to a hybrid power system. Hence, how to plan the hybrid power system and allocate its profit becomes necessary. In this paper, the cooperative game theory is introduced to discuss this problem. We first design the basic structure of EI, and point out the object of this study—coal power plant-wind farm-photovoltaic power station-energy storage provider (CWPE alliance. Subsequently, average allocation strategy (AAS, capacity-based allocation strategy (CAS and Shapley value allocation strategy (SAS are proposed, and then the modified disruption propensity (MDP index is constructed to judge the advantages and disadvantages of the three schemes. Thirdly, taking a certain area of A Province as an example, the profits of CWPE under three strategies are calculated respectively. Finally, by analyzing individual rationality and collective rationality of cooperative game and the MDP index of the three profit allocation schemes, we find that SAS is the most stable.

  17. Ethanol generation, oxidation and energy production in a cooperative bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoncelli, Kamila C; Pereira, Andressa R; Sedenho, Graziela C; Bertaglia, Thiago; Crespilho, Frank N

    2018-08-01

    Integrating in situ biofuel production and energy conversion into a single system ensures the production of more robust networks as well as more renewable technologies. For this purpose, identifying and developing new biocatalysts is crucial. Herein, is reported a bioelectrochemical system consisting of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wherein both function cooperatively for ethanol production and its bioelectrochemical oxidation. Here, it is shown that it is possible to produce ethanol and use it as a biofuel in a tandem manner. The strategy is to employ flexible carbon fibres (FCF) electrode that could adsorb both the enzyme and the yeast cells. Glucose is used as a substrate for the yeast for the production of ethanol, while the enzyme is used to catalyse the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Regarding the generation of reliable electricity based on electrochemical systems, the biosystem proposed in this study operates at a low temperature and ethanol production is proportional to the generated current. With further optimisation of electrode design, we envision the use of the cooperative biofuel cell for energy conversion and management of organic compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Throughput, Energy and Overhead of Multicast Device-to-Device Communications with Network Coded Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2017-01-01

    , this assumes that the throughput gains and energy savings in multicasting are much larger between devices than the base station to the receivers. However, current mobile networks suffer from many different issues varying the performance in data rates, which calls into question these assumptions. Therefore......, a first objective of this work is to assess the operating regions where employing cooperation results in higher throughput and/or energy savings. We consider multicast scenarios with network coded mechanisms employing Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC). However, although RLNC is good for low amount...... of transmissions in multicast, it has an inherent overhead from extreme high or low field related caveats. Thus, as a second objective, we review and propose the application of new network codes that posses low overhead for multicasting, by having a short representation and low dependence probability. We provide...

  19. Energy policy alliances and cooperative games: a survey of issues and solution concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This paper reviews obstacles to international agreement and of analytical approaches to describing foreign alliance formation and conflict resolution relative to energy security policies and preparedness. While these models provide useful intuitive insight on the nature of interactions among oil importing countries they have limited practical applicability in formulating testable hypotheses about international behavior. Thus to more fully understand international institutions created by sovereign nations to achieve greater energy security, different strands of the theory must be combined with factual knowledge and preceptions of different countries' incentives and objectives. The paper also reviews the public good nature of international agreements and the resulting obstacles to creating viable alliances. Subsequent sections provide a critical survey of various theoretical approaches to describing cooperative agreements. The concluding section summarizes deficiencies in existing theory and discusses the practical information required to better understand international institutions and behavior.

  20. Energy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    In recent years intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons (xIMRT) has gained attention due to its ability to reduce the dose in the tissues close to the tumour volume. However, this technique also results in a large low dose volume. Electron IMRT (eIMRT) has the potential to reduce the integral dose to the patient due to the dose fall off in the electron depth dose curves. This dose fall off makes it possible to modulate the dose distribution in the direction of the beam by selecting...

  1. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 109-113 ISSN 0029-5922. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : high-intensity laser * implantation * material modification Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  2. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Romania Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Energy efficiency improvements in the various end-use sectors constitute a very substantial saving potential, which presently is insufficiently addressed in Central and Eastern Europe. For that reason the SCORE concept has been initiated. SCORE stands for 'Supporting the Cooperative Organisation of Rational Energy Use'. SCORE is a Netherlands society to society programme, aiming at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries through projects and actions aiming at improvements in environmental protection and energy end-use sectors. SCORE is managed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) in partnership with local agencies in Central and Eastern Europe. The SCORE Country Document is based on: Survey on the existing policies and measures for energy efficiency, identified barriers, and the priorities for energy efficiency improvement in the country. The survey was carried out among some of the most important actors in this area by interviews, supported by filling in a questionnaire in a common format. Review of the existing strategic and regulatory documents and policy papers, different information sources like studies, reports, Internet sites. In chapter 2 the qualitative and quantitative situation in the field of energy supply and consumption is presented. In chapter 3 several topics will be addressed to provide insight into the national energy efficiency and climate change policy, a review, of the actors, with their tasks and responsibilities, the domestic programmes and initiatives as well as the foreign assistance programmes and initiatives. Chapter 4 includes the bottlenecks and problems identified to improve the energy efficiency situation in Romania. In chapter 5 some remarks are made on the criteria for SCORE projects

  3. Proceedings; 4th Tsuruga international energy forum. Energy policy and international cooperation of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The forum was opened at Tsuruga City in Japan from 26 to 27 in April, 2004. It initially discussed Japan's energy policy with the central focus based on the fundamental law of energy, presenting energy policies of each country and the position and future prospects of nuclear energy from these policies. Considering that the forum took place in Tsuruga City (where the FBR 'Monju' is located), expectations on 'Monju' and demands for its international utilization was discussed by researches from abroad, universities in Japan, and the possibility of its realization with views on firm implementation measures was exchanged. Keynote speech was 'Energy policy in the 21st century', special presentation 'importance of science and technology development and cultivation of improvement'. The forum consisted of three sessions: the session I 'energy policy and the role of each country in the 21st century', session II 'international utilization of Monju for FR development' and III 'regional technology development by utilizing nuclear related technology and facilities in Fukui pref.'. There were three panel discussions. 24 members composed speaker and panelists from USA, Turkey, France, UK, China, Switzerland, Korea, Russia and Japan. (S.Y.)

  4. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  5. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  6. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  7. Why did China's energy intensity increase during 1998-2006. Decomposition and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Chunbo; Hong, Dongyue

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that China's energy intensity has continuously decreased during the 1980s and mostly 1990s, the decreasing trend has reversed since 1998 and the past few years have witnessed rapid increase in China's energy intensity. We firstly conduct an index decomposition analysis to identify the key forces behind the increase. It is found that: (1) the high energy demand in industrial sectors is mainly attributed to expansion of production scale, especially in energy-intensive industries; (2) energy saving mainly comes from efficiency improvement, with energy-intensive sectors making the largest contribution; and (3) a heavier industrial structure also contributes to the increase. This study also makes the first attempt to bridge the quantitative decomposition analysis with qualitative policy analyses and fill the gap between decomposition results and policy relevance in previous work. We argue that: (1) energy efficiency improvement in energy-intensive sectors is mainly due to the industrial policies that have been implemented in the past few years; (2) low energy prices have directly contributed to high industrial energy consumption and indirectly to the heavy industrial structure. We provide policy suggestions in the end. (author)

  8. Information report by the Commission for European Affairs on the French-German energy cooperation - Nr 534

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    As the French-German energy cooperation has been, until now, focused on the transition towards renewable energies, this report studies this issue of energy transition by distinguishing the purely technical dimension and the macro-economic aspect. The author first identifies the various reasons of the difficulties met by energy transition (they are essentially based on the intermittency). In order to be efficient, the cooperation must therefore comprise a portion dealing with the economic management of the energy system in order to protect markets from abnormal disturbances. As far as the technical dimension is concerned, the author discusses the multitude of still immature techniques to deal with intermittency and hazard, or with energy savings or recovery. He also addresses the technical diptych constituted by storage and grid (energy storage and smart grids are two different but related techniques). In the second part, the author addresses the economic dimension. He highlights the unsustainable cost of a transition made at a forced march, and discusses the relationship between price regulation, market management, and transition rate. Here, he outlines that nuclear energy remains indispensable to transition. Appendices present the main recent steps of the French-German energy cooperation, a comparison of the energy mix of these both countries, the German energy policy, and a discussion of a targeted energy mix

  9. Changes in energy intensities of Thai industry between 1981 and 2000: a decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.; Ussanarassamee, Arjaree

    2005-01-01

    Industrial demand accounts for about 30% of total final energy demand in Thailand, which experienced rapid increases in energy demand. This paper analyzes the changes in industrial energy intensities over a period of 20 years (1981-2000) and identifies the factors affecting the energy consumption using logarithmic mean Divisia decomposition technique. It is found that Thai industry has passed through four different phases of growth and energy consumption has closely followed the industrial growth pattern. Energy intensity of Thai industry decreased from 17.6 toe/million baht (constant 1988 prices) in 1981 to 15.8 toe/million baht (1988 prices) in 2000. Non-metallic mineral industry is the most intensive industry followed by basic metal, food and beverage, chemical and paper industries. The factor analysis indicates that both the structural effect and intensity effect contributed to a decline of aggregate intensity by 8% during 1981-1986 but in the rest of the periods, the two effects acted in opposite directions and thereby reducing the overall effect on aggregate intensity. Food and beverages, non-metallic mineral and chemical industries had significantly influenced the changes in aggregate intensity at sectoral level

  10. A multi-scale energy demand model suggests sharing market risks with intelligent energy cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  11. Energy-harvesting in cooperative AF relaying networks over log-normal fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.; Salem, Abdelhamid; Alsusa, Emad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer are increasingly becoming a promising source of power in future wireless networks and have recently attracted a considerable amount of research, particularly on cooperative two-hop relay networks in Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast, this paper investigates the performance of wireless power transfer based two-hop cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Specifically, two EH protocols are considered here, namely, time switching relaying (TSR) and power splitting relaying (PSR). Our findings include accurate analytical expressions for the ergodic capacity and ergodic outage probability for the two aforementioned protocols. Monte Carlo simulations are used throughout to confirm the accuracy of our analysis. The results show that increasing the channel variance will always provide better ergodic capacity performance. It is also shown that a good selection of the EH time in the TSR protocol, and the power splitting factor in the PTS protocol, is the key to achieve the best system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  12. Energy-harvesting in cooperative AF relaying networks over log-normal fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.

    2016-07-26

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer are increasingly becoming a promising source of power in future wireless networks and have recently attracted a considerable amount of research, particularly on cooperative two-hop relay networks in Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast, this paper investigates the performance of wireless power transfer based two-hop cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Specifically, two EH protocols are considered here, namely, time switching relaying (TSR) and power splitting relaying (PSR). Our findings include accurate analytical expressions for the ergodic capacity and ergodic outage probability for the two aforementioned protocols. Monte Carlo simulations are used throughout to confirm the accuracy of our analysis. The results show that increasing the channel variance will always provide better ergodic capacity performance. It is also shown that a good selection of the EH time in the TSR protocol, and the power splitting factor in the PTS protocol, is the key to achieve the best system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  14. Emergy-based comparative analysis of energy intensity in different industrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hui; Sun, Lu; Ma, Zhixiao; Tian, Xu; Yu, Xiaoman

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid economic development, energy consumption of China has been the second place in the world next to the USA. Usually, measuring energy consumption intensity or efficiency applies heat unit which is joule per gross domestic production (GDP) or coal equivalent per GDP. However, this measuring approach is only oriented by the conversion coefficient of heat combustion which does not match the real value of the materials during their formation in the ecological system. This study applied emergy analysis to evaluate the energy consumption intensity to fill this gap. Emergy analysis is considered as a bridge between ecological system and economic system, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. In this study, emergy indicator for performing energy consumption intensity of primary energy was proposed. Industrial production is assumed as the main contributor of energy consumption compared to primary and tertiary industries. Therefore, this study validated this method by investigating the two industrial case studies which were Dalian Economic Development Area (DEDA) and Fuzhou economic and technological area (FETA), to comparatively study on their energy consumption intensity between the different kinds of industrial systems and investigate the reasons behind the differences. The results show that primary energy consumption (PEC) of DEDA was much higher than that of FETA during 2006 to 2010 and its primary energy consumption ratio (PECR) to total emergy involvement had a dramatically decline from year 2006 to 2010. In the same time, nonrenewable energy of PEC in DEDA was also much higher than that in FETA. The reason was that industrial structure of DEDA was mainly formed by heavy industries like petro-chemistry industry, manufacturing industries, and high energy-intensive industries. However, FETA was formed by electronic business, food industry, and light industries. Although

  15. Future of high intensity accelerators in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1977-08-01

    A possible application for a high mean current, intermediate-energy proton linear accelerator is the ''electrical breeding'' of fuel for nuclear electrical power stations. The possible role of the spallation breeder in the context of a Canadian nuclear power economy and its relationship to nuclear fuel resources are discussed. The production of fissile material using the spallation process in a target containing actinide elements appears desirable and feasible from engineering and economic considerations. Current development work in Canada and some of the outstanding problems are discussed. (author)

  16. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    and taxes on the trends in CO2 emissions on the basis of a novel method that relies on sector-specific energy prices. Whereas previous research has been unable to account for the implications of complex tax exemptions and price discounts, the present report bridges the gap and provides innovative estimates....... This finding suggests that price increases, whether induced by taxes or market fluctuations, can be effective in curbing CO2 emissions when they accurately reflect the CO2 burden. It also suggests that CO2-specific taxes on fuels are more effective than end-user electricity taxes which do not reflect actual...

  17. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  18. Energy intensity decline implications for stabilization of atmospheric CO2 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, H.D.; Green, C.

    2002-01-01

    By calculating the amount of carbon-free energy required to stabilize the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at some level, such as 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 2100, the authors estimate the appropriate rate of world average annual energy intensity decline. The roles played by energy efficiency and long term sectoral changes like shifts in economic activity from high energy intensity sectors or industries to low energy intensity sectors or industries are distinguished. Advances in technology and better and improved procedures, as well as a broader adoption of more efficient technologies currently available are included in the improvements made in energy efficiency. The objective was, for the period 1990 to 2100 (110 years), to estimate the potential energy efficiency increase for world electricity generation. It is noted that electricity generation represents 38 per cent of world energy consumption in 1995, while transportation accounts for 19 per cent and residential, industrial and commercial uses account for 43 per cent. In 2100, it is expected that the overall average decline in energy intensity will be 40.1 per cent of that of 1990, according to the results obtained. Looked at from another perspective, it represents an average annual rate of energy intensity decline of 0.83 per cent for 110 years. Between 0.16 and 0.30 per cent could be added to the impact of sectoral changes on the average annual rate of decline in energy intensity, while 0.83 per cent would be attributable to improvements in energy efficiency, as shown by sensitivity analysis. 33 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Environmental Tax Reforms and Mitigation for Energy-intensive Industries: Some Lessons from European Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse in more detail the international experiences in applying carbon-energy taxation in two important energy-intensive sectors; iron and steel, as well as non-metallic mineral products (where cement is the most significant subsector).......The purpose of this paper is to analyse in more detail the international experiences in applying carbon-energy taxation in two important energy-intensive sectors; iron and steel, as well as non-metallic mineral products (where cement is the most significant subsector)....

  20. Learning Frameworks for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Energy-Efficient Data Protection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Quang Do

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies learning frameworks for energy-efficient data communications in an energy-harvesting cognitive radio network in which secondary users (SUs harvest energy from solar power while opportunistically accessing a licensed channel for data transmission. The SUs perform spectrum sensing individually, and send local decisions about the presence of the primary user (PU on the channel to a fusion center (FC. We first design a new cooperative spectrum-sensing technique based on a convolutional neural network in which the FC uses historical sensing data to train the network for classification problem. The system is assumed to operate in a time-slotted manner. At the beginning of each time slot, the FC uses the current local decisions as input for the trained network to decide whether the PU is active or not in that time slot. In addition, legitimate transmissions can be vulnerable to a hidden eavesdropper, which always passively listens to the communication. Therefore, we further propose a transfer learning actor–critic algorithm for an SU to decide its operation mode to increase the security level under the constraint of limited energy. In this approach, the SU directly interacts with the environment to learn its dynamics (i.e., an arrival of harvested energy; then, the SU can either stay idle to save energy or transmit to the FC secured data that are encrypted using a suitable private-key encryption method to maximize the long-term effective security level of the network. We finally present numerical simulation results under various configurations to evaluate our proposed schemes.

  1. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  2. Technology assessment report for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. compressed air energy storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The design and operational features of compressed air energy storage systems (CAES) in general and, specifically, of a proposed 220 MW plant being planned by the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. in Illinois are described. This technology assessment discusses the need for peaking capacity, CAES requirements for land, fuel, water, and storage caverns, and compares the costs, environmental impacts and licensing requirements of CAES with those of power plants using simple cycle or combined cycle combustion turbines. It is concluded that during the initial two years of CAES operation, the CAES would cost more than a combustion turbine or combined cycle facility, but thereafter the CAES would have a increasing economic advantage; the overall environmental impact of a CAES plant is minimal, and that there should be no great difficulties with CAES licensing. (LCL)

  3. Energy-efficient power allocation of two-hop cooperative systems with imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Bedeer, Ebrahim; Ahmed, Mohamed H.; Dobre, Octavia A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    an accurate EE metric for cooperative two-hop systems that use the amplify-and-forward relaying scheme. Different from the existing research that assumes the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI) at the communication cooperative nodes, we

  4. Energy efficient cooperation in underlay RFID cognitive networks for a water smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Adnan; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Soong, Boon-Hee; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2014-09-30

    Shrinking water resources all over the world and increasing costs of water consumption have prompted water users and distribution companies to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment, there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones, Bluetooth devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices. In order to reduce the interference from our proposed RFID network for these primary devices, we have proposed a cooperating underlay RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water. These underlay RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2]. This work is an extension of our previous ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing a new system model and RFIDs. Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation, this scheme performs better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model's (HMM) multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed. This approach has been applied to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  5. EU energy-intensive industries and emissions trading: losers becoming winners?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettestad, Joergen

    2008-11-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) initially treated power producers and energy-intensive industries similarly, despite clear structural differences between these industries regarding pass through of costs and vulnerability to global competition. Hence, the energy-intensive industries could be seen as losing out in the internal distribution. In the January 2008 proposal for a reformed ETS post-2012, a differentiated system was proposed where the energy-intensive industries come out relatively much better. What is the explanation for the change taking place? Although power producers still have a dominant position in the system, the increasing consensus about windfall profits has weakened their standing. Conversely, the energy-intensive industries have become better organised and more active. This balance shift is first and foremost noticeable in several important EU-level stake holder consultation processes. Energy-intensive industries have, however, also successfully utilised the national pathway to exert influence on Brussels policy-making. Finally, growing fear of lax global climate policies and related carbon leakage has strengthened the case of these industries further. The latter dimension indicates that although energy-intensive industries have managed to reduce internal distribution anomalies, external challenges remain. (author). 9 refs

  6. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source's radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks.

  7. UNO contribution to attract energy investments in transition economy countries in cooperation with international organizations, banks, and the business community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited financial resources hamper the ability of transition economy countries to take advantage of recent technological progress in energy production, distribution, and consumption. Increased cooperation within and outside the UN system imposed new approaches and action programs to identify financing channels in view of implementing the economic development projects. Since the CNE'94 round table discussions on the role of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in energy cooperation for sustainable development and assistance for transition economy countries, new actions initiated by UN are supported by international organizations, banks, and the business community. The paper is based on recent UN documents, data, and information after six years of reforms. (author). 14 refs

  8. Energy Harvesting-based Spectrum Access with Incremental Cooperation, Relay Selection and Hardware Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an energy harvesting (EH-based spectrum access model in cognitive radio (CR network. In the proposed scheme, one of available secondary transmitters (STs helps a primary transmitter (PT forward primary signals to a primary receiver (PR. Via the cooperation, the selected ST finds opportunities to access licensed bands to transmit secondary signals to its intended secondary receiver (SR. Secondary users are assumed to be mobile, hence, optimization of energy consumption for these users is interested. The EH STs have to harvest energy from the PT's radio-frequency (RF signals to serve the PT-PR communication as well as to transmit their signals. The proposed scheme employs incremental relaying technique in which the PR only requires the assistance from the STs when the transmission between PT and PR is not successful. Moreover, we also investigate impact of hardware impairments on performance of the primary and secondary networks. For performance evaluation, we derive exact and lower-bound expressions of outage probability (OP over Rayleigh fading channel. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the theoretical results. The results present that the outage performance of both networks can be enhanced by increasing the number of the ST-SR pairs. In addition, it is also shown that fraction of time used for EH, positions of the secondary users and the hardware-impairment level significantly impact on the system performance.

  9. Solar Energy Potentials and Benefits in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Review of Substantial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the fossil fuel industry has dominated the economy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries during the last few decades. However, recent developments show that most of the GCC countries plan to increase the share of renewable energy (RE in their future electrical power production. To ensure realistic increase in the share of RE in the production of electricity in the future, firm policies must be laid down with the objective to promote and market the benefit of RE to their citizens. Due to the high-solar radiation in the GCC region, the focus is now on solar energy development. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the progress made on solar energy in the GCC together with the challenges and the way forward. Some of the challenges and barriers hindering the development of RE in the GCC are in the area of technological know-how, policy development, and insufficient application of RE technology integrated in the buildings among others. Areas of improvement include promoting research and development, public/private initiatives, legislation and regulatory framework, solutions to technical issues and exchange of knowledge, scientific advice, and last but not the least is the issue of building integration with RE.

  10. Opportunistic Energy-Aware Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Systems with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2015-07-29

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the green design of wireless communication systems using energy efficiency (EE) metrics that should capture all energy consumption sources to deliver the required data. In this paper, we design an energyefficient relay assisted communication system based on estimated channel state information (CSI). It employs amplify-andforward relaying and switches between different communication schemes, which are known as direct-transmission, two-hop and cooperative-transmission schemes, using the estimated CSI in order to maximize the EE. Two estimation strategies are assumed, namely disintegrated channel estimation and cascaded channel estimation. To formulate an accurate EE metric for the proposed opportunistic amplify-and-forward system, the channel estimation cost is reflected on the EE metric by including its impact in the signal-to-noise ratio term and in the energy consumption during the channels estimation phase. Based on the formulated EE metric, we propose an adaptive power allocation algorithm to maximize the EE of the proposed opportunistic amplify-andforward system with channel estimation. Furthermore, we study the impact of the estimation parameters on the proposed system via simulation examples.

  11. The energy intensity in Lithuania during 1995-2009: A LMDI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balezentis, Alvydas; Balezentis, Tomas; Streimikiene, Dalia

    2011-01-01

    The measurement, assessment, and effective mitigation of energy intensity compose a foremost objective of contemporary energy policy. Although the European Union (EU) Member States have been experiencing the convergence in energy efficiency indicators, Lithuania, acceded to the EU in 2004, still remains peculiar with relatively high energy intensity. Our study, therefore, is aimed at analyzing the energy intensity trends in Lithuanian economy as a whole as well as in separate economic sectors. The investigation covers the period of 1995-2009. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index was applied for decomposition analysis. Our analysis has shown that energy efficiency falls during economic downturn. In order to facilitate these challenges the Lithuanian Government as well as business should opt for increasing energy efficiency in the most problematic sectors of transport and services. In addition, the analysis of legal acts, namely National Energy Efficiency Programme for 2006-2010 and Energy Efficiency Action plan for 2010-2016, was taken into consideration. Some suggestions, thus, were offered for successful implementation of strategic goals outlined in the aforementioned strategic documents. - Highlights: → The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index was applied for decomposition analysis. → Our analysis has shown that energy efficiency is the most problematic issue for transport and services sectors. → The main policy document to promote energy efficiency in Lithuania, namely National Energy Efficiency Programme for 2006-2010, is analyzed in the paper.

  12. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  13. Emittance scanner for intense low-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, P.W.; Sherman, J.D.; Holtkamp, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    An emittance scanner has been developed for use with low-energy H - ion beams to satisfy the following requirements: (1) angular resolution of +-1/2 mrad, (2) small errors from beam space charge, and (3) compact and simple design. The scanner consists of a 10-cm-long analyzer containing two slits and a pair of electric deflection plates driven by a +-500-V linear ramp generator. As the analyzer is mechanically driven across the beam, the front slit passes a thin ribbon of beam through the plates. The ion transit time is short compared with the ramp speed; therefore, the initial angle of the ions that pass through the rear slit is proportional to the instantaneous ramp voltage. The current through the rear slit then is proportional to the phase-space density d 2 i/dxdx'. The data are computer-analyzed to give, for example, rms emittance and phase-space density contours. Comparison of measured data with those calculated from a prepared (collimated) phase space is in good agreement

  14. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, A; Impey, R; Podaima, W; Agarwal, A; Anderson, M; Armstrong, P; Fransham, K; Gable, I; Harris, D; Leavett-Brown, C; Paterson, M; Sobie, R J; Vliet, M

    2012-01-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  15. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  16. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  17. Report on SPEC '94-Fall (Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '94-Fall). How to promote international cooperation over energy supply, energy conservation, and environmental protection; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi '94 aki hokokusho. Energy kyokyu, sho energy, kankyo ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku no susumekata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-17

    At the symposium named above, there were Keynote Address 1 (Recent energy development in China and its impact on Asia-Pacific region), Keynote Address 2 (Japan's attitude toward energy policy, concrete measures, and contents), Plenary Session 1 (Development of resources for energy supply assurance in Pacific region), Plenary Session 2 (Promotion of atomic power generation to substitute for fossil fuels), Plenary Session 3 (Removal of factors impeding enhancement of energy efficiency and international cooperation), and Plenary Session 4 (Removal of factors impeding promotion of environmental measures and international cooperation). Important points are mentioned below. The 1st point is that it is necessary to discuss what is the optimum price. The 2nd point is that the role of the government is important. The 3rd point is that importance should be attached to competition on the market. The 4th point relates to the importance of atomic power generation. For the promotion of the introduction of atomic power generation, it is indispensable for interested countries to cooperate with each other through for example exchanging information to win public acceptance in the respective countries and for them to enhance technology transfer. The 5th point relates to the importance of international cooperation. (NEDO)

  18. Multi-energy CT based on a prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao; Osher, Stanley; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compressive sensing approach for multi-energy computed tomography (CT), namely the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). To further compress the multi-energy image for allowing the reconstruction with fewer CT data and less radiation dose, the PRISM models a multi-energy image as the superposition of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix (with row dimension in space and column dimension in energy), where the low-rank matrix corresponds to the stationary background over energy that has a low matrix rank, and the sparse matrix represents the rest of distinct spectral features that are often sparse. Distinct from previous methods, the PRISM utilizes the generalized rank, e.g., the matrix rank of tight-frame transform of a multi-energy image, which offers a way to characterize the multi-level and multi-filtered image coherence across the energy spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms of the spectral curves for base materials, with which the restoration of the multi-energy image becomes the reconstruction of the energy-independent material composition matrix. In other words, the PRISM utilizes prior knowledge on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base materials. Furthermore, we develop an accurate and fast split Bregman method for the PRISM and demonstrate the superior performance of the PRISM relative to several competing methods in simulations. (papers)

  19. Renewable Energy Supply for Power Dominated, Energy Intense Production Processes - A Systematic Conversion Approach for the Anodizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    >D Stollenwerk, T Kuvarakul, I Kuperjans,

    2013-06-01

    European countries are highly dependent on energy imports. To lower this import dependency effectively, renewable energies will take a major role in future energy supply systems. To assist the national and inter-European efforts, extensive changes towards a renewable energy supply, especially on the company level, will be unavoidable. To conduct this conversion in the most effective way, the methodology developed in this paper can support the planning procedure. It is applied to the energy intense anodizing production process, where the electrical demand is the governing factor for the energy system layout. The differences between the classical system layout based on the current energy procurement and an approach with a detailed load-time-curve analysis, using process decomposition besides thermodynamic optimization, are discussed. The technical effects on the resulting energy systems are shown besides the resulting energy supply costs which will be determined by hourly discrete simulation.

  20. Renewable Energy Supply for Power Dominated, Energy Intense Production Processes – A Systematic Conversion Approach for the Anodizing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollenwerk, D; Kuvarakul, T; Kuperjans, I

    2013-01-01

    European countries are highly dependent on energy imports. To lower this import dependency effectively, renewable energies will take a major role in future energy supply systems. To assist the national and inter-European efforts, extensive changes towards a renewable energy supply, especially on the company level, will be unavoidable. To conduct this conversion in the most effective way, the methodology developed in this paper can support the planning procedure. It is applied to the energy intense anodizing production process, where the electrical demand is the governing factor for the energy system layout. The differences between the classical system layout based on the current energy procurement and an approach with a detailed load-time-curve analysis, using process decomposition besides thermodynamic optimization, are discussed. The technical effects on the resulting energy systems are shown besides the resulting energy supply costs which will be determined by hourly discrete simulation.

  1. Exact Throughput Analyses of Energy-Harvesting Cooperation Scheme with Best Relay Selections Under I/Q Imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Phuoc Huynh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an energy-harvesting cooperation scheme in which relays suffer in-phase and quadrature-phase imbalances (IQI and harvest energy from a wireless transmit source. A best relay is selected based on end-to-end signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs in both Amplify-and-Forward (called an EHAF protocol and Decode-and-Forward (called an EHDF protocol cooperation methods. We analyze and evaluate the system performance in terms of exact closed-form throughputs over Rayleigh fading channels. Simulation and analysis results discover contributions as follows. Firstly, the throughput performance of the proposed protocols EHAF and EHDF is improved when comparing with that of a non-selection cooperation scheme. Secondly, the EHDF protocol is more efficient than the EHAF protocol. Finally, the theoretical analyses are validated by performing Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapas, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colwell, Jeffery A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  3. Fecal energy losses in enterally fed intensive care patients: An explorative study using bomb calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Wierdsma, N.J.; van Heijningen, E.M.B.; Weijs, P.J.M.; de Groot, S.D.W.; Girbes, A.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: Early enteral nutrition and tailored supply of nutrients have become standard in most of the intensive care units (ICU). So far little attention has been given to losses of energy in the stools. The purpose of this explorative study was to evaluate the energy losses of patients

  4. Derivation of Building Energy Use Intensity Targets for ASHRAE Standard 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, Terry R [ORNL

    2014-06-01

    The steps to develop the building energy use intensity targets for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 100, Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings are outlined in this report. The analyses were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with the ASHRAE Standard 100 committee and Dr. Alexander Zhivov, the subcommittee chair responsible for targets development.

  5. A thirsty dragon. Rising Chinese crude oil demand and prospects for multilateral energy security cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causevic, Amar

    2012-07-01

    The Chinese appetite for energy could potentially result in two scenarios. Each of these will systematically be developed and examined in the course of this paper. The pessimistic scenario foresees energy-driven foreign policy placing China in a dangerous confrontation with the U.S., Japan, the EU and India. American, Indian and Chinese navies are already competing across the Indian Ocean, with participants upgrading their naval forces, building deep-sea ports, constructing military bases and forging alliances across the Indian Ocean. They have not yet entered into conflict, but as their naval presence increases, the possibility of an armed clash grows. This scenario represents a 'nightmare option' that could have grave consequences for the entire globe, as the U.S., China, India and two EU members are all states armed with nuclear weapons. Conversely, an opposite scenario can be envisaged. A liberal integrationist perspective offers huge potential for multilateral energy security cooperation. Despite all tensions, China, the West and India are oil importers, and, as consumers, they could work together in fostering common strategies. What is more, their economies are mutually intertwined, and any conflict would bring about fatal collateral damage to the economic well-being of all parties. In short, China and America and potentially India could synchronize approaches to energy issues and address worries about growing global competition for crude oil. Being that as it may, China's further integration into multilateral energy organizations - notably the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Energy Agency (IEA) - will not be an easy task. Introduction of the new standards and requirements could be a burden for Chinese economic development. Membership in the IEA would reduce freedom in energy policy-making as it requires intelligencesharing, market liberalization and surrendering a certain degree of national

  6. Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Sebastian; De Cian, Enrica; Schymura, Michael; Verdolini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database, a novel harmonized and consistent dataset of input–output table time series accompanied by environmental satellite data. We use logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition to (1) attribute efficiency changes to either changes in technology or changes in the structure of the economy, (2) study trends in global energy intensity between 1995 and 2007, and (3) highlight sectoral and regional differences. For the country analysis we apply the traditional two factor index decomposition approach, while for the global analysis we use a three factor decomposition which includes the consideration of regional structural changes in the global economy. We first show that heterogeneity within each sector across countries is high. These general trends within sectors are dominated by large economies, first and foremost the United States. In most cases, heterogeneity is lower within each country across the different sectors. Regarding changes of energy intensity at the country level, improvements between 1995 and 2007 are largely attributable to technological change while structural change is less important in most countries. Notable exceptions are Japan, the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil where a change in the industry mix was the main driver behind the observed energy intensity reduction. At the global level we find that despite a shift of the global economy to more energy-intensive countries, aggregate energy efficiency improved mostly due to technological change

  7. Energy/bandwidth-Saving Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Two-hopWRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tuo Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A two-hop wireless regional area network (WRAN providing monitoring services operating in Television White Space (TVWS, i.e., IEEE P802.22b, may employ a great number of subscriber customer-premises equipments (S-CPEs possibly without mains power supply, leading to requirement of cost-effective and power-saving design. This paper proposes a framework of cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS and an energy/bandwidth saving CSS scheme to P802.22b. In each round of sensing, S-CPEs with SNRs lower than a predefined threshold are excluded from reporting sensing results. Numerical results show that the fused missed-detection probability and false alarmprobability could remainmeeting sensing requirements, and the overall fused error probability changes very little. With 10 S-CPEs, it is possible to save more than 40% of the energy/bandwidth on a Rayleigh channel. The principle proposed can apply to other advanced sensing technologies capable of detecting primary signals with low average SNR.

  8. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  9. From an inflicted dependency to a positive co-operation in the domain of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Host, Jean-Paul; Darras, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2007-07-01

    The 20th World Energy Congress entitled, ''Energy Future in an Interdependent World'', is aimed at highlighting the main challenges and opportunities that the energy industry should face to contribute to sustainable development across the world. For we are very much in the face of a challenge: with the demand for energy likely to increase, the energy industry will have to get by with limited resources: as concerns energy, the gradual rarefaction of fossil fuels resources, combined with the lack of any convincing substitution options in the medium term; as concerns natural resources, or more accurately, the harm that the natural environment can bear sustainably; and as concerns capital, insofar as the huge investments needed in the field of energy will be competing with other types of investments that may appear more profitable or safer. Given this situation, two types of political and economic response can be envisioned. The first is to simply let the market run its course and relations between States play out as they normally would. This would, admittedly, make it possible to solve some of the issues raised but no one can guarantee that this will not heighten political tension and lead to dangerous dawdling with regard to the climate issue. Another option is to mobilise the international community so that the interdependency leads to some sort of positive cooperation. This would require that, building on the reflections carried out virtually everywhere, international consensus would emerge and make it possible to create and champion a shared vision, leading to the institution of an enabling environment for action for states and operators altogether. Above and beyond the trade relationship that binds the latter, they have an important part to play insofar as they can significantly contribute to sustainable development across the world through the investments they make abroad and the results of their 'research' when shared through

  10. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition. 2014-2017 results, 2017-2019 prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turfin, Anne; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Mouchard, Claire; Coquio, Rozenn; Kynast, Helmi

    2016-11-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the 'Transition energetique' process in France and of the 'Energiewende' process in Germany has resulted in the signature of a number of cooperation agreements between the two States. Since both these energy transition processes are largely based on decentralising energy supplies, close local authority cooperation looks promising. The TANDEM project is jointly led by two local authority networks, Energy Cities and Klima-Buendnis, with co-funding from ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency) and UBA (German Federal Environment Agency). The TANDEM project provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to share information and cooperate on climate protection issues in order to: provide improved mutual understanding of the situation, challenges and framework of climate and energy policies; encourage exchanges on the obstacles and leverages impeding or fostering the attainment of ambitious energy and climate objectives and encourage knowledge transfer; boost close cooperation between local authorities from both countries, involving local stakeholders and citizens; implement the first stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and lay solid foundations for long-term cooperation; relay local authorities' claims and concerns at both national and European levels, aimed at providing them with greater latitude and freedom of action. Approaches specific to each country have been developed to promote energy transition at the local level. A comparative analysis of existing practices, tools and experiences involving research work and interviews will be conducted and made available to the participating authorities as well as to national organisations. This analysis will be used by national organisations to develop and enhance their action and by local authorities to improve mutual understanding during their discussions. Cooperation projects aimed at implementing energy

  11. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  12. Changes in energy intensiveness of Hong Kong economy, 1995-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Larry C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of Primary Energy Requirements (PER) slackened appreciably since the late 1990s in Hong Kong while Final Energy Requirements (FER) actually declined. Yet GDP continued to grow at a respectable average annual growth rate during the period, leading to a drastic drop in the energy intensiveness of the economy. The article analyzed the factors that contributed to the emergence of the above phenomena and discussed its consequences. The factors that led to the drop in energy intensiveness with respect to FER includes the rising electrification of the fuel mix, improvements in energy end-use efficiency (partly induced by government policy), and changes in the structure of the Hong Kong economy. With respect to the decline in PER energy intensiveness, the following aspects are pertinent: the share of electricity consumption accounted for by nuclear imports, the efficiency of electricity generation in Hong Kong (partly determined by the type of fuels used) and losses due to transmission and distribution as well as station consumption (system losses). The decline in energy intensiveness is good to Hong Kong, both in terms of the economy and the environment. Its ramifications will be briefly discussed.

  13. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  14. Energy Efficient Cooperation in Underlay RFID Cognitive Networks for a Water Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nasir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrinking water  resources all over the world and increasing  costs of water consumption  have prompted  water users  and distribution companies  to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient  smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment,  there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones,  Bluetooth  devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices.  In order to reduce the interference  from our proposed RFID network for these primary  devices, we have proposed a cooperating  underlay  RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water.  These underlay  RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2].  This work is an extension of our previous  ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing  a new system model and RFIDs.  Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary  network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation,  this scheme performs  better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model’s (HMM multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed.  This approach has been applied  to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  15. Intensities of two-quanta cascades at different excitation energies of compound nuclei 146Nd, 174Yb, 183W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneva, S.T.; Khitrov, V.A.; Sukhovoj, A.M.; Vojnov, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Intensities of two-quanta cascades are obtained for 2-3 final low-lying levels of the following nuclei 146 Nd, 174 Yb and 183 W. These measured intensities are compared with the intensities calculated in the frame of various models at primary transition energies ranging from 0.5 MeV to the neutron binding energy. Some excitation energy intervals are revealed, experimentally obtained intensities of cascade are inconsistent with model calculations. 15 refs.; 7 figs

  16. A Systematic Review of the Energy Cost and Metabolic Intensity of Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing popularity of Hatha yoga, it is important to understand the energy cost and METs of yoga practice within the context of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) physical activity guidelines. This systematic review evaluated the energy cost and metabolic intensity of yoga practice including yoga asanas (poses/postures) and pranayamas (breath exercises) measured by indirect calorimetry. The English-speaking literature was surveyed via PubMed using the general terms "yoga" and "energy expenditure" with no date limitations. Thirteen manuscripts were initially identified with an additional four located from review of manuscript references. Of the 17 studies, 10 evaluated the energy cost and METs of full yoga sessions or flow through Surya Namaskar (sun salutations), eight of individual asanas, and five of pranayamas. METs for yoga practice averaged 3.3 ± 1.6 (range = 1.83-7.4 METs) and 2.9 ± 0.8 METs when one outlier (i.e., 7.4 METs for Surya Namaskar) was omitted. METs for individual asanas averaged 2.2 ± 0.7 (range = 1.4-4.0 METs), whereas that of pranayamas was 1.3 ± 0.3. On the basis of ACSM/AHA classification, the intensity of most asanas and full yoga sessions ranged from light (less than 3 METs) to moderate aerobic intensity (3-6 METs), with the majority classified as light intensity. This review suggests that yoga is typically classified as a light-intensity physical activity. However, a few sequences/poses, including Surya Namaskar, meet the criteria for moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity. In accordance with the ACSM/AHA guidelines, the practice of asana sequences with MET intensities higher than three (i.e., >10 min) can be accumulated throughout the day and count toward daily recommendations for moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  17. Long-term trends in direct and indirect household energy intensities: a factor in dematerialisation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2000-01-01

    Dematerialisation is assumed to contribute significantly to the alleviation of environmental problems. One of the possible causes of dematerialisation is a change in the consumption patterns of households. The aim of this article is to analyse changes in consumption patterns of Dutch households in the period between 1948 to 1996 in order to discover whether these changes have influenced the energy intensity of society. Due to the rise in consumption, the total household energy requirement per capita grew on average by 2.4 per cent per year over a period of 48 years (this figure ignores efficiency changes in the supplying sectors). In the same period the total energy intensity of households fluctuated but on average changed from 5.6 to 6.3 MJ/NLG, an increase of 0.25 per cent per year. If we exclude the direct energy consumption we find a slight decline in the indirect energy intensity, namely from 3.8 to 3.6 MJ/NLG ( - 0.14 per cent per year). No significant trends to a lower energy intensity are found and there is no indication of dematerialisation of the consumption patterns. If governments pursue a policy of sustainable development they have to take into account the fact that dematerialisation of the consumption pattern does not seem to be an autonomous process. (author)

  18. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Doh, Jeung-Hwan, E-mail: j.doh@griffith.edu.au [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models.

  19. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki; Doh, Jeung-Hwan; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak

    2014-01-01

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models

  20. The causes of the high energy intensity of the Kazakh economy: A characterization of its energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, Antonio; Dopazo, César; Fueyo, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    The primary energy intensity of Kazakhstan is among the highest in the world. The aim of this paper is to explore, in a quantitative way, the reasons for this condition, and to highlight the opportunities for improvement. To do so, we have developed a detailed ‘bottom-up’ model of the Kazakh energy sector. With this model, we have calculated the potential energy savings on both the demand and supply sides, and for all the economy sectors. This potential is defined as the difference between the current energy consumption in each sector/activity and the energy consumption if best available technologies or energy efficiency standards prevailing in developed countries were adopted in Kazakhstan. We conclude that the main causes of the energy inefficiency in Kazakhstan are: the excessive energy demand of buildings (especially for space heating) in the household and service sector, the inefficiency of the industry sector, particularly in the iron and steel and non-ferrous metals subsectors, the obsolescence of the heating and power generation assets, and the inefficient management of associated gas (flaring and re-injection in oil wells). With current energy efficiency standards prevailing in developed countries, the primary energy consumption in Kazakhstan in 2010 would be reduced by 48.6%, from 75.4 to 38.7 Mtoe. - Highlights: • A detailed ‘bottom-up’ model of the Kazakh energy sector has been developed. • The reasons of the high primary energy intensity of Kazakhstan are determined. • Household and industrial sectors of Kazakhstan are highly inefficient. • Associated gas management shows the highest potential for energy saving. • Primary energy consumption would be reduced by 48.6% with the proposed measures

  1. Cooperation between the US and the USSR in the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-10-01

    The decade of the 1960's saw a marked expansion of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union for the peaceful uses of atomic energy. In my opinion, this development constituted one of the most encouraging elements in the international scene. Until 1955 contacts between American and Soviet nuclear scientists were virtually nonexistent, as indeed (after World War II) were US-USSR contacts in other fields except as required in formal intergovernmental relations. Then, in July 1955, the discussions of the Heads of Government meeting in Geneva led to the declaration of a policy with the following aims: to lower the barriers which now impede the interchange of information and ideas between our peoples; to lower the barriers which now impede the opportunities of people to travel anywhere in the world for peaceful, friendly purposes, so that all will have a chance to know each other face to face; and to create conditions which will encourage nations to increase the exchange of peaceful goods throughout the world. 8 figs

  2. Combined diversity and improved energy detection in cooperative spectrum sensing with faded reporting channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nallagonda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS where each cognitive radio (CR employs an improved energy detector (IED with multiple antennas and uses selection combining (SC for detecting the primary user (PU in noisy and faded sensing (S channels. We derive an expression for the probability of false alarm and expressions for probability of missed detection in non-faded (AWGN and Rayleigh faded sensing environments in terms of cumulative distribution function (CDF. Each CR transmits its decision about PU via noisy and faded reporting (R channel to fusion center (FC. In this paper we assume that S-channels are noisy and Rayleigh faded while several cases of fading are considered for R-channels such as: (i Hoyt (or Nakagami-q, (ii Rayleigh, (iii Rician (or Nakagami-n, and (iv Weibull. A Binary Symmetric channel (BSC with a fixed error probability (r in the R-channel is also considered. The impact of fading in R-channel, S-channel and several network parameters such as IED parameter, normalized detection threshold, number of CRs, and number of antennas on missed detection and total error probability is assessed. The effects of Hoyt, Rician, and Weibull fading parameters on overall performance of IED-CSS are also highlighted.

  3. Fairness-Aware Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for AF Co-Operative OFDMA Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim; Alorainy, Abdulaziz; Hossain, Md. Jahangir; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt an energy-efficiency (EE) metric, named worst-EE, that is suitable for EE fairness optimization in the uplink transmission of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. More specifically, we assign subcarriers and allocate powers for mobile and relay stations in order to maximize the worst-EE, i.e., to maximize the EE of the mobile station (MS) with the lowest EE value, subject to MSs transmit power, relay station (RS) transmit power, and MSs quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The formulated primal max-min optimization problem is nonconvex fractional mixed integer nonlinear program, i.e., NP-hard to solve. We provide a novel optimization framework that studies the structure of the primal problem and prove that the dual min-max optimization problem attains the same optimal solution of the primal problem. Additionally, we propose a modified Dinkelbach algorithm, named dual Dinkelbach, to achieve the optimal solution of the dual problem in a polynomial time complexity. We further exploit the structure of the obtained optimal solution and develop a low complexity suboptimal heuristic. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to improve the network performance in terms of fairness between MSs, worst-EE, and average network transmission rate when compared to traditional schemes that maximize the EE of the whole network. Presented results also show that the suboptimal heuristic balances the achieved performance and the computational complexity.

  4. Fairness-Aware Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for AF Co-Operative OFDMA Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we adopt an energy-efficiency (EE) metric, named worst-EE, that is suitable for EE fairness optimization in the uplink transmission of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. More specifically, we assign subcarriers and allocate powers for mobile and relay stations in order to maximize the worst-EE, i.e., to maximize the EE of the mobile station (MS) with the lowest EE value, subject to MSs transmit power, relay station (RS) transmit power, and MSs quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The formulated primal max-min optimization problem is nonconvex fractional mixed integer nonlinear program, i.e., NP-hard to solve. We provide a novel optimization framework that studies the structure of the primal problem and prove that the dual min-max optimization problem attains the same optimal solution of the primal problem. Additionally, we propose a modified Dinkelbach algorithm, named dual Dinkelbach, to achieve the optimal solution of the dual problem in a polynomial time complexity. We further exploit the structure of the obtained optimal solution and develop a low complexity suboptimal heuristic. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to improve the network performance in terms of fairness between MSs, worst-EE, and average network transmission rate when compared to traditional schemes that maximize the EE of the whole network. Presented results also show that the suboptimal heuristic balances the achieved performance and the computational complexity.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Program of International Technical Cooperation for Research Reactor Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, D.; Manning, M.; Ellis, R.; Apt, K.; Flaim, S.; Sylvester, K.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has initiated collaborations with the national nuclear authorities of Egypt, Peru, and Romania for the purpose of advancing the commercial potential and utilization of their respective research reactors. Under its Office of International Safeguards ''Sister Laboratory'' program, DOE/NNSA has undertaken numerous technical collaborations over the past decade intended to promote peaceful applications of nuclear technology. Among these has been technical assistance in research reactor applications, such as neutron activation analysis, nuclear analysis, reactor physics, and medical radioisotope production. The current collaborations are intended to provide the subject countries with a methodology for greater commercialization of research reactor products and services. Our primary goal is the transfer of knowledge, both in administrative and technical issues, needed for the establishment of an effective business plan and utilization strategy for the continued operation of the countries' research reactors. Technical consultation, cooperation, and the information transfer provided are related to: identification, evaluation, and assessment of current research reactor capabilities for products and services; identification of opportunities for technical upgrades for new or expanded products and services; advice and consultation on research reactor upgrades and technical modifications; characterization of markets for reactor products and services; identification of competition and estimation of potential for market penetration; integration of technical constraints; estimation of cash flow streams; and case studies

  6. DEADS: Depth and Energy Aware Dominating Set Based Algorithm for Cooperative Routing along with Sink Mobility in Underwater WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Umar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance enhancement of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs in terms of throughput maximization, energy conservation and Bit Error Rate (BER minimization is a potential research area. However, limited available bandwidth, high propagation delay, highly dynamic network topology, and high error probability leads to performance degradation in these networks. In this regard, many cooperative communication protocols have been developed that either investigate the physical layer or the Medium Access Control (MAC layer, however, the network layer is still unexplored. More specifically, cooperative routing has not yet been jointly considered with sink mobility. Therefore, this paper aims to enhance the network reliability and efficiency via dominating set based cooperative routing and sink mobility. The proposed work is validated via simulations which show relatively improved performance of our proposed work in terms the selected performance metrics.

  7. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  8. A shift in the paradigm of energy cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asia countries facing new global and regional challenges: from predominant sale of energy resources to innovation and technology cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneev, Boris; Sokolov, Alexander; Lagerev, Anatoly; Popov, Sergei; Ivanova, Irina; Izbuldin, Alexander; Korneyev, Anatoly; Muzychuk, Svetlana; Sokolov, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the specific features of Russia's economic development in a new economic environment that caused the need to revise the priorities of energy policy. The research presents the initial conditions, targets and strategic directions of energy development in the East of the country. The focus is made on the priority lines of innovation and technology cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asian countries in the field of energy, and recommendations on necessary conditions and initiatives for their successful implementation are given.

  9. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise efficiency, create

  10. A comparative study on the influential factors of China's provincial energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Wenli; Wang, Jianliang; Zhang, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    China has become the largest energy consumer worldwide, and it is important to study the energy intensity to realize the sustainable development goal of China. This paper focuses on investigating the influential factors of China's energy intensity using provincial-level panel data from 1985 to 2012. More specifically, we try to identify which factor is relatively more important to pay attention to. A novel approach based on evolutionary computation is proposed to intelligently mine the intrinsic relations between observed phenomena and to let the important factors automatically emerge from the discovered nonlinear models. However, due to China's vast territory and significant heterogeneities, this approach may fail to examine some detailed or hidden information when analyzing the country as a whole. Instead, we concentrate on the provincial level because the provinces play vital roles in reducing energy intensity in China. From our analytical results, the main findings are as follows: (1) the Total Population is the most important influential factor across China's provinces, while the Energy Price Index has the least impact; and (2) the provinces could be naturally classified into four categories based on the primary factors emerged from data, and such classification could reveal more about the true underlying features of each area. - Highlights: • Identify the important factors of China's energy intensity by symbolic regression. • Analyze China's energy intensity using provincial-level panel data from 1985 to 2012. • Intelligently investigate nonlinear models and the emergence of important factors. • The Total Population is discovered to be the most important influential factor. • Provinces are naturally classified into four categories by the influential factors.

  11. Decomposition of intensity of energy-related CO_2 emission in Chinese provinces using the LMDI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Ke; Zhou, Dequn; Zhang, Wenrui; Gao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the driving factors of CO_2 emission intensity declining is important for China. This paper improves the logarithmic mean Divisia index technique, which includes energy density and energy consumption intensity, to explore the driving factors of carbon emission intensity (CI) in 29 Chinese provinces from 1995–2012. The main results are: (1) energy consumption intensity plays a more important role than carbon emission density (CD) for a rapid decrease in CI during the research period, so a much room is left for a significant CD reduction through carbon emission reduction technology, energy structural reduction, and energy consumption proportional reduction. (2) The decrease in energy consumption technology and energy structure in secondary industries contributes the most reduction in energy consumption intensity. (3)The energy consumption proportions of secondary and tertiary industries are the two most important drivers to decrease CD. (4) During the research period, the energy consumption proportions of secondary industries result in the most decrease in CD, whereas the energy consumption proportions of tertiary industries cause the most increase in CD. - Highlights: •Carbon emission intensity decreased rapidly from 1995 to 2012. •Energy intensity is the more significant driver for decrease of carbon intensity. •The most contribution of EI's decrease came from secondary industries. •The most contribution of CD's decrease came from secondary and tertiary industries. •Several policies of reducing carbon emission intensity in China have been raised.

  12. Energy intensities and the impact of high energy prices on producing and consuming sectors in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The increase in oil prices has put pressure on the global economy. Even economies that have a high degree of self-sufficiency concerning oil products are experiencing rising production costs and price increases for households energy use. Therefore, changes in energy policies are under consideration for countries highly dependent on imported energy as well as countries with a high degree of self-sufficiency. Examination of dependence on cheap energy sources for economic growth in different...

  13. Energy intensities and the impact of high energy prices on producing and consuming sectors in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The increase in oil prices has put pressure on the global economy. Even economies that have a high degree of self-sufficiency concerning oil products are experiencing rising production costs and price increases for households energy use. Therefore, changes in energy policies are under consideration for countries highly dependent on imported energy as well as countries with a high degree of self-sufficiency. Examination of dependence on cheap energy sources for economic growth in different eco...

  14. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  15. Description of the intense, low energy, monoenergetic positron beam at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Mills, A.P. Jr.; Roellig, L.O.; Weber, M.

    1985-01-01

    An intense (4 x 10 7 s -1 ), low energy (approx. =1.0 eV), monoenergetic (ΔE approx. = 75 MeV) beam of positrons has been built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This flux is more than 10 times greater than any existing beam from radioactive sources. Plans are underway to increase further the flux by more than an order of magnitude. The intense low energy positron beam is made by utilizing the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven to produce the isotope 64 Cu with an activity of 40 curies of positrons. Source moderation techniques are utilized to produce the low energy positron beam from the high energy positrons emitted from 64 Cu. 31 refs., 7 figs

  16. Faraday Cup - it is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    A Faraday Cup is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams. An electrically isolated metallic electrode intercepts the beam and captures all its charges. These charges are integrated using an current sensitive amplifier. When the beam impinges onto the electrode surface low energy electrons are liberated. In order to prevent these electrons from escaping the cup and thus falsifying the measurement, a repeller electrode with negative potential pushes the electrons back onto the electrode.

  17. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Active Video Games in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabrava, Karina L. R.; Faria, Fernanda R.; de Lima, Jorge R. P.; Guedes, Dartagnan P.; Amorim, Paulo R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. Method: Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr…

  18. The relationship between energy intensity and income levels: Forecasting long term energy demand in Asian emerging countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, R.; Univ. della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes long-term trends in energy intensity for ten Asian emerging countries to test for a non-monotonic relationship between energy intensity and income in the author's sample. Energy demand functions are estimated during 1973--1990 using a quadratic function of log income. The long-run coefficient on squared income is found to be negative and significant, indicating a change in trend of energy intensity. The estimates are then used to evaluate a medium-term forecast of energy demand in the Asian countries, using both a log-linear and a quadratic model. It is found that in medium to high income countries the quadratic model performs better than the log-linear, with an average error of 9% against 43% in 1995. For the region as a whole, the quadratic model appears more adequate with a forecast error of 16% against 28% in 1995. These results are consistent with a process of dematerialization, which occurs as a result of a reduction of resource use per unit of GDP once an economy passes some threshold level of GDP per capita

  19. Quantifying the statistical importance of utilizing regression over classic energy intensity calculations for tracking efficiency improvements in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [ORNL; Wenning, Thomas J. [ORNL; Guo, Wei [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, manufacturing facilities account for about 32% of total domestic energy consumption in 2014. Robust energy tracking methodologies are critical to understanding energy performance in manufacturing facilities. Due to its simplicity and intuitiveness, the classic energy intensity method (i.e. the ratio of total energy use over total production) is the most widely adopted. However, the classic energy intensity method does not take into account the variation of other relevant parameters (i.e. product type, feed stock type, weather, etc.). Furthermore, the energy intensity method assumes that the facilities’ base energy consumption (energy use at zero production) is zero, which rarely holds true. Therefore, it is commonly recommended to utilize regression models rather than the energy intensity approach for tracking improvements at the facility level. Unfortunately, many energy managers have difficulties understanding why regression models are statistically better than utilizing the classic energy intensity method. While anecdotes and qualitative information may convince some, many have major reservations about the accuracy of regression models and whether it is worth the time and effort to gather data and build quality regression models. This paper will explain why regression models are theoretically and quantitatively more accurate for tracking energy performance improvements. Based on the analysis of data from 114 manufacturing plants over 12 years, this paper will present quantitative results on the importance of utilizing regression models over the energy intensity methodology. This paper will also document scenarios where regression models do not have significant relevance over the energy intensity method.

  20. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, Andrea M. [Millennium Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd, Suite 700, Arlington, VA 22201 (United States); University of Bergen, Postboks 7800, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Yudken, Joel S. [High Road Strategies, LLC, 104 N. Columbus Street, Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Ruth, Matthias [University of Maryland, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition. (author)

  1. Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: Scaling to terabar pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Capeluto, Maria Gabriela; Kaymak, Vural; Pukhov, Alexander; Wang, Shoujun; Rockwood, Alex; Wang, Yong; Keiss, David; Tommasini, Riccardo; London, Richard; Park, Jaebum; Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N; Rocca, Jorge J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 10 8 J cm -3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 × 10 19 W cm -2 , we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several micrometers, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of >1 × 10 22 W cm -2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 × 10 10 J cm -3 , equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.

  2. Electromagnetic cascade in high-energy electron, positron, and photon interactions with intense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-06-01

    The interaction of high-energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high-energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when three-dimensional effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and photons are calculated for the case of a high-energy e-beam interacting with a counterstreaming, short intense laser pulse. The energy loss of the e-beam, which requires a self-consistent quantum description, plays an important role in this process, as well as provides a clear experimental observable for the transition from the classical to quantum regime of interaction.

  3. Energy Penetration into Arrays of Aligned Nanowires Irradiated with Relativistic Intensities: Scaling to Terabar Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargsten, Clayton [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Hollinger, Reed [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Capeluto, Maria Gabriela [Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kaymak, Vural [Heinrich Heine Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany); Pukhov, Alexander [Heinrich Heine Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany); Wang, Shoujun [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Rockwood, Alex [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wang, Yong [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Keiss, David [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Tommasini, Riccardo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); London, Richard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Jaebum [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Busquet, Michel [ARTEP Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Klapisch, M [ARTEP Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Rocca, Jorge J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-11-11

    Ultra-high-energy-density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities > 1 x 108 J cm-3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and in inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world’s largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultra-high contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. Here we report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high aspect ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 x 1019 W cm-2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several μm, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic 3D particle-in-cell-simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of > 1 x 1022 W cm-2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 x 1010 J cm-3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.

  4. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.; Ruth, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition.

  5. Recent trends in the world political situation, globalization and prospects for cooperation in the energy sector in Northeast Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlctor Ishaev [Government of Khabarovsk Territory, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Energy importers in the region are now looking for alternative energy resources and it is quite logical that Russia, its Far Eastern region and Eastern Siberia could become active players. In my opinion, the level of complementarity of interests is high. Russia has all the necessary geopolitical and economic prerequisites for entering the energy markets of the Asia-Pacific region. Our country has advanced several proposals with regard to the delivery of oil, natural gas and electric power to the economies of this region. To arrange an effective delivery system for these resources we need adequate economic conditions and an engineering infrastructure that connects both the countries and the territories of Northeast Asia. One of the main tasks of this workshop is to promote the processes of cooperation between the countries of Northeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region. The rich variety of participants provides us with a good foundation for active, creative and fruitful discussions focused on the important problems of economic and investment cooperation. We have all the necessary prerequisites to expect that this meeting will become another important step forward in developing energy cooperation. 5 tabs.

  6. Regional cooperation on energy in South Asia: Unraveling the political challenges in implementing transnational pipelines and electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Mirza Sadaqat; McDonald, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Political challenges are arguably the biggest constraint to the realization of regional energy projects in South Asia, an issue that has impeded cooperation despite the existence of substantial economic incentives. Although challenges such as technical difficulties, financial constraints and bureaucratic inefficiency are important, they are essentially subsidiary issues, the solutions to which are held hostage by often mentioned but rarely examined political impediments. While existing accounts of political obstacles in contemporary literature are relatively abstract, this paper draws on interviews with government officials, academics, representatives of regional institutions and officials of multilateral development banks in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and India to get insights into their experience of possibilities for and limitations to energy cooperation. By synthesizing the findings of interviews with relevant literature, this paper undertakes a systematic analysis of the political challenges to regional energy projects and provides a number of policy recommendations to overcome these impediments. - Highlights: • Political impediments constitute the key obstacle to energy cooperation in South Asia. • These political challenges have not been the subject of evidence-based analysis. • The paper uses data from interviews with policymakers in four South Asian countries. • Leadership and astute planning are identified as necessary in order to overcome political obstacles.

  7. Collisionless energy absorption in the short-pulse intense laser-cluster interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.; Bauer, D.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)] we have shown by means of three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and a simple rigid-sphere model that nonlinear resonance absorption is the dominant collisionless absorption mechanism in the intense, short-pulse laser cluster interaction. In this paper we present a more detailed account of the matter. In particular we show that the absorption efficiency is almost independent of the laser polarization. In the rigid-sphere model, the absorbed energy increases by many orders of magnitude at a certain threshold laser intensity. The particle-in-cell results display maximum fractional absorption around the same intensity. We calculate the threshold intensity and show that it is underestimated by the common overbarrier ionization estimate

  8. PREFACE: XXX International Conference on Interaction of Intense Energy Fluxes with Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, V. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Karamurzov, B. S.; Efremov, V. P.; Sultanov, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is a preface to the proceedings of the XXX International Conference on Interaction of Intense Energy Fluxes with Matter, which was held in Elbrus settlement, in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation, from March 1-6, 2015.

  9. GAMUT: A computer code for γ-ray energy and intensity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.

    1991-05-01

    GAMUT is a computer code to analyze γ-ray energies and intensities. It does a linear least-squares fit of measured γ-ray energies from one or more experiments to the level scheme. GAMUT also performs a non-linear least-squares analysis of branching intensities. For both energy and intensity data, a statistical Chi-square analysis is performed with an iterative uncertainty adjustment. The uncertainties of outlying measured values and sets of measurements with x 2 /f>1 are increased, and the calculation is repeated until the uncertainties are consistent with the fitted values. GAMUT accepts input from standard or special-format ENSDF data sets. The special-format ENSDF data sets were designed to permit analysis of more than one set of measurements associated with a single ENSDF data set. GAMUT prepares a standard ENSDF format output data set containing the adjusted values. If more than one input ENSDF data set is provided, GAMUT creates an ADOPTED LEVELS, GAMMAS data set containing the adjusted level and γ-ray energies and branching intensities from each level normalized to 100 for the strongest γ-ray. GAMUT also provides a summary of the results and an extensive log of the iterative analysis. GAMUT is interactive prompting the user for input and output file names and for default calculation options. This version of GAMUT has adjustable dimensions so that any maximum number of data sets, levels, and γ-rays can be established at the time of implementation. 6 refs

  10. A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the U.S.: Methods, Data and Key Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2011 relative to a 1985 base year.

  11. Foreign versus indigenous innovation and energy intensity: Further research across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Cuadros, A.; Luo, D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze foreign and indigenous innovation on energy intensity. • We consider different types of investment ownership in China. • Our results suggest that both foreign and domestic innovation are important. • The interaction between foreign and domestic innovation still is modest. • Geographical location is important for energy policy purpose. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to analyze the role played by both foreign and indigenous innovation on energy intensity as well as the possible interactions between them across 30 Chinese regions. In addition, we consider different types of corporate ownership that operate in China. We control our estimates by energy price and the composition effect. We provide a complete picture of energy sector by examining all sources of energy. We use Beck and Katz estimator in order to take into account heterocedasticity and serial correlation over the period 2006–2010. Our results suggest that both foreign and domestic innovation efforts played a significant role in improving energy efficiency in China. However, the interaction between foreign and indigenous innovations is modest. We observe significant differences among investment ownership due to its geographical location. These findings have important policy implications for energy sector in China.

  12. Bioenergy from Low-Intensity Agricultural Systems: An Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludunsin Arodudu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of possible future restrictions on the use of fossil fuel, due to climate change obligations and continuous depletion of global fossil fuel reserves, the search for alternative renewable energy sources is expected to be an issue of great concern for policy stakeholders. This study assessed the feasibility of bioenergy production under relatively low-intensity conservative, eco-agricultural settings (as opposed to those produced under high-intensity, fossil fuel based industrialized agriculture. Estimates of the net energy gain (NEG and the energy return on energy invested (EROEI obtained from a life cycle inventory of the energy inputs and outputs involved reveal that the energy efficiency of bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could be as much as much as 448.5–488.3 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 5.4–5.9 for maize ethanol production systems, and as much as 155.0–283.9 GJ·ha−1 of NEG and an EROEI of 14.7–22.4 for maize biogas production systems. This is substantially higher than for industrialized agriculture with a NEG of 2.8–52.5 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 1.2–1.7 for maize ethanol production systems, as well as a NEG of 59.3–188.7 GJ·ha−1 and an EROEI of 2.2–10.2 for maize biogas production systems. Bioenergy produced in low-intensity eco-agricultural systems could therefore be an important source of energy with immense net benefits for local and regional end-users, provided a more efficient use of the co-products is ensured.

  13. Impact of carbon intensity and energy security constraints on China's coal import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Liu Jianghua; Yang Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    Logistic and Gaussian Curves are adopted in this article to predict the coal production peak for Shanxi province, Henan province as well as the whole of China. According to the prediction based on the basic coal reserve data, coal production in China will reach its peak in the 2030 s while that of Shanxi and Henan provinces will be achieved by the 2040 s and 2020 s respectively. This article also assesses the influential factors of China's coal peak and revises the forecast of about China's coal demand by taking the CO2 intensity constraint into consideration, and then predicting the corresponding coal import. The results show that China would import 983 million tonnes of coal in 2020; which takes as high as 27% of China's total coal consumption. This article demonstrates that even if China fulfills CO2 intensity constraint, the country's energy situation would still be grim as a result of its high GDP growth rate. Therefore, China has to consider both CO2 intensity and energy security constraints when establishing strategic energy plan. Finally, this article suggests an adjustment of energy structure by which those constraints can be addressed and further assesses the effect of the adjusted energy structure. - Highlights: ► China's coal peak will arrive in 2040s when basic reserve data is used. ► China's peak production would be 4.8–5.8 billion tons. ► The energy security is still grim even if China meets CO 2 intensity constraint. ► The energy structure suggested should be “natural gas in place of oil and coal”.

  14. Opportunistic Energy-Aware Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Systems with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Bedeer, Ebrahim; Ahmed, Mohamed Hossam; Dobre, Octavia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    an energyefficient relay assisted communication system based on estimated channel state information (CSI). It employs amplify-andforward relaying and switches between different communication schemes, which are known as direct-transmission, two-hop and cooperative

  15. A Novel Prosumer-Based Energy Sharing and Management (PESM Approach for Cooperative Demand Side Management (DSM in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Razzaq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population and modern lifestyle have raised energy demands globally. Demand Side Management (DSM is one important tool used to manage energy demands. It employs an advanced power infrastructure along with bi-directional information flow among utilities and users in order to achieve a balanced load curve and minimize demand-supply mismatch. Traditionally, this involves shifting the electricity demand from peak hours to other times of the day in an optimized manner. Multiple users equipped with renewable resources work in coordination with each other in order to achieve mutually beneficial energy management. This, in turn, has generated the concept of cooperative DSM. Such users, called prosumers, consume and produce energy using renewable resources (solar, wind etc.. Prosumers with surplus energy sell to the grid as well as to other consumers. In this paper, a novel Prosumer-based Energy Sharing and Management (PESM scheme for cooperative DSM has been proposed. A simulation model has been developed for testing the proposed method. Different variations of the proposed methodology have been experimented with different criteria. The results show that the proposed energy sharing scheme achieves DSM purposes in a useful manner.

  16. Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Michael P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McAuliffe, Brian [National Research Council Canada; Lu, Xiao-Yun [University of California-Berkeley; Shladover, Steven [University of California-Berkeley; Surcel, Marius-Dorin [FPInnovations; Kailas, Aravind [Volvo Group

    2018-04-03

    An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon. The results showed that energy savings generally increased in a non-linear fashion as the gap was reduced. The middle truck saved the most fuel at gaps shorter than 12 m and the trailing truck saved the most at longer gaps, while lead truck saved the least at all gaps. The cut-in and cut-out maneuvers had only a marginal effect on fuel consumption even when repeated every two miles. The presence of passenger-vehicle traffic had a measurable impact. The fuel-consumption savings on the curves was less than on the straight sections.

  17. The Structural Changes in the Economy of Ukraine and its Energy Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with an analysis of structural changes in the economy of Ukraine in view of energy intensity of types of economic activity (TEA. On considering the main tendencies of development of Ukraine’s economy in 2000 – 2015, it has been proved that, unlike the world economy, its development is of more unevenly nature. In order to research structural changes in the domestic economy in the period from 2000 to 2015, the methodical approach consisting of a number of interconnected stages has been proposed. Using this approach: the structure of economy of Ukraine by TEA has been analyzed, the classification and structure of the TEA distribution by their importance have been suggested; the dynamics of TEA of Ukraine have been analyzed, the classification and structure of distribution of Ukraine’s TEA by dynamics of development has been proposed; a matrix of positioning of the TEA of Ukraine in the plane of «proportion – rate of change» has been built; the values have been calculated and directions of structural changes of TEA in economy of Ukraine have been defined; a characterization of the TEA of economy of Ukraine as to the degree of materiality of structural shift has been formed; the integral coefficients of structural shifts in economy for the studied period have been calculated; the classification of the TEA of Ukraine according to the level of energy intensity has been developed, the structure of economy by the energy intensity groups has been presented; the indices have been calculated and directions of structural shifts of groups with different energy intensity of TEA have been determined; the integral coefficients of structural shift of economy due to the groups of TEA with different energy intensity have been calculated; the general characterization of structural shifts of the TEA of Ukraine in 2000 – 2015 has been formed.

  18. The Mediterranean solar plan: the momentum and challenges of a project of cooperation in politics, industry and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorec, Ph.; Schramm, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Launched by the French President on 13 July 2008, the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) seeks to inaugurate an era of cooperation between lands to the north, south and east of the Mediterranean by carrying out concrete projects in response to the challenges that this region must address. The UfM applies, we might say, the 'Monnet method' to the Mediterranean Basin. In this region as in post-war Europe, energy is a major issue that, if left unsettled, might generate major risks but that, if addressed for the sake of a new political and economic partnership, could represent a major opportunity. The Mediterranean Solar Plan has this precise objective. It seeks to activate the de facto solidarity between lands around the Mediterranean and to bring them to cooperate on energy, industrial, economic and social projects. (authors)

  19. The fluctuations of China’s energy intensity: Biased technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ce; Liao, Hua; Pan, Su-Yan; Zhao, Lu-Tao; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biased technical change is considered in the adjusting the input–output tables. • The level of biased technical change is determined by TFP and energy efficiency. • The increase in energy intensity was mostly attributed to the structural change. • The changes in the production technology actually decreased the energy intensity. • The decomposition results are sensitive to the level of biased technical change. - Abstract: The fluctuations of China’s energy intensity have attracted the attention of many scholars, but fewer studies consider the data quality of official input–output tables. This paper conducts a decomposition model by using the Divisia method based on the input–output tables. Because of the problems with input–output tables and price deflators, we first produce constant prices to deflate the input–output tables. And then we consider different levels of biased technical change for different sectors in the adjusting the input–output table. Finally, we use RAS technique to adjust input–output matrix. Then the decomposition model is employed to empirically analyze the change of China’s energy intensity. We compare the decomposition results with and without biased technical change and do sensitive analysis on the level of biased technical change. The decomposition results are that during 2002–2007, the energy intensity of coal and electricity increased, the changes were mostly attributed to the structural change and the contribution was 594.08%, 73.88%, respectively; as for crude oil and refined oil, the energy intensity decreased, the changes were mostly attributed to the changes in the production technology and the contribution was 978.89%, 246.95%, respectively. And the results of sensitive analysis shows that 1% variation of the level of biased technical change will cause at most 0.6% change of decomposition results. Therefore, we can draw our conclusions: compared to the decomposition without biased technical

  20. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  1. Energy Level Composite Curves-a new graphical methodology for the integration of energy intensive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Abbas, Own Syed; Gundersen, Truls

    2006-01-01

    Pinch Analysis, Exergy Analysis and Optimization have all been used independently or in combination for the energy integration of process plants. In order to address the issue of energy integration, taking into account composition and pressure effects, the concept of energy level as proposed by [X. Feng, X.X. Zhu, Combining pinch and exergy analysis for process modifications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 17 (1997) 249] has been modified and expanded in this work. We have developed a strategy for energy integration that uses process simulation tools to define the interaction between the various subsystems in the plant and a graphical technique to help the engineer interpret the results of the simulation with physical insights that point towards exploring possible integration schemes to increase energy efficiency. The proposed graphical representation of energy levels of processes is very similar to the Composite Curves of Pinch Analysis-the interpretation of the Energy Level Composite Curves reduces to the Pinch Analysis case when dealing with heat transfer. Other similarities and differences are detailed in this work. Energy integration of a methanol plant is taken as a case study to test the efficacy of this methodology. Potential integration schemes are identified that would have been difficult to visualize without the help of the new graphical representation

  2. China’s energy economy situation, reforms, behavior, and energy intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengyun

    2012-01-01

    In the new millennium, understanding China’s energy economy is crucial for politicians, businesspeople and energy economists, as China’s energy policy choices will mean both challenges and opportunities for the world in terms of an increasing share of primary energy consumption and investment. This book initially reviews the literature on China’s energy economy and in so doing reveals that many important areas have been overlooked or are outdated in their coverage. Given the size of China and its global importance, the book then review s China’s current energy situation and fills the gaps in the literature for those who are interested in and concerned about China’s economic development and energy reform in the new millennium.   The book is different from previous studies in several important ways: Firstly, it presents recent,  pioneering research rather than a simple textbook, several sections of which have been published in high-quality energy journals. Secondly, the book first subdivides China'...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  4. A Cross-Layer Optimization Approach for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks: Coalition-Aided Data Aggregation, Cooperative Communication, and Energy Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Gao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We take a cross-layer optimization approach to study energy efficient data transport in coalition-based wireless sensor networks, where neighboring nodes are organized into groups to form coalitions and sensor nodes within one coalition carry out cooperative communications. In particular, we investigate two network models: (1 many-to-one sensor networks where data from one coalition are transmitted to the sink directly, and (2 multihop sensor networks where data are transported by intermediate nodes to reach the sink. For the many-to-one network model, we propose three schemes for data transmission from a coalition to the sink. In scheme 1, one node in the coalition is selected randomly to transmit the data; in scheme 2, the node with the best channel condition in the coalition transmits the data; and in scheme 3, all the nodes in the coalition transmit in a cooperative manner. Next, we investigate energy balancing with cooperative data transport in multihop sensor networks. Built on the above coalition-aided data transmission schemes, the optimal coalition planning is then carried out in multihop networks, in the sense that unequal coalition sizes are applied to minimize the difference of energy consumption among sensor nodes. Numerical analysis reveals that energy efficiency can be improved significantly by the coalition-aided transmission schemes, and that energy balancing across the sensor nodes can be achieved with the proposed coalition structures.

  5. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  6. Cooperation of research and economy for renewable energies and energy efficiency. Contributions; Zusammenarbeit von Forschung und Wirtschaft fuer Erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepanski, Petra; Wunschick, Franziska; Martin, Niklas [comps.

    2013-04-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Energy efficiency as driver of economy, green economy, system techniques for photovoltaics and decentral energy systems, energy research at Bosch, portfolio of possible kinds of cooperation of the FVEE-member institutes with industry, efficiency potentials by the new main energy carriers sun and wind, renewable energies and energy efficiency, photovoltaics technology centers for the advanced technology transfer from institutes to the PV industry, thin-film photovoltaics, offshore wind energy and sea energy usage, research requirement at the future rotor, the status of the energy transformation process from the view of the FVEE, geothermal heat supply of metropoles on the example of Berlin, challenges in the research for low-temperature solar thermal energy, efficient refrigeration techniques and solar cooling, suitedness of combined heat and power and heat pumps for the balance of the fluctuating electric-power supply, key role of the current nets in the further decarbonization of the electric-power supply, new battery systems between research and application, the use of biomethane, water electrolysis and regenerative gases as key factors for the energy-system transformation, thermal energy storage, future energy.optimized buildings, energy concepts for cities and region, bridging the information gap on energy efficiency in buildings, integration of electromobiles in the Smart Grid. (HSI)

  7. The contribution of nuclear energy co-operation to a new global age, OECD Headquarters, Paris, 30 September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Special Session to mark the Fortieth Anniversary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris, on 30 September 1998. The conference emphasizes the role of the IAEA in enlarging the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and development, and ensuring that atomic energy is used at a high level of security and exclusively for peaceful purposes. The Agency was never intended to 'promote' nuclear energy in any commercial sense. Its role is to be an objective institution that serves as a centre for international norm development, standard setting, independent analysis, expert advice, technology transfer, and impartial oversight and verification. From this perspective, the Director General offers some views on why the international nuclear co-operation, complemented by regional and national activities, is an indispensable part of way forward, highlighting the following areas: energy, safety, verification, and technology transfer

  8. The Outlook of China-Russia Energy Cooperation in The Light of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongwei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping initially proposed the building of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt. Against this background, the involved countries will achieve joint development and co-prosperity by carrying out all-round regional cooperation. As close neighbors, both China and Russia have very important political and economic positions in the world; meanwhile, energy cooperation is one of most significant and influential fields in the China-Russia relationship. This paper tries to analyze some concrete issues in the process of the China-Russia energy cooperation, illustrate the outlook of the cooperation between the two countries in terms of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and finally raise policy references to deepen the China-Russia energy cooperation in the future.

  9. Transformation of cooperative free energies between ligation systems of hemoglobin: resolution of the carbon monoxide binding intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Ackers, G K

    1996-01-23

    A strategy has been developed for quantitatively "translating" the distributions of cooperative free energy between different oxygenation analogs of hemoglobin (Hb). The method was used to resolve the cooperative free energies of all eight carbon monoxide binding intermediates. These parameters of the FeCOHb system were determined by thermodynamic transformation of corresponding free energies obtained previously for all species of the Co/FeCO system, i.e., where cobalt-substituted hemes comprise the unligated sites [Speros, P. C., et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 7254-7262]. Using hybridized combinations of normal and cobalt-substituted Hb, ligation analog systems Co/FeX (X = CO, CN) were constructed and experimentally quantified. Energetics of cobalt-induced structural perturbation were determined for all species of both the "mixed metal" Co/Fe system and also the ligated Co/FeCN system. It was found that major energetic perturbations of the Co/Fe hybrid species originate from a pure cobalt substitution effect on the alpha subunits. These perturbations are transduced to the beta subunit within the same dimeric half-tetramer, resulting in alteration of the free energies for binding at the nonsubstituted (Fe) sites. Using the linkage strategy developed in this study along with the determined energetics of these couplings, the experimental assembly free energies for the Co/FeCO species were transformed into cooperative free energies of the 10 Fe/FeCO species. The resulting values were found to distribute according to predictions of a symmetry rule mechanism proposed previously [Ackers, G. K., et al. (1992) Science 255, 54-63]. Their distribution is consistent with accurate CO binding data of normal Hb [Perrella, M., et al. (1990b) Biophys. Chem. 37, 211-223] and also with accurate O2 binding data obtained under the same conditions [Chu, A. H., et al. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 604-617].

  10. Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharjan, C M; Alnaser, A S; Litvinyuk, I; Ranitovic, P; Cocke, C L

    2006-01-01

    We have measured momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by the interaction of short intense laser pulses with argon atoms at high intensities. We have done this over a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. The spectra show considerable structure in both the energy and angular distributions of the electrons. Some, but not all, energy features can be identified as multi-photon resonances. The angular structure shows a regularity which transcends the resonant structure and may be due instead to diffraction. The complexity of the results defies easy model-dependent interpretations and invites full solutions to Schroedinger's equation for these systems

  11. The Divisia real energy intensity indices: Evolution and attribution of percent changes in 20 European countries from 1995 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Landajo, M.; Presno, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of real energy efficiency in the European Union and the attribution across countries of its percent change. Relying on a multiplicative energy intensity approach that is implemented through the Sato-Vartia Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method, we decompose the change in aggregate energy intensity in 20 European countries for the period from 1995 to 2010. A comparative analysis of real energy intensity indices is also carried out. In addition, a new tool to monitor changes in real energy intensity in greater detail is applied. The attribution analysis of IDA (Index Decomposition Analysis) as proposed by Choi and Ang (Choi KH, Ang BW. Attribution of changes in Divisia real energy intensity index – an extension to index decomposition analysis. Energy Economics 2012;34:171–6) is used in order to assess the contribution of each individual sector to the percent change in real energy intensity. Results indicate that the European countries, particularly the former communist ones, made a remarkable effort to improve energy efficiency. Our analysis also suggests some strategies –including promotion and adaptation to more efficient techniques, innovation, improved use of technologies, R and D, and substitution for higher quality energies-, which are of particular interest to the industry sector -including construction- in ex-communist EU members, and to the industry and transport plus hotels and restaurants sectors in Western countries. - Highlights: • We apply a single and multi-period attribution analysis approach [1]. • Technical change, improved use of tech and quality energies, keys to AEI drop. • Real energy intensity shows valuable progress in former communist European members. • The biggest attribution of percent change in real energy intensity was to Industry. • Western EU: Services and Agriculture poor contributors to real energy intensity drop

  12. Direct measurement of the energy spectrum of an intense proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Lee, J.R.; Kissel, L.; Johnson, D.J.; Stygar, W.A.; Hebron, D.E.; Roose, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A time-resolved magnetic spectrometer has been used to measure the energy spectrum of an intense (0.5 TW/cm 2 ) proton beam. A thin (2400 A) gold foil placed at the focus of an ion diode Rutherford scattered protons by 90 0 into the spectrometer, reducing the beam intensity to a level suitable for magnetic analysis. The scattered beam was collimated by two 1 mm diameter apertures separated by 12.3 cm. The collimated protons were deflected in a 12.7 cm diameter, 6.65 Kg samarium-cobalt permanent magnet. The deflected protons were recorded simultaneously on CR-39 and eight 1 mm 2 by 35 μm thick PIN diodes. A Monte Carlo computer code was used to calculate the sensitivity and resolution of the spectrometer. Data taken on Proto-I show a 150 keV to 250 keV wide proton energy spectrum at each instant in time

  13. What drives the change in China's energy intensity: Combining decomposition analysis and econometric analysis at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Feng; Zheng, Xinye

    2012-01-01

    We employ decomposition analysis and econometric analysis to investigate the driving forces behind China's changing energy intensity using a provincial-level panel data set for the period from 1995 to 2009. The decomposition analysis indicates that: (a) all of the provinces except for a few experienced efficiency improvement, while around three-fourths of the provinces' economics became more energy intensive or remained unchanged; (b) consequently the efficiency improvement accounts for more than 90% of China's energy intensity change as opposed to the economic structural change. The econometric analysis shows that the rising income plays a significant role in the reduction of energy intensity while the effect of energy price is relatively limited. The result may reflect the urgency of deregulating the price and establishing a market-oriented pricing system in China's energy sector. The implementation of the energy intensity reduction policies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (FYP) has helped reverse the increasing trend of energy intensity since 2002. Although the Chinese Government intended to change the industry-led economic growth pattern, it seems that most of the policy effects flow through the efficiency improvement as opposed to the economic structure adjustment. More fundamental changes to the economic structure are needed to achieve more sustainable progress in energy intensity reduction. - Highlights: ► We examine the determinants of China's energy intensity change at provincial level. ► Rising income plays a significant role in reducing China's energy intensity. ► Policy effects mainly flow through the efficiency improvement. ► Fundamental structure changes are needed to further reduce China's energy intensity.

  14. Energies and intensities of weak transitions in the decay of 132I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettles, W.G.; Scoggins, R.K.; James, W.K.; Whitlock, L.C.; Subba RaoD, B.N.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Gunnink, R.

    1978-01-01

    The γ-ray spectrum of a 132 Te- 132 I equilibrium source was measured with an 18% efficiency Ge(Li) detector to search for weak transitions in the 132 I decay. A more detailed study was made of an earlier spectrum taken with a Compton suppression system and a chemically purified source. The results are compared with all available data and average values of the energies and intensities are given

  15. Momenta of particles emitted by target at intensive irradiation by low-energy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Beshenkov, V G; Marchenko, V A

    2002-01-01

    One measured the aggregate momenta of the target emitted particles at the intensive sputtering by E sub 0 approx = 0.5 keV energy heavy inert gases. For liquid and being under premelting temperature Ga target the measured values are close to the expected momenta of sputtered metallic atoms and reflection ions, for Cu and Zr targets they are essentially higher. One assumes that sputtering of atoms of gas-diffuser implanted into the target causes the surplus momentum. The estimated average energy of these atoms approx = 20 eV. Under Ga irradiation the implanted atoms diffuse mainly towards the surface and are desorbed

  16. Energy intensity, CO{sub 2} emissions and the environmental Kuznets curve. The Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, J. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Teoria Economica; Alcantara, V. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Economia Aplicada

    2001-06-01

    This article analyses the role of energy intensity and the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and primary energy in order to explain the evolution of CO{sub 2} emissions by unit of real GDP. It also distinguishes two different meanings of CO{sub 2} emissions Kuznets curve hypothesis: the weak and the strong sense. It considers the case of Spain in the period 1972-1997 as an example in which there is not any evidence supporting this hypothesis in either sense. (author)

  17. The energy requirements of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in intensive culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, A.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Alanara, A.

    2011-01-01

    requirements of this species. The aim of this study was to develop an energy requirement model for intensive culture of Eurasian perch reared at rational temperatures. Data on growth (the thermal unit growth coefficient, TGC, 3√g ‧ (℃ ‧ days)-1) and digestible energy need (DEN, kJ DE ‧ g -1) of Eurasian perch...... at a size range of 20–180 g and at temperatures of 17–23 ℃ were used. Regression analysis revealed that both TGC and DEN were affected significantly by fish size (P 0.05). Two models including body size of the fish were developed: (i) an inverse TGC model for evaluation...

  18. Defining climate change scenario characteristics with a phase space of cumulative primary energy and carbon intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Justin; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2018-02-01

    Climate change modeling relies on projections of future greenhouse gas emissions and other phenomena leading to changes in planetary radiative forcing. Scenarios of socio-technical development consistent with end-of-century forcing levels are commonly produced by integrated assessment models. However, outlooks for forcing from fossil energy combustion can also be presented and defined in terms of two essential components: total energy use this century and the carbon intensity of that energy. This formulation allows a phase space diagram to succinctly describe a broad range of possible outcomes for carbon emissions from the future energy system. In the following paper, we demonstrate this phase space method with the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) as used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The resulting RCP phase space is applied to map IPCC Working Group III (WGIII) reference case ‘no policy’ scenarios. Once these scenarios are described as coordinates in the phase space, data mining techniques can readily distill their core features. Accordingly, we conduct a k-means cluster analysis to distinguish the shared outlooks of these scenarios for oil, gas and coal resource use. As a whole, the AR5 database depicts a transition toward re-carbonization, where a world without climate policy inevitably leads to an energy supply with increasing carbon intensity. This orientation runs counter to the experienced ‘dynamics as usual’ of gradual decarbonization, suggesting climate change targets outlined in the Paris Accord are more readily achievable than projected to date.

  19. Energy barriers and mechanisms in solid-solid polymorphic transitions exhibiting cooperative motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ende, J.A.; Ensing, B.; Cuppen, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding solid–solid polymorphic transitions within molecular crystals on the molecular scale is a challenging task. It is, however, crucial for the understanding of transitions that are thought to occur through cooperative motion, which offer an interesting perspective for future applications.

  20. Optimal Cooperative Management of Energy Storage Systems to Deal with Over- and Under-Voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal cooperative voltage control approach, which coordinates storage units in a distribution network. This technique is developed for storage systems’ active power management with a local strategy to provide robust voltage control and a distributed strategy to deliver op...

  1. Agreement between the government of Australia and the government of the Republic of Korea concerning cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the transfer of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The agreement contains fourteen articles under which the parties will cooperate in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including transfer of nuclear materials, research and development, exchange of unclassified information, technical training, visits by scientists and projects of mutual interest

  2. Participation of Czechoslovakia in the beginnings of international cooperation on peaceful use of atomic energy (IAEA, UNSCEAR, ICRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesinska, E.

    2006-01-01

    The former Czechoslovakia, as a producer or natural uranium and a country heading to construction of nuclear power stations, took an active part in the establishment of international cooperation in peaceful use of atomic energy in the mid-1950s. Its 17-member delegation attended the 1 st International Conference on Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in Geneva in August 1955. Czechoslovakia was invited to work of the twelve countries on the final draft of the International Atomic Energy Agency Statutes in 1956, it became a member of the IAEA Board of Governors (alternating with Poland), and the first Czechoslovak Governor P. Winkler was elected President of the Board in 1957. Czechoslovakia also was one of the fifteen countries designated to the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 1955. Besides, Czechoslovak specialists participated actively in the work of committees of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for many years. Involvement in the international cooperation on peaceful use of atomic energy represented for Czechoslovakia obligations as well as stimuli to the national development of nuclear fields, including radiobiology. (author)

  3. Consultations. An investigation on processes of cooperative scale concretion in energy regulation; Konsultationen. Eine Untersuchung von Prozessen kooperativer Massstabskonkretisierung in der Energieregulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzmann, Karsten

    2010-07-01

    The book includes the following parts: Part 1: Cooperation between public and private players as basic pattern of grid-bound energy supply. Part 2: Consultations as instrument for overcoming regulation specific uncertainties. Part 3: Consultation procedures in practice and legal classification of consultation results. Part 4: Constitutional framework requirements for cooperative energy regulation by consultation procedures. Part5: Requirements for the organization of consultation procedures.

  4. A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the U.S.: Methods, Data and Key Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2014-08-31

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2010 relative to a 1985 base year. Discussion of energy intensity indicators for each of the broad end-use sectors of the economy—residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation—is presented in the report. An analysis of recent changes in the efficiency of electricity generation in the U.S. is also included. A detailed appendix describes the data sources and methodology behind the energy intensity indicators for each sector.

  5. An efficient power market - consequences for energy-intensive industries and regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Hoel, Michael; Stroem, Steinar

    2000-01-01

    From economic theory we know that, unless special arguments can be made, we obtain economic efficiency if all buyers of a homogeneous good pay the same price for the good. If this principle is violated inefficiency will occur. The principle holds for all goods, i.e. both for consumer goods (e.g. clothing or food), inputs in a production process (e.g. raw materials), and for combined goods. Electricity is an example of a combined good that can be used both as a final good and as an input in production processes. In Norway, the energy intensive industry (metals and chemicals) and the paper and pulp industry pay a lower price for their use of electricity than other users pay. The reason is that this industry has signed long-term contracts where the prices have been influenced by political processes. This pricing leads to an inefficient use of electricity in Norway. In this book we study the consequences of changing the electricity prices for this sectors so that we obtain a situation where all domestic users of electricity pay the same price. The book contains numerical calculations of potential structural changes and changes in overall economic welfare (producer and consumer surplus). We also calculate changes in emissions both from these sectors and from the rest of the economy. The last chapter deals with structural change and regional differences, with emphasis on the regions in which the energy intensive firms are located. We discuss how strong the negative impact on these regions will be as a consequence of shutting down non-profitable energy intensive firms when the price of electricity changes. A main conclusion in the book is that Norway will benefit from increasing the electricity price paid by the energy intensive sectors, both in economic terms and with respect to overall pollution. Reduced electricity use in the energy intensive sectors will in the short run lead to increased export of electricity. In the longer run, new investments in power producing

  6. Energy sector integration for low carbon development in Greater Mekong sub-region: Towards a model of South-South cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yongping

    2010-09-15

    The Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) in Southeast Asia has embarked on a roadmap of power interconnection and expanded energy sector cooperation. An Asian development bank committed study using Model of Energy Supply Systems Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) assessed the impacts of various scenarios, the results indicate that GMS integration will help these countries to achieve low carbon and sustainable development. The article suggests that the experience of GMS cooperation be made a model for South-South cooperation in the global effort to fight climate change.

  7. Measuring the efficiency of energy-intensive industries across European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makridou, Georgia; Andriosopoulos, Kostas; Doumpos, Michael; Zopounidis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the energy efficiency trends of five energy-intensive industries in 23 European Union (EU) countries over the period 2000–2009. In particular, the performance of the construction, electricity, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and transport sectors is examined. The analysis is based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) combined with the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI), which allows for distinctions between efficiency and technology changes over time. At the second stage of the analysis, cross-classified multilevel modelling is applied to analyse the main drivers behind efficiency performance using a number of sector and country characteristics. Based on DEA results, an overall improvement in efficiency is observed in all sectors over the period. The decomposition of the MPI indicates that technology change is primarily responsible for the improvements achieved in most sectors. The results obtained by the cross-classified model show, among other things, that the high electricity prices, energy taxes, and market share of the largest generator in the electricity market have a negative effect on industrial energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Analysis of energy efficiency and trends of industrial sectors in EU. • Combination of non-parametric frontier models and multilevel explanatory analysis. • Examination of the drivers of energy efficiency. • Industrial energy efficiency performance is mainly driven by technological improvement.

  8. Beam dynamics studies of the ISOLDE post-accelerator for the high intensity and energy upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) project represents a major upgrade of the ISOLDE (On-Line Isotope Mass Separator) nuclear facility at CERN with a mandate to significantly increase the energy, intensity and quality of the radioactive nuclear beams provided to the European nuclear physics community for research at the forefront of topics such as nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. The HIE-ISOLDE project focuses on the upgrade of the existing Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) post-accelerator with the addition of a 40MVsuperconducting linac comprising 32 niobium sputter-coated copper quarter-wave cavities operating at 101.28 MHz and at an accelerating gradient close to 6 MV/m. The energy of post-accelerated radioactive nuclear beams will be increased from the present ceiling of 3 MeV/u to over 10 MeV/u, with full variability in energy, and will permit, amongst others, Coulomb interaction and few-nucleon transfer reactions to be carried out on the full inventory of radionuclides available ...

  9. Beam Dynamics Studies of the ISOLDE Post-accelerator for the High Intensity and Energy Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Matthew Alexander; Pasini, M

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) project represents a major upgrade of the ISOLDE (On-Line Isotope Mass Separator) nuclear facility at CERN with a mandate to significantly increase the energy, intensity and quality of the radioactive nuclear beams provided to the European nuclear physics community for research at the forefront of topics such as nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. The HIE-ISOLDE project focuses on the upgrade of the existing Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) post-accelerator with the addition of a 40MVsuperconducting linac comprising 32 niobium sputter-coated copper quarter-wave cavities operating at 101.28 MHz and at an accelerating gradient close to 6 MV/m. The energy of post-accelerated radioactive nuclear beams will be increased from the present ceiling of 3 MeV/u to over 10 MeV/u, with full variability in energy, and will permit, amongst others, Coulomb interaction and few-nucleon transfer reactions to be carried out on the full inventory of radionuclides available ...

  10. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Active Video Games in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabrava, Karina L R; Faria, Fernanda R; Lima, Jorge R P de; Guedes, Dartagnan P; Amorim, Paulo R S

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr walks, and during active games (Adventure, Boxing I, Boxing II, and Dance). During walking and active games, we also assessed physical activity using an accelerometer. The energy expenditure of the active games Adventure, Boxing I, Boxing II, and Dance was similar to that of treadmill walking at 5 km/hr in boys and girls. Heart rate was significantly higher for the game Adventure compared with walking at 3 km/hr, 4 km/hr, and 5 km/hr and the game Dance in both genders. The heart rate of girls during the games Adventure and Dance was significantly higher compared with boys. There was a statistically significant difference (p games provide energy expenditure and physical activity of moderate intensity for both genders. The use of active video games can be an interesting alternative to increase physical activity levels.

  11. The Association of Petroleum Producers of Africa (APPA): an instrument of cooperation for the development of energy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semassoussi, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The role and contribution of the Association of Petroleum Producers of Africa (APPA) to the cooperative development of energy in Africa were described. APPA was created in Lagos in 1987 by eight founding countries, i.e. Algeria, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, Angola, Benin, Cameroun and Congo. Since then, the Ivory Coast, Egypt, Zaire and Equatorial Guinea have joined APPA. The objectives of APPA are primarily technical. They are to promote amongst its members commercial strategies, an understanding of the energy needs of Africa, and technical collaboration to improve the national energy needs definition in Africa. Current petroleum and natural gas reserves and crude oil and refined products production for the African continent were also reviewed

  12. Solar Wind Energy Input during Prolonged, Intense Northward Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: A New Coupling Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, A. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Sun, W.

    2012-04-01

    Sudden energy release (ER) events in the midnight sector at auroral zone latitudes during intense (B > 10 nT), long-duration (T > 3 hr), northward (Bz > 0 nT = N) IMF magnetic clouds (MCs) during solar cycle 23 (SC23) have been examined in detail. The MCs with northward-then-southward (NS) IMFs were analyzed separately from MCs with southward-then-northward (SN) configurations. It is found that there is a lack of substorms during the N field intervals of NS clouds. In sharp contrast, ER events do occur during the N field portions of SN MCs. From the above two results it is reasonable to conclude that the latter ER events represent residual energy remaining from the preceding S portions of the SN MCs. We derive a new solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function during northward IMFs: ENIMF = α N-1/12V 7/3B1/2 + β V |Dstmin|. The first term on the right-hand side of the equation represents the energy input via "viscous interaction", and the second term indicates the residual energy stored in the magnetotail. It is empirically found that the magnetosphere/magnetotail can store energy for a maximum of ~ 4 hrs before it has dissipated away. This concept is defining one for ER/substorm energy storage. Our scenario indicates that the rate of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere/magnetotail determines the form of energy release into the magnetosphere/ionosphere. This may be more important than the dissipation mechanism itself (in understanding the form of the release). The concept of short-term energy storage is applied for the solar case. It is argued that it may be necessary to identify the rate of energy input into solar magnetic loop systems to be able to predict the occurrence of solar flares.

  13. Comparison of the evolution of energy intensity in Spain and in the EU15. Why is Spain different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiluce, Maria; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio; Ocana, Carlos [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid, Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Energy intensity in Spain has increased since 1990, while the opposite has happened in the EU15. Decomposition analysis of primary energy intensity ratios has been used to identify which are the key sectors driving the Spanish evolution and those responsible for most of the differences with the EU15 energy intensity levels. It is also a useful tool to quantify which countries and economic sectors have had most influence in the EU15 evolution. The analysis shows that the Spanish economic structure is driving the divergence in energy intensity ratios with the EU15, mainly due to strong transport growth, but also because of the increase of activities linked to the construction boom, and the convergence to EU levels of household energy demand. The results can be used to pinpoint successful EU strategies for energy efficiency that could be used to improve the Spanish metric. (author)

  14. Input-output analysis of energy requirements for short rotation, intensive culture, woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.; Grado, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A production model for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) plantations was developed to determine the energy and financial cost of woody biomass. The model was based on hybrid poplars planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha -1 , with average annual growth forecast at 16 metric tonne, oven dry (mg(OD)). Energy and financial analyses showed preharvest cost 4381 megajoules (MJ) Mg -1 (OD) and $16 (US) Mg -1 (OD). Harvesting and transportation requirements increased the total costs 6130 MJ Mg -1 (OD) and $39 Mg -1 (OD) for the delivered material. On an energy cost basis, the principal input was land, whereas on a financial basis, costs were more uniformly distributed among equipment, land, labor, and materials and fuel

  15. Review of intense-ion-beam propagation with a view toward measuring ion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this review is intense ion beam propagation and the possibilities of measuring time dependent ion energy in the beam. Propagation effects discussed include charge separation, charge and current autoneutralization, electron thermalization and current neutralization decay. The interaction of a plasma beam with material obstacles, like collimators, and with transverse magnetic fields is also described. Depending on beam energy, density and pulse length, these interactions can include material ablation with plasmadynamic flow and undeflected propagation across transverse magnetic fields by a polarization drift. On the basis of this review I conclude that three diagnostics: a single floating potential probe, net current probes (Faraday cups) and a Rutherford scattering spectrometer appear capable of giving prompt, time dependent ion energy measurements

  16. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie; Ferrer, Ludovic; Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ( 67 Cu, 47 Sc) or alpha ( 211 At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ( 64 Cu, 124 I, 44 Sc), or that can be generator-produced ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ( 44 Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas 86 Y, 52 Fe, 55 Co, 76 Br or 89 Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.) 5

  17. Design of a compact Faraday cup for low energy, low intensity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantero, E.D., E-mail: esteban.cantero@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sosa, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Andreazza, W.; Bravin, E.; Lanaia, D.; Voulot, D. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Welsch, C.P. [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-21

    Beam intensity is one of the key parameters in particle accelerators, in particular during machine commissioning, but also during operation for experiments. At low beam energies and low intensities a number of challenges arise in its measurement as commonly used non-invasive devices are no longer sensitive enough. It then becomes necessary to stop the beam in order to measure its absolute intensity. A very compact Faraday cup for determining ion beam currents from a few nanoamperes down to picoamperes for the HIE-ISOLDE post-accelerator at CERN has been designed, built and tested with beam. It has a large aperture diameter of 30 mm and a total length of only 16 mm, making it one of the most compact designs ever used. In this paper we present the different steps that were involved in the design and optimization of this device, including beam tests with two early prototypes and the final monitor. We also present an analysis of the losses caused by secondary particle emission for different repelling electrode voltages and beam energies. Finally, we show that results obtained from an analytical model for electron loss probability combined with Monte Carlo simulations of particles trajectories provide a very good agreement with experimental data.

  18. A cooperative agreement for research on radioactive waste management between the United States Department of Energy and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Levich, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) have a history of more than ten years of bilateral cooperation in the management of high level radioactive waste. In 1982, the USDOE and AECL executed a five year information-exchange agreement, for open-quotes Cooperation in Radioactive Waste Managementclose quotes. Since that time, this bilateral umbrella agreement has been renewed twice and the third renewal is currently being processed. International cooperation in high level radioactive waste management is highly beneficial to all concerned. Each nation involved in high level waste disposal has a single coordinated program for developing, testing, and evaluating approaches, hardware, and techniques for high level waste disposal. Thus there is limited opportunity for researchers in each country to exchange views regarding disposal technology with experienced researchers external to their own program, and to share research and development activities. The international arena, however, provides a host of organizations who have similar responsibilities and therefore similar interests and needs

  19. Decarbonising the energy intensive basic materials industry through electrification – Implications for future EU electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenböhmer, Stefan; Nilsson, Lars J.; Åhman, Max; Schneider, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The need for deep decarbonisation in the energy intensive basic materials industry is increasingly recognised. In light of the vast future potential for renewable electricity the implications of electrifying the production of basic materials in the European Union is explored in a what-if thought-experiment. Production of steel, cement, glass, lime, petrochemicals, chlorine and ammonia required 125 TW-hours of electricity and 851 TW-hours of fossil fuels for energetic purposes and 671 TW-hours of fossil fuels as feedstock in 2010. The resulting carbon dioxide emissions were equivalent to 9% of total greenhouse gas emissions in EU28. A complete shift of the energy demand as well as the resource base of feedstocks to electricity would result in an electricity demand of 1713 TW-hours about 1200 TW-hours of which would be for producing hydrogen and hydrocarbons for feedstock and energy purposes. With increased material efficiency and some share of bio-based materials and biofuels the electricity demand can be much lower. Our analysis suggest that electrification of basic materials production is technically possible but could have major implications on how the industry and the electric systems interact. It also entails substantial changes in relative prices for electricity and hydrocarbon fuels. - Highlights: • Energy intensive basic materials industry has a high share in EU greenhouse gas emissions. • Decarbonising these industries is very important, but still relatively unexplored. • Electrification is possible regarding renewable energy resources and technologies. • Combination with energy and materials efficiency, biofuels and CCS is crucial. • Electrification needs very high amounts of electricity and strong policies.

  20. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  2. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n  = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n  = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  3. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTENSITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SOCCER REFEREES DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Inácio da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs. The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil, Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765, with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006, and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play

  4. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  5. A multivariate analysis of the energy intensity of sprawl versus compact living in the U.S. for 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shammin, Md. R.; Herendeen, Robert A.; Hanson, Michelle J.; Wilson, Eric J.H.

    2010-10-15

    We explore the energy intensity of sprawl versus compact living by analyzing the total energy requirements of U.S. households for the year 2003. The methods used are based on previous studies on energy cost of living. Total energy requirement is calculated as a function of individual energy intensities of goods and services derived from economic input-output analysis and expenditures for those goods and services. We use multivariate regression analysis to estimate patterns in household energy intensities. We define sprawl in terms of location in rural areas or in areas with low population size. We find that even though sprawl-related factors account for about 83% of the average household energy consumption, sprawl is only 17-19% more energy intensive than compact living based on how people actually lived. We observe that some of the advantages of reduced direct energy use by people living in high density urban centers are offset by their consumption of other non-energy products. A more detailed analysis reveals that lifestyle choices (household type, number of vehicles, and family size) that could be independent of location play a significant role in determining household energy intensity. We develop two models that offer opportunities for further analysis. (author)

  6. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and

  7. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n=18 or vigorous-intensity (n=18 center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7±219.7 kcal⋅d−1 was higher (P=.011 than on days without exercise (450.7±140.5 kcal⋅d−1; however, the difference (127.0±188.1 kcal⋅d−1 was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6±153.6 kcal⋅d−1 was lower (P=.047 than on days without exercise (519.2±127.4 kcal⋅d−1. Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity.

  8. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Yan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  9. On China's energy intensity statistics: Toward a comprehensive and transparent indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    A transparent and comprehensive statistical system in China would provide an important basis for enabling a better understanding of the country. This paper focuses on energy intensity (EI), which is one of the most important indicators of China. It firstly reviews China's GDP and energy statistics, showing that China has made great improvements in recent years. The means by which EI data are released and adjusted are then explained. It shows that EI data releases do not provide complete data for calculating EI and constant GDP, which may reduce policy transparency and comprehensiveness. This paper then conducts an EI calculation method that is based on official sources and that respects the data availability of different data release times. It finds that, in general, China's EI statistics can be considered as reliable because most of the results generated by author's calculations match the figures in the official releases. However, two data biases were identified, which may necessitate supplementary information on related constant GDP values used in the official calculation of EI data. The paper concludes by proposing short- and long-term measures for improving EI statistics to provide a transparent and comprehensive EI indicator. - Highlights: → This paper examines data release and adjustment process of energy intensity (EI) target of China. → New insights on the comprehensiveness and transparency of EI data. → Potential data bias between author's calculation and official data due to lack of constant GDP data. → Proposition for improving short- and long-term EI statistical works.

  10. Impact Analysis of Demand Response Intensity and Energy Storage Size on Operation of Networked Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of demand response (DR programs and battery energy storage system (BESS in microgrids are beneficial for both microgrid owners and consumers. The intensity of DR programs and BESS size can alter the operation of microgrids. Meanwhile, the optimal size for BESS units is linked with the uncertainties associated with renewable energy sources and load variations. Similarly, the participation of enrolled customers in DR programs is also uncertain and, among various other factors, uncertainty in market prices is a major cause. Therefore, in this paper, the impact of DR program intensity and BESS size on the operation of networked microgrids is analyzed while considering the prevailing uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with forecast load values, output of renewable generators, and market price are realized via the robust optimization method. Robust optimization has the capability to provide immunity against the worst-case scenario, provided the uncertainties lie within the specified bounds. The worst-case scenario of the prevailing uncertainties is considered for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed method. The two representative categories of DR programs, i.e., price-based and incentive-based DR programs are considered. The impact of change in DR intensity and BESS size on operation cost of the microgrid network, external power trading, internal power transfer, load profile of the network, and state-of-charge (SOC of battery energy storage system (BESS units is analyzed. Simulation results are analyzed to determine the integration of favorable DR program and/or BESS units for different microgrid networks with diverse objectives.

  11. A new cooperative MIMO scheme based on SM for energy-efficiency improvement in wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuyang; Choi, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN) has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM) technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  12. Energy supply measures to reduce regional carbon intensity: opportunities and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, D.; Gibbs, D.C.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [University of Hull, Hull (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    1998-07-01

    The perceived threat of `enhanced` global warming has become a widespread public concern since the late 1980s, with the balance of informed opinion urging world-wide collaboration on combating the causes of global warming. The increasingly globalised status of the majority of late twentieth century economies ensures that remedial action will ultimately require a degree of international cooperation. Although the formulation of environmentally friendly energy policies, including carbon reduction strategies, can be framed at international and national levels, recent trends are for CO{sub 2} reduction measures to be instigated by regional, or local, authorities. This paper focuses on the city-region of Greater Manchester, UK, and reviews both existing and potential energy supply options for reducing regional CO{sub 2} emissions, highlighting the benefits and obstacles facing carbon reduction measures implemented at a `local` scale. Mitigation action at this level is considered desirable as remedial measures have most chance of success when accompanied by the supportive involvement of local people. 73 refs.

  13. Ion energy distributions from laser-generated plasmas at two different intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Giovanni; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Okamura, Masahiro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shunsuke

    2018-01-01

    Laser-generated non-equilibrium plasmas were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY, USA) and MIFT Messina University (Italy). Two laser intensities of 1012 W/cm2 and 109 W/cm2, have been employed to irradiate Al and Al with Au coating targets in high vacuum conditions. Ion energy distributions were obtained using electrostatic analyzers coupled with ion collectors. Time of flight measurements were performed by changing the laser irradiation conditions. The study was carried out to provide optimum keV ions injection into post acceleration systems. Possible applications will be presented.

  14. Report in the Energy and Intensity Frontiers, and Theoretical at Northwestern University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Mayda [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Schmitt, Michael [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); deGouvea, Andre [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Low, Ian [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Petriello, Frank [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Schellman, Heidi [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The Northwestern (NU) Particle Physics (PP) group involved in this report is active on all the following priority areas: Energy and Intensity Frontiers. The group is lead by 2 full profs. in experimental physics (Schmitt and Velasco), 3 full profs. in theoretical physics (de Gouvea, Low and Petriello), and Heidi Schellman who is now at Oregon State. Low and Petriello hold joint appointments with the HEP Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The theoretical PP research focuses on different aspects of PP phenomenology. de Gouvea dedicates a large fraction of his research efforts to understanding the origin of neutrino masses, neutrino properties and uncovering other new phenomena, and investigating connections between neutrino physics and other aspects of PP. Low works on Higgs physics as well as new theories beyond the Standard Model. Petriello pursues a research program in precision QCD and its associated collider phenomenology. The main goal of this effort is to improve the Standard Model predictions for important LHC observables in order to enable discoveries of new physics. In recent years, the emphasis on experimental PP at NU has been in collider physics. NU expands its efforts in new directions in both the Intensity and the Cosmic Frontiers (not discussed in this report). In the Intensity Frontier, Schmitt has started a new effort on Mu2e. He was accepted as a collaborator in April 2015 and is identified with important projects. In the Energy Frontier, Hahn, Schmitt and Velasco continue to have a significant impact and expanded their CMS program to include R&D for the real-time L1 tracking trigger and the high granularity calorimeter needed for the high-luminosity LHC. Hahn is supported by an independent DOE Career Award and his work will not be discussed in this document. The NU analysis effort includes searches for rare and forbidden decays of the Higgs bosons, Z boson, top quark, dark matter and other physics beyond the standard model topics. Four

  15. Study of beryllium redeposition under bombardment by high intensity -low energy- hydrogen ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureev, V.M.; Guseva, M.I.; Danelyan, L.S. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The results of studying the erosion of beryllium under an effect of intense ion fluxes with the energy of 250 eV, at the fluences {approx}10{sup 2}1 cm{sup -2}, at the MAGRAS-stand are given. The operating conditions under which a practically-complete redeposition of the sputtered beryllium upon the target surface were experimentally-realized. A change in the microstructure of a beryllium target under sputtering and redeposition is analyzed. Some technological applications are considered. (author)

  16. Photon energy dependent intensity variations observed in Auger spectra of free argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundwall, M; Lindblad, A; Bergersen, H; Rander, T; Oehrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Peredkov, S; Svensson, S; Bjoerneholm, O

    2006-01-01

    Photon energy dependent intensity variations are experimentally observed in the L 2,3 M 2,3 M 2,3 Auger spectra of argon clusters. Two cluster sizes are examined in the present study. Extrinsic scattering effects, both elastic and inelastic, involving the photoelectron are discussed and suggested as the explanation of the variations in the Auger signal. The atoms in the first few coordination shells surrounding the core-ionized atom are proposed to be the main targets for the scattering processes

  17. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Cooperative project on energy conservation seminar; 1999 nendo sho energy seminar kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), from the viewpoint that the development and popularization of energy conservation technologies are extremely important as energy conservation measures, collected energy related primary information from 12 Asian countries including Japan for the development and popularization of energy conservation technologies, and has constructed a database NEDO/DB. NEDO is now propelling forward its efforts to popularize the database. For popularizing NEDO/DB in Vietnam and for rendering the people conscious of energy conservation, NEDO dispatched some lecturers to an energy conservation seminar sponsored by the Vietnamese Government. The importance of energy conservation promoting measures was highlighted at the seminar. NEDO's approach to AIJ (activities implemented jointly) and CDM (clean development mechanism) was described at the seminar, and a lecture meeting was held to explain NEDO/DB and to teach how to use the database. (NEDO)

  18. Shifting Scarcities? The Energy Intensity of Water Supply Alternatives in the Mass Tourist Resort of Benidorm, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyerim Yoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy intensity of water—‘energy (electricity-for-water’—is calculated for Benidorm, a mass tourism resort in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, where the urban water cycle has evolved in response to a series of episodes of water stress. The analysis is based on primary data compiled from various actors involved in the urban water cycle encompassing water extraction, end uses, and wastewater treatment, including tertiary treatment. The results provide one of the first analyses of the relations between energy and water in a mass tourist center, which may be of potential interest for other tourist areas. It is estimated that a total of 109 GWh/year of electricity is required to operate the water cycle of Benidorm. About 4% of total energy use in Benidorm is dedicated to extracting, transporting, and treating water. The most energy-intensive stage is represented by end uses, which accounts for 20% of the total energy use in Benidorm when the energy required for water pumping and hot water use is considered. Additionally, energy intensity for water extraction was estimated for normal, wet, and two dry year scenarios. In comparison with the normal scenario, energy intensity is six times larger when desalinated water is incorporated during a dry year, whereas the emergency interbasin water transfer resulted in a more moderate increase in energy intensity. While treated wastewater and emergency water transfers appear to be a more convenient solution in energy terms, the strong impulse given to desalination in Spain is forcing local water authorities towards the use of a resource that is much more energy intensive, although, on the other hand, much less dependent on the vagaries of climate. In light of recent technological and managerial developments, the Benidorm case illuminates the challenges appearing in the analysis of the water-energy nexus, especially the fact that scarcity may be transferred from water to energy.

  19. Measuring the energy intensity of domestic activities from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.; Liao, J.; Wilson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative method linking appliance usage and energy use with domestic activities. • Inferring the energy and time use profile of activities based on smart meter data. • Standardised metrics quantifying energy intensity + temporal routines of activities. • Insights from analysing electricity consumption through the lens of activities. - Abstract: Household electricity consumption can be broken down to appliance end-use through a variety of methods such as modelling, sub-metering, load disaggregation or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NILM). We advance and complement this important field of energy research through an innovative methodology that characterises the energy consumption of domestic life by making the linkages between appliance end-use and activities through an ontology built from qualitative data about the household and NILM data. We use activities as a descriptive term for the common ways households spend their time at home. These activities, such as cooking or laundering, are meaningful to households’ own lived experience. Thus, besides strictly technical algorithmic approaches for processing quantitative smart meter data, we also draw on social science time use approaches and interview and ethnography data. Our method disaggregates a households total electricity load down to appliance level and provides the start time, duration, and total electricity consumption for each occurrence of appliance usage. We then make inferences about activities occurring in the home by combining these disaggregated data with an ontology that formally specifies the relationships between electricity-using appliances and activities. We also propose two novel standardised metrics to enable easy quantifiable comparison within and across households of the energy intensity and routine of activities of interest. Finally, we demonstrate our results over a sample of ten households with an in-depth analysis of which activities can be inferred with

  20. Does urbanization affect energy intensities across provinces in China?Long-run elasticities estimation using dynamic panels with heterogeneous slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive debate in the literature that addresses the impact of urbanization on total energy use, the relative magnitude of each impact channel has not been empirically examined and urbanization's effects on energy transition dynamics in China remains unknown. Using panel datasets at the provincial level from 1986 to 2011, this paper employs dynamic models to investigate both the long-run and short-run elasticities of urbanization on energy intensities and the most significant impact channel is identified. Coal intensity and electricity intensity are also modeled to reveal energy transition dynamics driven by urbanization. A set of newly developed regression techniques, namely well-performed common correlated effects mean group (CCEMG) and augmented mean group (AMG) estimators, are used to treat residual cross-sectional dependence, nonstationary residuals, and unlikely-to-hold homogeneous slope assumptions. The results obtained verify that the net effects of urbanization on overall energy intensity and electricity intensity are statistically positive, with long-run elasticities of 0.14% to 0.37% and 0.23% to 0.29%, respectively, whereas China's urbanization does not significantly increase coal intensity. The fact that short-run elasticities account for a majority of corresponding long-run values indicates that the short-run effect, that is, indirect energy use induced by urban infrastructures is the most significant impact channel of urbanization on energy use in China. An energy transition from high-pollution coal to clean electricity is also present in China, although the fundamental transition to renewable energy is still in its infancy. From a regional perspective, urbanization exerts asymmetric impacts on provincial energy use so that energy policies associated with urbanization should be province-specific. The findings also illustrate that for a panel dataset on regional dimension within large and fast-growing economies such

  1. International cooperation for nuclear science and energy development- A win win perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: International and regional cooperation is fundamental for the safe and effective introduction and expansion of nuclear power programme (NPP). A win-win situation can be harnessed as experienced countries in NPP are able to offer a myriad of benefits to new comer countries as well as countries planning for NPP whilst new comer countries are able to offer education and training opportunities and business opportunities to advanced countries in NPP. Countries with long experience in nuclear power programme (NPP) are able to offer experience, knowledge, advisory as well as sharing of resources and facilities with new comer countries. As skilled and competent personnel in the entire nuclear value-chain are critical to support NPP, this paper will provide an overview of some of the experience and resources of advanced countries in NPP that could be shared with new comer countries, with a focus in the area of education and training, as well as in industrial development. The paper will conclude by offering some recommendations as a way forward for establishing international cooperation in Nuclear Education and Training, as well as for industrial development. (author)

  2. The Nuclear Energy Agency: Strengthening Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Through Effective International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieh, H.

    2016-01-01

    The NEA provides an effective forum for international co-operation on nuclear safety and regulatory issues in its specific task groups, working parties and expert groups, as well as through joint international safety research projects. In these activities, NEA member countries work together to share and analyse data and experiences, gain consensus and develop approaches that can be applied within each country’s governmental processes. Through effective international co-operation, NEA member countries have worked together to develop actions for improving their regulatory frameworks and nuclear installation safety. As a result of these efforts, safety improvements and further harmonisation have been realized in the areas operating reactors, new reactors, human and organisational factors and nuclear safety research. At the NEA, technical and programmatic work under the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), joint safety research projects and the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) have helped NEA member countries to ensure a high standard for nuclear safety and to further develop the technical knowledge base. (author)

  3. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  4. Energy conservation attenuates the loss of skeletal muscle excitability during intense contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, W A; Ørtenblad, N; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    2007-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation of skeletal muscle has long been associated with ionic perturbations, resulting in the loss of membrane excitability, which may prevent action potential propagation and result in skeletal muscle fatigue. Associated with intense skeletal muscle contractions are large...... with control muscles, the resting metabolites ATP, phosphocreatine, creatine, and lactate, as well as the resting muscle excitability as measured by M-waves, were unaffected by treatment with BTS plus dantrolene. Following 20 or 30 s of continuous 60-Hz stimulation, BTS-plus-dantrolene-treated muscles showed...... changes in muscle metabolites. However, the role of metabolites in the loss of muscle excitability is not clear. The metabolic state of isolated rat extensor digitorum longus muscles at 30 degrees C was manipulated by decreasing energy expenditure and thereby allowed investigation of the effects of energy...

  5. Electron energy distribution from intense electron beams in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, Wai; Dvore, D.; Zahniser, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A model was developed to calculate the electron energy spectrum created by an electron beam in the upper atmosphere. A significant feature of the model is the inclusion of the effects of electron-electron collisions which are important at high beam intensity when the ratio of the electron to ambient gas density is high. Comparing the calculated results for a 2.6-kV, 20-A beam at 110-km altitude from models with and without the electron-electron collision term, the electron-electron collisions have the effect of smoothing out the electron spectrum in the low-energy region ( 2 and O 2 are filled in, resulting in an increase in the calculated production rate of these species compared with model calculations that neglect this effect

  6. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  7. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Dudey, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The invention described provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then ''boil off'' or evaporate a neutron

  8. Efficient energy absorption of intense ps-laser pulse into nanowire target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habara, H.; Honda, S.; Katayama, M.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakagami, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nagai, K. [Laboratory for Chemistry and Life Science, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The interaction between ultra-intense laser light and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes is investigated to demonstrate efficient laser-energy absorption in the ps laser-pulse regime. Results indicate a clear enhancement of the energy conversion from laser to energetic electrons and a simultaneously small plasma expansion on the surface of the target. A two-dimensional plasma particle calculation exhibits a high absorption through laser propagation deep into the nanotube array, even for a dense array whose structure is much smaller than the laser wavelength. The propagation leads to the radial expansion of plasma perpendicular to the nanotubes rather than to the front side. These features may contribute to fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion and laser particle acceleration, both of which require high current and small surface plasma simultaneously.

  9. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  10. Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  11. Self-generated magnetic fields and energy transport by ultra-intense laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudurexiti, A.; Tuniyazi, P.; Wang Qian

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic instability (Weibel instability) and its mechanism in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions are studied by using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The transport of energy in electron thermal conduction is analyzed by the Spitzer-Harm theory, and the election's vertical pyrogenation phenomenon that resulted from anisotropic heating of laser is observed. The results indicate that the strong magnetic field excited by Weibel instability makes the electron beam deposit its energy within a very short distance, and it restrains the electron thermal flux formed when the laser ponderomotive force bursts through the electron. With the increase of the self-generated magnetic field, the electron will be seized by the wave of magnetic field, and the transport of heat will be restricted. (authors)

  12. Medium energy high intensity proton accelerator (MEHIPA): Reference Design Report (RDR) Ver. 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress in accelerator technology has made it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce nuclear energy. In an accelerator-driven system (ADS), a high-intensity proton accelerator is used to produce protons of around 1 GeV energy, which strike a target such as lead or tungsten to produce spallation neutrons. ADS can be used to produce power, incinerate minor actinides and long-lived fission products, and for the utilization of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel. The accelerator for ADS has to produce high energy (1 GeV) protons, and deliver tens of milli amperes of beam current with minimum (< 1 nA/m) beam loss for hands-on maintenance of the accelerator. This makes the development of accelerators for ADS very challenging. In India, it is planned to take a staged approach towards development of the requisite accelerator technology, and it is planned to develop the accelerator in three phases: 20 MeV, 200 MeV and 1 GeV. This report presents a reference design report for the Medium Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (MEHIPA) which will accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The linac consists of a 3 MeV normal conducting RFQ followed by three families of superconducting Single Spoke Resonators (SSR) to accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The major elements of the physics design of MEHIPA, as well as layouts and specifications of the major accelerator sub-systems are presented in this report. (author)

  13. Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    By Act No. 3258 of 11 February 1986 the Turkish National Assembly approved ratification of the Agreement of 18 June 1985 between the Government of Turkey and the Government of Canada for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear E