WorldWideScience

Sample records for intensity cyclotrons including

  1. Method of enhancing cyclotron beam intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Ed D.; Mallory, Merrit L.

    1977-01-01

    When an easily ionized support gas such as xenon is added to the cold cathode in sources of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, large beam enhancements are produced. For example, .sup.20 Ne.sup.7+ is increased from 0.05 enA to 27 enA, and .sup.16 O.sup.5+ intensities in excess of 35 e.mu.A have been extracted for periods up to 30 minutes. Approximately 0.15 cc/min of the easily ionized support gas is supplied to the ion source through a separate gas feed line and the primary gas flow is reduced by about 30%.

  2. Intensity limits of the PSI Injector II cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, A.; Adelmann, A.; Barlow, R.; Baumgarten, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ∼ 10% level: the PSI cyclotrons provide relevant experience. As space charge dominates at low beam energy, the injector is critical. Understanding space charge effects and halo formation through detailed numerical modelling gives clues on how to maximise the extracted current. Simulation of a space-charge dominated low energy high intensity (9.5 mA DC) machine, with a complex collimator set up in the central region shaping the bunch, is not trivial. We use the OPAL code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines, including 3D space charge. We have a precise model of the present (production) Injector II, operating at 2.2 mA current. A simple model of the proposed future (upgraded) configuration of the cyclotron is also investigated. We estimate intensity limits based on the developed models, supported by fitted scaling laws and measurements. We have been able to perform more detailed analysis of the bunch parameters and halo development than any previous study. Optimisation techniques enable better matching of the simulation set-up with Injector II parameters and measurements. We show that in the production configuration the beam current scales to the power of three with the beam size. However, at higher intensities, 4th power scaling is a better fit, setting the limit of approximately 3 mA. Currents of over 5 mA, higher than have been achieved to date, can be produced if the collimation scheme is adjusted.

  3. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  4. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  5. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  6. Physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; An Shizhong; Wang Chuan; Yin Zhiguo; Wei Sumin; Li Ming; Yang Jianjun; Ji Bin; Jia Xianlu; Zhong Junqing; Yang Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), which is aimed for multiple uses including radioactive ion-beam (RIB) production. The machine adopts a compact structure of four straight sectors, capable of accelerating two kinds of beams, i.e. H − and D − . The proton and deuteron beam will be extracted in dual opposite directions by charge exchange stripping devices. The energy of the extracted proton beam is in the range 35–70 MeV with an intensity up to 700 μA. The corresponding values for the deuteron beam are 18–33 MeV and 40 μA. This paper will present the main characteristics and parameters in the design of the 70 MeV cyclotron, the results of the basic beam dynamics study, as well as the physics in the design of the different systems, including the main magnet, RF, injection and extraction systems, etc.

  7. High-intensity cyclotrons for radioisotope production and accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kleeven, W.; Beeckman, W.; Zaremba, S.; Lannoye, G.; Stichelbaut, F

    2002-04-22

    IBA recently proposed a new method to extract high-intensity positive ion beams from a cyclotron based on the concept of auto-extraction. We review the design of a 14 MeV, multi-milliampere cyclotron using this new technology. IBA is also involved in the design of the accelerator system foreseen to drive the MYRRHA facility, a multipurpose neutron source developed jointly by SCK-CEN and IBA.

  8. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-12-16

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.

  9. SPES: A new cyclotron-based facility for research and applications with high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M.; Campo, D.; Antonini, P.; Lombardi, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Esposito, J.; Silvestrin, L.

    2017-06-01

    In 2016, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy) started the commissioning of a new accelerator facility based on a high-power cyclotron able to deliver proton beams up to 70 MeV of energy and 700 μA current. Such a machine is the core of the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project whose main goal is to provide exotics beam for nuclear and astrophysics research and to deliver high-intensity proton beams for medical applications and neutrons generator.

  10. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie; Ferrer, Ludovic; Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ( 67 Cu, 47 Sc) or alpha ( 211 At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ( 64 Cu, 124 I, 44 Sc), or that can be generator-produced ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ( 44 Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas 86 Y, 52 Fe, 55 Co, 76 Br or 89 Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.) 5

  11. Particle simulation of intense electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    High-power free-electron lasers make new methods possible for heating plasmas and driving current in toroidal plasmas with electromagnetic waves. We have undertaken particle simulation studies with one and two dimensional, relativistic particle simulation codes of intense pulsed electron cyclotron heating and beat-wave current drive. The particle simulation methods here are conventional: the algorithms are time-centered, second-order-accurate, explicit, leap-frog difference schemes. The use of conventional methods restricts the range of space and time scales to be relatively compact in the problems addressed. Nevertheless, experimentally relevant simulations have been performed. 10 refs., 2 figs

  12. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  13. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  14. Ca-48 handling for a cyclotron ECR ion source to produce highly intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.Ya.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Kutner, V.B.; Shamanin, A.N.; Yakushev, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of highly intense ion beams of 48 Ca is one of the main tasks in experiments carried out within the framework of the synthesis of new superheavy elements. 48 Ca is very rare and expensive isotope, therefore there is necessity to reach the high intensity of ion beams of the isotope at a low consumption rate. Analysis and our preliminary experiments have showed that the best way of producing highly intense calcium ion beams is evaporation of metallic calcium in an ECR ion source. So we have developed a technique of metallic 48 Ca production by reducing CaO (this chemical form is available at the market with 40-80% of 48 Ca ) with aluminium powder. We used two tantalum crucibles: a larger, with a mixture of CaO + Al heated up to 1250 deg C, which was connected to the smaller (2 mm I.D. and 30 mm long) in which calcium vapour condensed. The temperature distribution in the small crucible was about 50 deg C at the bottom and about 500 deg C in the middle of the crucible. The pressure inside of the set-up was between 0.1 and 1 Pa. The production rate of metallic 48 Ca was 10-20 mg/h. The crucible with the condensed metallic Ca in argon atmosphere was transferred to the ECR-4M ion source, where it was inserted in a wired tubular oven and the calcium evaporation was controlled through the oven power supply. The application of metallic 48 Ca as the working substance for the ECR-4M ion source of the U-400 cyclotron of allowed us to approach a stable high intensity of 48 Ca ion beams: the intensities for the internal and external beams were 10 13 c -1 and 3.10 12 c -1 , respectively, at a consumption rate about 0.4 mg/h. A technique was developed for the reclamation of 48 Ca from the residue inside of the large crucible and from the inner parts of the ECR ion source. Extracting Ca from the inner parts of the ion source enabled us to save up to some 25% of the calcium used in the ECR ion source, so that the actual consumption rate was about 0.3 mg/h at the highest 48

  15. Cyclotrons: 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron

  16. Influence of energy and axial momentum spreads on the cyclotron maser instability in intense hollow electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.; Davidson, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of energy and axial momentum spreads on the cyclotron maser instability in an intense hollow electron beam propagating parallel to a uniform axial magnetic field B 0 e/sub z/ is investigated. The stability analysis is carried out within the framework of the linearized Vlasov--Maxwell equations. It is assumed that ν/gamma-circumflexvery-much-less-than1, where ν is Budker's parameter and gamma-circumflexmc 2 is the characteristic electron energy. Stability properties are investigated for the choice of electron distribution function in which all electrons have a step-function distribution in energy (H=γmc 2 ) and a step-function distribution in axial momentum (p/sub z/). The instability growth rate is calculated including the important stabilizing influence of energy spread (epsilon=Δγ) and axial momentum spread (Δ=Δp/sub z/). It is shown that a modest energy spread (epsilonapprox. = a few percent) is sufficient to stabilize perturbations with high magnetic harmonic number (s> or =2). Moreover, a relatively small axial momentum spread (Δ/mcapprox. =0.1) can easily stabilize perturbations with axial wavenumber satisfying vertical-barkc/ω/sub c/vertical-bar> or approx. =0.2, for typical beam parameters of experimental interest

  17. ULTRA-LOW INTENSITY PROTON BEAMS FOR RADIATION RESPONSE RELATED EXPERIMENTS AT THE U-120M CYCLOTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matlocha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Rez is used for radiation hardness tests of electronics for high-energy physics experiments. These tests are usually carried out with proton fluxes of the order of 105–109 proton·cm−2·s−1. Some tests done for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at CERN, however, required proton beam intensities several orders of magnitude lower. This paper presents a method which has been developed to achieve the proton beam flux of the order of 1 proton · cm−2·s−1. The method is mainly based on reduction of the discharge current in the cyclotron internal Penning type ion source. Influence of this new operation mode on the lifetime of ion source cathodes is discussed.

  18. Advances in intense beams, beam delivery, targetry, and radiochemistry at advanced cyclotron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada)]. E-mail: djohnson@advancedcyclotron.com; Watt, R. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Kovac, B. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Zyuzin, A. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Van Lier, E. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Erdman, K.L. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Gyles, Wm. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); Sabaiduc, V. [Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7851 Alderbridge Way, Richmond, BC, V6X 2A4 (Canada); McQuarrie, S.A. [Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Wilson, J. [Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Backhouse, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Gelbart, Wm. [Advanced System Design, C22, S6, RR1, Garden Bay, BC, V0N 1S0 (Canada); Kuo, T. [4654 N. Larwin Ave., Concorde, CA 94521 United States (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The increasing demand for radionuclides for PET and SPECT has resulted in ACSI system improvements starting from the cyclotron and proceeding to the Radiochemistry Modules. With more TR30 cyclotrons installed and operating at full capacity, emphasis has been placed on improving the operational components to reduce both the incidence of failure and subsequent maintenance time. A cyclotron system has been developed that meets the needs of a regional radiopharmacy that supplies both positron and single photon emitters that would not otherwise be available. This new system has been named the TR24. In order to deal with some of the challenges of high currents, a method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil during high current irradiation of a water target used to produce F-18. A method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil to reduce unwanted chemical species that interfere with radiopharmaceutical production. Preliminary results for novel radioiodine production technique using the TR19/9 are also discussed.

  19. Advances in intense beams, beam delivery, targetry, and radiochemistry at advanced cyclotron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. R.; Watt, R.; Kovac, B.; Zyuzin, A.; Van Lier, E.; Erdman, K. L.; Gyles, Wm.; Sabaiduc, V.; McQuarrie, S. A.; Wilson, J.; Backhouse, C.; Gelbart, Wm.; Kuo, T.

    2007-08-01

    The increasing demand for radionuclides for PET and SPECT has resulted in ACSI system improvements starting from the cyclotron and proceeding to the Radiochemistry Modules. With more TR30 cyclotrons installed and operating at full capacity, emphasis has been placed on improving the operational components to reduce both the incidence of failure and subsequent maintenance time. A cyclotron system has been developed that meets the needs of a regional radiopharmacy that supplies both positron and single photon emitters that would not otherwise be available. This new system has been named the TR24. In order to deal with some of the challenges of high currents, a method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil during high current irradiation of a water target used to produce F-18. A method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil to reduce unwanted chemical species that interfere with radiopharmaceutical production. Preliminary results for novel radioiodine production technique using the TR19/9 are also discussed.

  20. Advances in intense beams, beam delivery, targetry, and radiochemistry at advanced cyclotron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.; Watt, R.; Kovac, B.; Zyuzin, A.; Van Lier, E.; Erdman, K.L.; Gyles, Wm.; Sabaiduc, V.; McQuarrie, S.A.; Wilson, J.; Backhouse, C.; Gelbart, Wm.; Kuo, T.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing demand for radionuclides for PET and SPECT has resulted in ACSI system improvements starting from the cyclotron and proceeding to the Radiochemistry Modules. With more TR30 cyclotrons installed and operating at full capacity, emphasis has been placed on improving the operational components to reduce both the incidence of failure and subsequent maintenance time. A cyclotron system has been developed that meets the needs of a regional radiopharmacy that supplies both positron and single photon emitters that would not otherwise be available. This new system has been named the TR24. In order to deal with some of the challenges of high currents, a method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil during high current irradiation of a water target used to produce F-18. A method has been developed for passivating the entrance window foil to reduce unwanted chemical species that interfere with radiopharmaceutical production. Preliminary results for novel radioiodine production technique using the TR19/9 are also discussed

  1. Advances in superconducting cyclotrons at MSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.; Antaya, T.; Au, R.

    1987-01-01

    Intensive work on superconducting cyclotrons began at MSU in late 1973 (a brief earlier study had occurred in the early 1960's) and continues vigorously at present. One large cyclotron, the ''K500'', has been operating for a number of years, a second, the ''K800'', is nearing completion, the first operating tests of its magnet having occurred at the time of the previous conference, and a third, the ''medical cyclotron'', is now also nearing completion with first operation of its magnet expected just after the present conference. These cyclotrons like other superconducting cyclotrons are all dramatically smaller than comparable room temperature machines; overall weight is typically about 1/20th of that of room temperature cyclotrons of the same energy. This large reduction in the quantities of materials is partially offset by added complexity, but finally, a net overall cost savings of 50 to 70 % typically results; as a consequence the superconducting cyclotron is widely viewed as the cyclotron of the future. The thirteen years of experience at MSU involving three of these cyclotrons, together with much important work at other laboratories, gives a rather clear view of the advantages and disadvantages of various design approaches including by now a rather significant period of long term evaluation. This paper reviews highlights of this program. (author)

  2. Development of Beam Diagnostic Tools for Monitoring Cyclotron Beams at Production Intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael [Hevesy Laboratory, Risoe-DTU National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    This final report for the IAEA-CRP on “Improved High Current Liquid and Gas Targets for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes” reports the progress made as part of the Danish participation in the above CRP. Some of the work is the result of international, multi-institutional collaboration and/or research student education, and credit is hereby given to my former students Helge Thisgaard and Jesper Jørgensen, Katie Gagnon, student of Tom Ruth at Triumf, Canada, and, last but not least, to Tom himself. The people at the Edmonton PET centre, for beam time. David Schlyer and Rick Carson of BNL for access to the Tandem accelerator calibration shots. (author)

  3. Development of Beam Diagnostic Tools for Monitoring Cyclotron Beams at Production Intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This final report for the IAEA-CRP on “Improved High Current Liquid and Gas Targets for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes” reports the progress made as part of the Danish participation in the above CRP. Some of the work is the result of international, multi-institutional collaboration and/or research student education, and credit is hereby given to my former students Helge Thisgaard and Jesper Jørgensen, Katie Gagnon, student of Tom Ruth at Triumf, Canada, and, last but not least, to Tom himself. The people at the Edmonton PET centre, for beam time. David Schlyer and Rick Carson of BNL for access to the Tandem accelerator calibration shots. (author)

  4. Enhancement of Ar sup 8 sup + ion beam intensity from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source by optimizing the magnetic field configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Higurashi, Y; Kidera, M; Kase, M; Yano, Y; Aihara, T

    2003-01-01

    We successfully produced a 1.55 emA Ar sup 8 sup + ion beam using the RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at a microwave power of 700 W. To produce such an intense beam, we optimized the minimum magnetic field of mirror magnetic field and plasma electrode position. (author)

  5. Including dynamic CO2 intensity with demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, Pia; Brandt, Nils; Nordström, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Hourly demand response tariffs with the intention of reducing or shifting loads during peak demand hours are being intensively discussed among policy-makers, researchers and executives of future electricity systems. Demand response rates have still low customer acceptance, apparently because the consumption habits requires stronger incentive to change than any proposed financial incentive. An hourly CO 2 intensity signal could give customers an extra environmental motivation to shift or reduce loads during peak hours, as it would enable co-optimisation of electricity consumption costs and carbon emissions reductions. In this study, we calculated the hourly dynamic CO 2 signal and applied the calculation to hourly electricity market data in Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. This provided a novel understanding of the relationships between hourly electricity generation mix composition, electricity price and electricity mix CO 2 intensity. Load shifts from high-price hours resulted in carbon emission reductions for electricity generation mixes where price and CO 2 intensity were positively correlated. The reduction can be further improved if the shift is optimised using both price and CO 2 intensity. The analysis also indicated that an hourly CO 2 intensity signal can help avoid carbon emissions increases for mixes with a negative correlation between electricity price and CO 2 intensity. - Highlights: • We present a formula for calculating hybrid dynamic CO 2 intensity of electricity generation mixes. • We apply the dynamic CO 2 Intensity on hourly electricity market prices and generation units for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate the spearman correlation between hourly electricity market price and dynamic CO 2 intensity for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate carbon footprint of shifting 1 kWh load daily from on-peak hours to off-peak hours using the dynamic CO 2 intensity. • We conclude that using dynamic CO 2 intensity for

  6. Status Report on Cyclotron Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, P.; Szuecs, I.; Ander, I.; Lakatos, T.; Tarkanyi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The operation of the cyclotron in 2004 was concentrated to the usual 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 3554 hours, the time used for systematic maintenance was 450 hours. The breakdown periods amounted to 70 hours last year, included in it a 50 hours repair of RF control module under guarantee. The cyclotron was available for users during 3034 hours. The effectively used beam-on-target time statistics is summarized in Table 1. Developments: A new measuring site with a HPGe detector based gamma spectrometer is under installation in the basement of the Cyclotron Laboratory. A two channel pneumatic rabbit system is also under development to enable fast transport of samples between the new measuring site and two irradiation sites (the low intensity fast neutron irradiation site and the beam line used for Thin Layer Activation). (author)

  7. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  8. Measurements of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode converted wave intensity with phase contrast imaging in Alcator C-Mod and comparison with full-wave simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    Radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat tokamak plasmas. In ICRF heating schemes involving multiple ion species, the launched fast waves convert to ion cyclotron waves or ion Bernstein waves at the two-ion hybrid resonances. Mode converted waves are of interest as actuators to optimise plasma performance through current drive and flow drive. In order to describe these processes accurately in a realistic tokamak geometry, numerical simulations are essential, and it is important that these codes be validated against experiment. In this study, the mode converted waves were measured using a phase contrast imaging technique in D-H and D- 3 He plasmas. The measured mode converted wave intensity in the D- 3 He mode conversion regime was found to be a factor of ∼50 weaker than the full-wave predictions. The discrepancy was reduced in the hydrogen minority heating regime, where mode conversion is weaker.

  9. Medical Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesel, D. L.; Antaya, T. A.

    Particle accelerators were initially developed to address specific scientific research goals, yet they were used for practical applications, particularly medical applications, within a few years of their invention. The cyclotron's potential for producing beams for cancer therapy and medical radioisotope production was realized with the early Lawrence cyclotrons and has continued with their more technically advanced successors — synchrocyclotrons, sector-focused cyclotrons and superconducting cyclotrons. While a variety of other accelerator technologies were developed to achieve today's high energy particles, this article will chronicle the development of one type of accelerator — the cyclotron, and its medical applications. These medical and industrial applications eventually led to the commercial manufacture of both small and large cyclotrons and facilities specifically designed for applications other than scientific research.

  10. Vancouver Cyclotron Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Although no longer on the high energy frontier, the cyclotron field is still a major scientific growth area. Its progress is highlighted at the international conference on cyclotron design, development and utilization held at intervals of about three years, under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). Vancouver, surrounded by mountains, water and some cyclotrons, provided a pleasant setting for the 13th Conference, held last summer. With over 200 cyclotrons in operation around the world, the attendance, 241 delegates and 26 industrial exhibitors, was a near record, reflecting the flourishing state of the field. The early sessions covered the initial operation of new or upgraded cyclotron facilities. Major facilities completed since the previous Conference in Berlin in May 1989 included the 400 MeV ring cyclotron at Osaka, the U400M cyclotron at Dubna which will be coupled to the U400 to give 20 MeV nucléon uranium beams, the 130 MeV cyclotron at Jyvaskyla (in Finland, the furthest north!), the 110 MeV JAERI machine in Japan, and the 65 MeV proton therapy cyclotron in Nice. Among the facility upgrades were the KFA cyclotron at Julich which will inject the 2.5 GeV storage ring COSY, and the addition of an FM mode to the K=200 CW mode at Uppsala to give protons up to 180 MeV. The impressive current of 1.5 mA at 72 MeV obtained from the PSI Injector II will soon be injected into the 590 MeV ring

  11. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  12. Evolution of the axial electron cyclotron maser instability, with applications to solar microwave spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Loukas; Sprangle, Phillip

    1987-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of cyclotron radiation from streaming and gyrating electrons in an external magnetic field is analyzed. The nonlinear dynamics of both the fields and the particles are treated fully relativistically and self-consistently. The model includes a background plasma and electrostatic effects. The analytical and numerical results show that a substantial portion of the beam particle energy can be converted to electromagnetic wave energy at frequencies far above the electron cyclotron frequency. In general, the excited radiation can propagate parallel to the magnetic field and, hence, escape gyrothermal absorption at higher cyclotron harmonics. The high-frequency Doppler-shifted cyclotron instability can have saturation efficiencies far higher than those associated with well-known instabilities of the electron cyclotron maser type. Although the analysis is general, the possibility of using this model to explain the intense radio emission observed from the sun is explored in detail.

  13. Evolution of the axial electron cyclotron maser instability, with applications to solar microwave spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Sprangle, P.

    1987-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of cyclotron radiation from streaming and gyrating electrons in an external magnetic field is analyzed. The nonlinear dynamics of both the fields and the particles are treated fully relativistically and self-consistently. The model includes a background plasma and electrostatic effects. The analytical and numerical results show that a substantial portion of the beam particle energy can be converted to electromagnetic wave energy at frequencies far above the electron cyclotron frequency. In general, the excited radiation can propagate parallel to the magnetic field and, hence, escape gyrothermal absorption at higher cyclotron harmonics. The high-frequency Doppler-shifted cyclotron instability can have saturation efficiencies far higher than those associated with well-known instabilities of the electron cyclotron maser type. Although the analysis is general, the possibility of using this model to explain the intense radio emission observed from the sun is explored in detail. 31 references

  14. How cyclotrons work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.

    1992-01-01

    The operating principles of a cyclic accelerator are presented based on the IBA Cyclone 30 negative ion cyclotron, selected for the Australia's first medical cyclotron. Its main features are: acceleration with variable energy of between 15-30 million electron volts, the capability of extracting two beams simultaneously, low power consumption, easy maintenance. Other aspects not directly related to the principle of operation discussed include the vacuum and the radio-frequency systems as well as the complex computerized control system used to automatically control start-up and shut-down operations. ills

  15. Ramifide resonators for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The resonators with the conductors ramified form for cyclotrons are systematized and separated into the self-contained class - the ramified resonators for cyclotrons (Carr). The ramified resonators are compared with the quarter-wave and half-wave nonramified resonators, accomplished from the transmitting lines fragments. The CRR are classified into two types: ones with the additional structural element, switched in parallel and in series. The CRR may include several additional structural elements. The CRR calculations may be concluded by analytical methods - the method of matrix calculation or the method of telegraph equations and numerical methods - by means of the ISFEL3D, MAFIA and other programs [ru

  16. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  17. Medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons as tools for therapy and for the production of radionuclides for use in nuclear medicine have been extensively reviewed in the literature. The current world status with respect to cyclotrons used primarily for research, development and application in nuclear medicine is reviewed here in the context of geographical distribution and type of use, presently available commercial types, machine characteristics and trends. Aspects of design requirements from a user perspective such as machine, beam and target characteristics are covered. Some special problems concerning many factors which can lead to effective production of the desired radionuclide or product are considered in light of machine characteristics. Consideration is also given to future directions for accelerators in nuclear medicine

  18. Present and future superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review of the status of present superconducting (SC) cyclotron projects, including the two which are currently operating and the six which are under construction. The next section summarizes the main features shared by five of these machines, while the third section presents recent developments and new concepts introduced in the other three ''second generation'' SC cyclotrons. Projects in early stages of development are discussed in the fourth section

  19. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  20. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  1. Radiation shielding and health physics instrumentation for PET medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Modern Medical Cyclotrons produce a variety of short-lived positron emitting PET radioisotopes, and as a result are the source of intense neutron and gamma radiations. Since such cyclotrons are housed within hospitals or medical clinics, there is significant potential for un-intentional exposure to staff or patients in proximity to cyclotron facilities. Consequently, the radiological hazards associated with Cyclotrons provide the impetus for an effective radiological shielding and continuous monitoring of various radiation levels in the cyclotron environment. Management of radiological hazards is of paramount importance for the safe operation of a Medical Cyclotron facility. This work summarised the methods of shielding calculations for a compact hospital based Medical Cyclotron currently operating in Canada, USA and Australia. The design principle and operational history of a real-time health physics monitoring system (Watchdog) operating at a large multi-energy Medical Cyclotron is also highlighted

  2. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Philipp, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  3. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  4. Future cyclotron systems : an industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Dickie, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modem cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, we investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century. (author)

  5. Future cyclotron systems: An industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Dickie, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    The use of commercial cyclotron systems for the production of radioisotopes continues to grow on a world-wide scale. Improvements in technology have significantly increased the production capabilities of modern cyclotron-based isotope production facilities. In particular, the change to negative ion acceleration and new high power systems have resulted in dramatic improvements in reliability, increases in capacity, and decreases in personnel radiation dose. As more and more older machines are retired, decisions regarding their replacement are made based on several factors including the market's potential and the cyclotron system's abilities. Taking the case of the recently upgraded TR30 cyclotron at TRIUMF/Nordion, the authors investigate the requirements industrial/medical users are likely to impose on future commercial cyclotron systems and the impact this will have on cyclotron technology by the end of the century

  6. Recent development and progress of IBA cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeven, W., E-mail: Willem.Kleeven@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Abs, M., E-mail: Michel.Abs@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Delvaux, J.L., E-mail: Jean-Luc.Delvaux@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Forton, E., E-mail: Eric.Forton@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Jongen, Y., E-mail: Yves.Jongen@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Medeiros Romao, L., E-mail: Luis.MedeirosRomao@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nactergal, B., E-mail: Benoit.Nactergal@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nuttens, V., E-mail: Vincent.Nuttens@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Servais, T., E-mail: Thomas.Servais@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vanderlinden, T., E-mail: Thierry.Vanderlinden@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Zaremba, S., E-mail: Simon.Zaremba@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    Several cyclotron development projects were recently realized by Ion Beam Applications S.A. (IBA). This contribution presents three of them: (i) the intensity enhancement of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron, a machine mainly used for the production of SPECT isotopes. This project is related with the increased demand for {sup 201}Tl because of the shortage of Mo/Tc generators from nuclear reactors, (ii) development of a new versatile multiple-particle K = 30 isotope-production cyclotron (the Cyclone 30XP) being able to accelerate H{sup -}, D{sup -} and also {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-beam of this cyclotron will allow the production of new therapeutic isotopes (e.g. {sup 211}At) and (iii) commissioning of the Cyclone 70 cyclotron installed for Arronax in France. This machine is similar to the C30XP but provides higher energy (K = 70) and allows research on new types of medical isotopes.

  7. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  8. Calculation of particle dynamics in CI-10 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, E.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    The calculations of beam dynamic characteristics of High-Intensity Cyclotron-Injector CI-10 for deuteron beam of 15 MeV energy are presented. Analytical estimations of space charge effects are given. In order to increase the intensity of the accelerator beam some ideas about the cyclotron design modification are given too. (author)

  9. Studies of electron cyclotron emission on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandy, R.F.

    1990-07-01

    The Auburn University electron cyclotron emission (ECE) system has made many significant contributions to the TEXT experimental program during the past five years. Contributions include electron temperature information used in the following areas of study: electron cyclotron heating (ECH), pellet injection, and impurity/energy transport. Details of the role which the Auburn ECE system has played will now be discussed

  10. Initial operation of the cyclotron CYTRACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Yu.N.; Dolya, S.N.; Kalinichenko, V.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Kostromin, S.A.; Fedorenko, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    The industrial cyclotron CYTRACK is dedicated to produce the track membranes. It is the basic instrument for the industry of membrane products to be consumed in medicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, microelectronics and many other industries. Cyclotron CYTRACK started working in August 2002. Argon ions were accelerated to the project energy - 2.4 MeV/nucleon, the extracted beam intensity was about 200 nA, the extraction efficiency totaled ∼50%

  11. Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Unkelbach, Jan; Trofimov, Alexei; Madden, Thomas; Kooy, Hanne; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David

    2012-02-01

    We present a method to include robustness in a multi-criteria optimization (MCO) framework for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The approach allows one to simultaneously explore the trade-off between different objectives as well as the trade-off between robustness and nominal plan quality. In MCO, a database of plans each emphasizing different treatment planning objectives, is pre-computed to approximate the Pareto surface. An IMPT treatment plan that strikes the best balance between the different objectives can be selected by navigating on the Pareto surface. In our approach, robustness is integrated into MCO by adding robustified objectives and constraints to the MCO problem. Uncertainties (or errors) of the robust problem are modeled by pre-calculated dose-influence matrices for a nominal scenario and a number of pre-defined error scenarios (shifted patient positions, proton beam undershoot and overshoot). Objectives and constraints can be defined for the nominal scenario, thus characterizing nominal plan quality. A robustified objective represents the worst objective function value that can be realized for any of the error scenarios and thus provides a measure of plan robustness. The optimization method is based on a linear projection solver and is capable of handling large problem sizes resulting from a fine dose grid resolution, many scenarios, and a large number of proton pencil beams. A base-of-skull case is used to demonstrate the robust optimization method. It is demonstrated that the robust optimization method reduces the sensitivity of the treatment plan to setup and range errors to a degree that is not achieved by a safety margin approach. A chordoma case is analyzed in more detail to demonstrate the involved trade-offs between target underdose and brainstem sparing as well as robustness and nominal plan quality. The latter illustrates the advantage of MCO in the context of robust planning. For all cases examined, the robust optimization for

  12. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  13. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  14. Present situation of 'baby cyclotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Teruo

    1981-01-01

    A ''baby cyclotron'' has been developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. Its No. 1 model (proton 9.4 MeV) was delivered to the Nakano Hospital of National Sanatorium in March, 1979. It is being used successfully for the production of 11 C, 13 N and 15 O and labeled compounds. The proton or deuteron particles accelerated in the cyclotron collide on target materials. The target box, which is automatically changeable, is directly installed to the accelerating box, thereby taking the safety measures for any leaking radiation. The following matters are described: the production of short-lived radioisotopes (RI yields and treatment); the processes of production in the Nakano Hospital, with No. 1 baby cyclotron, including the photosynthesis of labeled compounds such as 11 C-labeled glucose; the research on the automation in the synthesis of organic labeled compounds like 11 C-palmitic acid. (J.P.N.)

  15. Trends in cyclotrons for radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA recently concluded a worldwide survey of the cyclotrons used for radionuclide production. Most of the institutions responded to the questionnaire. The responses identified technical, utilisation and administrative information for 206 cyclotrons. Compiled data includes the characteristics, performance and popularity of each of the different commercial cyclotrons. Over 20 cyclotrons are scheduled for installation in 1998. The expansion in the number of cyclotron installations during the last decade was driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (namely, positron emission tomography (PET), and more recently by 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons; and recent governmental decisions that permit reimbursement for cyclotron radiopharmaceutical studies by the government or insurance companies. The priorities for the production of clinical, commercial and research radionuclides were identified. The emphasis is on radionuclides used for medical diagnosis with SPET (e.g. 123 I, 201 Tl) and PET (e.g. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F) radiopharmaceuticals, and for individualized patient radiation treatment planning (e.g. 64 Cu, 86 Y, 124 I) with PET. There is an emerging trend to advance the cyclotron as an alternative method to nuclear reactors for the production of neutron-rich radionuclides (e.g. 64 Cu, 103 Pd, 186 Re) needed for therapeutic applications. (authors)

  16. Computer design of a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing Wang; Huanfeng Hao; Qinggao Yao; Jinquan Zhang; Mingtao Song; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Smirnov, V.L.; Hongwei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Here we present results of the computer design of the structural elements of a compact cyclotron by the example of HITFiL cyclotron selected as the driving accelerator that is under construction at the Institute of Modern Physics (Lanzhou, China). In the article a complex approach to modeling of the compact cyclotron, including calculation of electromagnetic fields of the structural elements and beam dynamics calculations, is described. The existing design data on the axial injection, magnetic, acceleration and extraction systems of the cyclotron are used as a starting point in the simulation. Some of the upgrades of the cyclotron structural elements were proposed, which led to substantial improvement of the beam quality and transmission

  17. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  18. Applied research with cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.; Dmitriev, S.; Gulbekian, G.; Gikal, B.; Ivanov, O.; Reutov, V.; Skuratov, V.

    2005-01-01

    During the past three decades the Flerov laboratory carried out research and development of a number of applications that have found or may find use in modern technologies. One of the applications is the so-called ion track technology enabling us to create micro- and nano-structured materials. Accelerated heavy ion beams are the unique tools for structuring insulating solids in a controllable manner. At FLNR JINR the U-400 cyclotron and the IC-100 cyclotron are employed for irradiation of materials to be modified by the track-etch technique. For practical applications, U-400 delivers the 86 Kr ion beams with total energies of 250, 350, 430 and 750 MeV, and the 136 Xe ion beams with the energy of 430 MeV. The cyclotron is equipped with a specialized channel for irradiation of polymer foils. IC-100 is a compact accelerator specially designed for the technological uses. High-intensity krypton ion beams with the energy of ∼ 1 MeV/u are available now at IC-100. Production of track-etch membranes is an example of mature technology based on irradiation with accelerated ions. The track-etch membranes offer distinct advantages over other types of membranes due to their precisely determined structure. One-pore, oligo-pore and multi-pore samples can serve as models for studying the transport of liquids, gases, particles, solutes, and electrolytes in narrow channels. Track-etch pores are also used as templates for making nano wires, nano tubes or array of nano rods. The microstructures obtained this way may find use in miniaturized devices such as sensors for biologically important molecules. Bulk and surface modification for the production of new composites and materials with special optical properties can be performed with ion beams. Flexible printed circuits, high-performance heat transfer modules, X-ray filters, and protective signs are examples of products developed in collaboration with research and industrial partners. Some recent achievements and promising ideas that

  19. Medical cyclotron basic concepts and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    More than 3000 nuclides are known, of which approximately 2700 are radioactive, and rest are stable. The majority of radionuclides are artificially produced in the reactor and cyclotron. In a cyclotron, Charge particle such as proton, Deuteron, á (Alpha) particle, 3 He particles and so forth are accelerated in circular paths within the Dees under vacuum by means of an electromagnetic field. These accelerated particles can possess few KeV to several BeV of kinetic energy depending on the design of the cyclotron. At our setup we have an 11 MeV dual beam multi target cyclotron which is capable producing 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F and 2 F radioisotopes and all have been successfully produced and tested in our lab. Earlier cyclotrons were the best source of high-energy beams for nuclear physics experiments; several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of research. Cyclotrons can be used to treat cancer. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used, as in proton therapy. The positron emitting isotopes are suitable for PET imaging. As discussed we are producing mainly Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13, Oxygen-15, and Fluorine-18: These are positron emitters used in PET for studying brain physiology and pathology, in particular for localizing epileptic focus, and in dementia, psychiatry and neuropharmacology studies. So these are having significant role in diagnosis of Oncological, Neurological and Cardiological disorder. More than ninety percent we are producing 18 F in FDG. 18 F in FDG (Flouro-Deoxy-glucose) has become very important in detection of cancers and the monitoring of progress in their treatment, using PET. Medical cyclotron is complex equipment requiring delicate handling by highly trained personnel. The aim of this article is to highlight few finer aspects of Medical cyclotron operation, including precautions for safety and smooth functioning of this sophisticated equipment. (author)

  20. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Shuichi; Asada, Yorihisa; Yano, Munehiko; Nakanii, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. This article presents a new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and is equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports. The article describes a series of experiments, we conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained from 9 Be(p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. The article also describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Further, some of practical neutron radiograph examinations of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror and an attempt realizing real time imaging technique, are introduced in the article. (author)

  1. Medical applications of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.; Fauchet, M.

    1978-01-01

    Isochronous cyclotrons used to accelerate different charged particles (protons, deuterons, alphas...) at variable energies, have important medical applications, for neutron teletherapy, in vivo or in vitro activation analysis or production of short-lived radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. The characteristics of the cyclotron presently available are described for these three applications (low energy 'compact' cyclotrons, cyclotrons of intermediate and high energies), and their advantages are discussed from the points of view of the medical requirements, the financial investments and the results obtained. (orig.) [de

  2. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  3. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  4. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactors, nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; atomic and materials studies; nuclear theory; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  5. First results of beam generation test for JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of JAERI AVF cyclotron was investigated with several kinds of ions in the wide energy range. The 90 MeV protons of 10 μA intensity was successfully extracted for the first time by the model 930 cyclotron. The feature of beam chopping system is also presented. (author)

  6. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  7. Impact of a standardized nurse observation protocol including MEWS after Intensive Care Unit discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, K; Das, T; Hellemans, K; Verbrugghe, W; Jorens, P G; Verpooten, G A; Van Bogaert, P

    2013-02-01

    Analysis of in-hospital mortality after serious adverse events (SAE's) in our hospital showed the need for more frequent observation in medical and surgical wards. We hypothesized that the incidence of SAE's could be decreased by introducing a standard nurse observation protocol. To investigate the effect of a standard nurse observation protocol implementing the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) and a color graphic observation chart. Pre- and post-intervention study by analysis of patients records for a 5-day period after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge to 14 medical and surgical wards before (n=530) and after (n=509) the intervention. For the total study population the mean Patient Observation Frequency Per Nursing Shift (POFPNS) during the 5-day period after ICU discharge increased from .9993 (95% C.I. .9637-1.0350) in the pre-intervention period to 1.0732 (95% C.I. 1.0362-1.1101) (p=.005) in the post-intervention period. There was an increased risk of a SAE in patients with MEWS 4 or higher in the present nursing shift (HR 8.25; 95% C.I. 2.88-23.62) and the previous nursing shift (HR 12.83;95% C.I. 4.45-36.99). There was an absolute risk reduction for SAE's within 120h after ICU discharge of 2.2% (95% C.I. -0.4-4.67%) from 5.7% to 3.5%. The intervention had a positive impact on the observation frequency. MEWS had a predictive value for SAE's in patients after ICU discharge. The drop in SAE's was substantial but did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report examines the separate proposals from the Austin Hospital and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for a medical cyclotron facility. The proponents have argued that a cyclotron facility would benefit Australia in areas of patient care, availability and export of radioisotopes, and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and neutron beam therapy are also examined

  9. 20 years Rossendorf cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of initiating of the Rossendorf cyclotron accounts are given of most important works and results in the field of accelerator engineering and utilization of this machine. The reports show the trend of development and actual spectrum of application. The enclosed literature lists give a survey of technical and experimental works at cyclotron. (author)

  10. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  11. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report contains descriptions of research programs carried out by Institute staff, as well as progress on new instrumentation during the period, April 1, 1990, to March 31, 1991. The K500 cyclotron and ECR source provided beam for 4140 hours during the period. The beam was actually available for experiments 1927.50 hours and 1110.50 hours was devoted to developing new beams and exploring cyclotron performance. A wide range of beams from protons to Xe with energies from 2.4 MeV/u to 60 MeV/U have been used in experiments. The highest total energy beam accelerated was 35 MeV/u 63 Cu. The ECR source, made a tremendous improvement in accelerator performance and reliability. Substantial amounts of beam time were devoted to investigations of hot nuclei, electron-positron, giant resonances, atomic effects of high velocity ion beams, astrophysics related reactions and proton and alpha bremsstrahlung. Scientific accomplishments included determination of the heat capacity of nuclei through new insight into the level densities and establishing a lower limit for electron positron resonances a factor of ten better than previous measurements. The proton spectrometer, constructed for studies of the Gamow-Teller interaction is complete, and initial physics measurements will be made in the next few months. All of the BaF 2 crystals have been delivered and acceptance tests are underway. A K=315 MDM spectrometer has been obtained from Oxford University and is scheduled for installation in Spring 1992, after removal of the K=150 Enge split pole spectrometer. Institute groups continue participation in MEGA, instrumentation projects for RHIC, and few nucleon studies at LAMPF and KEK. Reports of these activities are included

  12. Building 211 cyclotron characterization survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-30

    The Building 211 Cyclotron Characterization Survey includes an assessment of the radioactive and chemical inventory of materials stored within the facility; an evaluation of the relative distribution of accelerator-produced activation products within various cyclotron components and adjacent structures; measurement of the radiation fields throughout the facility; measurement and assessment of internal and external radioactive surface contamination on various equipment, facility structures, and air-handling systems; and an assessment of lead (Pb) paint and asbestos hazards within the facility.

  13. Tachyonic cyclotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    2006-01-01

    We study superluminal cyclotron emission by electrons and muons in semiclassical orbits. The tachyonic line spectra of hydrogenic ions such as H, 56 Fe 25+ , and 238 U 91+ , as well as their muonic counterparts pμ - , 56 Fe 26+ μ - and 238 U 92+ μ - are calculated, in particular the tachyonic power transversally and longitudinally radiated, the total intensity, and the power radiated in the individual harmonics. We also investigate tachyonic continuum radiation from electrons and protons cycling in the surface and light cylinder fields of γ -ray and millisecond pulsars, such as the Crab pulsar, PSR B1509-58, and PSR J0218 + 4232. The superluminal spectral densities generated by non-relativistic, mildly relativistic and ultra-relativistic source particles are derived. We study the parameters determining the global shape of the transversal and longitudinal densities and the energy scales of the broadband spectrum. The observed cutoff frequency in the γ-ray band of the pulsars is used to infer the upper edge of the orbital energy, and we conclude that electrons and nuclei cycling in the surface fields can reach energies beyond the ''ankle'' of the cosmic ray spectrum. This suggests γ-ray pulsars as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  14. RF control hardware design for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Pengzhan; Wei, Junyi; Xing, Jiansheng; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-21

    The Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility project is being constructed by BRIF division of China Institute of Atomic Energy. In this project, a 100 MeV high intensity compact proton cyclotron is built for multiple applications. The first successful beam extraction of CYCIAE-100 cyclotron was done in the middle of 2014. The extracted proton beam energy is 100 MeV and the beam current is more than 20 μA. The RF system of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron includes two half-wavelength cavities, two 100 kW tetrode amplifiers and power transmission line systems (all above are independent from each other) and two sets of Low Level RF control crates. Each set of LLRF control includes an amplitude control unit, a tuning control unit, a phase control unit, a local Digital Signal Process control unit and an Advanced RISC Machines based EPICS IOC unit. These two identical LLRF control crates share one common reference clock and take advantages of modern digital technologies (e.g. DSP and Direct Digital Synthesizer) to achieve closed loop voltage and phase regulations of the dee-voltage. In the beam commission, the measured dee-voltage stability of RF system is better than 0.1% and phase stability is better than 0.03°. The hardware design of the LLRF system will be reviewed in this paper.

  15. Progress report: Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the progress report brings out the scientific and technical activities of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta during the year 1999. This includes brief review of the various R and D activities of the Centre and outside users of the cyclotron from the universities and other research institutes. The operational activities of the cyclotron with ECR ion sources, accelerator oriented research activities, activities on detector, target and electronics are reported. The activities of the Computer and Informatics group are described. The status report of the ongoing projects is also provided. The main activities of the superconducting cyclotron project, radioactive ion beam project, heavy ion experimental facility, advanced computational facility, recovery and analysis of helium from hot springs and material science research are described

  16. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  17. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic coil which forms the first section of the proton extraction channel in the improved synchro-cyclotron. The photograph shows the positioning gear and the current septum. An extraction efficiency above 50% is expected.

  19. Development of cyclotron solid targetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, J.; Deans, T.; Cryer, D.; Price, R.

    2004-01-01

    bunker. Electrometers were attached to measure beam current obtained on the target and on the beam line. This was to ensure that the ratio of current hitting the target position is optimised compared to the current hitting the beam line. Teflon (mp: 285-295 deg C) was used in order to electrically isolate the target from the beam line. The cyclotron roughing pump was used to pull the beam line down to 10 -3 bar. The isolation valve between the beam line and the cyclotron was opened. The cyclotron was run for 10 minutes at a low current During the first trial of the beam line two main problems arose: 1. Although the beam line was brought down to 10 3 bar prior to the isolation valve being opened, the large volume within the beam line (compared with that in the regularly used liquid targets) contained enough air to cause flow into the cyclotron, sufficient to rupture the strippers. 2. The bombardment melted the Teflon insulator. Due to these faults the design of the beam line was changed. A diffusion pump was fitted to the beam line which evacuated the beam line to 10 -7 bar. The beam line was fitted onto the cyclotron and the port isolation valve opened. There was no loss of stripper integrity. This design improvement of including the diffusion pump on the beam line was therefore successful. The target body was electrically isolated from the beam line further away from the target and also incorporated water cooling via a water flow system, therefore the temperature of this component will not reach its melting point. The next step is to bombard the target to verify that the new cooling system is successful. Once this bombardment has been conducted successfully, the next step in the project is to irradiate a disc of known substance and get a profile of the beam at the target position by measuring the emissions from the disc using radiographic film. Considerable progress has been achieved in the design of a facility for bombarding solid targets, using the medical cyclotron

  20. Nonlinear cyclotron absorption and stimulated scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), wave sources heating a plasma linearly with respect to intensity; but as the intensity of ECRH gets larger, there might appear nonlinear effects that would result in cutoff of net absorption. This thesis uses quantum mechanical theory to derive a threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption. The quantum mechanical theory estimates that the threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption is about 10 5 watts/cm 2 for a microwave heating experiment (T/sub e/ = 100 ev, λ = 3,783 cm, B = 2.5 kG). This value seems large considering the present power capabilities of microwave sources (10 2 ∼ 10 3 watts/cm 2 ), but for a low temperature plasma, this threshold will go down. There is another nonlinear phenomenon called stimulated cyclotron scattering that enhances photon scattering by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field. This is expected to prevent incoming photons from arriving at the central region of the fusion plasma, where absorption mainly takes place. Theory based on a photon transport model predicts that the threshold intensity for the stimulated cyclotron scattering is about 10 4 watts/cm 2 for the plasma parameters mentioned above. This value seems large also, but a longer wavelength of microwaves and a larger magnitude magnetic field, which will be the case in reactor type facilities, will lower the threshold intensity to levels comparable with the currently developed microwave sources

  1. arXiv Cyclotrons: Magnetic Design and Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaremba, Simon

    Classical, isochronous, and synchro-cyclotrons are introduced. Transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics in these accelerators are covered. The problem of vertical focusing and iscochronism in compact isochronous cyclotrons is treated in some detail. Different methods for isochronization of the cyclotron magnetic field are discussed. The limits of the classical cyclotron are explained. Typical features of the synchro-cyclotron, such as the beam capture problem, stable phase motion, and the extraction problem are discussed. The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with an internal ion source are considered. The principle of a Penning ion gauge source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different methods of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. Different solutions for beam extraction are described. These include the internal target, extracti...

  2. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Dawson, R.; Erdman, K.L.

    1989-05-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. TRIUMF is cooperating with a local industrial company in designing and constructing such a cyclotron. It will be a four sector H - cyclotron, exploiting the newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source. This source with H - current capability in excess of 5 mA makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of up to 500 μA. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Extraction of two high-intensity beams, with energy variable from 15 to 30 MeV is planned. The use of an external ion source, provision of a good vacuum in the acceleration region, and the careful choice of materials for components in the median plane leads to a cyclotron that will have low activation and can be easily serviced in spite of the very high operating beam intensities. A design extension to 70 MeV using many of the design features of the 30 MeV cyclotron can be easily made. Such a machine with a good quality variable energy beam is a highly desirable source of protons for isotope production, injection into higher energy high intensity acceleration, injection into higher energy high intensity accelerators, and as an irradiation facility for ocular melanomas. Design of the 30 MeV cyclotron is well advanced and construction is in progress

  3. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10 30 MeV for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.

    2008-07-01

    A survey of commercial cyclotrons for production of medical and industrial isotopes is presented. Compact isochronous cyclotrons which accelerate negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 10 30 MeV have been widely used over the last 25 years for production of medical isotopes and other applications. Different cyclotron models for the energy range 10 12 MeV with moderate beam intensity are used for production of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F isotopes widely applied in positron emission tomography. Commercial cyclotrons with high beam intensity are available on the market for production of most medical and industrial isotopes. In this work, the physical and technical parameters of different models are compared. Possibilities of improving performance and increasing intensity of H- beams up to 2 3 mA are discussed.

  4. Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J.; Glasgow, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 16 O 8+ . Total external intensities of these beams range from 10 12 particles/s for 6 Li 3+ to 0.1 particles/s for 16 O 8+ . Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed

  5. Slow wave cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Lin, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclotron masers such as Gyrotrons and the Autoresonance Masers, are fast wave devices: the electromagnetic wave's phase velocity v rho , is greater than the electron beam velocity, v b . To be able to convert the beam kinetic energy into radiation in these devices the beam must have an initial transverse momentum, usually obtained by propagating the beam through a transverse wiggler magnet, or along a nonuniform guide magnetic field before entry into the interaction region. Either process introduces a significant amount of thermal spread in the beam which degrades the performance of the maser. However, if the wave phase velocity v rho v b , the beam kinetic energy can be converted directly into radiation without the requirement of an initial transverse beam momentum, making a slow wave cyclotron maser a potentially simpler and more compact device. The authors present the linear and nonlinear physics of the slow wave cyclotron maser and examine its potential for practical application

  6. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  7. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  8. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  9. Production of radiopharmaceuticals by cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, F.; Van Naemen, J.; Monclus, M.; Van Gansbeke, B.; Kadiata, M.; Ekelmans, D.; Moray, M.; Penninckx, R.; Goldman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Companies specialized in the development and installation of accelerator-based systems dedicated to the medical applications brought on the market cyclotrons well fitted to the requests of the industrial community or universities and so covering every segment of the market. These machines are fully automatic, and need reduced maintenance; they are highly specialized for defined tasks. They can produce high beam intensity and realize dual beam irradiation. Also the prices are reducing considerably. The targets and the automatic system follow the same trend. Unfortunately, the flexibility of these devices for new area of research and development has been dramatically reduced. The growing number of PET cameras has increased the popularity of PET tracers used for nuclear imaging. Consequently, there is a growing demand for these radiopharmaceuticals compounds labeled with short-lived radioisotopes for clinical applications. From a research and development tool in the eighties, PET has now grown up to a clinical tool. Moreover, depending of the social welfare, reimbursement of some PET examinations is granted, which accelerates the trend for an extended use of PET tracers. Regulatory affairs try to establish and standardize the control on these radiopharmaceutical compounds produced in a growing number of local radio pharmacies owning a baby cyclotron. On the other hand, the attention of equipment suppliers was brought in the setting up of a total quality control follow up. These efforts were successively achieved by getting for instance the ISO 9001 certificate

  10. Building on TR-24 success. Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc. launches a new cyclotron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell Watt; William Gyles; Alexander Zyuzin

    2015-01-01

    ACSI is designing a new 30 MeV cyclotron based on the TR-24. While minimizing changes from the proven TR-24, including maintaining the same outer dimensions, the energy of the cyclotron will be increased to 30 MeV, which will make it the most compact, non-superconducting, 30 MeV cyclotron design to date. Maximum beam current will match the TR-24 at 1 mA. With the size and footprint of a typical low energy PET cyclotron, this system will offer users a cost effective solution for a diversified facility capable of producing a wide spectrum of PET and SPECT radioisotopes for research and commercial distribution. (author)

  11. Cyclotron to Oslo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstad, J.

    1978-01-01

    The new cyclotron was delivered to Oslo University on September 21st 1978, and was mannfactured by A/B Scandtronix of Uppsala, Sweden. The contract price was 6,8 million Norwegian kroner and installation will cost a further 4 million. The main specifications are given. The energy will be 36 MeV for protons and alpha particles, 18 MeV deuterons and 48 MeV for helium 3. The principle of a cyclotron is briefly described. While the primary purpose of the machine is nuclear research it is also planned to produce short-lived radioisotopes, primarily iodine 123. (JIW)

  12. National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Rex.

    1991-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron, under construction at Sydney's Royal Prince Alfred Hospital(RPAH) is to be operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization in collaboration with the hospital. Its main purpose is to produce radioisotopes on commercial basis for distribution to hospitals through Australia as well as short-lived radioisotopes (2 minutes to 2 hours) for immediate application at RPAH in Positron Emission Tomography, to study the dynamics of human physiology and metabolism in organs, bones and soft tissues. A list of the principal cyclotron-produced radionuclides is provided. ills

  13. Design features and operating characteristics of the MC-50 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Hae Ill; Bak, Joo Shik

    1989-01-01

    The MC-50 cyclotron at Korean Cancer Center Hospital is now operational for neutron therapy and medical radioisotope production. Design features, mechanical structures and operating characteristics of the MC-50 are described in this paper. Optimum operating condition for this cyclotron has been determined by the repetitive running, and the performances of the internal beam have been investigated through the measurements of intensity and spatial distribution of the internal beam as a function of the radius of the cyclotron. Routinely, the 40 μA of 50 MeV protons have been obtained at first Faraday cup with a extraction efficiency of 61%. (Author)

  14. Decommissioning analyzis of a university cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.X.; Buls, N.; Hermanne, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the widespread use of some medical nuclear facilities, such as cyclotrons for isotope production, Life cycle analyzis, including decommissioning, was not taken into account. The structural materials of an accelerator and the concrete shielding of the bunker are activated by neutrons. This could yield a considerable volume of nuclear waste and needs radiation protection concern for occupational workers and the environment during some decennia. At the university of Brussels (WB) a prospective radiation protection and waste analyzis is being made for the later decommissioning of their cyclotron. Only few similar studies have been published. In Belgium future nuclear dismantling operations will be submitted to a radiation protection authorization procedure. Meanwhile the nuclear waste authorities insist on dismantling planning, including financial provisioning. An optimization exercise was made at the VUB-cyclotron, taking into account international trends to clearance levels for low level nuclear waste. Conceptual prevention opportunities e.g. selective material choice could be identified for future accelerator constructions. (author)

  15. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  16. Biomedical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, N.S.; Birdsall, R.; Takahaski, J.; McConnel, L.; Wood, R.; Wakakuwa, S.

    1976-01-01

    During the fifth year of operation the mechanical performance of the cyclotron and accessory equipment was excellent. Major items put into operation were a small computer system interfaced with Ge-Li gamma spectrometer and a pneumatic-tube system for fast delivery of short-lived radionuclides. A table is presented listing the radionuclides produced

  17. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the μ → eγ decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal μ decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Z projectile -- Z target combinations. Studies of the (α,2α) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references

  18. Passive cyclotron current drive for fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernbichler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The creation of toroidal current using cyclotron radiation in a passive way is, together with the well known bootstrap current, an interesting method for stationary current drive in high-temperature fusion reactors. Here, instead of externally applied RF-waves, fish-scale like structures at the first wall help to create enough asymmetry in the self generated cyclotron radiation intensity to drive a current within the plasma. The problem of computing passive cyclotron current drive consists of actually two linked problems, which are the computation of the electron equilibrium under the presence of self-generated radiation, and the computation of the photon equilibrium in a bounded system with a distorted electron distribution. This system of integro-differential equations cannot be solved directly in an efficient way. Therefore a linearization procedure was developed to decouple both sets of equations, finally linked through a generalized local current drive efficiency. The problem of the exact accounting for the wall profile effects was reduced to the solution of a Fredholm-type integral equation of the 2 nd -kind. Based on all this an extensive computer code was developed to compute the passively driven current as well as radiation losses, radiation transport and overall efficiencies. The results therefrom give an interesting and very detailed insight into the problems related to passive cyclotron current drive

  19. DAISY - the Oslo Cyclotron data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsoey, T.

    1991-08-01

    The new CACTUS multidetector system for the Oslo Cyclotron consists of 8 particle telescopes, 28 NAI detectors and 2 Ge detectors. Each detector gives rise to one energy parameter and one time parameter. Thus, a total of 80 parameters are present. The counting rate is 100 kByte/s for the highest beam intensities. A new data acquisition system, DAISY, satisfying these demands has been designed. The present report is intended as a complete technical manual for the new system. 24 refs

  20. Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits

  1. Goodbye Synchro-Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-12-15

    On 17 December, after having seen many other physics machines come and go during its 33-year career, CERN's 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC) is being shut down. Judged simply by its length (to say nothing of its quality), the research career of this machine testifies to the wisdom and imagination of the CERN pioneers who proposed it in the early 1950s.

  2. Goodbye Synchro-Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    On 17 December, after having seen many other physics machines come and go during its 33-year career, CERN's 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC) is being shut down. Judged simply by its length (to say nothing of its quality), the research career of this machine testifies to the wisdom and imagination of the CERN pioneers who proposed it in the early 1950s

  3. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  4. H-superconducting cyclotron for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vincent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific design of a 14-MeV H - compact superconducting cyclotron for producing of the 18 F and 13 N isotopes has been developed. Main requirements to the facility as a medical accelerator are met in the design. In particular, the main requirement for the cyclotron was the smallest possible size due to the superconducting magnet. The calculations show that the proposed cyclotron allows extracted beam intensity over 500 μA. To increase system reliability and production rates, an external H - ion source is applied. The choice of the cyclotron concept, design of the structure elements, calculation of the electromagnetic fields and beam dynamics from the ion source to the extraction system were performed.

  5. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, A.; Lei, L.; Dikhtyar, V.; Korol, M.; Jerby, E.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  6. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is one of the intense methods of plasma heating, and which utilizes the collisionless electron-cyclotron-resonance-interaction between the launched electromagnetic waves (called electron cyclotron waves) and electrons which are one of the constituents of the high temperature plasmas. Another constituent, namely the ions which are subject to nuclear fusion, are heated indirectly but strongly and instantly (in about 0.1 s) by the collisions with the ECH-heated electrons in the fusion plasmas. The recent progress on the development of high-power and high-frequency millimeter-wave-source enabled the ECH experiments in the middle size tokamaks such as JFT-2M (Japan), Doublet III (USA), T-10 (USSR) etc., and ECH has been demonstrated to be the sure and intense plasma heating method. The ECH attracts much attention for its remarkable capabilities; to produce plasmas (pre-ionization), to heat plasmas, to drive plasma current for the plasma confinement, and recently especially by the localization and the spatial controllability of its heating zone, which is beneficial for the fine controls of the profiles of plasma parameters (temperature, current density etc.), for the control of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, or for the optimization/improvement of the plasma confinement characteristics. Here, the present status of the ECH studies on tokamak plasmas are reviewed. (author)

  7. Startup work on Inshas cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorogushin, M.F.; Strokach, A.P.; Shikhov, V.Ya.; Galchuk, A.V.; Soliman, A.N.; El-Abyad, M.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Saleh, Z.A.; Azzam, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Startup works on the MGC-20 variable energy cyclotron in the Inshas Nuclear Research Center (Egypt) are described. The cyclotron is intended for acceleration of hydrogen and helium ions in a wide energy range (for protons - from 5 to 20 MeV). Main units of the cyclotron and results of computer experimental acceleration of protons to 18 MeV are described. The prospects of furthers investigations are presented [ru

  8. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Tsujii, Yukio

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. A new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports, is presented in this article. A series of experiment, prior to its construction, was conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained, from 9 Be (p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. This article describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Some of practical neutron radiograph examination of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror are also presented together with an attempt realizing real time imaging technique. (author)

  9. Multidisciplinary team-based approach for comprehensive preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation including intensive nutritional support for lung cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Harada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To decrease the risk of postoperative complication, improving general and pulmonary conditioning preoperatively should be considered essential for patients scheduled to undergo lung surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop a short-term beneficial program of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation for lung cancer patients. METHODS: From June 2009, comprehensive preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (CHPR including intensive nutritional support was performed prospectively using a multidisciplinary team-based approach. Postoperative complication rate and the transitions of pulmonary function in CHPR were compared with historical data of conventional preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (CVPR conducted since June 2006. The study population was limited to patients who underwent standard lobectomy. RESULTS: Postoperative complication rate in the CVPR (n = 29 and CHPR (n = 21 were 48.3% and 28.6% (p = 0.2428, respectively. Those in patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index scores ≥2 were 68.8% (n = 16 and 27.3% (n = 11, respectively (p = 0.0341 and those in patients with preoperative risk score in Estimation of Physiologic Ability and Surgical Stress scores >0.3 were 57.9% (n = 19 and 21.4% (n = 14, respectively (p = 0.0362. Vital capacities of pre- and post intervention before surgery in the CHPR group were 2.63±0.65 L and 2.75±0.63 L (p = 0.0043, respectively; however, their transition in the CVPR group was not statistically significant (p = 0.6815. Forced expiratory volumes in one second of pre- and post intervention before surgery in the CHPR group were 1.73±0.46 L and 1.87±0.46 L (p = 0.0012, respectively; however, their transition in the CVPR group was not statistically significant (p = 0.6424. CONCLUSIONS: CHPR appeared to be a beneficial and effective short-term preoperative rehabilitation protocol, especially in patients with poor preoperative conditions.

  10. Multidisciplinary team-based approach for comprehensive preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation including intensive nutritional support for lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Misumi, Keizo; Tsubokawa, Norifumi; Nakao, Junichi; Matsutani, Junko; Yamasaki, Miyako; Ohkawachi, Tomomi; Taniyama, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    To decrease the risk of postoperative complication, improving general and pulmonary conditioning preoperatively should be considered essential for patients scheduled to undergo lung surgery. The aim of this study is to develop a short-term beneficial program of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation for lung cancer patients. From June 2009, comprehensive preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (CHPR) including intensive nutritional support was performed prospectively using a multidisciplinary team-based approach. Postoperative complication rate and the transitions of pulmonary function in CHPR were compared with historical data of conventional preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (CVPR) conducted since June 2006. The study population was limited to patients who underwent standard lobectomy. Postoperative complication rate in the CVPR (n = 29) and CHPR (n = 21) were 48.3% and 28.6% (p = 0.2428), respectively. Those in patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index scores ≥2 were 68.8% (n = 16) and 27.3% (n = 11), respectively (p = 0.0341) and those in patients with preoperative risk score in Estimation of Physiologic Ability and Surgical Stress scores >0.3 were 57.9% (n = 19) and 21.4% (n = 14), respectively (p = 0.0362). Vital capacities of pre- and post intervention before surgery in the CHPR group were 2.63±0.65 L and 2.75±0.63 L (p = 0.0043), respectively; however, their transition in the CVPR group was not statistically significant (p = 0.6815). Forced expiratory volumes in one second of pre- and post intervention before surgery in the CHPR group were 1.73±0.46 L and 1.87±0.46 L (p = 0.0012), respectively; however, their transition in the CVPR group was not statistically significant (p = 0.6424). CHPR appeared to be a beneficial and effective short-term preoperative rehabilitation protocol, especially in patients with poor preoperative conditions.

  11. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  12. Operational health and physics service during the maintenance of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1994-01-01

    Modern Medical Cyclotrons use intense beams of high energy protons or deuterons to produce large activities of short and medium lived radionuclides. After continuous operation for prolonged periods the Cyclotron components become activated through various nuclear interactions therefore, the risk of personal radiation hazard while handling such activated cyclotron components is high. This paper describes all operational aspects of the Health Physics service evolved during the first preventative maintenance program of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron, which took place in June 1993. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-10-09

    Progress is reported in the design, installation of various components of the cyclotron, including coils, magnets, rf system, and vacuum system. Also reported are measurements on magnets and rf components. (LEW)

  14. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-06-30

    Progress is reported in the fabrication and testing of cyclotron components, including magnet system and rf system components. Work on vacuum components and instrumentation and control equipment is also reported. (LEW)

  15. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-01-17

    Progress is reported in the fabrication, installation, and testing of cyclotron components, including magnets and coils, rf components, vacuum and control equipment. Also reported are magnet and rf component measurements. (LEW)

  16. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  17. Ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in tokamak and EBT configurations has been studied using 1-2/2 and 2-1/2 dimensional fully self-consistent electromagnetic particle codes. We have tested two major antenna configurations; we have also compared heating efficiencies for one and two ion species plasmas. We model a tokamak plasma with a uniform poloidal field and 1/R toroidal field on a particular q surface. Ion cyclotron waves are excited on the low field side by antennas parallel either to the poloidal direction or to the toroidal direction with different phase velocities. In 2D, minority ion heating (vsub(perpendicular)) and electron heating (vsub(parallel),vsub(perpendicular)) are observed. The exponential electron heating seems due to the decay instability. The minority heating is consistent with mode conversion of fast Alfven waves and heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Minority heating is stronger with a poloidal antenna. The strong electron heating is accompanied by toroidal current generation. In 1D, no thermal instability was observed and only strong minority heating resulted. For an EBT plasma we model it by a multiple mirror. We have tested heating efficiency with various minority concentrations, temperatures, mirror ratios, and phase velocities. In this geometry we have beach or inverse beach heating associated with the mode conversion layer perpendicular to the toroidal field. No appreciable electron heating is observed. Heating of ions is linear in time. For both tokamak and EBT slight majority heating above the collisional rate is observed due to the second harmonic heating. (author)

  18. Health physics aspects of the 1.5M cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, W.J.; Du, H.L.; Wei, Z.Q.; Xia, X.S.; Zheng, H.Z.; Jiang, G.F.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The 1.5m cyclotron in Institute of Modern Physics, Academia Sinica had operated for about 20 years until 1984 then converted to 1.7m sector focusing cyclotron. In this period it mainly used for fast neutron physics, light ion induced nucleus reactions, radioisotope production and heavy ion reactions. The health physics performed on this cyclotron including personnel dose monitoring, area monitoring (radiation field, radioactive aerosol, surface contamination and activated components etc.), maintenance inspection, environment survey and waste disposal is presented in this paper

  19. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  20. On 'conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.M.; Parle, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors reconsider the apparent conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation, and show that earlier workers in this field did not correctly include the effects of radiation reaction in their calculations. When a 'recoil' term, calculated using relativistic quantum theory, is included in the angular momentum of the particle the conflict disappears. It is found that the guiding centre of the particle drifts outwards during cyclotron radiation. (author)

  1. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  2. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  3. Status report on cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, P.; Szuecs, I.; Ander, I.; Lakatos, T.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The operation of the cyclotron in 2003 was again concentrated to 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance, renewal works and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4051 hours. The cyclotron was available for users for 3682 hours. In order to improve the circumstances of the irradiations renewal and improvements were done. (N.T.)

  4. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs

  5. Medical cyclotron: why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Kurt; Comar, Dominique; Kellershohn, Claude

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons for medical purposes are particularly useful for the production of radioactive isotopes of elements normally constituting organic matter ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C). The short half-life and positron emission of those elements are of great interest in medical diagnosis. Many others carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced by cyclotrons. Three categories of cyclotrons are mentioned. Desk top cyclotron only adapted to the production of short-lived radioisotopes in a hospital; low energy and average energy cyclotrons which require well-entrained personnel for their operation and are best adapted to the production of radioelements on a regional or even national scale. Examples relative to the interest of short-lived radioisotopes in lung and brain investigations and tumor detection are given

  6. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.; Kleevan, W.J.; Laxdal, R.E.; Milton, B.F.; Otter, A.J.; Pearson, J.B.; Poirier, R.L.; Schmor, P.W.; Schneider, H.R.; Erdman, K.L.; Walker, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. We describe such a cyclotron currently under construction. It is a 30 MeV H - design that exploits a newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source which is capable of H - currents of up to 5 mA. This together with careful beam matching then makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of 500 μA. The cyclotron being built is a four sector radial ridge design with two 45 degree dees in opposite valleys. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Two extraction probes will allow simultaneous extraction of two beams, each with an intensity of up to 200 μA. Energy variation from 15 MeV to 30 MeV is achieved by varying the radial position of the extraction foil. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. JSW's baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Y.; Kaneda, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Suzukawa, I.; Yamada, T.

    1983-01-01

    Designed by The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., specially for installation in a hospital's medical department and nuclear research laboratory, '' JSW BABY CYCLOTRON '' has been developed to produce short-lived radioisotopes such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F. JSW's Baby Cyclotron has some design features. 1) Fixed energy and four sector azimuthally varying field. 2) Compact figure desired for hospital's nuclear medical department 3) A bitter type magnet yoke shielding activity 4) Simple control and operation 5) Easy maintenance without skilled personnel. Type BC105 (P:10MeV, d:5MeV), BC107 (P:10MeV, d:7MeV), BC168 (P:16MeV, d:8MeV) and BC1710 (P:17MeV, d:10MeV) are available according to required amount of radioisotopes. In our radioisotope production test, yield and purity of 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F are usable to clinical diagnosis

  8. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  9. Modular beam diagnostics instrument design for Cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaddha, N.; Bhole, R.B.; Sahoo, S.; Nandy, P.P.; Pal, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclotrons at VECC, Kolkata i.e. Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) and Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC) comprise of internal and external Beam Diagnostic systems. These systems provide the beam developer with position, intensity, beam profile, a visual impression of the size and shape of ion beam, and operational control over diagnostic components like 3-finger probe, Beam Viewer probe, Deflector probe, Faraday cup, X-Y slit, Beam viewer etc. Automation of these components was initially done using customised modules for individual sub-system. An expansion of this facility and various levels of complexity demand modular design to cater easy modification and upgradation. The overall requirements are analysed and modular cards are developed based on basic functionalities like valve operation, probe/slit/viewer control, position read-out, Interlock, aperture control of beam line and communication. A 32-bit Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) based card with embedded EPICS is chosen as the master controller and FPGA/microcontroller is used for functional modules. The paper gives a comprehensive description of all modules and their integration with the control system. (author)

  10. Cyclotron operating mode determination based on intelligent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, M.M.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Particle accelerators are generators that produce beams of charged particles with energies depending on the accelerator type. The MGC-20 cyclotron is a cyclic particle accelerator used for accelerating protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and helium-3 to different energies. Main applications are isotopes production, nuclear reactions studies, and mass spectroscopy studies and other industrial applications. The cyclotron is a complicated machine depends on using a strong magnetic field and high frequency-high voltage electric field together to accelerate and bend charged particles inside the accelerating chamber. It consists of the following main parts, the radio frequency system, the main magnet with the auxiliary concentric and harmonic coils, the electrostatic deflector, and the ion source, the beam transport system, and high precision and high stability DC power supplies.To accelerate a particle to certain energy, one has to adjust the cyclotron operating parameters to be suitable to accelerate this particle to that energy. If the cyclotron operating parameters together are adjusted to accelerate a charged particle to certain energy, then these parameters together are named the operating mode to accelerate this particle to that energy. For example the operating mode to accelerate protons to 18 MeV is named the (18 MeV protons operating mode). The operating mode includes many parameters that must be adjusted together to be successful to accelerate, extract, focus, steer a particle from the ion source to the experiment. Due to the big number of parameters in the operating modes, 19 parameters have been selected in this thesis to be used in an intelligent system based on feed forward back propagation neural network to determine the parameters for new operating modes. The new intelligent system depends on the available information about the currently used operating modes.The classic way to determine a new operating mode was depending on trial and error method to

  11. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3 He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  12. Use of web services for computerized medical decision support, including infection control and antibiotic management, in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurbaut, Kristof; Van Hoecke, Sofie; Colpaert, Kirsten; Lamont, Kristof; Taveirne, Kristof; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominique; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU) requires complex software services, to reduce improper use of antibiotics and inappropriate therapies, and to offer earlier and more accurate detection of infections and antibiotic resistance. We investigated whether web-based software can facilitate the computerization of complex medical processes in the ICU. The COSARA application contains the following modules: Infection overview, Thorax, Microbiology, Antibiotic therapy overview, Admission cause with comorbidity and admission diagnosis, Infection linking and registration, and Feedback. After the implementation and test phase, the COSARA software was installed on a physician's office PC and then on the bedside PCs of the patients. Initial evaluation indicated that the services had been integrated easily into the daily clinical workflow of the medical staff. The use of a service oriented architecture with web service technology for the development of advanced decision support in the ICU offers several advantages over classical software design approaches.

  13. Cyclotron for industrial production of radioisotopes: relevants characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Wanderley de

    1997-01-01

    The industrial production of radioisotopes requests cyclotrons with easy maintenance services, high productivity and low operation costs. To obtain this performance the experts on the have achieved excellent results, taking advantage of modern resources in calculation and modeling. Only by the maximum exploitation of the azimutal variation of the magnetic field, a physical concept introduced in 1967 with the isocronous cyclotrons, it was possible to construct cyclotrons with only 30% of the electrical consumption required by the former cyclotrons. On the other hand, the acceleration of negative ions enable the 100% accelerated beam utilization, without internal energy dissipation, obtaining beam intensities up to 1mA in continuous running which represents an increased factor of 15. Other construction parameters were optimized aiming at reliability and reduction in the components activation. Concerning energy consumption and the beam intensity supplied, a present cyclotron with 30 MeV and 300μA of protons current is 15 times more efficient than its precedent. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Potential of cyclotron based accelerators for energy production and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammbach, T.; Adam, S.; Fitze, H.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    PSI operates a 590 MeV-cyclotron facility for high intensity proton beams for the production of intense beams of pions and muons. The facility, commissioned in 1974, has been partially upgraded and is now operated routinely at a beam current of 1 mA, which corresponds to a beam power of 0.6 MW. At this current, the beam losses in the cyclotron are about 0.02%. By the end of 1995 the authors expect to have 1.5 mA of protons. Extensive theoretical investigations on beam current limitations in isochronous cyclotrons were undertaken. They show that the longitudinal space charge effects dominate. Based on their experience the authors present a preliminary design of a cyclotron scheme that could produce a 10 MW beam as a driver for an {open_quotes}energy amplifier{close_quotes} as proposed by C. Rubbia and his collaborators. The expected efficiency for the conversion of AC into beam power would be about 50% (for the RF-systems only). The beam losses in the cyclotron are expected to be a few {mu}A, leading to a tolerable activation level.

  15. Isochronous cyclotron data base description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, I.N.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Tarashkevich, R.

    2004-01-01

    The relational data base of the control parameters of the isochronous cyclotron, Isochronous Cyclotron Data Base (ICDB), is described. The relational data base under consideration, written in Transact SQL for the MS SQL Server 2000 with the use of MS Enterprise Manager and MS Query Analyzer, was installed on the server of the AIC144 isochronous cyclotron in Krakow, which operates under the control of the operating system MS Windows Server 2003 (Standard Edition). The interface of the data base under considerations is written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ .NET and is built in the Cyclotron Operator Help Program (COHP), which is used for modeling the operational modes of the isochronous cyclotron. Communication between the COHP and the relational data base is realised on the base of the Open Data Base Connectivity protocol. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron is intended: firstly, for systematization and automatic use of all measured and modelled magnetic field maps in the process of modeling the operational modes; secondly, for systematization and convenient access to the stored operational modes; thirdly, for simplifying the operator's work. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron reflects its physical structure and the logic of its operator's work. (author)

  16. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2018-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Research activities by INS cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Research activities made by the cyclotron facility and the related apparatuses at Institute for Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo, have been reviewed in terms of the associated scientific publications. This publication list, which is to be read as a continuation of INS-Rep.-608 (October, 1986), includes experimental works on low-energy nuclear physics, accelerator technology, instrumental developments, radiation physics and other applications in interdisciplinary fields. The publications are classified into the following four categories. (A) : Internal reports published in INS. (B) : Publications in international scientific journals on experimental research works done by the cyclotron facility and the related apparatuses at INS. Those made by outside users are also included. (C) : Publications in international scientific journals on experimental low-energy nuclear physics, which have been done by the staff of INS Nuclear Physics Division using facilities outside INS. (D) : Contributions to international conferences. (author)

  18. Magnet design and test of positron emission tomography cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Yang Guojun; He Xiaozhong; Pang Jian; Zhao Liangchao; Zhang Kaizhi

    2012-01-01

    An 11 MeV H - compact cyclotron used for medical radioactive isotope production is under construction in Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP. The cyclotron magnet adopts the design of small valley gaps and coulee structure which can provide high average magnetic field and strong focus ability. To achieve 5 × 10 -4 measuring accuracy, a magnetic field mapping system has been developed. After iterative correction using field measurement data, the total phase excursion of the cyclotron is within ± 9° and the first harmonic is less than 10 -3 T, which are all acceptable. Furthermore, the beam testing declares the successful construction of the cyclotron magnet. Besides, some magnetic field influence factors were discussed, including the magnetic field distortion and measurement error. (authors)

  19. Cyclotron heating rate in a parabolic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance heating rates are found for a parabolic magnetic mirror. The equation of motion for perpendicular velocity is solved, including the radial magnetic field terms neglected in earlier papers. The expression for heating rate involves an infinite series of Anger's and Weber's functions, compared with a single term of the unrevised expression. The new results show an increase of heating rate compared with previous results. A simple expression is given for the ratio of the heating rates. (author)

  20. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Precision-Oriented Radiation Therapy Techniques Including Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Liu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary results with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Between August 2000 and May 2001, we treated 19 patients with NPC using IMRT. Twelve patients had stage I-II disease and seven had stage III-IV disease. Six patients received 9.0-19.8 Gy three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT before IMRT and 18 patients received a brachytherapy boost after IMRT. The mean follow-up time was 13.0 months. All patients with stage II-IV disease except one received two cycles of chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU during radiotherapy, followed by two to four cycles of chemotherapy after radiotherapy. Tumor response was assessed using clinical examination and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The mean doses administered to the gross tumor volume and clinical tumor volume were 70.9 Gy and 63.2 Gy, respectively. The mean doses administered to the right and left parotid glands were 38.1 Gy and 38.6 Gy, respectively. All 19 patients had a complete response of primary and lymph node disease. Grade III mucositis developed during chemoradiotherapy in 15 patients (79%. In addition, clinical grade I xerostomia was recorded in nine patients, grade II in nine, and grade III in one. This study demonstrated that 3D-CRT, IMRT, intracavitary brachytherapy, and chemotherapy are effective and safe methods to treat NPC. Although IMRT treatment spared parotid gland function, its efficacy may be significantly influenced by disease stage and location of the neck lymph nodes. More cases and a longer follow-up to assess survival and complications are planned.

  1. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  2. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  3. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  4. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  5. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Suominen, P. [CERN Geneve 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Koponen, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Nanoscience Center, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2008-03-11

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  6. Overview of the future upgrade of the INFN-LNS superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabretta, Luciano; Calanna, Alessandra; Cuttone, Giacomo; D'Agostino, Grazia; Rifuggiato, Danilo; Domenico Russo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The LNS Superconducting Cyclotron, named “Ciclotrone Superconduttore” (CS), has been in operation for more than 20 years. A wide range of ion species from hydrogen to lead, with energy in the range 10 to 80 AMeV, have been delivered to users. The maximum beam power is limited to 100 W due to the beam dissipation on the electrostatic deflectors. To fulfil the demand of users aiming at studying rare processes in nuclear physics, an upgrade of the cyclotron is necessarily intended to increase the intensity of ion beams with mass lower than 40 a.m.u. up to a power 10 kW. This will be achieved by means of extraction by stripping. This solution needs to replace the cryostat including the superconducting coils. The present capability of the cyclotron will be maintained, i.e. all the ion species allowed by the operating diagram will be available, being extracted by electrostatic extraction. In addition to the high power beams for nuclear physics, it will be possible to produce medical radioisotopes like 211At using an internal target.

  7. Intensive Care Management of Thoracic Aortic Surgical Patients, Including Thoracic and Infradiaphragmatic Endovascular Repair (EVAR/TEVAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sheela Pai

    2015-12-01

    The patient with thoracic aortic disease can present for open or endovascular repair. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has emerged as a minimally invasive option for a multitude of aortic pathology, including dissections, aneurysms, traumatic injuries, and ulcers. Postoperative management of these patients depends on the extent of procedure, whether it was open or endovascular, and, finally, on the preoperative comorbidities present. While procedural success has catapulted TEVAR to popularity, midterm results have been mixed. Additionally, periprocedural complications such as paraplegia and renal failure remain a significant morbidity in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry

  9. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  10. The Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhorsky, D.; Ruzicka, J.; Macasek, F.; Makaiova, I.; Saro, S.; Kristiak, J.; Fulup, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic was established at the beginning of August 1999 - within the Slovak-Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing (SOSMT), in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. It will have two cyclotrons - a large heavy and light cyclotron DC-72, which will be constructed by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russian Federation, and a small commercial light ion cyclotron IBA 18/9. The heavy ion source of the electron resonance type (DECRS-2M) will be used for low and medium energy experiments in physics. The small electron accelerator is planned for different applications, including improving the properties of plastics, increasing the resistance of cables to fire and temperature, the sterilization of medical disposables in the CC SR. The main purpose of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic (CC SR) is to catch the present approach and trends in the area of improving of inhabitants life and health quality using the progressive technology, which is introduced by bringing into practice of the physical equipment - accelerators, producing beams of high energy particles. Experts of nuclear physics and of the related branches have no experimental basis in Slovakia, as after dissolution of the former the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic all bigger nuclear equipment were left in the Czech Republic. The Slovak Republic is one of the European countries where cancer and cardiovascular diseases have a rapidly increasing tendency (the rate of new oncological cases is approximately 20,000/year at the population of 5 million inhabitants) - early diagnostics of population is necessary to be updated urgently. The Slovak Republic use a great part of electricity (about 60 %) from its own nuclear power stations and thus it is in need of education of rising generations of experts from different nuclear fields. The Government of the Slovak republic on June 18, 1996 approved the strategic aim of building up the Cyclotron Laboratory at the

  11. Cyclotron based nuclear science: Progress report, April 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains descriptions of research programs at the Institute, progress on construction of the K500 cyclotron, and descriptions of new experimental devices being built to take advantage of new beams that will be available. Several milestones were reached in construction of the new cyclotron during the period. In early summer, 1986, the magnet was completed with all trim coils and shimming iron in place. During July and August, the final field maps were made, which will be used for calculations of run parameters. In the spring, one rf amplifier was completed and tested over the full frequency and power range. Also in the spring, the computer control system successfully operated positioning controls and trim coil power supplies. Final assembly of the rf system including the dees, resonators and other 2 rf amplifiers is now underway. Initial attempts at getting beam are expected in September. The design of the ECR source was completed in the fall. A beam line configuration has been designed for the K500 cyclotron which will result initially in 3 lines, with a fourth to be added in 1988. With the eminent completion of the K500, there has been considerable instrumentation development. A 4π neutron calorimeter is under construction for heavy ion reaction studies, construction is beginning on a proton spectrometer for studies of Gamow-Teller matrix elements with the (d, 2 He) reaction, and several detector systems are being developed. During the year, the 88 inch cyclotron operated 4845 hours for research and beam development. Research programs in nuclear science scheduled 57% of the time. Atomic physics programs used 19% of the time, and a program in trace analysis scheduled 6%. An industrial testing laboratory used 18 hours. The remainder of the time was used for beam development, primarily for increasing the energy and/or intensity of heavy ion beams

  12. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  13. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology and fracturing properties main characteristics. From that

  14. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  15. Ion Cyclotron Heating on Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J. F.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H. B.; Showers, M. A.; Piotrowicz, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion cyclotron heating will be used on Proto-MPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment) to increase heat flux to the target, to produce varying ion energies without substrate biasing, and to vary the extent of the magnetic pre-sheath for the case of a tilted target. A 25 cm long, 9 cm diameter dual half-turn helical ion cyclotron antenna has been installed in the device located at the magnetic field maximum. It couples power to ions via single pass damping of the slow wave at the fundamental resonance, and operates with ω 0.8ωci at the antenna location. It is designed to operate at power levels up to 30 kW, with a later 200 kW upgrade planned. Near term experiments include measuring RF loading at low power as a function of frequency and antenna gap. The plasma is generated by a helicon plasma source that has achieved ne > 5 ×1019m-3 operating with deuterium, as measured downstream from the ion cyclotron antenna location. Measurements will be compared with 1-D and 2-D models of RF coupling. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  17. Electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    As nuclear fusion becomes an increasingly important potential energy source in these times of global oil and energy crises, the development of technologies that can lead to the realization of this virtually inexhaustible source of energy takes on ever greater urgency. Over the past decade electron cyclotron heating has undergone a significant maturation and has emerged as an essential component of the major approaches to achieving controlled nuclear fusion. The gyrotron, first developed in the Soviet Union, has made it possible to employ ECH in large tokamak and stellarator fusion devices by providing megawatts of microwave power at frequencies above 100 GHz. A contemporary VGT-8110 gyrotron, for example, shown here with Kevin Felch and Pat Cahalan of Communications and Power Industries, is capable of delivering 10 second pulses of 1 MW of power at 110 GHz. The present monograph addresses the ECH physics critical to the international fusion reactor experiment, ITER, but also presents the fundamentals of ECH that are essential to its successful implementation in applications that range from active experiments in planetary magnetospheres to commercial plasma sources for the manufacture of computer chips. The book seeks to convey the physics of ECH in an orderly and coherent fashion to a professional audience by presenting the basic theoretical foundations and then using the theory to interpret a number of established experimental results. Exercises are included to aid the reader in making the theory more concrete. (orig.)

  18. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, B.J.; Samson, J.C.; Hu, Y.D.; McPherron, R.L.; Russell, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Pc 2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE 1 and 2 between L = 7.6 and 5.8 on an inbound near-equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width ∼ 1.5 R E and penetrated ∼1 R E into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He + and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O + and He + heavy ion populations. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities (E x B)/B 2 were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Poynting fluxes calculated during the first 15 min of the event show wave energy propagation directions both parallel and antiparallel to the field. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event may be attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time. Overall, the results are considered an example of an electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-particle interaction occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase

  19. Gas breakdown at cyclotron resonance with a submillimeter laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Temkin, R.J.; Lax, B.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed 496-μm CH 3 F laser is used to produce gas breakdown in He at pressures between 1 and 300 Torr in an intense longitudinal magnetic field. Breakdown is detected by the observation of visible light when the electron cyclotron frequency (eB/m) equals the laser frequency, which occurs at B=216 kG for lambda=496 μm. At the lowest helium pressures and near cyclotron resonance, the focused laser intensity of 40 kW/cm 2 gives rise to very large electron heating rates, well beyond the limit of validity of conventional equilibrium breakdown theory. The observed result is an intensity-dependent resonant linewidth, much larger than predicted by equilibrium theories

  20. A study of a superconducting heavy ion cyclotron as a post accelerator for the CRNL MP Tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1975-08-01

    A novel design for a heavy ion cyclotron is described utilizing superconducting coils. Acting as a post accelerator for the CRNL MP Tandem accelerator, the proposed cyclotron is capable of producing an output energy of 10 MeV/u and intensities up to approximately 10 10 particles/s for uranium. (E.C.B.)

  1. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  2. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C.R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.; Salonika Univ., Greece)

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts. 31 references

  3. Intense microwave pulses II. SPIE Volume 2154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this conference was to present and critically evaluate new and ongoing research on the generation and transmission of intense microwave pulses. Significant progress was reported on high-power, high-current relativistic klystron amplifier research and design. Other work presented at the conference, include research on a high-power relativistic magnetron driven by a high-current linear induction accelerator, derivation of a Pierce-type dispersion relation describing the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a corrugated cylindrical slow-wave structure, experiments on an X-band backward-wave cyclotron maser oscillator, and observation of frequency chirping in a free electron laser amplifier. Other presentations included work on multiwave Cerenkov generator experiments, analysis of resonance characteristics of slow-wave structures in high-power Cerenkov devices, linear analysis and numerical simulation of Doppler-shifted cyclotron harmonics in a cyclotron autoresonance klystron, high-power virtual cathode oscillator theory and experiments, design of a sixth-harmonic gyrofrequency multiplier as a millimeter-wave source, and experiments on dielectric-loaded and multiwave slotted gyro-TWT amplifiers. A review was presented on innovative concepts which employ high-power microwaves in propulsion of space vehicles. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers of this conference

  4. Development of Medical Cyclotron in KIRAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jong Seo; Jung, In Su; An, Dong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is presented on the development and status of medical cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) at present. We have developed medical cyclotron which is KIRAMS-13. And the improvement of KIRAMS-13 is presented. Furthermore, the design of new cyclotrons, such as KIRAMS-5 and KIRAMS-30 cyclotron, are presented, and R and D studies for future plan of heavy ion accelerator are discussed

  5. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of 14 C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the ''cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of 14 C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring 14 C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting 14 C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10 4 . Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as 3 H, and 10 Be, and 26 Al, are discussed. 70 refs

  6. Acceleration of tritons with a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, H.; Huenges, E.; Muthig, H.; Moringa, H.

    1981-01-01

    With the compact cyclotron at the Faculty of Physics of the Technical University of Munich, tritons have been accelerated to an energy of 7 MeV. A safe and reliable operation of the gas supply for the ion source was obtained by a new tritium storage system. A quantity of 1500 Ci tritium is stored by two special Zr-Al getter pumps in a non-gaseous phase. The tritium can be released in well-defined amounts by heating the getter material. During triton acceleration the pressure in the cyclotron vacuum chamber is maintained only by a large titanium sputter-ion pump, thus forming a closed vacuum system without any exhaust of tritium contaminated gas. Any tritium contaminations in the air can be detected by an extremely sensitive tritium monitoring system. The triton beam with a maximum intensity of 30 μA has been used so far to produce neutron-rich radioisotopes such as 28 Mg, 43 K, or 72 Zn, which are successfully applied in tracer techniques in the studies of biological systems. (orig.)

  7. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs.

  8. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60μA. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed

  9. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60{mu}A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed.

  10. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop the radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with 12 '3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism

  11. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong.

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs

  12. Comparison the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriari M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Proper nutritional support is one of the important caring aspects in patients who were hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Although the several studies have been done concerning the selection of proper nutrition method for patients, but there is no agreement on this issue. The aim of current study was the compare the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit.  Materials and Method: The current clinical trial was conducted on patients who were hospitalized in intensive care unit in Alzahra hospital in Isfahan, 2013. Fifty patients were selected through convenient sampling and were randomly assigned into two groups of 25 people of intervention and control. Nutrition was done through infusion pump in intervention group and by bolus in control group. Gastric residual volume and diarrhea was assessed each four hours for four days. Data were gathered through checklist and were analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential statistics including independent T-test, Fisher's exact test and repeated measures ANOVA.  Results: The results showed that the mean of gastric residual volume in control group was more than the intervention group on the third day (p=0.04. Also, the mean of gastric residual volume did not show significant difference at different times in intervention group, but the mean of gastric residual volume was significantly increased in control group at different times (p=0.04. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between two groups concerning the diarrhea frequency.  Conclusion: In nutritional support with continuous infusion method, gastric residual volume was not increased and gastric emptying rate was not diminished. Therefore, this method can be used as an appropriate nutritional support in intensive care unit.

  13. Status of the ITER Ion Cyclotron H and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamalle, P., E-mail: philippe.lamalle@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beaumont, B.; Kazarian, F.; Gassmann, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy, Carrer Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Ajesh, P. [ITER India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382424, Gujarat (India); Alonzo, T. [Solution F, Allée du Verdon, 13770 Venelles (France); Arambhadiya, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, A. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bamber, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J.-M.; Brun, C. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carpentier, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Courtois, X. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Davis, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dechelle, C.; Doceul, L. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We summarize the progress and outstanding issues in the development of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (IC H and CD) system. ► The system is designed to robustly couple 20 MW in quasi-CW operation for a broad range of plasma scenarios, and is upgradeable to up to 40 MW. ► The design is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject. ► R and D is ongoing to validate key antenna components, and to qualify the radio-frequency (RF) sources and the transmission and matching components. ► Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. -- Abstract: The ongoing design of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive system (20 MW, 40–55 MHz) is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject, several of which are conflicting and/or still in a high state of flux. These requirements include operation over a broad range of plasma scenarios and magnetic fields (which prompts usage of wide-band phased antenna arrays), high radio-frequency (RF) power density at the first wall (and associated operation close to voltage and current limits), resilience to ELM-induced load variations, intense thermal and mechanical loads, long pulse operation, high system availability, efficient nuclear shielding, high density of antenna services, remote-handling ability, tight installation tolerances, and nuclear safety function as tritium confinement barrier. R and D activities are ongoing or in preparation to validate critical antenna components (plasma-facing Faraday screen, RF sliding contacts, RF vacuum windows), as well as to qualify the RF power sources and the transmission and matching components. Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. The paper

  14. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-11

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push–pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  15. Power deposition for ion cyclotron heating in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.; Villard, L.

    1988-01-01

    The power deposition profiles during minority ion cyclotron heating are analysed in large tokamaks by using the global, toroidal wave code LION. For tokamaks with large aspect ratio and with circular cross-section, the wave is focused on the magnetic axis and can be absorbed there by cyclotron absorption when the cyclotron resonance passes through the magnetic axis. The power deposition profile is then essentially determined by the Doppler broadening of the ion cyclotron resonance. For equilibria either non-circular or with a small aspect ratio the power deposition profile depends also on the strength of the damping. In this case the power deposition profile can be expressed as a sum of two power deposition profiles. One is related to the power absorbed in a single pass, and its shape is similar to that obtained for large aspect ratio and circular cross-section. The other profile is obtained by calculating the power deposition in the limit of weak damping, in which case the wave electric field is almost constant along the cyclotron resonance layer. A heuristic formula for the power deposition is given. The formula includes a number of calibration curves and functions which has been calculated with the LION code for JET relevant equilibria. The formula enables calculation of the power deposition profile in a simple way when the launched wave spectrum and damping coefficients are known. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs

  16. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-01

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push-pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  17. Princeton Cyclotron QDDD spectrograph system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A review of experiments involving the Princeton Quadrupole-Dipole-Dipole- Dipole (QDDD) spectrograph is given. The QDDD is a high resolution, large solid angle device which is combined with the azymuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron. Some reactions involving 3 He beams are discussed

  18. PIXE analysis by baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hyogo; Tanaka, Teruaki; Ito, Takashi; Toda, Yohjiro; Wakasa, Hideichiro

    1988-01-01

    The Japan Steel Works, Ltd. has been supplying a very small sized cyclotron (Baby Cyclotron) to hospitals and research facilities. The cyclotron is designed to produce short-lived radioisotopes for medical use. In the present study, this cyclotron is modified so that it can serve for PIXE analysis. The PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique has the following features: (1) Down to 1 ng of trace material in a sample (mg - μg) can be detected, (2) An analysis run is completed in one to ten minutes, permitting economical analysis for a large number of samples, (3) Several elements can be analyzed simultaneously, with an almost constant sensitivity for a variety of elements ranging from aluminum to heavy metals, (4) Analysis can be performed nondestructively without a chemical process, and (5) The use of microbeam can provide data on the distribution of elements with a resolution of several μm. Software for analysis is developed to allow the modified equipment to perform peak search, background fitting, and identification and determination of peaks. A study is now being conducted to examine the performance of the equipment for PIXE analysis of thin samples. Satisfactory results have been obtained. The analysis time, excluding the background correction, is 5-10 min. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Ion sources for cyclotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.; Young, A.T.

    1992-07-01

    The use of a multicusp plasma generator as an ion source has many advantages. The development of both positive and negative ion beams based on the multicusp source geometry is presented. It is shown that these sources can be operated at steady state or cw mode. As a result they are very suitable for cyclotron operations

  20. Ponderomotive force near cyclotron resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Mitsuo; Sanuki, Heiji

    1987-01-01

    The ponderomotive force, which is involved in the excitation of macroscopic behaviors of plasma caused by wave motion, plays an important role in various non-linear wave motion phenomena. In the present study, equations for the pondermotive force for plasma in a uniform magnetic field is derived using a renormalization theory which is based on the Vlasov equation. It is shown that the pondermotive force, which diverges at the cyclotron resonence point according to adiabatic approximation, can be expressed by a non-divergent equation by taking into account the instability of the cyclotron orbit due to high-order scattering caused by a wave. This is related with chaotic particle behaviors near cyclotron resonance, where the pondermotive force is small and the diffusion process prevails. It is assumed here that the amplitude of the high-frequency electric field is not large and that the broadening of cyclotron levels is smaller than the distance between the levels. A global chaos will be created if the amplitude of the electric field becomes greater to allow the broadening to exceed the distance between the levels. (Nogami, K.).

  1. Status report on cyclotron operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, P; Ander, I; Lakatos, T; Fenyvesi, A; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Tarkanyi, F

    2003-01-01

    The operation of the cyclotron in 2002 was concentrated to 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4084 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 15 hours last year. In order to improve the circumstances of the irradiations, several following improvements were done. (R.P.)

  2. Examination of the plasma located in PSI Ring Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogue, N.J., E-mail: nathaniel.pogue@psi.ch; Adelmann, A.; Schneider, M.; Stingelin, L.

    2016-06-11

    A plasma has been observed inside the vacuum chamber of the PSI Ring Cyclotron. This ionized gas cloud may be a substantial contributor to several interior components having reduced lifetimes. The plasma's generation has been directly linked to the voltage that is applied to the Flat Top cavity through visual confirmation using CCD cameras. A spectrometer was used to correlate the plasma's intensity and ignition to the Flat Top cavity voltage as well as to determine the composition of the plasma. This paper reports on the analysis of the plasma using spectroscopy. The spectrometer data was analyzed to determine the composition of the plasma and that the plasma intensity (luminosity) directly corresponds to the Flat Top voltage. The results show that the plasma is comprised of elements consistent with the cyclotrons vacuum interior.

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1984-05-01

    Starting with the pioneering work of R. Geller and his group in Grenoble (France), at least 14 ECR sources have been built and tested during the last five years. Most of those sources have been extremely successful, providing intense, stable and reliable beams of highly charged ions for cyclotron injection or atomic physics research. However, some of the operational features of those sources disagreed with commonly accepted theories on ECR source operation. To explain the observed behavior of actual sources, it was found necessary to refine some of the crude ideas we had about ECR sources. Some of those new propositions are explained, and used to make some extrapolations on the possible future developments in ECR sources

  4. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  5. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, S [ed.

    1996-03-04

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being `Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications`. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.).

  6. Superconducting conversion of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Ball, J.B.; Cleary, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The superconducting conversion of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) will replace the existing aluminum main magnet coils with a NbTi superconducting coil system to provide an increase in magnetic field from 1.9 to 3.3 T. The higher magnetic field will provide a three-fold increase in maximum energy capability of the cyclotron for high mass ions. The conversion will include a new beam extraction system, magnet yoke stiffening to counteract the increased magnetic forces, and minor modifications to the beam transport systems and shielding

  7. 40. anniversary of cyclotron of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umerov, R.A.; Uzakov, J.M.; Gulamov, I.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Cyclotron U-150-II of Institute of Nuclear Physics was projected in middle of the last century for nuclear-physical researches in a scientific research institute of electro physical equipment in Leningrad. The Cyclotron can accelerate positive ions with beam energy of the protons 18 MeV, deuterons 20 MeV, alpha particles 40 MeV. Intensity of a beam a little some microampere. The building of a Cyclotron represents an impressive three-floor construction in volume of 2000 m 3 . The capital equipment, the high-frequency generator, sources of power supplies, vacuum pumps and other technological units are placed on the first and socle floors of a building. The second and third floors served for accommodation of scientific laboratories. A building of a Cyclotron has three experimental halls, where it was possible to carry out physical researches. They have divided from each other, and the main thing from the accelerator, concrete walls with the purpose of reduction of the big radiating background at the working accelerator, preventing realization of experiments. It provided also biological protection of the on duty personnel. The first some years of operation of the Cyclotron have revealed a line of lacks of this machine. For example, for change of energy of a beam of a Cyclotron it took 2-3 weeks. Also, for transition of acceleration of one particles to others it take same time. Time parameters of a beam were unstable. In 1968 reconstruction of the Cyclotron has been started that has allowed to bring in basic changes to parameters U-150-II. The time took on change of an operating mode of a Cyclotron was sharply reduced, and it was possible to reduce it till 10-20 hours, to improve the energy and time resolution of a beam many times over, to reduce angular straggling of particles in a beam. And, all this enormous amount of works was spent by forces of institute. In 70 th years the big development was received with works on radiating stability of materials

  8. Initial field measurements on the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormrod, J.H.; Chan, K.C.; Hill, J.H.

    1980-12-01

    The midplane magnetic field of the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron has been mapped in detail over the full operating range of 2.5 to 5 tesla. The field measuring apparatus is described and results given include measurements of the field stability, reproducibility and harmonic content. (author)

  9. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  10. Cyclotron radiation from hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, F.; Henning, J.; Duechs, D.

    1975-11-01

    In calculating the energy transport and losses due to cyclotron radiation there are two major requirements: the absorption coefficient has to be known and the proper geometry of the plasma has to be taken into account. In this report Trubnikov's integral formulae for the absorption coefficient have been evaluated numerically and compared with the approximative formulas of previous authors. Deviations by a factor of 2 - 10 in various frequency regimes are not unusual. With these coefficients the rate of change of the energy density due to cyclotron radiation in a plasma as well as the radiation density at a plasma surface are computed for plasma slab and plasma cylinder. Sometimes considerable differences to the results of previons papers can found. Many simple formulae interpolating the numerical results are given in the text, and the FORTRAN computer programs have been reproduced in the appendices. (orig.) [de

  11. Cyclotron production of Cu-61

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Seifert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S323-S323 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * PET * Cu-61 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  12. Status report on the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormany, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The operation of the cyclotron in 2001 was again concentrated to the usual 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 4300 hours, the breakdown periods amounted to 66 hours last year. The cyclotron was available for users during 3751 hours, the effectively used beam-on-target time is summarized in Table 1. The total time required for machine setup and beam tuning or spent waiting for the start of an irradiation was 272 hours. The control of the adjustable collimators applied in the beam transport system of the cyclotron was renewed during the winter maintenance period. They have been connected to the programmable logic controllers (PLC) and their new control code frees the operators from the long and slow manual setting process. The successful renewal of the control of this and other subsystems (cyclotron and beam transport power supplies) made lots of adjusting and measuring elements on the original control desk needless. To provide more space for the control PCs and remove all unnecessary devices, the unused part of the control desk has been dismantled. The short beam line used mainly for radiation hardness studies was equipped with a new oil-diffusion vacuum system during the summer maintenance. Its components are also connected to the PLC and the same automatic control has been provided like for the other vacuum stands of- the beam transport system. Another short beam line - basically a mirror image of the first one - has also been installed and successfully tested by trial irradiations. (R.P.)

  13. The importance of plasma effects on electron-cyclotron maser-emission from flaring loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. R.; Vlahos, L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    Electron cyclotron maser instability has been suggested as the cause of the observed short (10-20 msec), intense (an approximate brightness temperature of 10 to the 15th K) and up to 100% polarized microwave solar emission. It is shown that plasma effects and thermal cyclotron damping, ignored in previous theories, play an important role in controlling the frequency range of the emission. The radio emission is suppressed for ratios of the plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency smaller than 0.4. An examination of the cyclotron damping, reveals that the maser action is suppressed unless a large fraction (i.e., over 10%) of the accelerated electrons participates in the emission process.

  14. Solid targets and irradiation facilities for production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides at the Debrecen cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Ando, L.; Szucs, Z.; Mahunka, I.; Kovacs, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The MGC-20E (NIIEFA, Leningrad, USSR) variable energy compact cyclotron (k=20) was installed in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) in 1985. Protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles can be accelerated with currents up to 300 μA for internal irradiation and up to 50 μA for external beams. The establishment of the Cyclotron Laboratory was partly supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The application of the cyclotron is multipurpose: basic nuclear research, application of activation technique for analytical and wear studies, application of intense fast neutron source for agro-biological, bio-medical application and for radiation damage test of electronic components, and finally radioisotope production for medical diagnostics and for other scientific and applied fields. The cyclotron laboratory has six target rooms, a radiochemistry laboratory and a medical unit equipped with PET

  15. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  16. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  17. Ion extraction in the cyclotron geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The detailed physics of ion beam extraction from a plasma column by intense sinusoidal radio frequency (rf) electric fields at the ion cyclotron frequency omega/sub ci/ and its harmonics is experimentally studied. Results describe the instantaneous relationship - within one rf period of approx. = 3009 nsec - between applied rf, the plasma response and the ions expelled by rf and plasma fields. Reflex discharges in H 2 , D 2 , and He with ion and electron densities greater than or equal to10 11 cm -3 are subjected to 0-5 kV zero-to-peak rf electric fields E vector and 0.65-9.00 kG background magnetic fields B 0 vector with E vector perpendicular to B 0 vector. Ion currents up to 200 μA are extracted. Nonperturbing optical diagnostics measure the relative amplitude and phase of instantaneous ion and electron density fluctuations induced by the rf during each rf cycle and the time variation of extracted ion bursts, the latter made possible by the use of a phosphor beam-stop. Detailed dependences on external electric and magnetic fields are reported. The plasma density fluctuations are in good agreement with the dispersion relation for electrostatic ion cyclotron waves (EICW), and the beam data show current enhancement at the second harmonic over that at the fundamental and evidence for a radically different mechanism for the rf-driven ion extraction process than conventional wisdom assumes. This work represents the first detailed, systematic study of the ac ion extraction process

  18. A new cyclotron for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for replacing the old AEG Compact Cyclotron (built in 1969/71) of the Institute for Radiology and Pathophysiology at the German Cancer Research Center by a 30 MeV H - /15 MeV D - cyclotron. A status report is followed by the scientific and technical reasoning as well as budgetary and organizational considerations. In the appendix we tried to explain the function of a cyclotron in a simple and comprehensive manner. (orig.) [de

  19. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  20. Aharonov-Bohm effect in cyclotron and synchrotron radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M. E-mail: gitman@fma.if.usp.br; Levin, A.; Tlyachev, V.B

    2001-07-02

    We study the impact of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid on the radiation of a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field. With this aim in view, exact solutions of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found in the magnetic-solenoid field. Using such solutions, we calculate exactly all the characteristics of one-photon spontaneous radiation both for spinless and spinning particle. Considering non-relativistic and relativistic approximations, we analyze cyclotron and synchrotron radiations in detail. Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation. In particular, it is shown that new spectral lines appear in the radiation spectrum. Due to angular distribution peculiarities of the radiation intensity, these lines can in principle be isolated from basic cyclotron and synchrotron radiation spectra.

  1. Aharonov-Bohm effect in cyclotron and synchrotron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Levin, A.; Tlyachev, V.B.

    2001-01-01

    We study the impact of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid on the radiation of a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field. With this aim in view, exact solutions of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found in the magnetic-solenoid field. Using such solutions, we calculate exactly all the characteristics of one-photon spontaneous radiation both for spinless and spinning particle. Considering non-relativistic and relativistic approximations, we analyze cyclotron and synchrotron radiations in detail. Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation. In particular, it is shown that new spectral lines appear in the radiation spectrum. Due to angular distribution peculiarities of the radiation intensity, these lines can in principle be isolated from basic cyclotron and synchrotron radiation spectra

  2. First years of operation of the LNS superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifuggiato, D.; Calabretta, L.; Cuttone, G.; Gammino, S.; Raia, G.; Rovelli, A.

    1999-01-01

    The K800 Superconducting Cyclotron was commissioned in 1994 and has been in continuous operation since then. In 1996 many efforts were made to reach a condition of reliable operation. Several ion types have been accelerated and delivered to experimental halls. The demand for different beams has given the opportunity to explore several regions of the operating diagram of the machine: different magnetic field values have been set, as well as several RF frequencies have been used. The results demonstrate that the Cyclotron allows to accomplish a large variety of nuclear physics experiments, even if the maximum performance has not yet been achieved. A few sub-systems are being upgraded in view of the 'high intensity' operation (which is required for radioactive beam production) and in order to reach the maximum performance: upgrading is planned on the RF system and on the electrostatic deflectors. A new axial injection system has been designed to operate the machine in stand-alone mode. (authors)

  3. Introduction to ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] sources in electrostatic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the possible use of ECR heavy-ion sources in the terminals of electrostatic machines is discussed. The basic concepts of ECR sources are reviewed in the next section using the ORNL source as a model. The possible advantages of ECR sources over conventional negative ion injection and foil stripping are discussed in Section III. The last section describes the possible installation of an ECR source in a large machine such as the HHIRF 25-MV Pelletron. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Operational experience and recent developments at the National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.; Pac, B.; Arnott, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron is a radioisotope production facility run by ANSTO and located on the grounds of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney, Australia. A CYCLONE 30 (IBA) cyclotron is used in the production of short-lived PET radiopharmaceuticals required by the hospital's PET Scanner and also to produce a number of bulk radiochemicals for processing and distribution throughout Australasia. Following commissioning of the cyclotron and beam lines in October 1991, and the overcoming of a number of early open-quote teething close-quote problems especially relating to the reliability of the r.f. and solid target transport systems, a steady program of improvements has been pursued. These improvements have included development of new beam diagnostics and the design and installation of a new beam line for SPECT radioisotope production. The current operations schedule includes the production of 18 FDG, 13 NH 3 , 15 O 2 and 201 Tl, 67 Ga and 123 I. This paper will discuss the process of development of the cyclotron to ably meet the present demands on it, and the problems resolved in the pursuit of this goal

  5. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well.

  6. Operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, F.; Schweickert, H.

    1977-08-01

    The operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1976 is briefly surveyed. The status and the results of the following technical developments are briefly described: 1) Computer aided cyclotron operation; 2) New correction coils for the cyclotron; 3) Non-intercepting measurement of the extraction rate; 4) Lambshift source for polarized deuterons; 5) Improvements of the 6 Li 3+ -Penning ion source; 6) New beam line to an irradiation room for machine parts; 7) Nova 2 computer system for nuclear physics experiments; 8) Routine production of Iodine-123 for nuclear medicine. - In the annual report 1975 we have included a section consisting of a series of brief reports on applied research in progress. This year we give a compilation of the current basic nuclear physics work at our cyclotron. The short papers prepared by the experimental groups are arranged according to the following topics: 1) Experiments using the 156 MeV 6 Li 3+ -beam; 2) Experiments using the 52 MeV polarized deuteron beam; 3) Further nuclear reactions; 4) Nuclear spectroscopy; 5) Measurements of nuclear magnetic moments; 6) Measurements with the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. (orig.) [de

  7. Summary on electron cyclotron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented within the Theory Sessions of the conference clearly reflect the general trends of the research field. The growing use of Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW) for plasma heating and current drive in overdense plasmas goes hand in hand with an increased theoretical understanding of EBW excitation. While the expanding number of devices with powerful ECRH systems allowing ever more detailed experiments is reflected in the increased detail of modelling and consequent understanding of the experimental results. Apart from these general trends, some more fundamental contributions to the field of electron cyclotron wave propagation are highlighted. (author)

  8. Test and calibration of the magnetic measurement system for the Superconducting Cyclotron at LNS, Catania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giove, D.; Rossi, L.; Gmaj, P.; LoMonaco, L.; Raia, G.

    1992-01-01

    The apparatus for magnetic measurements before commissioning of the Superconducting Cyclotron is presented. This is a fast system designed for the systematic mapping of cyclotron fields. A search coil measures the field variation by scanning the median plane radially. The absolute value of the field is measured by NMR probes placed at the cyclotron centre and at the RF cavity holes. Accounting for dead times (coil return, drift measurement); the conservative estimate was made of measuring one full map per hour, with an azimuthal step of 1 o . A brief description of the software used and probe calibration data are included. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Radiation safety and operational health physics of hospital based medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Compact, low energy, high current Medical Cyclotrons are now primarily used to produce large activities of short lived, neutron deficient, positron- emitting radioisotopes. These isotopes constitute the key ingredients of important PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The PET-radioisotope producing Medical Cyclotrons are now increasingly installed in modern urban hospitals in many countries of the world. Modern Medical Cyclotrons run at a very high beam current (∼100-200 micro Amp) level and thereby produce intense fields of parasitic gamma rays and neutrons, causing the activation of cyclotron components, ambient air and radiation exposure to patients and members of the public. This report highlights the important operational aspects and the characteristics of the radiation fields produced by Medical Cyclotrons. The pathways of personnel radiation exposure are also analyzed. The above information constitutes the scientific basis of a sound operational health physics service, which is manifested in an effective dose reduction and an enhanced radiological safety of the Medical Cyclotron facility within the framework of ALARA

  10. Cyclotrons for the production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and design choices for modern cyclotrons. Cyclotrons can be used in 3 areas in the radioactive beam field: the production of high energy heavy ion beams for use in fragmentation, the spallation of targets with high energy protons, and the acceleration of radioactive beams from low energy to the MeV/u range. 16 refs., 6 figs

  11. Isochronous cyclotron for thermonuclear reactors driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.

    1998-01-01

    The main requirements to an accelerator as a part of an electronuclear power plant are considered. The range of the parameters of the accelerated proton and deuteron beams, for which the isochronous cyclotron is the most profitable, is proposed. An opportunity of using the cyclotron to drive the research reactors of various types is considered

  12. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  13. Analytic descriptions of ion cyclotron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.; Francis, G.; Fuchs, V.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of energy propagation and absorption in ion-cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas has relied on numerical solutions of fourth (and sixth) order differential equations for slab models of the plasma (poloidal) cross section. Realistic two-dimensional and fully toroidal geometry analyses would become quite unwieldy. It is shown here that the analysis of the slab model can be simplified considerably. A first-order differential equation is shown to describe the transmission coefficient for the fast wave, and it is solved analytically. A second order differential equation is shown to adequately describe both transmission and reflection. Conditions for ion absorption or mode conversion are derived. Including toroidal effects in propagation, conditions for electron absorption on the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves are also described analytically

  14. Developing the smallest possible medical cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a portable medical cyclotron operated in a conventional radioactive facility at a hospital. Imagine a nurse or technician switching it on and producing isotopes at the patient’s bedside. Sounds like science fiction? Think again.   CERN has teamed up with Spain’s national scientific research centre (CIEMAT) to develop an avant-garde cyclotron to be used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). “We plan to make a cyclotron that doesn't need an insulated building or ‘vault’: a cyclotron small enough to fit inside a hospital lift,” explains Jose Manuel Perez, who is leading the CIEMAT/CERN collaboration. “It will be the smallest possible medical cyclotron for single patient dose production and will dramatically reduce costs for hospitals.” While PET technology has transformed imaging techniques, many of its medical benefits have remained confined to highly specialised hospitals. “Studies have foun...

  15. Characteristics of possible beam losses in superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, J.; Paul, Santanu; Debnath, Jayanta; Dutta, Atanu; Bhunia, Uttam; Naser, Md. Zamal Abdul; Singh, Vinay; Agrawal, Ankur; Dey, Malay Kanti

    2015-01-01

    In a compact superconducting cyclotron large coherent oscillation and off-centering of the beam may cause large amount of beam loss. The off-centered beam may hit the beam chamber wall prohibiting extraction of the beam. Or it may hit the RF liner surfaces due to vertical blow-up across various resonances during acceleration. The vertical shift of beam caused by the mis-alignment gradually moves the beam out of geometrical median plane eventually leading to internal beam losses. The loss of isochronisms results the reduction of beam intensity depending on the particle phase history. Small field perturbations generated by trim coils have been used to identify the beam loss mechanisms in the superconducting cyclotron at out centre. Besides, the beam loss due to interaction of accelerating ions with residual gases is also discussed. The beam profile obtained from differential and three finger probes gives a clear insight of the loss-mechanism. The paper describes different beam losses observed in the cyclotron with corresponding beam profiles under different field perturbations, Special emphasis is given on characteristics features of beam-current profile to identify the cause of beam loss. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, Gerardo

    2003-01-01

    The 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating was held in Aix-en-Provence (France) from 13 to 16 May 2002. The meeting was hosted by the Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion (CEA/Cadarache, France), with additional financial support from: - Region Provence-Alpes Cote d'Azur - The City of Aix-en-Provence - Communaute de l'Agglomeration du Pays d'Aix - Thales Electron Devices (France) - Alstom Magnets and Superconductors (France) - Spinner GmbH (Germany). The members of the local organizing committee were: G. Giruzzi, M. Lennholm, R. Magne and V. Poli, from CEA/Cadarache. The composition of the International Programme Committee was the following: M. Bornatici (Italy), A. Costley (ITER), E. de la Luna (Spain), G. Giruzzi (France), W. Kasparek (Germany), B. Lloyd (UK), J. Lohr (USA), K. Sakamoto (Japan). The subjects of the meeting were classified in four main topics: Electron Cyclotron Theory; Electron Cyclotron Emission; Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Experiments; Electron Cyclotron Technology. The results presented in these topics have been summarised in the closing session by E. Westerhof, A. Kraemer-Flecken, T. Goodman and G. Bosia, respectively. The workshop was attended by 85 participants from 18 countries, providing 10 invited talks, 30 oral presentations and 50 posters. The success of the workshop is mainly due to the amount and quality of their work and of their presentations. The generosity of the sponsors, the selection and advice work of the International Programme Committee, as well as the contribution of the chairmen and of the summary speakers should also be warmly acknowledged. The papers in this collection have been reproduced directly from the authors' manuscripts, provided either as camera-ready texts or as pdf files. The constraints on the papers lengths and formats have been kept to a minimum, on purpose. This series of workshops has now reached a good level of maturity, with well established

  17. ECR heavy-ion source for the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.; Kalnins, J.G.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1983-03-01

    An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heavy-ion source is under construction at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron. This source will produce very-high-charge-state heavy ions, such as 0 8 + and Ar 12 + , which will increase cyclotron energies by a factor of 2-4, up to A = 80. It is a two-stage source using room-temperature coils, a permanent-magnet sextupole, and a 6-9 GHz microwave system. Design features include adjustable first-to-second-stage plasma coupling, a variable second-stage mirror ratio, high-conductance radial pumping of the second stage, and a beam-diagnostic system. A remotely movable extraction electrode will optimize extraction efficiency. The project includes construction of a transport line and improvements to the cyclotron axial-injection system. The construction period is expected to be two years

  18. Thermal effects on the cyclotron line formation process in X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.G.; Meszaros, P.

    1980-01-01

    We derive expressions for the scattering and absorption cross sections in a hot plasma including the effects of vacuum polarisation. These expressions are then used in a radiative transfer calculation for frequencies in the neighbourhood of the cyclotron resonance using a simplified model atmosphere for accreting magnetised X-ray pulsars. Cyclotron emission and absorption line model fits are discussed, the conclusion being that an emission line interpretation appears at this stage more likely. (orig.)

  19. Spiral inflector and central region study for three cyclotrons at CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Yao Hongjuan; Guan Fengping; Chu Chengjie; Lu Yinlong; Jia Xianlu; Zhong Junqing; Yang Jianjun; Xing Jiansheng; Lin Yuzheng

    2007-01-01

    The beam dynamics behaviour in the compact cyclotron central region is investigated. The design study for central region, including the spiral inflector, Dee tip, shield and posts, for three cyclotrons at CIAE will be described in this paper. The code development by CIAE and the UNIX based codes developed by TRIUMF were implemented on WINDOWS/PC by CIAE for the spiral inflector and central region design will be given too

  20. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States [2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in late 2001 and published in 2002. This directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide production. Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 were taken into account. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production. There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA. This is an increase of 7% over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory. This can be compared to the 350 or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world, which are involved in some aspects of radionuclide production. The increase has been in the number of cyclotrons in developed countries, but even more so in the developing countries. The increase in number during the last four years was driven by several factors, i.e. advent of advances in medical imaging, introduction of compact, user friendly medical cyclotron, and a recent decision that costs for 15 O-oxygen position emission tomography (PET) studies in Japan and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany and the United States of America are eligible for reimbursement by government or health insurance companies. There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals. The IAEA is promoting cyclotron technology as applied to nuclear medicine. Requests for cyclotron technology is steadily increasing; many developing Member States are interested in this technology. There is need to stimulate, build and maintain consulting capability in interested developing Member States. There are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron

  1. Simulation and measurement of complete dye sensitised solar cells: including the influence of trapping, electrolyte, oxidised dyes and light intensity on steady state and transient device behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Piers R F; Anderson, Assaf Y; Durrant, James R; O'Regan, Brian C

    2011-04-07

    A numerical model of the dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) is used to assess the importance of different loss pathways under various operational conditions. Based on our current understanding, the simulation describes the processes of injection, regeneration, recombination and transport of electrons, oxidised dye molecules and electrolyte within complete devices to give both time dependent and independent descriptions of performance. The results indicate that the flux of electrons lost from the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film is typically at least twice as large under conditions equivalent to 1 sun relative to dark conditions at matched TiO(2) charge concentration. This is in agreement with experimental observations (Barnes et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. [DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01855d]). The simulated difference in recombination flux is shown to be due to variation in the concentration profile of electron accepting species in the TiO(2) pores between light and dark conditions and to recombination to oxidised dyes in the light. The model is able to easily incorporate non-ideal behaviour of a cell such as the variation of open circuit potential with light intensity and non-first order recombination of conduction band electrons. The time dependent simulations, described by the multiple trapping model of electron transport and recombination, show good agreement with both small and large transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements at open circuit, including photovoltage rise measurements. The simulation of photovoltage rise also suggests the possibility of assessing the interfacial resistance between the TiO(2) and substrate. When cells with a short diffusion length relative to film thickness were modelled, the simulated small perturbation photocurrent transients at short circuit (but not open circuit) yielded significantly higher effective diffusion coefficients than expected from the mean concentration of electrons and the electrolyte in the cell. This implies that

  2. Experimental monitoring of ozone production in a PET cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanibellato, L.; Cicoria, G.; Pancaldi, D.; Boschi, S.; Mostacci, D.; Marengo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone produced from radiolytic processes was investigated as a possible health hazard in the working environment at the University Hospital 'S.Orsola-Malpighi' PET facility. Intense radiation fields can generate ozone, known to be the most toxic gas produced by ionizing radiation around a particle accelerator. To evaluate ozone concentration in air, two different measurement campaigns were conducted with passive diffusion detectors. Comparison of the results with the concentration limits recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) demonstrated that ozone poses no health hazard to workers around a biomedical cyclotron.

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  5. Channeling experiments at IPNE Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, F; Dumitru, M; Ivan, A [Cyclotron Laboratory, Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest, P.O.Box MG-6, (Romania)

    1992-01-01

    Channeling experiments have been performed at the I.P.N.E Cyclotron using a 3 MeV alpha beam. A slide system cut the beam up to 5 minutes spatial resolution with a maximum 60 nA beam current on the target. The two-axis goniometer, fully computer-controlled, moves the target, a silicon wafer, with 2.5 minute resolution, while an alpha particle sensitive solid state detector, monitors the backscattered particle fluence. In the first stage, channeling appears to be a simple, fast and reliable method for precise monocrystal orientation. A reduction of the host yield by a factor of two allowed impurities and defects to be studied. (Author).

  6. Cyclotron resonance in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E A; Jiang, Z; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2008-02-29

    We present the first measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in bilayer graphene. In magnetic fields up to B=18 T, we observe four distinct intraband transitions in both the conduction and valence bands. The transition energies are roughly linear in B between the lowest Landau levels, whereas they follow square root[B] for the higher transitions. This highly unusual behavior represents a change from a parabolic to a linear energy dispersion. The density of states derived from our data generally agrees with the existing lowest order tight binding calculation for bilayer graphene. However, in comparing data to theory, a single set of fitting parameters fails to describe the experimental results.

  7. Asymmetric electron cyclotron emission from superthermal electrons in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Measurements of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency on the high and low magnetic field side of the TFR Tokamak are reported. In the presence of a superthermal electron component the measured intensities are asymmetric. A theoretical explanation based on the combined effects of the electron relativistic mass variation and the 1/R variation of the tokamak magnetic field is discussed

  8. Simulation of collective ion acceleration in a slow cyclotron beam mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Shanahan, W.R.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-01-01

    The use of slow cyclotron beam waves is examined as a means of accelerating ions in intense relativistic electron beams. Field magnitudes of between 10 5 -and 10 6 V/cm seem achievable in the near term, and while these will never reach the levels of beam front mechanisms, such as virtual cathodes, they will easily exceed conventional ion acceleration sources

  9. Differential equation for Alfven ion cyclotron waves in finite-length plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.C.; Fateman, R.J.; Baldwin, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    One finds the fourth-order differential equation describing an Alfven-ion-cyclotron wave propagating along a magnetic field of varying intensity. The equation is self-adjoint and possesses non-trivial turning points. The final form of the equation is checked using MACSYMA, a system for performing algebra on a computer

  10. Development and application of intelligent CAE system for cyclotron main magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Chen Yong; Fan Mingwu

    1993-01-01

    The main magnet that represents the feature of the cyclotron is the most important part in a cyclotron construction. Though there are many codes devoted to solve magnetic field computation problems, the results from them are depended on user's skill and experience very much. To help cyclotron magnet designer get acceptable result an intelligent CAE system for cyclotron main magnet design and machining has been developed. A reasonable good results in design could be get even the designer is a beginner with the help from an expert knowledge library installed in the program. The codes include following functions: 1. Intelligent CAD; 2. 2D and 3D magnetic field computation; 3. Beam dynamics analysis; 4. CAM for main magnet

  11. Realistic simulations of a cyclotron spiral inflector within a particle-in-cell framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklehner, Daniel; Adelmann, Andreas; Gsell, Achim; Kaman, Tulin; Campo, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    We present an upgrade to the particle-in-cell ion beam simulation code opal that enables us to run highly realistic simulations of the spiral inflector system of a compact cyclotron. This upgrade includes a new geometry class and field solver that can handle the complicated boundary conditions posed by the electrode system in the central region of the cyclotron both in terms of particle termination, and calculation of self-fields. Results are benchmarked against the analytical solution of a coasting beam. As a practical example, the spiral inflector and the first revolution in a 1 MeV /amu test cyclotron, located at Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc., are modeled and compared to the simulation results. We find that opal can now handle arbitrary boundary geometries with relative ease. Simulated injection efficiencies and beam shape compare well with measured efficiencies and a preliminary measurement of the beam distribution after injection.

  12. First results of correlation electron cyclotron emission on Tore Supra

    OpenAIRE

    Udintsev, V. S.; Goniche, M.; Ségul, J.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Molina, D.; Turco, F.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Maget, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of electron temperature fluctuations by means of correlation electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics aid in understanding the nature of the turbulent transport infusion plasmas. On Tore Supra tokamak, a 32-channel heterodyne ECE radiometer has been upgraded to include two channels for temperature fluctuation measurements. The central frequency of the yttrium iron garnet filter on each channel is remotely monitored by a driver, allowing one to shift the observation volume in...

  13. All-magnetic extraction for cyclotron beam reacceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-07-22

    An isochronous cyclotron can be modified to provide an initial electron stripping stage, a complete acceleration of the stripped ions through the cyclotron to a first energy state, means for returning the ions to an intermediate cyclotron orbit through a second stripping stage, further acceleration of the now higher energy stripped ions through the cyclotron to their final energy, and final extraction of the ions from the cyclotron. (auth)

  14. Dose-intensive chemotherapy including rituximab is highly effective but toxic in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia: parallel study of 81 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xicoy, Blanca; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Müller, Markus; García, Olga; Hoffmann, Christian; Oriol, Albert; Hentrich, Marcus; Grande, Carlos; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Esteve, Jordi; van Lunzen, Jan; Del Potro, Eloy; Knechten, Heribert; Brunet, Salut; Mayr, Christoph; Escoda, Lourdes; Schommers, Philipp; Alonso, Natalia; Vall-Llovera, Ferran; Pérez, Montserrat; Morgades, Mireia; González, José; Fernández, Angeles; Thoden, Jan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Wyen, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    The results of intensive immunochemotherapy were analyzed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BLL) in two cohorts (Spain and Germany). Alternating cycles of chemotherapy were administered, with dose reductions for patients over 55 years. Eighty percent of patients achieved remission, 11% died during induction, 9% failed and 7% died in remission. Four-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) probabilities were 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62-82%) and 71% (95% CI: 61-81%). CD4 T-cell count 2 (odds ratio [OR] 11.9 [1.4-99.9]) with induction death. In HIV-related BLL, intensive immunochemotherapy was feasible and effective, but toxic. Prognostic factors were performance status, CD4 T-cell count and bone marrow involvement.

  15. NORTICA - a new code for cyclotron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, D.; Johnson, D.; Marti, F.

    2001-01-01

    The new package NORTICA (Numerical ORbit Tracking In Cyclotrons with Analysis) of computer codes for beam dynamics simulations is under development at NSCL. The package was started as a replacement for the code MONSTER developed in the laboratory in the past. The new codes are capable of beam dynamics simulations in both CCF (Coupled Cyclotron Facility) accelerators, the K500 and K1200 superconducting cyclotrons. The general purpose of this package is assisting in setting and tuning the cyclotrons taking into account the main field and extraction channel imperfections. The computer platform for the package is Alpha Station with UNIX operating system and X-Windows graphic interface. A multiple programming language approach was used in order to combine the reliability of the numerical algorithms developed over the long period of time in the laboratory and the friendliness of modern style user interface. This paper describes the capability and features of the codes in the present state

  16. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  17. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-01-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes

  18. Application of superconductivity in cyclotron construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews major concepts and design features of the new class of cyclotrons which use superconducting coils to provide main magnet excitation. The discussion begins with a brief historical review tracing the evolution of these ''superconducting'' cyclotrons and the impact of this application of superconductivity in pushing back traditional cyclotron construction limits. This is followed by a review of the principal phenomena which come into play to set new limits on the operating regime, and the nature of these limits, some of which arise from orbit properties and some of which result from construction intricacies in the coil and in the rf system. Conclusions anticipate a future widely encompassing role in the application of superconductivity to cyclotron

  19. Electron cyclotron emission imaging in tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsat, T.; Domier, C.W.; Kong, X. Y.; Liang, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Tobias, B. J.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the recent history and latest developments of the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic technique, wherein electron temperature is measured in magnetically confined plasmas with two-dimensional spatial resolution. The key enabling technologies for this technique are the

  20. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  1. Electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in an axisymmetric tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tapia, C.; Beltran-Plata, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dept. de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The neoclassical transport theory is applied to calculate electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in an axisymmetric tokamak in the low-collisionality regime. The tokamak ordering is used to obtain a system of equations that describe the dynamics of the plasma where the nonlinear ponderomotive (PM) force due to high-power radio-frequency (RF) waves is included. The PM force is produced around an electron cyclotron resonant surface at a specific poloidal location. The ECCD efficiency is analyzed in the cases of first and second harmonics (for different impinging angles of the RF waves) and it is validated using experimental parameter values from TCV and T-10 tokamaks. The results are in agreement with those obtained by means of Green's function techniques. (authors)

  2. Inside launch electron cyclotron heating and current drive on DITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Deliyanakis, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating at 60 GHz has been carried out on DITE (R = 1.2 m, a = 0.24 m) to investigate heating and current drive using the extraordinary mode launched with finite k parallel from the high field side. The first clear evidence of Doppler shifted resonance absorption in a near-thermal plasma is obtained. The heating efficiency is observed to fall sharply at densities above cut-off for the wave. At lower densities the increment in power to the limiter is measured during ECRH and is compared with that expected from the global power balance. The degradation in particle confinement often associated with ECRH is observed as an increased particle flux at the boundary driven by local electrostatic fluctuations. Initial experiments on the electron cyclotron wave driven current at the second harmonic show effects that are consistent with the low efficiency expected from theory including trapped particle effects. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  3. On the automatic control of the ITER ion cyclotron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosia, G. [Department of General Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10 125 Turin (Italy)], E-mail: giuseppe.bosia@to.infn.it

    2007-10-15

    The ITER ion cyclotron heating system requires an efficient control system capable of: (i) providing the desired array radiation spectrum, to optimize plasma coupling and absorption and to minimize parasitic power losses in the plasma edge; (ii) maintaining the RF power flow to the plasma against significant load variations, including fast fluctuations induced by ELMs; (iii) reliably detecting and suppressing RF voltage breakdowns in the array and/or in the transmission system, to avoid local equipment damage and (iv) implementing an accurate real time record of performance. In this paper specific aspects of the tuning control system, related to recent conceptual and engineering effort [K. Vulliez, et al., Design of the ITER ion cyclotron heating launcher based on in-vessel tuning system, Article ID106C, this conference] are addressed.

  4. A pythonic integrated solution for virtual prototyping of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Bin; Yang Jun; Xiong Yongqian; Chen Dezhi; Yu Tiaoqin; Dong Tianlin; Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    2007-01-01

    Virtual prototyping (VP) is a novel technique in engineering, which is desired to be applied to cyclotron design and development. Some sub-prototyping components, including beam dynamics, magnet, RF system and control system of cyclotrons, have been developed separately, but an integrated platform which encapsulates these different components is required for global system optimization. Considering that the VP integrated platform is a large-scale software and has numerous loose-coupled components, this paper describes the pythonic approach to implement this platform. By mixing the high-level interpreted Python language and the compiled languages like Fortran/C/C++ in an effective method, this approach can achieve a combination of code efficiency, flexibility and compactness

  5. Progress report on the Milan superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, E.; Alessandria, F.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bellomo, G.; Birattari, C.; Bosotti, A.; Broggi, F.; Cortesi, G.; DeMartinis, C.; Fabrici, E.; Ferrari, A.; Giove, D.; Giussani, A.; Giussani, W.; Michelato, P.; Pagani, C.; Rivoltella, G.; Rossi, L.; Serafini, L.; Sussetto, A.; Torri, V.; Varisco, G.; Cuttone, G.; Raia, G.; Kai, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the construction of the K800 superconducting cyclotron at the University of Milan underway since February 1981. The delay in the construction of the new building and a defect of the weldings of the helium vessel have caused a shift in the project schedule of about two years. Currently, the cyclotron magnet and the cryogenic plant have been completed and installed. First operation of the magnet and magnetic field mapping are to begin shortly

  6. NIRS-Chiba isochronous cyclotron 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Kumamoto, Y.; Yamada, T.; Hiramoto, T.

    1976-02-01

    The cyclotron facility installed according to the recommendation of the Atomic Energy Committee of Japan is used for neutron therapy and production of short-lived radioisotopes. Construction on the facility was started in the autumn of 1972, and completed in March 1974. Described are the following: beam transport and the experimental hall, machine research and improvement, machine time sharing and the particles and energies, characteristics of the cyclotron, and facility personnel. (auth.)

  7. Cyclotron beam dynamic simulations in MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamysheva, G.A.; Karamyshev, O.V.; Lepkina, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    MATLAB is useful for beam dynamic simulations in cyclotrons. Programming in an easy-to-use environment permits creation of models in a short space of time. Advanced graphical tools of MATLAB give good visualization features to created models. The beam dynamic modeling results with an example of two different cyclotron designs are presented. Programming with MATLAB opens wide possibilities of the development of the complex program, able to perform complete block of calculations for the design of the accelerators

  8. External beam monitoring of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hylton

    2002-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for cyclotron radioisotopes and the high cost of equipment and materials involved in the process, it becomes evident the importance of external beam monitoring of the cyclotron. In this way, the beam of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN/S P was characterized throughout the evaluation of its current intensity, profile (position, focus and geometry), alignment and homogeneity, by measuring currents, temperatures and pressures of irradiation systems. For this purpose, techniques and conventional devices, thermocouples and pressure sensors associated to electronic of instrumentation, and technology and flexibility of micro controllers allowed observing the beam behavior during irradiations in real time. The ion beam energy was also evaluated using activation analysis technique of monitor reactions in nat Cu. The beam monitoring systems have been contributing to prevent material damages and they have already been used in routine irradiations, bringing important advantages in the process of beam optimization of the Cyclone 30. (author)

  9. Focusing and bunching of ion beam in axial injection channel of IPHC cyclotron TR24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T.; Ivanenko, I.; Kazarinov, N.; Osswald, F.; Traykov, E.

    2017-07-01

    The CYRCe cyclotron (CYclotron pour la ReCherche et l’Enseignement) is used at IPHC (Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien) for the production of radio-isotopes for diagnostics, medical treatments and fundamental research in radiobiology. The TR24 cyclotron produced and commercialized by ACSI (Canada) delivers a 16-25 MeV proton beam with intensity from few nA up to 500 μA. The solenoidal focusing instead of existing quadrupole one is proposed in this report. The changing of the focusing elements will give the better beam matching with the acceptance of the spiral inflector of the cyclotron. The parameters of the focusing solenoid are found. Additionally, the main parameters of the bunching system are evaluated in the presence of the beam space charge. This system consists of the buncher installed in the axial injection beam line of the cyclotron. The using of the grid-less multi harmonic buncher may increase the accelerated beam current and will give the opportunity to new proton beam applications.

  10. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, L., E-mail: L.Carbajal-Gomez@warwick.ac.uk; Cook, J. W. S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R. O. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, N-9037, Tromsø (Norway); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  11. HIV-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma: Good Efficacy and Tolerance of Intensive Chemotherapy Including CODOX-M/IVAC with or without Rituximab in the HAART Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The outcome of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL has improved substantially in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART era. However, HIV-Burkitt lymphoma (BL, which accounts for up to 20% of HIV-NHL, has poor outcome with standard chemotherapy. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed HIV-BL treated in the HAART era with the Magrath regimen (CODOX-M/IVAC±R at four Canadian centres. Results. Fourteen patients with HIV-BL received at least one CODOX-M/IVAC±R treatment. Median age at BL diagnosis was 45.5 years, CD4 count 375 cells/mL and HIV viral load (VL 250 cells/mL and undetectable, respectively, in 4. Conclusion. Intensive chemotherapy with CODOX-M/IVAC±R yielded acceptable toxicity and good survival rates in patients with HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma receiving HAART.

  12. HIV-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma: Good Efficacy and Tolerance of Intensive Chemotherapy Including CODOX-M/IVAC with or without Rituximab in the HAART Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, J. A.; Hicks, L. K.; Cheung, M. C.; Song, K. W.; Ezzat, H.; Leger, C. S.; Boro, J.; Montaner, J. S. G.; Harris, M.; Leitch, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The outcome of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has improved substantially in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. However, HIV-Burkitt lymphoma (BL), which accounts for up to 20% of HIV-NHL, has poor outcome with standard chemotherapy. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed HIV-BL treated in the HAART era with the Magrath regimen (CODOX-M/IVAC±R) at four Canadian centres. Results. Fourteen patients with HIV-BL received at least one CODOX-M/IVAC±R treatment. Median age at BL diagnosis was 45.5 years, CD4 count 375 cells/mL and HIV viral load (VL) 250 cells/mL and undetectable, respectively, in 4. Conclusion. Intensive chemotherapy with CODOX-M/IVAC±R yielded acceptable toxicity and good survival rates in patients with HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma receiving HAART. PMID:22190945

  13. Ion-cyclotron-resonance- and Fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance spectroscopy: technology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luederwald, I.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and technology of Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance and Fourier-Transform-Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Spectroscopy are described. The method can be applied to studies of ion/molecule reactions in gas phase, to obtain thermodynamic data as gas phase acidity or basicity, proton and electron affinity, and to establish reaction mechanisms and ion structures. (orig.) [de

  14. A national medical cyclotron facility: report to the Minister of Health by the Medical Cyclotron Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Research and training in nuclear medicine in Australia are both limited by the lack of a medical cyclotron facility. The Committee recommends the establishment of a national medical cyclotron to provide a supply of short-lived radioisotopes for research in relevant fields of medicine, and for diagnostic use in nuclear medicine

  15. 57 Co produced in cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, Liliane; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron CV-28 of IPEN-CNEN/SP is a particle accelerator, used mainly in the radioisotope production, applied in 'in vivo' diagnosis in nuclear medicine. Some of them are employed in the calibration of Diagnosis equipment, such as gamma and X-rays detectors. Co-57 is an example of this application. A natural nickel foil was used as target and irradiated with proton beams of 24 MeV energy. The radioactivity analysis of the irradiated target was performed by Gamma Spectroscopy with a HPGe detector. A 259,74MBq (7,02 mCi) Co-57 source was prepared, 67 days after the last bombardment, with impurity levels of 1.13% for Co-56 and 1.29% for Co-58. The thick target yields for Co-57 and for the main radionuclidic impurities were measured, after the chemical separation of the irradiated target, extrapolated to the last EOB: 1.076 MBq (29.09 mCi)/mA.h, 0.012 MBq (0.33 mCi)/mA.h and 0.014 MBq (0.37 mCi)/mA.h, for Co-57, Co-56 and Co-58, respectively. (author)

  16. Cyclotron tubes - a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourier, G

    1980-12-01

    The introduction presents a general discussion of electron cyclotron masers (ECM): resonance, relativistic effects, elementary quantum aspects, the classical relativistic bunching and the optimum value of the electric field. The practical structure - in particular that of the gyrotron - is specified only insofar as it is useful for understanding the following chapters. The main parameters are discussed. Section 2 develops a nonlinear adiabatic or orbital theory of electron motion which alleviates calculations considerably while keeping numerical errors low enough for many practical cases. Its results are compared to a rigorous integration in one case. Other cases show the importance of the electric field profile inside the resonant cavity. Section 3 is devoted to space charge phenomena, and, for the most part, to a linear theory with space charge. In its limited range of validity (low-energy electrons), the theory indicates a strong impact of space charge for low a.c. fields and exhibits a pure beam instability. Section 4 is devoted to circuit equations with emphasis on the special features of cavities consisting of a long waveguide near cutoff. The conclusion indicates some trends of gyrotron development and corresponding theoretical problems.

  17. Clinical diagnostic system using a small cyclotron for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Y.; Magata, Y.; Konishi, J.

    1990-01-01

    Since a small cyclotron and a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner have been installed at the Kyoto University Hospital in 1983, a great deal of effort has been directed to the clinical application of the PET-cyclotron system. This paper outlines the experience with PET in the clinical setting, including the facility, equipments and staff involved, weekly schedule, typical clinical protocols, and some results from the patients. The system consists of small cyclotron for production of the short-lived positron emitting radionuclides, fully automated synthesis system for labeling various compounds, scanning for measurement of radioactivities, and data analysis system for calculating physiological parameters. A resolving cylinder target system with eight smaller cylinders is equipped for production of C-11, N-13, O-15, and F-18. Labeled compounds are quickly delivered to the PET scanner room by two systems--the continuous delivery system for the labeled gas and the rapid delivery system for the liquid compounds by compressed air. A PET scanner devoted for clinical studies is a multislice whole-body PET scanner. Ten PET studies are performed weekly on the average for measuring blood flow and oxygen and glucose metabolism in the brain, blood flow and glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the heart, blood flow and amino acid uptake in the pancreas, lung ventilation, and tumor glucose metabolism. The availability of PET-cyclotron system is still limited in view of cost. The previous clinical studies suggest the contribution of PET to the the understanding of the mechanism of disease pathophysiology. (N.K.)

  18. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  19. Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C

    2003-10-01

    For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.

  20. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-06-01

    As for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the introduction of pulsed Fourier transform techniques revolutionized ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: increased speed (factor of 10,000), increased sensitivity (factor of 100), increased mass resolution (factor of 10,000-an improvement not shared by the introduction of FT techniques to IR or NMR spectroscopy), increased mass range (factor of 500), and automated operation. FT-ICR mass spectrometry is the most versatile technique for unscrambling and quantifying ion-molecule reaction kinetics and equilibria in the absence of solvent (i.e., the gas phase). In addition, FT-ICR MS has the following analytically important features: speed (~1 second per spectrum); ultrahigh mass resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy for analysis of mixtures and polymers; attomole sensitivity; MSn with one spectrometer, including two-dimensional FT/FT-ICR/MS; positive and/or negative ions; multiple ion sources (especially MALDI and electrospray); biomolecular molecular weight and sequencing; LC/MS; and single-molecule detection up to 108 Dalton. Here, some basic features and recent developments of FT-ICR mass spectrometry are reviewed, with applications ranging from crude oil to molecular biology.

  1. Electronic cyclotron radiation amplification in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The amplified emission of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency from an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma slab is investigated in a linear theory. Plasma polarization effects are consistently included. Expressions are developed in the WKB approximation for emission in the ordinary and the extraordinary modes, for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Numerical results are given for the extraordinary mode, for which effects are strongest. For the case of a loss-cone-type electron momentum distribution, it is shown that the amplification is sensitively dependent on the ratio of parallel-to-perpendicular temperature and on inhomogeneities in the magnetic field. The dependence of the amplification on the distribution is further investigated by considering superpositions of loss-cone and Maxwellian components. It is show that the presence of a Maxwellian component in general reduces the emission relative to the pure loss-cone case, and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. A peculiar behaviour of the refractive index, which occurs in the transition from the pure loss-cone to the pure Maxwellian case, is discussed. (author)

  2. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  3. Production of C, N, O, and Ne ions by pulsed ion source and acceleration of these ions in the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hisao; Kohara, Shigeo; Kageyama, Tadashi; Kohno, Isao

    1977-01-01

    The heavy ion source, of electron bombarded hot cathode type, is usually operated by applying direct current for arc discharge. In order to accelerate Ne 6+ ion in the cyclotron, a pulsed operation of this source was attempted. Ne 6+ and O 6+ ions were accelerated successfully up to 160 MeV and more than 0.1 μA of these ion were extracted from the cyclotron. C 5+ , Ne 7+ and 22 Ne 6+ ions were also extracted with a modest intensity of beam. The intensity of C 4+ , N 4+ , N 5+ , and O 5+ ions was increased about ten times. (auth.)

  4. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Yojiro

    1995-01-01

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  5. 83-inch cyclotron research program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.C.

    1983-07-01

    In June of 1960 the US Atomic Energy Commission authorized the construction of a modern variable energy cyclotron facility at The University of Michigan to be used for research in nuclear spectroscopy. The Legislature of the State of Michigan made available funds for construction of a building to house the 83-inch cyclotron and auxiliary equipment as well as the University's remodeled 42-inch cyclotron. The research program centered around the 83-inch cyclotron was funded by the AEC and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), from September 1964 through March 1977. The program represented a continuation of the research effort using the 42-inch cyclotron facility which had been supported continuously by the AEC since February 1950. This final report to DOE briefly describes the research facility, the research program, and highlights the principal accomplishments of the effort. It begins with a historical note to place this effort within the context of nuclear physics research in the Department of Physics of the University of Michigan

  6. Manufacturing on the radiopharmaceuticals produced by cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical (RP) produced by cyclotrons are widely used for the in vivo diagnosis of various diseases such as cancer, cerebral vascular disorders and cardiac diseases. The nuclides used as RPs and their nuclear reactions, and the quantity of RPs supplied in Japan in the last five years are shown. These RPs are delivered to about 1,100 hospitals in Japan. Thallium-201 and iodine-123 showed very high growth rate. Recently, two new I-123 RPs, BMIPP and MIBG which are heart-imaging agents, have been supplied. It suggests that the quantity of I-123 will increase much more in future. The image diagnostic method using RPs is called in vivo nuclear medicine, and has become the indispensable means for medical institutions together with X-ray CT, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic diagnosis. The RPs for in vivo diagnosis generally used at present are classified into those labeled with the RIs produced with cyclotrons and those labeled with Tc-99m formed by the decay of Mo-99. The quantity being used is overwhelmingly more in the latter, but the former shows the tendency of growth. The commercial production of cyclotron RIs for medical use, the chemical forms and the diagnostic purposes of the RPs using cyclotron RIs, and the state of use of the cyclotron-produced RPs are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14 C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14 C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14 C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  8. Recycling and recommissioning a used biomedical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, L.R.; Ramsey, F.; Armbruster, J.; Montenero, M.

    2001-01-01

    Biomedical Cyclotrons have a very long life, but there eventually comes a time when any piece of equipment has to be retired from service. From time to time, we have the opportunity to help find new homes for used cyclotrons which, with relatively modest overhaul and refurbishment, can have many additional years of productive service, and thus represent a very valuable asset. The reasons for retiring a cyclotron vary, of course, but in our experience it is often due to an institution's changing priorities or changing needs, rather than the due to any fundamental age-related deficiency in the cyclotron itself. In this paper we will report on the relocation and successful restoration of a used TCC CP-42 cyclotron, which was moved from M.D. Anderson Hospital in Houston to Denton, Texas in early 1998, where it is presently being used for R and D and commercial production of biomedical isotopes. Ownership of the machine has been transferred to the University of North Texas; facility, manpower, and operational resources are provided by International Isotopes, Inc

  9. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  10. Production of exotic beams at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron by the ISOL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Users of the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron are preparing a proposal to produce exotic, i.e., radioactive beams. The facility will consist of a high-current 30 MeV cyclotron to generate the radioactive nuclei, an ECR source that can be coupled to different production targets, and the 88-Inch Cyclotron to accelerate the radioactive ions. Thus, the basic concept is that of the double cyclotron system pioneered at Louvain-la-Neuve, although the initial emphasis will be on producing a variety of light proton-rich beams at energies up to 10 MeV/A. At this workshop we wish to outline what is being planned, to invite comments and suggestions, and, especially, to encourage participation. We believe that this facility will be an important step toward establishing the scientific and technical basis for a National High Intensity Facility. This can be achieved through active participation by members of the radioactive beam (RB) community in (1) experiments with high quality radioactive beams of moderate intensity and, (2) R ampersand D on high beam-power targets and highly efficient ion sources. 5 refs., 4 figs

  11. Study of axial injection of polarized protons into the grenoble cyclotron; Contribution a l'etude de l'injection axiale pour protons polarises sur le cyclotron de Grenoble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    By injecting ions axially into a cyclotron, it is possible to accelerate particles (polarized particles, heavy ions, etc...) obtainable only with difficulty when an internal ion source is used. In this work, after justifying the choice of an axial injection device equipped with a 'pseudo-cylindrical' deflector for the Grenoble cyclotron, we study theoretically the principle of such a detector, the choice of its parameters, and the effect of this choice on the conditions of acceleration of the beam by the cyclotron. From the experimental point of view, this report describes two operations which made it possible to check that the chosen injection device operated satisfactorily, qualitatively initially (electron model), then quantitatively (proton model). In conclusion, we believe that the Grenoble cyclotron thus equipped will be able to provide a relatively dense beam of polarized protons. (author) [French] L'injection axiale d'ions dans un cyclotron permet d'accelerer des particules (particules polarisees, ions lourds... ) difficiles a obtenir avec une source interne d'ions. Dans ce travail, apres avoir justifie le choix d'un dispositif d'injection axiale equipe d'un deflecteur 'pseudo-cylindrique' pour le cyclotron de Grenoble, nous avons etudie, du point de vue theorique, le principe d'un tel deflecteur, le choix de ses parametres, et l'incidence de ce choix sur les conditions d'acceleration du faisceau par le cyclotron. Du point de vue experimental, ce rapport decrit deux manipulations qui ont permis de verifier le bon fonctionnement du dispositif d'injection retenu, qualitativement d'abord (modele a electrons), quantitativement ensuite (maquette a protons). En conclusion, nous estimons que le cyclotron de Grenoble ainsi equipe, peut fournir un faisceau relativement intense de protons polarises. (auteur)

  12. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  13. Statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Shot noise is the cause of statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation generated by an ensemble of electrons oscillating in magnetic field. Autophasing time - the time required for the cooperative cyclotron radiation power to peak - is the critical parameter characterizing the dynamics of electron-oscillators interacting via the radiation field. It is shown that premodulation of charged particles leads to a considerable narrowing of the autophasing time distribution function for which the analytic expression is obtained. When the number of particles Ne exceeds a certain value that depends on the degree to which the particles have been premodulated, the relative root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the autophasing time δT changes from a logarithmic dependence on Ne (δT ∼ 1 / lnNe) to square-root (δT ∼ 1 /√{Ne }). A slight energy spread (∼4%) results in a twofold drop of the maximum attainable power of cooperative cyclotron radiation.

  14. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  15. Radiation exposure to workers at cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.; Sanches, M.P.; Sanchez, A.S.; Rodrigues, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals quickly furnish the information doctors need to establish a precise diagnosis of the patient's condition, and therefore to prescribe the most effective therapy. In cancerology, F18-FDG, the most widely used PET imaging tracer, excels in the early detection of cancer tumors, even very tiny ones, which it locates and clearly distinguishes from healthy surrounding tissues. IPEN-CNEN/SP has two cyclotron accelerators used mainly for radioisotope production to be utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The first is a CV-28 cyclotron, variable energy that came into operation in 1982, which was used to produce F18-FDG and Iodine 123 up to 1998. The second, a Cyclone 30 cyclotron, 30 MeV, commenced operation in 1998 for certification purpose, and due to increase demand for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil, started F18-FDG production in 1999. Cyclotron Laboratory will be a reference Research and Developing Center in our country and will help the Brazilian and Latin-American community. It is necessary to have an adequate database to allow regular follow up and analysis of the individual dose distributions for each group involved in the cyclotron activities. These databases are also important means to assess the effectiveness of efforts in order to maintain doses ALARA and reduce inequalities. The official individual occupational dosimetry is provided by certified Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry at IPEN-CNEN/SP. This paper describes the occupational doses distribution in Laboratory of Cyclotrons at IPEN-CNEN/SP from January, 1998 to July, 2000 and propose improvements for the future. (author)

  16. Knowledge based operation assist system for JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, T.; Okumura, S.; Yokota, W.; Arakawa, K.; Murakami, T.; Okamura, T.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two operation assist systems for easy and rapid operation of the JAERI AVF cyclotron. One is a knowledge based expert system guiding the sequence of parameter adjustment to inexperienced cyclotron operators. The other is a real-time simulation of the beam trajectories which are calculated from actual operating parameters. It graphically indicates feasible setting range of parameters that satisfies the acceptance of the cyclotron. These systems provide a human interface to adjust the parameters of the cyclotron. (author)

  17. Commissioning of cryogen delivery system for superconducting cyclotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, G.; Nandi, C.; Bhattacharyya, T.K.; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    A K-500 superconducting cyclotron is being constructed at VECC Kolkata. The cryogen delivery system distributes liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to the superconducting cyclotron. Liquid helium is required to cool the cyclotron magnet and cryopanels. Liquid nitrogen is used to reduce the capacity of the helium liquefier. This paper describes the system, the current status and the commissioning experiences of cryogen delivery system for cyclotron magnet. (author)

  18. First years of operation of the LNS superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifuggiato, D.; Calabretta, L.; Cuttone, G.; Gammino, S.; Raia, G.; Rovelli, A. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The K800 Superconducting Cyclotron was commissioned in 1994 and has been in continuous operation since then. In 1996 many efforts were made to reach a condition of reliable operation. Several ion types have been accelerated and delivered to experimental halls. The demand for different beams has given the opportunity to explore several regions of the operating diagram of the machine: different magnetic field values have been set, as well as several RF frequencies have been used. The results demonstrate that the Cyclotron allows to accomplish a large variety of nuclear physics experiments, even if the maximum performance has not yet been achieved. A few sub-systems are being upgraded in view of the 'high intensity' operation (which is required for radioactive beam production) and in order to reach the maximum performance: upgrading is planned on the RF system and on the electrostatic deflectors. A new axial injection system has been designed to operate the machine in stand-alone mode. (authors)

  19. ECR ion source for variable energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Dasgupta, B; Mallik, C; Das, S K; Bandopadhaya, D K; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1995-09-01

    Some performance characteristics of 6.4 GHz two stage ECR ion source which was under development at this centre is presented. The present ion source will facilitate acceleration of light heavy ions with the existing k=130 variable energy cyclotron. Multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam from the source will also be utilized for atomic physics studies. Oxygen beam has already been used for ion implantation studies. The external injection system under development is nearing completion. Heavy ion beam from cyclotron is expected by end of 1995. (author).

  20. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  1. Analysis Tools for the Ion Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, C. A.; Thome, K. E.; Pinsker, R. I.; Meneghini, O.; Pace, D. C.

    2017-10-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) waves are excited by suprathermal particles such as neutral beam particles and fusion products. An ICE diagnostic is in consideration for use at ITER, where it could provide important passive measurement of fast ions location and losses, which are otherwise difficult to determine. Simple ICE data analysis codes had previously been developed, but more sophisticated codes are required to facilitate data analysis. Several terabytes of ICE data were collected on DIII-D during the 2015-2017 campaign. The ICE diagnostic consists of antenna straps and dedicated magnetic probes that are both digitized at 200 MHz. A suite of Python spectral analysis tools within the OMFIT framework is under development to perform the memory-intensive analysis of this data. A fast and optimized analysis allows ready access to data visualizations as spectrograms and as plots of both frequency and time cuts of the data. A database of processed ICE data is being constructed to understand the relationship between the frequency and intensity of ICE and a variety of experimental parameters including neutral beam power and geometry, local and global plasma parameters, magnetic fields, and many others. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  2. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  4. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-11-01

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  5. Support vector machine based fault detection approach for RFT-30 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Young Bae, E-mail: ybkong@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Eun Je; Hur, Min Goo; Park, Jeong Hoon; Park, Yong Dae; Yang, Seung Dae

    2016-10-21

    An RFT-30 is a 30 MeV cyclotron used for radioisotope applications and radiopharmaceutical researches. The RFT-30 cyclotron is highly complex and includes many signals for control and monitoring of the system. It is quite difficult to detect and monitor the system failure in real time. Moreover, continuous monitoring of the system is hard and time-consuming work for human operators. In this paper, we propose a support vector machine (SVM) based fault detection approach for the RFT-30 cyclotron. The proposed approach performs SVM learning with training samples to construct the classification model. To compensate the system complexity due to the large-scale accelerator, we utilize the principal component analysis (PCA) for transformation of the original data. After training procedure, the proposed approach detects the system faults in real time. We analyzed the performance of the proposed approach utilizing the experimental data of the RFT-30 cyclotron. The performance results show that the proposed SVM approach can provide an efficient way to control the cyclotron system.

  6. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE 110 GHz ELECTRON CYCLOTRON INSTATLLATION ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PONCE, D.; CALLIS, R.W.; CARY, W.P.; FERRON, J.R.; GREEN, M.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; GORELOV, Y.; LOHR, J.; ELLIS, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE 110 GHZ ELECTRON CYCLOTRON INSTALLATION ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. Significant improvements are being implement4ed to the capability of the 110 GHz electron cyclotron system on the DIII-D tokamak. Chief among these is the addition of the fifth and sixth 1 MW class gyrotrons, increasing the power available for auxiliary heating and current drive by nearly 60%. These tubes use artificially grown diamond rf output windows to obtain high power with long pulse capability. The beams from these tubes are nearly Gaussian, facilitating coupling to the waveguide. A new fully articulating dual launcher capable of high speed spatial scanning has been designed and tested. The launcher has two axis independent steering for each waveguide. the mirrors can be rotated at up to 100 o /s. A new feedback system linking the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) with the gyrotron beam voltage waveform generators permits real-time feedback control of some plasma properties such as electron temperature. The PCS can use a variety of plasma monitors to generate its control signal, including electron cyclotron emission and Mirnov probes. Electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive (ECH and ECCD) were used during this year's DIII-D experimental campaign to control electron temperature, density, and q profiles, induce an ELM-free H-mode, and suppress the m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode. The new capabilities have expanded the role of EC systems in tokamak plasma control

  7. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Shepard, D.A.; Sprott, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed

  8. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. The Data Cyclotron query processing scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves, R.; Kersten, M.

    2011-01-01

    A grand challenge of distributed query processing is to devise a self-organizing architecture which exploits all hardware resources optimally to manage the database hot set, minimize query response time, and maximize throughput without single point global coordination. The Data Cyclotron

  10. The Data Cyclotron query processing scheme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goncalves (Romulo); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractA grand challenge of distributed query processing is to devise a self-organizing architecture which exploits all hardware resources optimally to manage the database hot set, minimize query response time, and maximize throughput without single point global coordination. The Data Cyclotron

  11. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  12. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  13. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  14. Automated cyclotron tuning using beam phase measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, J.H.; Roecken, H.; Stephani, T.; Baumgarten, C.; Geisler, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ACCEL K250 superconducting cyclotron is specifically designed for the use in proton therapy systems. The compact medical 250 MeV proton accelerator fulfils all present and future beam requirements for fast scanning treatment systems and is delivered as a turn key system; no operator is routinely required. During operation of the cyclotron heat dissipation of the RF system induces a small drift in iron temperature. This temperature drift slightly detunes the magnetic field and small corrections must be made. A non-destructive beam phase detector has been developed to measure and quantify the effect of a magnetic field drift. Signal calculations were made and the design of the capacitive pickup probe was optimised to cover the desired beam current range. Measurements showed a very good agreement with the calculated signals and beam phase can be measured with currents down to 3 nA. The measured phase values are used as input for a feedback loop controlling the current in the superconducting coil. The magnetic field of the cyclotron is tuned automatically and online to maintain a fixed beam phase. Extraction efficiency is thereby optimised continuously and activation of the cyclotron is minimised. The energy and position stability of the extracted beam are well within specification

  15. A visual assistance environment for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Murakami, Tohru; Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists inexperienced operators has been developed. Cyclotron start-up operations require dozens of adjustable parameters to be finely tuned to maximize extracted beam current. The human interfaces of the system provide a visual environment designed to enhance beam parameter adjustments. First, the mental model of operators is analyzed. It is supposed to be composed of five partial mental models: beam behavior model, feasible setting regions model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter mutual relation model, and status map model. Next, based on these models, three visual interfaces are developed, i.e., (1) Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever the operators change the cyclotron parameters. (2) Feasible setting regions (FSR) of the parameters that satisfy the cyclotron's beam acceptance criteria are indicated. (3) Search traces, being a historical visual map of beam current values, are superimposed on the FSRs. Finally, to evaluate system effectiveness, the search time required to reach maximum beam current conditions was measured. In addition, system operability was evaluated using written questionnaires. Results of the experiment showed that the search time to reach specific beam conditions was reduced by approximately 65% using these interfaces. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system operability. (author)

  16. Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    600 W microwave power with an average electron density of ∼ 6 × 1011 cm. −3 ... the angular frequency of the cyclotron motion, e is the electron charge, m is the mass of .... is also suitable for ECR plasma-based applications like high-quality ...

  17. Development of HM12 cyclotron for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takuzo; Kawama, Tetsuo; Fujii, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, there are at present more than 30 PET (Positron Emission Tomography) facilities. The movements of medical insurance application to the PET diagnosis using [ 18 F] FDG (2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose) by the Ministry of Health and Welfare are being enhanced by PET related people. Therefore, more clinical centers using PET system are expected to be built in the near future. HM12 cyclotron was developed to meet such market demands for PET, and the prototype machine has been rent to Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University since Oct. 1998 for their use of clinical research with positron emitters like 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F. We got many technical data of HM12 Cyclotron on the clinical base. The data was enough to establish the reliability of HM12 system operation under the clinical condition. The first commercial product of HM12 Cyclotron was delivered to National Cancer Center in March 2000. The final performance test will be finished by the end of June 2000. (author)

  18. Electron cyclotron emission from thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Granata, G.

    1978-02-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from a warm inhomogeneous plasma is investigated. A direct calculation of the emissive power of a plasma slab is performed using Rytov's method and the result is compared with the solution of the transfer equation. It is found that, for arbitrary directions of emission, the two results differ, which reflects the fact that Kirchhoff's law is not generally obeyed

  19. Electron cyclotron heating and associated parallel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapozo, C. da C.; Assis, A.S. de; Busnardo Neto, J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been experimentally observed that during the electron-cyclotron heating the electron longitudinal temperature drops as the perpendicular temperature increases. The experiment was carried in a linear mirror machine with a low density (10 10 cm -3 ) weakly ionized (< 1.0 %) plasma. (Author)

  20. On Resonant Heating Below the Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liu; Lin, Zhihong; White, R.

    2001-01-01

    Resonant heating of particles by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicular to a confining uniform magnetic field is examined. It is shown that, with a sufficiently large wave amplitude, significant perpendicular stochastic heating can be obtained with wave frequency at a fraction of the cyclotron frequency

  1. Emergency situation in a medical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bhat, M.K.; Singh, D.K.; Pthania, B.S.; Pandit, A.G.; Jacob, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Medical cyclotron is a particle accelerator used in producing short lived radioisotopes such as 18 F, 11 C, 15 O, 13 N, 18 F-2 gas etc. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging modality that has rapidly gained favour. 18 F-FDG is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical with a half-life of 109.8 min. Having more than five years experience in this field we face lots of emergency conditions in the medical cyclotron facility. On the basis of harm we have divided in to three categories i.e. Harm of (a) working personnel, (b) Equipment and (c) environment. Radioactive gas leak and Target foil rupture is considered as the major emergency situations during medical cyclotron operations because there is a potential of over exposure to the working personnel. Radiation protection survey of a self-shielded medical cyclotron installation was carried out during normal and emergency conditions. It is found that the induced activity in the target foil increases with its successive usages. Recommendations have also been made to reduce personal exposure while handling the radioactive gas leak and target foil rupture conditions

  2. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Currents driven by electron cyclotron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karney, C.F.F.; Fisch, N.J.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the generation of steady-state currents by electron cyclotron waves are explored. A numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is used to verify the theory of Fisch and Boozer and to extend their results into the nonlinear regime. Relativistic effects on the current generated are discussed. Applications to steady-state tokamak reactors are considered

  4. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  5. Study of the neutron field in the vicinity of an unshielded PET cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, R; Iniguez, M P; MartI-Climent, J M; Penuelas, I; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Barquero, R

    2005-01-01

    The neutron field in the proximity of an unshielded PET cyclotron was investigated during 18 F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. Thermoluminescent detector (TLD) models TLD600 and TLD700 as well as Bonner moderating spheres were irradiated at different positions inside the vault room where the cyclotron is located to determine the thermal neutron flux, neutron spectrum and dose equivalent. Furthermore, from a combination of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations the neutron source intensity at the target was estimated. The resulting intensity is in good agreement with the IAEA recommendations. Neutron doses derived from the measured spectra were found to vary between 7 and 320 mSv per 1 μA h of proton-integrated current. Finally, gamma doses were determined from TLD700 readings and amounted to around 10% of the neutron doses

  6. Study of the neutron field in the vicinity of an unshielded PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R [Dpto. Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Iniguez, M P [Dpto. Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); MartI-Climent, J M [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, ClInica Universitaria de Navarra (Spain); Penuelas, I [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, ClInica Universitaria de Navarra (Spain); Vega-Carrillo, H R [Dpto. Estudios Nucleares, IngenierIa Electrica, Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Barquero, R [Hospital Universitario RIo Hortega, Valladolid (Spain)

    2005-11-07

    The neutron field in the proximity of an unshielded PET cyclotron was investigated during {sup 18}F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. Thermoluminescent detector (TLD) models TLD600 and TLD700 as well as Bonner moderating spheres were irradiated at different positions inside the vault room where the cyclotron is located to determine the thermal neutron flux, neutron spectrum and dose equivalent. Furthermore, from a combination of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations the neutron source intensity at the target was estimated. The resulting intensity is in good agreement with the IAEA recommendations. Neutron doses derived from the measured spectra were found to vary between 7 and 320 mSv per 1 {mu}A h of proton-integrated current. Finally, gamma doses were determined from TLD700 readings and amounted to around 10% of the neutron doses.

  7. Television imaging system for fast neutron radiography using baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji; Miya, Kenzo; Katoh, Norihiko.

    1993-01-01

    A television imaging system for fast neutron radiography (FNR-TV) developed using the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was applied to the baby-cyclotron based fast neutron source to get images of thick objects quickly. In the system the same technique as a current television imaging system of thermal neutron radiography was applied, while the luminescent converter was used to detect fast neutrons. Using the CR39 track etch method it took about 7 h to get an image, while the FNR-TV only 20 s enough for taking the same object. However the FNR-TV imaging result of the simulation model of a large explosive device for the space launch vehicle of H-2 type was not so good as the image taken with the CR39 track etch method. The reason was that the luminescence intensity of the FNR-TV converter was a quarter of that in the YAYOI. (author)

  8. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers

  9. General aspects of radiological protection to consider for the licensing a hospital cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada Contardi, F.A.; Fruttero, N.H.; Bozzo, R.H.; Moschella, E.G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of PET/PET-CT studies for a variety of diagnoses has increased significantly on a global scale. Modern medical cyclotrons must be placed in or near hospitals on account of the short radioactive half-life of the pharmaceuticals used in such studies. Many countries in Latin America are now licensing cyclotrons and laboratories for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals for the first time, and most are expected to have installations within the near future. This report outlines the general aspects of radiological protection important to consideration during the licensing of these facilities, and includes the following: general operation of the cyclotron and laboratory for the production of radiopharmaceuticals, safety systems (shielding, interlocks, ventilation, manual safety systems, alarms and monitors), and general aspects for licensing an installation (monitoring, accidental and incidental events, activation of components, etc.) and personnel. (authors) [es

  10. Design of the injection channel magnets for the K1200 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.Y.; Lawton, D.; Marti, F.; Zeller, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    The beam from the K500 cyclotron is injected radially into the median plane of the K1200 cyclotron where it is stripped inside a dee. Along the injection path, the injected beam traverses large magnetic gradients under the K1200 superconducting coil and on the edge of the hill. To match the injected beam to the eigen-ellipse for the accelerated beam, two magnetic elements are included in the injection channel in the yoke of the K1200 cyclotron. One of them is an active element and the other a conical focusing passive element. This last element must move in the horizontal plane to match the different beam paths. We describe in the paper the beam dynamics calculations as well as the mechanical design and construction of these magnets

  11. Concepts and strategies to establish a cyclotron/PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernan Vera Ruiz; D, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliably radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001 (1) , the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing nations was put into evidence This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues up to the present time, and all indications are that it will continue in the next future. The reasons for this growth are several, amongst them it can be mentioned the fact that the technology involved has became more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several of clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries starting with F-18FDG in 1998, and above all, the clear, irrefutable and demonstrable Conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology and to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognized that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET camera can nevertheless be an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planed for installation in a developing country which frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortages of qualify human resources for advance planning and later, to run efficiently the facility. Several are the steps that needs consideration when planning a cyclotron facility, the most critical ones are a careful definition of the mission and scope of the facility including the utilization programme of the facility as a whole, followed by a

  12. Cyclotron absorption and emission in mode conversion layers emdash a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    When the analysis of absorption with mode conversion effects included began to mature in recent years, the study of the corresponding effects on emission began and has led to some surprising results. The classical expressions for cyclotron or synchrotron emission from a harmonic resonance were originally derived from models that did not include mode conversion or its attendant reflection, and classical expressions for the optical depth and opacity were obtained. When mode conversion was included, the principal surprise was that the transmission coefficient, which was understood as being due to absorption, is totally independent of absorption and due exclusively to tunneling. The other surprise from the mode conversion analysis is that the observed emission arises from two distinct sources, one direct and one from an indirect Bernstein wave source which is partially converted in the cyclotron layer to outgoing electromagnetic waves, with the net result that mode conversion cancels out for the electron case, but not for ions. The only corrections to electron cyclotron emission are then due to reflection effects, and these have been shown to be small for many laboratory plasmas, leading to the validation of the classical formula for these cases, but via an entirely new paradigm in its interpretation. This review includes a summary of the absorption process for both electron and ion cyclotron harmonics, and reviews carefully the emission physics, including both potential error estimates and a discussion of the emission source distribution in space

  13. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that {sup 15}O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and {sup 18}F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies.

  14. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that 15 O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies

  15. Fast wave and electron cyclotron current drive in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Austin, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The non-inductive current drive from directional fast Alfven and electron cyclotron waves was measured in the DIII-D tokamak in order to demonstrate these forms of radiofrequency (RF) current drive and to compare the measured efficiencies with theoretical expectations. The fast wave frequency was 8 times the deuterium cyclotron frequency at the plasma centre, while the electron cyclotron wave was at twice the electron cyclotron frequency. Complete non-inductive current drive was achieved using a combination of fast wave current drive (FWCD) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in discharges for which the total plasma current was inductively ramped down from 400 to 170 kA. For steady current discharges, an analysis of the loop voltage revealed up to 195 kA of a non-inductive current (out of 310 kA) during combined electron cyclotron and fast wave injection, with a maximum of 110 kA of FWCD and 80 kA of ECCD achieved (not simultaneously). The peakedness of the current profile increased with RF current drive, indicating that the driven current was centrally localized. The FWCD efficiency increased linearly with the central electron temperature as expected; however, the FWCD was severely degraded in low current discharges owing to incomplete fast wave absorption. The measured FWCD agreed with the predictions of a ray tracing code only when a parasitic loss of 4% per pass was included in the modelling along with multiple pass absorption. Enhancement of the second harmonic ECCD efficiency by the toroidal electric field was observed experimentally. The measured ECCD was in good agreement with Fokker-Planck code predictions. (author). 41 refs, 13 figs, 1 tab

  16. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of 18 F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that 18 FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis

  17. A cyclotron resonance laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Tang, C.M.; Vlahos, L.

    1983-01-01

    A laser acceleration mechanism which utilizes a strong static, almost uniform, magnetic field together with an intense laser pulse is analyzed. The interaction and acceleration mechanism relies on a self resonance effect. Since the laser field is assumed to be diffraction limited, the magnetic field must be spatially varied to maintain resonance. The effective accelerating gradient is shown to scale like 1/√E /SUB b/ , where E /SUB b/ is the electron energy. For a numerical illustration the authors consider a 1 x 10 13 W/cm 2 , CO 2 laser and show that electrons can be accelerated to more than 500 MeV in a distance of 15 m (approximately two Rayleigh lengths)

  18. Project of positron source at the U-120 Cyclotron, Bucharest. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racolta, P.M.; Popa Simil, L.; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    1999-01-01

    To extend the applications with our U-120 Cyclotron we started a project of off-line and on-line positron sources produced at the cyclotron. This machine may be successfully used for producing positron sources with few day half-life for off-line positron studies (eg. 48 V), or a cyclotron on-line intense positron beam (eg. 27 Si) with a variable energy for various materials study experiments, enough to cover a depth range from few micrometers down to tens of nanometers. Until now, using a 48 V positron source we performed experiments for determination of the Doppler broadening of the 511 KeV peak for different materials (copper, lead, indium). This research is carrier out on a cooperation agreement between IFIN-HH Bucharest and LISES-Chisinau. The positron source project is now in its initial stage. This stage consists of the experiments on the off-line version using positron sources produced in the cyclotron (eg. 48 V, 22 Na), to develop experience with detection chains (Doppler broadening and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy), to choose proper experiments in order to select moderator materials (W, Mo, Pt, etc.) and to study and design the different versions for the on-line production of positrons with the cyclotron. Slow positrons are valuable tools in atomic physics, materials science and solid state physics research. The controlled energy beam facility can be used to probe defects in metals, to study Fermi surfaces and materials surfaces and interfaces and to obtain detailed information about the electronic structure of materials. The aim of this project is to perform applications in the semiconductor industry, for coating materials, polymers, biomaterials etc. (authors)

  19. Project of positron source at the U-120 cyclotron Bucharest status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racolta, P.M.; Simil Popa, L.; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    2000-01-01

    To extend the applications with our U-120 Cyclotron we started a project of off-line positron sources produced at the cyclotron. This machine may be successfully used for producing positron sources with few day half-life for off-line positron studies (e.g. 48 V), or a cyclotron on-line intense positron beam (e.g. 27 Si) with a variable energy for various materials study experiments, enough to cover a depth range from a few micrometers down to tens of nanometers. Until now, using a 48 V positron source we performed experiments for determination of the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV peak for different materials (copper, lead, indium). This research is carried out on a cooperation agreement between IFIN-HH Bucharest and LISES-Chisinau. The positron source project is now in its initial stage. This stage consists of the experiments on the off-line version using positron source produced in the cyclotron (e.g. 48 V, 22 Na), to develop experience with detection chains (Doppler broadening and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy) to choose proper experiments in order to select moderator materials (W, Mo, Pt, etc.) and to study and design the different versions for the on-line positron production by cyclotron. Slow positrons are valuable tools in atomic physics, materials science and solid state physics research. The controlled energy beam facility can be used to probe defects in metals, to study Fermi surfaces and materials surfaces and interfaces and to obtained detailed information about electronic structures of materials. The aim of this project is to perform applications in the semiconductor industry, for coating materials, polymers, biomaterials, etc. (authors)

  20. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω + ), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω + quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω + frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω + frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Radiation protection of cyclotron vault with maze in PET Cyclotron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The PET Cyclotron center (PCC) is a complex for production, research and application of positron radiopharmaceuticals for PET (Positron Emission Tomography), which was commissioned this year (2004) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Positron radionuclides are produced by 18/9 MeV proton/deuteron cyclotron CYCLONE 18/9. Radiation protection of personnel and inhabitants against ionizing radiation in the PCC is solved with regard to the ICRP recommendations and Slovak regulatory system, protection rules and criteria and optimization of radiation protection. In the article comparisons of calculated and measured neutron and gamma dose equivalent rates around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze are presented. Description of the CYCLONE 18/9 as a source of angular distribution of neutron energy spectra (production of 18 F was considered) was simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Code MCNP4B was used for shielding calculation of cyclotron vault with maze. Neutron energy spectra behind the shielding were measured by Bonner spectrometer. The values of neutron dose equivalent, which were calculated and measured around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze, are within the range of factor 2. (authors)

  2. Research and education by SF cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report represents the current activities in research and education using the cyclotron facility and related apparatus which are supported by Nuclear Physics Division and this is a continuation of INS-T-466 (1986, December). In this version an iron-free β-ray spectrometer and a cooler-synchrotron (TARN II) are briefly described also in the first chapter. The second chapter explains experimental programs performed in the last 5 years. The third chapter gives the number of publications on researches performed in 1975-1991, and also gives twelve topics obtained from the cyclotron and the β-ray spectrometer in recent 5 years. The last chapter provides the whole list of the works for Doctor and Master theses performed at the facility in the last 10 years. (J.P.N.)

  3. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  4. New design for a medical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M

    1985-12-01

    The Oxford Instruments Group PLC, have designed a 30 MeV energy proton cyclotron incorporating a super-conducting magnet and a novel RF accelerating cavity. The energy range is suitable for the production of isotopes such as /sup 67/Ga, /sup 111/In, /sup 123/I and /sup 201/Tl, and the short lived isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine for use in Positron Emmission Tomography (PET). A new magnet and RF cavity design permit a considerable power and weight reduction and a compact size (1.5m dia x 1.9m high), allowing the cyclotron to be transported to a shielded site as an assembly after factory testing. A method of beam extraction has been adopted which minimises activation of the accelerator components and so allows hands on maintenance to be carried out when required.

  5. Matching of ion sources to cyclotron inflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.

    1988-06-01

    In general, cyclotron inflectors strongly couple the two transverse subspaces. This leads to a growth in emittance projections for a beam with no initial correlation between the two transverse subspaces. Only in the case of the Mueller (hyperboloid) inflector is there no emittance growth. We have made calculations using an optimization routine to match a given beam through the axial injection system. We find that in the limit where all the emittance is due to a beam's axial angular momentum (for example, from an ECR source), matching with no emittance growth is possible even in the case of mirror or spiral inflectors. Moreover, any one of the two transverse emittances circulating in the cyclotron can be made smaller than the source emittance while maintaining the sum of the emittances constant. This is achieved by rotating the matching quadrupoles with respect to the inflector and retuning

  6. Cyclotrons as Drivers for Precision Neutrino Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Barletta, W. A.; Winslow, L. A.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Toups, M.; Adelmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    As we enter the age of precision measurement in neutrino physics, improved flux sources are required. These must have a well defined flavor content with energies in ranges where backgrounds are low and cross-section knowledge is high. Very few sources of neutrinos can meet these requirements. However, pion/muon and isotope decay-at-rest sources qualify. The ideal drivers for decay-at-rest sources are cyclotron accelerators, which are compact and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes a scheme to produce decay-at-rest sources driven by such cyclotrons, developed within the DAEδALUS program. Examples of the value of the high precision beams for pursuing Beyond Standard Model interactions are reviewed. New results on a combined DAEδALUS—Hyper-K search for CP violation that achieve errors on the mixing matrix parameter of 4° to 12° are presented

  7. Electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Arunasalam, V.; Cano, R.

    1977-07-01

    Experimental measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak plasma reveal that black-body emission occurs at the fundamental frequency. Such emission, not possible by direct thermal excitation of electromagnetic waves, is herein attributed to thermal excitation of electrostatic (Bernstein) waves which then mode convert into electromagnetic waves. The local feature of the electrostatic wave generation permits spatially and time resolved measurements of electron temperature as for the second harmonic emission

  8. The superconducting separated orbit cyclotron TRITRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1984-01-01

    At the Munich 13 MV-Tandem Laboratory the TRITRON is under development, which will be the prototype of a superconducting separated orbit cyclotron for acceleration of heavy ions with 0.04 or approx.20) of the revolution frequency. Thus the frequency range for acceleration of ions with different revolution frequency can be kept small (+-3%). The magnets as well as the cavities are contained in the same cavity. (orig.)

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Three ion sources, that deliver multiply charged ion beams are described. All of them are E.C.R. ion sources and are characterized by the fact that the electrons are emitted by the plasma itself and are accelerated to the adequate energy through electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.). They can work without interruption during several months in a quasi-continuous regime. (Duty cycle: [fr

  10. First experimental observation of cyclotron superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N S; Zotova, I V; Sergeev, A S; Konoplev, I V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Shpak, V G; Yalandin, M I; Shunajlov, C A; Ulmaskulov, M P [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Electrophysics

    1997-12-31

    The first experimental observation of cyclotron superradiance from subnanosecond high-current electron bunches moving through waveguide systems is reported. Ultrashort microwave K{sub {alpha}} band pulses with a power of 200 kW and duration less than 0.5 ns were observed in the regime of group synchronism when the electron bunch drift velocity coincided with the group velocity of the electromagnetic waves. (author). 2 figs., 13 refs.

  11. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.

    1991-06-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime [fr

  12. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  13. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration

  14. Operation of a quasioptical electron cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, E.C.; Pyle, R.V.

    1984-12-01

    The electron cyclotron maser or gyrotron concept has been developed to produce sources producing 200 kW at 28 GHz continuously, and higher power outputs and frequencies in pulsed mode. These sources have been useful in electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetically confined fusion devices. However, higher frequencies and higher power levels will be required in reactor-grade fusion plasmas, with likely requirements of 1.0 MW or more per source at 140 GHz. Conventional gyrotrons follow a trend of decreasing power for increasing frequency. In order to circumvent this problem, the quasioptical electron cyclotron maser was proposed. In this device, the closed resonator of the conventional gyrotron is replaced with an open, Fabry-Perot type resonator. The cavity modes are then the TEM-type modes of an optical laser. The advantage of this configuration is that the cavity size is not a function of frequency, since the length can be any half-integer number of wavelengths. Furthermore, the beam traverses across the cavity transverse to the direction of radiation output, and thus the rf window design is less complicated than in conventional tubes. The rf output, if obtained by diffraction coupling around one of the mirrors, could be in a TEM mode, which would allow for quasioptical transmission of the microwaves into the plasma in fusion devices. 4 references, 1 figure

  15. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  16. Diagnostic system for the nuclear medicine with baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Masao; Wakasa, Shyuichiro

    1982-01-01

    The system of cyclotron nuclear medicine consists of ''RI-production by using the cyclotron'', ''production of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with RI'', ''positron tomography''. On the other hand, Ultra compact cyclotron (Baby cyclotron) itself, RI production technique and positron tomography have been rapidly developed and advanced. We think that these three functions must be balance in the development in order to spread this system into the routine work in the hospital. However, since the technology of the synthesis for the labeled compounds is not so developed so far, more advance can be strongly expected. In this report, construction of the cyclotron nuclear medicine, utility for the practical use of RI produced by using the cyclotron, technique of RI production, and the studies on automated and efficient productions of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived positron emitters for medical diagnostic use are described. (author)

  17. The separated-sector cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The injection system of the SSC, consisting of two bending magnets (BM1 and BM2) and a magnetic inflection channel (MIC) in the pole tip of one sector magnet, has been operating without failure since installation. Beam injection efficiency of 100% is achieved with ease. The extraction system performs well. The first extraction element, the electrostatic extraction channel (EEC), located in the second half of the injection valley vacuum chamber, lost a few of its foils of the septum, presumably from interception of a beam of high intensity. This does not interfere with the proper functioning of the channel. The 5 Mω damping resistor located between high-voltage power supply and the EEC had to be repaired twice during the past year. A slight modification to the design should prevent recurrence of this problem. Although the second extraction element, i.e. the first septum magnet SPM1, has been functioning satisfactorily, its driving mechanism had to be repaired during a scheduled shut-down. The final extraction element, i.e. the second septum magnet SPM2 is functioning well, but a water leak on the inner liner (collimator) made it necessary to remove SPM2 for repairs. A slightly modified driving system has been fitted to this magnet as the previous system occasionally failed to function properly due to unexpectedly high forces

  18. Specific features of the desion of a cyclotron for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulova, N.V.; Bogdanov, P.V.; Ivanov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Results of development of an isochronous cyclotron for commercial production of Co 57 and Ga 67 isotopes are described. The accelerator is intended for proton acceleration up to 25 MeV at 1000-1500 mA intensity of inner beam and 200 mA intensity of external beam. An axial ion source with a hot cathode will be used in the cyclotron. Outer diameter of armour type electromagnet is 3130 mm, mass - 75 t, diameter of poles-150 cm and mean induction of magnetic field in a working gap amounts to 12 kgs. Accelerating chamber vessel is made of steel in the form of thick-wall hollow cylinder having 3130 mm outer diameter, 330 mm thickness and 380 mm height. Resonance system represents a quarter-wave line operating on 16.6 MHZ-frequency. Vacuum system is designed to produce and maintain residual pressure of 6.7x10 -4 Pa and 2.7x10 -3 Pa in the accelerating chamber which can be provided with two NDM-2 ion-getter pumps with an arc evaporator. The suggested constructive solution for electromagnet, accelerating chamber of the cyclotron and pumping system permitted to arrange the accelerator on the whole and to considerably decrease the level of ionizing radiations inside the chamber [ru

  19. Calculation of proton beam initial orbit at cyclotron central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita Anggraita

    2012-01-01

    A calculation of proton beam initial orbits at cyclotron central region was carried out using Scilab 5.2.0. The calculation was done in 2 dimensions in a homogeneous magnetic field of 1.66 tesla at frequency of fourth harmonics. The positions of ion source, dees, and dummy dees follow those of GE Minitrace cyclotron, peak dee voltage 30 kV. The calculation yields result comparable to those simulated at KIRAMS-13 cyclotron. (author)

  20. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities

  1. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  2. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  3. Neutron measurements at BRIT/BARC medical cyclotron facility of RMC, Parel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathian, Deepa; Sathian, V.; Phandnis, U.V.; Soni, P.S.; Mohite, D.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron leakage and its long distance propagation in the atmosphere from the intense neutron facilities such as high energy accelerators like Cyclotron are very important for the shielding design of the facilities and resulting dose reduction to nearby population, because of strong penetrability of high energy neutrons. The neutron interaction cross sections are highly energy dependent, so different methods are adopted for measuring different energy neutrons. The method also depends on the amount of neutron fluence rate expected at the location. When the fluence rate is very high, the foil activation is the best method for the measurement of neutron fluence rate. In foil activation technique an inactive material is activated by neutrons and the activity is measured and correlated to the neutron fluence rate. In this paper, neutron fluence rate measurement using different activation foils at medical cyclotron room of Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is discussed. (author)

  4. The polarized proton and deuteron beam at the Bonn isochronous cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, K G; Enders, R; Hammon, W; Krause, K D; Lesemann, D; Scholzen, A [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Euler, K; Schueller, B [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    1976-02-15

    The present state of the polarized proton and deuteron source at the Bonn cyclotron is described. The source, which is of the atomic beam type, gives typical ion beam intensities of 2 ..mu..A for protons and 3 ..mu..A for deuterons. The overall transmission from the source to the first stopper after extraction from the cyclotron is 3%. Target currents with an energy resolution E/..delta..E=500 are 20 nA for deuterons and 10 nA for protons. For the proton beam, a polarization P=-0.71 was measured. For the deuteron beam, a pure vector polarization Psub(z)=-0.47 or various mixtures of vector and tensor polarization are obtained.

  5. Development of heavy-ion beams at the INS 176-cm SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Tanabe, Tetsumi; Sakurada, Yuzo; Yamazaki, Tsutomu.

    1982-10-01

    Heavy-ion beams at the INS SF cyclotron have been developed since the first beam was obtained in 1974. Multiply-charged heavy ions of gaseous material lighter than Ne have been successfully accelerated. An internal ion source for solid material has been made and high-intensity beams of sup(6,7)Li 3 + have been obtained. A pulsed arc power supply of the current-regulator type was constructed by using a tetrode. Two models of the PIG source of the self-heated cold-cathode type have been made and one of them is now in use. Some of the cyclotron components were also improved for efficient use of heavy-ion beams. (author)

  6. Cyclotron will not survive yet this year without state support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the project of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak republic is described. On the basis of this project the state joint-stock company Biont was constituted. Small cyclotron is in operation; big cyclotron is in process of manufacture and it will be put in operation in 2007. Small cyclotron will be used for production of radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomograph (PET) in Oncological Institute of St. Elizabeth (in Bratislava) and gamma camera in Central Military Hospital (in Ruzomberok) are constituents of the Biont. The PET will be also in Biont. The hadron therapy of ophthalmic tumors is planned. Financial plans of the Biont up to 2009 are presented

  7. The problems of high efficient extraction from the isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, J.

    1994-06-01

    The problem of high efficient extraction (η ≥ 50%) from isochronous cyclotrons (with the exception of the stripping method) is not completely solved up to this day. This problem is specifically important, because these cyclotrons are being also applied in the production of medical radioisotopes, labeled pharmaceuticals as well as in neutron therapy (oncology), machine industry, agriculture (plant mutagenesis), etc. The aim of the proposed topic is to solve this problem on the AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron in the INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics). Lately, a beam of 20 MeV deuterons with an efficiency of ca. 15% was extracted from this cyclotron. (author). 25 refs, 14 figs

  8. Cyclotron based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, D.H.

    1986-08-01

    Progress report for cyclotron based nuclear science cyclotron facility are summarized. Research is described under the headings heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, atomic studies and activation analysis, superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. Publications are listed

  9. Electron acceleration at Jupiter: input from cyclotron-resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.

  10. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  11. RF current generation near the ion cyclotron frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment has been conducted to measure unipolar currents driven by directional radio frequency waves in a cylindrical plasma mirror machine near the ion cyclotron frequency. The directional waves were launched using a four phase helical coupler which allowed the selection of both azimuthal mode number (m = +1) and direction of wave propagation. Plasma diagnostics include electron density measurements (4 mm microwave interferometer), electron temperature measurements (floating double probe), wave amplitude and coupling measurements (magnetic probes). RF power measurements (RF voltage and current probes) and RF driven plasma current measurements (Rogowski loops and current transformers). End electrodes provided a necessary external return path and an alternate method for measuring the current. Theoretical work includes an analytic approximation to the nonlinear problem of a particle in a traveling wave and computer simulations that extend this result. Nonlinear particle drifts other than trapping were found both with and without the presence of particle collisions

  12. Electron cyclotron emission measurements at the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichardt, Gabriel; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Koehn, Alf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements in the magnetised plasmas of the stellarator TJ-K are currently performed by means of Langmuir probes. The use of these probes is restricted to relatively low temperatures and the measurement of temperature profiles requires the acquisition of the local current-voltage characteristics which limits strongly the sampling rate. As an alternative, T{sub e} can be measured using the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) that is generated by the gyration of electrons in magnetised plasmas. Magnetic field gradients in the plasma lead to a spatial distribution of emission frequencies and thus the measured intensity at a given frequency can be related to its point of origin. The T{sub e} dependence of the intensity then leads to a temperature profile along the line of sight for Maxwellian velocity distributions. A diagnostic system for T{sub e} measurements using ECE is currently being set up at TJ-K. When non-thermal electrons are present the emission spectrum changes dramatically. Therefore, the ECE can also be used to investigate the contribution of fast electrons to previously observed toroidal net currents in TJ-K. Simulations are used to examine the role of electron drift orbits in generating these currents.

  13. Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch angle distributions and its intensity. Two mechanisms of removal of energetic electrons from a generation region are considered, one is due to the particle precipitation through the loss cone and another one is related to the magnetic drift of energetic particles.

    It was confirmed that two main regimes occur in this system in the presence of a constant particle source, in the case of precipitation losses. At small source intensity relaxation oscillations were found, whose parameters are in good agreement with simplified analytical theory developed earlier. At a larger source intensity, transition to a periodic generation occurs. In the case of drift losses the regime of self-sustained periodic generation regime is realized for source intensity higher than some threshold. The dependencies of repetition period and dynamic spectrum shape on the source parameters were studied in detail. In addition to simple periodic regimes, those with more complex spectral forms were found. In particular, alteration of spikes with different spectral shape can take place. It was also shown that quasi-stationary generation at the low-frequency band can coexist with periodic modulation at higher frequencies.

    On the basis of the results obtained, the model for explanation of

  14. Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prater, R.; Farina, D.; Gribov, Y.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Poli, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Volpe, F.; Westerhof, E.; Zvonkovo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories

  15. Study of the Polarization Strategy for Electron Cyclotron Heating Systems on HL-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Huang, M.; Xia, D. H.; Song, S. D.; Wang, J. Q.; Huang, B.; Wang, H.

    2016-06-01

    As important components integrated in transmission lines of electron cyclotron heating systems, polarizers are mainly used to obtain the desired polarization for highly efficient coupling between electron cyclotron waves and plasma. The polarization strategy for 105-GHz electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak is studied in this paper. Considering the polarizers need high efficiency, stability, and low loss to realize any polarization states, two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers, which include a linear polarizer and an elliptical polarizer, are designed with the coordinate transformation method. The parameters, the period p and the depth d, of two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers are optimized by a phase difference analysis method to achieve an almost arbitrary polarization. Finally, the optimized polarizers are manufactured and their polarization characteristics are tested with a low-power test platform. The experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations, indicating that the designed polarizers can meet the polarization requirements of the electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak.

  16. Theory of accelerated orbits and space charge effects in an AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeven, W.J.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis the influence of the accelerating electric field upon the motion of particles in a cyclotron is studied. A general relativistic Hamiltonian theory is derived which allows for a simultaneous study of the transverse and longitudinal motion as well as the coupling between both motions. It includes azimuthally varying magnetic fields and therefore describes phenomena which are due to the interfering influences of a given geometrical dee system with the azimuthally varying part of the magnetic field. As an example the electric gap crossing resonance is treated. The second part deals with space charge effects in a AVF cyclotron. The properties of the bunch, like the sizes, emittances and momentum spread, are represented in terms of second order moments of the phase space distribution function, and two sets of differential equations are derived which describe the time evolution of these moments under space charge conditions. The model takes into account the coupling between the longitudinal and radial motion, and the fact that the revolution frequency of the particles is independent of their energy. The analytical models developed can be applied to a given cyclotron by adopting the relevant parameters. Some calculations are presented for the small 3 MeV Iscochroneous Low Energy Cyclotron ILEC which is presently under construction at the Eindhoven University. Also some attention to the construction of this machine is given. (H.W.). 49 refs.; 37 figs

  17. New Methodology for a Comprehensive Modular Safety Control System in a Cyclotron Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, Y.; Kravitz, M.; Arad, M.; Osovizky, A.; Paran, J.; Sarussi, B.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tal, N.

    2004-01-01

    This Paper describes a new methodology for a comprehensive modular Safety Control System (SCS), for a cyclotron site. The developed SCS is a modular approach for controlling the production procedures, safety conditions and documentation aspects in the Cyclotron site. Usually, the safety conditions in cyclotron sites are maintained by a variety of sensors. The cyclotron is supplied from the manufacturer with a self-integrated control system for its operation, yet the comprehensive SCS has to be defined and setup by the customer. Therefore, customers face a lot of integration problems in trying to combine all the signals from the different safety systems such as radiation monitoring, environmental and access control, in order to maintain proper safety working conditions. The presented SCS design provides main user interface and the complete safety solution required by including preset control logic definitions and open logic for specific user applications. The knowledge for the preset control logic definitions was gathered in previous projects. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) method has been implemented on the SCS to analyze the potential failure modes and their impact on the product reliability

  18. Recent developments on the 110 GHz electron cyclotron installation on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Ferron, J.R.; Green, M.; Grunloh, H.J.; Gorelov, Y.; Lohr, J.; Ellis, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant improvements are being implemented to the capability of the 110 GHz electron cyclotron system on the DIII-D tokamak. Chief among these is the addition of the fifth and sixth 1 MW class gyrotrons, increasing the power available for auxiliary heating and current drive by nearly 60%. These tubes use artificially grown diamond r.f. output windows to obtain high power with long pulse capability. The beams from these tubes are nearly Gaussian, facilitating coupling to the waveguide. A new fully articulating dual launcher capable of high speed spatial scanning has been designed and tested. The launcher has two axis independent steering for each waveguide. The mirrors can be rotated at up to 100 deg./s. A new feedback system linking the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) with the gyrotron beam voltage waveform generators permits real-time feedback control of some plasma properties such as electron temperature. The PCS can use a variety of plasma monitors to generate its control signal, including electron cyclotron emission and Mirnov probes. Electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive were used during this year's DIII-D experimental campaign to control electron temperature, density, and q profiles, induce an ELM-free H-mode, and suppress the m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode. The new capabilities have expanded the role of EC systems in tokamak plasma control

  19. New compact cyclotron design for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.; Bourgarel, M.P.; Ripouteau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The SPIRAL project whose purpose is the production and the acceleration of radioactive nuclei is under realization at GANIL. The new facility uses a cyclotron as post accelerator taking place behind the present machine. The magnet structure is made of 4 independent return yokes and a common circular pole piece (3.5 m in diameter) with 4 sectors. The average induction needed is 1.56 Tesla with hill and valley gaps of respectively 0.12 and 0.3 m. The required field patterns are adjusted by means of circular trim coils located between the sectors and the pole piece. (author)

  20. Isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Gil, C.; Louvet, P.

    1986-10-01

    The principle of the process of isotopic separation by ionic cyclotron resonance is explained succinctly. The theoretical calculation of the isotopic effect is given as functions of the electric and magnetic fields in the frame of single particle approximation and of plasma collective theory. Then, the main parts of the demonstration device which is in operation at the CEA, are described here: the supraconducting magnetic field, the used diagnostics, the principle of the source and the collecting apparatus. Some experimental results are given for chromium. The application of the process to ponderal separation of metal isotopes, as chromium, nickel and molybdenum is discussed in view of production of medical, structural and irradiation isotopes

  1. Diffusion induced by cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Tajima, T.; Hatori, T.; Pfirsch, D.

    1985-09-01

    The wave induced particle transport during the ion cyclotron resonance heating is studied in collisionless toroidal plasmas. It is shown that the previously neglected non-conservation of the toroidal angular momentum IP/sub phi/ caused by the toroidal wave component E/sub phi/ is necessary to allow particle diffusion and yields the leading diffusive contribution. While the induced ion transport for the rf power in contemporary experiments is of the order of the neoclassical value, that of fast alpha particles is quite large if resonance is present

  2. RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  3. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbanovschi, N.; Tanasa, M.; Stoican, O.

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  4. Properties of the TRIUMF cyclotron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.; Blackmore, E.W.; Dutto, G.; Kost, C.J.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Richardson, J.R.; Root, L.W.; Schmor, P.

    1975-08-01

    Eight percent of the 300 keV d.c. beam from the ion source can be transmitted to 500 MeV in the TRIUMF cyclotron, without using the buncher. The beam losses are entirely accounted for; there are no significant losses due to orbit dynamic problems during 1500 turns of acceleration. The phase history is in good agreement with predictions based on the magnetic field survey. The effect of the harmonic coils and injection parameters on beam quality has been investigated. (author)

  5. High efficiency cyclotron trap assisted positron moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Gerchow, L.; Cooke, D. A.; Braccini, S.; Döbeli, M.; Kirch, K.; Köster, U.; Müller, A.; Van Der Meulen, N. P.; Vermeulen, C.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the realisation of a cyclotron trap assisted positron tungsten moderator for the conversion of positrons with a broad keV- few MeV energy spectrum to a mono-energetic eV beam with an efficiency of 1.8(2)% defined as the ratio of the slow positrons divided by the $\\beta^+$ activity of the radioactive source. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude compared to the state of the art of tungsten moderators. The simulation validated with this measurement suggests that usi...

  6. Axial injection in Orsay superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, J.; Kugler, M.F.; Legoff, A.; Potier, J.C.; Richomme, A.; Skowron, R.; Mandrillon, P.; Schapira, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The compact superconducting cyclotron currently planned at IPN at Orsay is designed for light ion acceleration together with heavy ion acceleration. From the beginning, for this reason, a central geometry able to receive an inflector (to 90deg C) allowing the axial injection of low energy ion beams given by an outer source. The present study is aimed at showing the technical feasibility of theoretical results obtained on axial injection. First experimental study has been made of spatial repartition in three dimensions of electric potential developed by a central geometry of 3 electrodes. Then, the electric study of an electrostatic mirror has been made [fr

  7. Cyclotrons at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    In this article the destruction by American forces, during World War II, of the Japanese cyclotrons and the subsequent construction of new cyclotrons at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan is described. Their use for biological and medical radiation chemistry studies is summarized. (UK)

  8. Lower-hybrid absorption at the ion cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.

    1975-01-01

    In the presence of magnetic field gradients, the lower-hybrid wave can be absorbed through linear collisionless damping at the location of cyclotron or cyclotron harmonic resonances acting as singular turning points in the path of the advancing wave-front. (Auth.)

  9. A radioisotope production cyclotron designed to minimize dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlavik, F.F.; Moritz, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a radioisotope production cyclotron which has been designed to minimize the dose to personnel during operation and maintenance. The design incorporates lessons learned from the operation of a CP42 cyclotron and has resulted in a reduction of the dose by a factor of more than 10. (author)

  10. Resonance cones below the ion cyclotron frequency: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.

    1976-03-01

    The resonance cones existing below the ion cyclotron frequency, ω/sub c/sub i//, are shown, theoretically and experimentally, to be the asymptotes of hyperbolic constant-phase surfaces of low-frequency ion acoustic waves. Above ω/sub c/sub i// the surfaces transform into ellipses that are related to the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves and ion acoustic waves

  11. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  12. Electron-cyclotron current drive in the tokamak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.R.; Kritz, A.H.; Radin, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ray-tracking calculations provide estimates of the electron-cyclotron heating (ECH) power required to suppress tearing modes near the q=2 surface in the Tokamak Physics Experiment. Effects of finite beam width and divergence are included, as are the effects of scattering of the ECH power by drift-wave turbulence. A frequency of about 120 GHz allows current drive on the small-R (high-B) portion of q=2, while 80 GHz drives current on the large-R (low-B) portion. The higher frequency has the advantages of less sensitivity to wave and plasma parameters and of no trapped-electron degradation of current-drive efficiency. Less than 1 MW suffices to suppress tearing modes even with high turbulence levels

  13. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, T.E.; McLeod, T.F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsenyi, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization. (orig.)

  14. Why NASA and the Space Electronics Community Cares About Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and the space community are faced with the harsh reality of operating electronic systems in the space radiation environment. Systems need to work reliably (as expected for as long as expected) and be available during critical operations such as docking or firing a thruster. This talk will provide a snapshot of the import of ground-based research on the radiation performance of electronics. Discussion topics include: 1) The space radiation environment hazard, 2) Radiation effects on electronics, 3) Simulation of effects with cyclotrons (and other sources), 4) Risk prediction for space missions, and, 5) Real-life examples of both ground-based testing and space-based anomalies and electronics performance. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the current state of radiation facilities in North America for ground-based electronics testing.

  15. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, T. E.; McLeod, T. F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsényi, F.

    1993-06-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization.

  16. On Ion Cyclotron Current Drive for sawtooth control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Johnson, T.; Hellsten, T.; Mayoral, M.-L.; McDonald, D.; Santala, M.; Vries, P. de; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Mueck, A.; Buttery, R.J.; Mantsinen, M.J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Westerhof, E.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments using Ion Cyclotron Current Drive (ICCD) to control sawteeth are presented. In particular, discharges demonstrating shortening of fast ion induced long sawteeth reported in [L.-G. Eriksson et al., Physical Review Letters 92, 235004 (2004)] by ICCD have been analysed in detail. Numerical simulations of the ICCD driven currents are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. They support the hypothesis that an increase of the magnetic shear, due to the driven current, at the surface where the safety factor is unity was the critical factor for the shortening of the sawteeth. In view of the potential utility of ICCD, the mechanisms for the current drive have been further investigated experimentally. This includes the influence of the averaged energy of the resonating ions carrying the current and the spectrum of the launched waves. The results of these experiments are discussed in the light of theoretical considerations. (author)

  17. Fabrication of beam diagnostic components for Superconducting Cyclotron at Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Das, T.; Bhattacharyya, T.K.; Pal, S.; Pal, G.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The viewer probe and main probe are used for determining the position and current of charged particles as it is accelerated inside the superconducting cyclotron. The viewer probe is used to visually observe the shape of the charged particle beam inside the cyclotron with the help of a borescope. The main probe measures the distribution of charged particles. The viewer probe and main probe are bellow sealed. They can be positioned with an accuracy of 0.5 mm at different radii within the superconducting cyclotron. M9 slit is placed after the exit flange of the cyclotron. It determines the position of the beam leaving the cyclotron. The beam line has slits, faraday cup, beam viewers, collimators, etc. for beam diagnostics. This paper presents the mechanical design and details of beam diagnostic components. (author)

  18. New superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Hans-Udo; Baumgarten, Christian; Geisler, Andreas; Heese, Juergen; Hobl, Achim; Krischel, Detlef; Schillo, Michael; Schmidt, Stefan; Timmer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Since one and a half decades ACCEL is investing in development and engineering of state of the art particle-therapy systems. A new medical superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron with special focus on the present and future beam requirements of fast scanning treatment systems has been designed. The first new ACCEL medical proton cyclotron is under commissioning at PSI for their PROSCAN proton therapy facility having undergone successful factory tests especially of the closed loop cryomagnetic system. The second cyclotron is part of ACCEL's integrated proton therapy system for Europe's first clinical center, RPTC in Munich. The cyclotron, the energy selection system, the beamline as well as the four gantries and patient positioners have been installed. The scanning system and major parts of the control software have already been tested. We will report on the concept of ACCEL's superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems and the current status of the commissioning work at PSI and RPTC

  19. Operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, F.; Schweickert, H.

    1976-06-01

    The operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975 is briefly surveyed. The main reasons for a very short period for maintenance, repair and installation, and several additional efforts to improve the reliability of the accelerator installation, are discussed. The status and the results of several technical developments for the cyclotron are described: 1) the axial injection system; 2) computer aided cyclotron operation; 3) ion source development; 4) capacitive current measurement at the external beam; 5) new correction coils for the cyclotron; 6) improvement of the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. As there is an increasing interest in using this type of accelerator for research in fields other than nuclear physics, it was felt appropriate to present short surveys on investigations at our cyclotron in 1975 in the fields of: 1) solid state physics; 2) engineering; 3) materials research; 4) nuclear medicine; 5) nuclear chemistry. (orig.) [de

  20. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  1. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  2. U-2g0 cyclotron operational experience and improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kozlov, S.I.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1983-01-01

    Brief description of main syste's of the U-200 isochronous 2-m cyclotron put into opera ion in 1968 is given and its operational characteristics a e presented. The cyclotron is used for conducting inve tigations in the field of nuclear physics. Ions from d uterium to argon have been accelerated in the cyclotro'. Annual time of target irradiation constitutes 2000-4000. The specific features of the cyclotron are: high l vel of a magnetic field (of about 20 kOe), possibili y of acceleration of ions with different mass-to-charge ratio a low correcting winding power, simple and high-e fective beam extraction by the method of charge exchange on a thin target allowing to vary smoothly energy of extracted ons. An experience in the U-200 cyclotron development and o eration is used as the basis for designing and choosing basic parameters of the U-200P, U-250, U-400 heavy ion cyclotrons

  3. Status report on RIKEN Ring Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives a status report on RIKEN Ring Cyclotron (RRC), successfully commissioned on December 16, 1986. The routine operation of RRC began in April, 1987, and was made until March 1988. April and May were devoted to the machine studies, and beams were delivered to the experiments from the end of May. Seven kinds of ion species from carbon to copper were used for the nuclear physics and atomic physics experiments during these one-year runs. High quality beams with transverse emittances less than 10 mm mrad, energy spread of approximately 0.1% and pulse width less than 300 psec were extracted. Since the middle of March, 1988, RRC has been shut down for extending the beam transfer lines and installing the various experimental setups. Next experimental program will start in July, 1988. The initial operational status of RRC is described as well as the running construction program of the new injector, a K70 AVF cyclotron with an external ECR ion source

  4. Electron cyclotron heating calculations for ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinger, R.C.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1986-03-01

    The RAYS geometrical optics code has been used to calculate electron cyclotron wave propagation and heating in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) device under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The intent of this work is to predict the outcome of various heating scenarios and to give guidance in designing an optimum heating system. Particular attention is paid to the effects of wave polarization and antenna location. We investigate first and second harmonic cyclotron heating with the parameters predicted for steady-state ATF operation. We also simulate the effect of wall reflections by calculating a uniform, isotropic flux of power radiating from the wall. These results, combined with the first-pass calculations, give a qualitative picture of the heat deposition profiles. From these results we identify the compromises that represent the optimum heating strategies for the ATF model considered here. Our basic conclusions are that second harmonic heating with the extraordinary mode (X-mode) gives the best result, with fundamental ordinary mode (O-mode) heating being slightly less efficient. Assuming the antenna location is restricted to the low magnetic field side, the antenna should be placed at phi = 0 0 (the toroidal angle where the helical coils are at the sides) for fundamental heating and at phi = 15 0 (where the helical coils are at the top and bottom) for second harmonic heating. These recommendations come directly from the ray tracing results as well as from a theoretical identification of the relevant factors affecting the heating

  5. Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Vay, J.L.; Grote, D.P.; Ng, J.T.; Pivi, M.F.; Wang, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    A new set of resonances for electron cloud dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field has been found. For short beam bunch lengths and low magnetic fields where l b c , (l b = bunch duration, ω c = non-relativistic cyclotron frequency) resonances between the bunch frequency and harmonics of the cyclotron frequency cause an increase in the electron cloud density in narrow ranges of magnetic field near the resonances. For ILC parameters the increase in the density is up to a factor ∼ 3, and the spatial distribution of the electrons is broader near resonances, lacking the well-defined density 'stripes' of multipactoring found for non-resonant cases. Simulations with the 2D computer code POSINST, as well as a single-particle tracking code, were used to elucidate the physics of the dynamics. The resonances are expected to affect the electron cloud dynamics in the fringe fields of conventional lattice magnets and in wigglers, where the magnetic fields are low. Results of the simulations, the reason for the bunch-length dependence, and details of the dynamics will be discussed

  6. Visual assistance system for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Tachikawa, Toshiki; Murakami, Tohru.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists operators has been developed. It is the operation assistance system depending on visual sense to indicate beam parameters to operators. First, the mental model of operators at the time of beam adjustment was analyzed, and it was presumed to be composed of five partial mental models, that is, beam behavior model, feasible setting region model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter interrelation model and status map model. Next, three visual interfaces were developed. Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever operators change parameters. Feasible setting regions (FSR) for parameters that satisfy the beam acceptance criteria of a cyclotron are indicated. The distribution of beam current values which are the quantity for evaluating adjustment is indicated as search history. Finally, for evaluating the system effectiveness, the search time required to reach the optimum conditions was measured. In addition, the system usability was evaluated by written questionnaires. The result of experiment showed the reduction of search time by about 65%. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system usability. (K.I.)

  7. Calibration and use cases of the electron cyclotron emission diagnostic at Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefel, Udo; Hirsch, Matthias; Ewert, Karsten; Hartfuss, Hans-Juergen; Laqua, Heinrich Peter; Stange, Torsten; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: the W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    The world's largest stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), is equipped with a 140 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system providing up to 5 MW absorbed power in the first operation phase OP1.1. The foreseen X2-heating scenario uses the high absorption of the second harmonic extraordinary electron cyclotron waves, which leads on the other hand to a black body electron cyclotron emission (ECE) being proportional to the local electron temperature. ECE is one of the fundamental operating diagnostics and is planned to yield the electron temperature profile from the very first discharges onwards. Unlike most other ECE diagnostics, the 32 channel ECE radiometer diagnostic (with additional 16 channels with higher radial resolution) at W7-X is absolutely calibrated. It is planned to use this diagnostic for intensive studies on electron heat transport in the upcoming operational phases of W7-X. Simple switch-off experiments for the determination of the energy confinement time should already be possible within the first plasma shots. Due to the high temporal and radial resolution the ECE will be used also to determine the power deposition by modulation of the heating gyrotron. or the localization of a power modulated ECRH to optimize the power deposition. If reasonably equilibrated plasma conditions could be generated in the first operational phase (OP 1.1), first studies on electron thermal diffusivity could also be possible.

  8. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  9. Compact superconducting cyclotron C400 for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Abs, M.; Blondin, A.; Kleeven, W.; Zaremba, S.; Vandeplassche, D. [IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aleksandrov, V.; Gursky, S.; Karamyshev, O. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Karamysheva, G., E-mail: gkaram@nu.jinr.r [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, N.; Kostromin, S.; Morozov, N.; Samsonov, E.; Shirkov, G.; Shevtsov, V.; Syresin, E.; Tuzikov, A. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-01

    The compact superconducting isochronous cyclotron C400 has been designed by the IBA-JINR collaboration. It will be the first cyclotron in the world capable of delivering protons, carbon and helium ions for cancer treatment. The cyclotron construction is started this year within the framework of the Archade project (Caen, France). {sup 12}C{sup 6+} and {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions will be accelerated to 400 MeV/uu energy and extracted by the electrostatic deflector, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated to the energy of 265 MeV/uu and extracted by stripping. The magnet yoke has a diameter of 6.6 m, the total weight of the magnet is about 700 t. The designed magnetic field corresponds to 4.5 T in the hills and 2.45 T in the valleys. Superconducting coils will be enclosed in a cryostat; all other parts of the cyclotron will be warm. Three external ion sources will be mounted on the switching magnet on the injection line located below the cyclotron. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, the current status of the development work on the cyclotron systems are presented.

  10. Cyclotron Development and Technical Aspects on Accelerator Based Laboratory Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarhadijoso

    2000-01-01

    BATAN is planning to establish an accelerator-based laboratory at P3TM Yogyakarta as an effort in the development and use of accelerator technology for improving industrial performance and public welfare. This paper reviews several aspects of cyclotron technology and describes the combination of a linear accelerator - cyclotron system as an alternative to be considered in the planing of the laboratory. The progress of cyclotron technology is discussed covering three generations, i.e. conventional cyclotron, synchrocyclotron and AVF cyclotron generations. The planning should not consider the accelerator application for radioisotope production because it is established in Serpong with the existing negative ion cyclotron. The proposed facility at P3TM may comprise two linear accelerators coupled with a positive ion cyclotron of synchrocyclotron generation. In fact, the attachment of the synchrocyclotron unit is flexible and it can be installed subsequently if the higher energy particle beam, which can not be produced by the linear accelerators, is extremely needed. Some technical aspects related to ion beam application, building construction and infrastructure, human resources, and specification of function test are discussed for additional information in the implementation of the planning. (author)

  11. Survey on radionuclide producing using cyclotron method in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fadli Mohammad Noh

    2008-01-01

    This research discuss about basic design and systems of medical cyclotron that Malaysia currently have, its applications in radionuclide production and upcoming technologies of cyclotron. Surveys have been carried out on cyclotron facilities at Hospital Putrajaya and Wijaya International Medical Center, WIMC as well as reactor facility at Malaysia Nuclear Agency. The sources in this research also involves on-line and library searches. Information obtained are recorded, categorized, synthesized and discussed. systems of cyclotron of Hospital Putrajaya are further discussed in details. Based from the surveys carried out, it is found out that cyclotron facilities both in Hospital Putrajaya and WIMC only produce ( 18 F)FDG with radioactivity of 18 F produced in 2007 are 16479 mCi and 92546 mCi respectively. Survey also revealed that radioisotope production at Nuclear Malaysia has had its operation been ceased. A new radiopharmaceutical, namely CHOL is suggested to be synthesized by both facilities as a new PET tracer. Latest developments concerning technologies of cyclotron as well as other accelerators such as laser for future medical accelerator, prospect of boron neutron capture and the potential of hadron therapy in Malaysia are discussed here. Radioisotope production in Malaysia is expected to keep booming in future due to increase in usage of PET techniques and the construction of more compact, easy to handle and less costly cyclotrons. (author)

  12. Present status of device controls and hardware interfaces for the RCNP ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Tamura, K.; Hosono, K.

    1994-01-01

    Since the first proton beam from the injector AVF cyclotron was injected to the ring cyclotron in 1991, the computer control system has been used for the beam acceleration of the ring cyclotron. Some device control modules have been updated, and computer configuration has been changed in 1992. Total control system performs basic facilities almost satisfactory under actual cyclotron operation. (author)

  13. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Helium Branch Induced by Multiple Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Triggered Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, M.; Omura, Y.; Grison, B.; Pickett, J. S.; Dandouras, I. S.; Engebretson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions with rising tones between the H+ and He+ cyclotron frequencies were found in the inner magnetosphere by the recent Cluster observations. Another type of EMIC wave with a constant frequency is occasionally observed below the He+ cyclotron frequency after the multiple EMIC triggered emissions. We performed a self-consistent hybrid simulation with a one-dimensional cylindrical magnetic flux model approximating the dipole magnetic field of the Earth's inner magnetosphere. In the presence of energetic protons with a sufficient density and temperature anisotropy, multiple EMIC triggered emissions are reproduced due to the nonlinear wave growth mechanism of rising-tone chorus emissions, and a constant frequency wave in the He+ EMIC branch is subsequently generated. Through interaction with the multiple EMIC rising-tone emissions, the velocity distribution function of the energetic protons is strongly modified. Because of the pitch angle scattering of the protons, the gradient of the distribution in velocity phase space is enhanced along the diffusion curve of the He+ branch wave, resulting in the linear growth of the EMIC wave in the He+ branch.

  14. A model for the numerical simulations of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.

    1986-05-01

    We present a complete set of equations for the numerical simulation of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas. The model includes the full geometry of the tokamak equilibrium, full parallel dispersion, and perpendicular dispersion to second order in the Larmor radius. It is therefore capable of describing correctly ion cyclotron damping at the fundamental and first harmonic, as well as mode conversion to the ion Bernstein wave and/or the shear Alfven wave, depending on the heating scenario. It includes also electron magnitude pumping and Landau damping, the latter to lowest order in msub(e)/msub(i). Relying on the knowledge gained from slab and ray tracing analysis, we also situate with respect to this standard model some of the further approximations which are commonly encountered in the literature. Finally, two procedures for the numerical solution of the standard model are proposed. (orig.)

  15. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method

  16. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. In-house cyclotron and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio; Shishido, Fumio; Yamazaki, Toshiro

    1982-01-01

    In-house cyclotron produced radioisotopes and positron computed tomography provide a unique technique which gives cross-sectional bodyimages of various kinds of physiological activities of living human body. Applications of the technique to clinical study might throw a new light on the etiologically unknown disorders of human central nervous system and etc. However, some difficulties should be settled before the establishment of this technique as an useful research and diagnostic tool. One of them was spatial resolution of positron computed tomography, and another was selection and development of really effective labeled compounds for the disease in question. A rotary positron emission computed tomography device was developed by our physicist team, and our chemist team developed various kinds of radiopharmaceuticals. Clinical applications of the technique started in our institute in November 1979, using the positron computed tomography machine named Positrologica I and the pharmaceuticals, 13sup( n h3, )11sup( C o and )18 F-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. (author)

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic ion cyclotron turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, G.B.; Chang, Tom

    1990-01-01

    The LF EM-turbulence which furnishes energy for the acceleration of ions in various regions of the earth's magnetosphere efficiently accomplishes its transfer of energy from waves to particles through ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) with the left-hand polarized component of the turbulence; the result of this interaction is a heating of the particle distribution. A general theoretical treatment of ICR heating in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic geometry is presented, en route to a more detailed examination of auroral ion conics' formation. A substantial simplification of the analysis of the altitude-asymptotic form of the conic distribution is obtained via the similarity transformation introduced into the properties of the electric field spectral density and the earth's dipolar magnetic field. 60 refs

  20. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, O.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs

  1. Ion cyclotron heating in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimonte, G.; Barter, J.; Romesser, T.; Molvik, A.W.; Cummins, W.F.; Falabella, S.; Poulsen, P.

    1987-01-01

    Ion cyclotron heating (ICH) is applied to TMX-U to improve the thermal barrier performance by reducing the passing ion collisionality. During its development, measurements of the antenna loading resistance, R p , and the absorption efficiency, η, were compared with calculations with the antenna design code ANTENA over a wide range of densities and frequencies. Good agreement in R p was obtained in the short wavelength slow wave regime but not for long wavelength fast waves because the experimental magnetic field gradients are not modelled in ANTENA. Similarly, η is much larger experimentally (40%) than in ANTENA (10%) due to the magnetic beach in TMX-U. In its application, ICH successfully decreased the passing ion collisionality tenfold but did not extend thermal barrier plugging to higher density, indicating that collisional barrier filling is not currently limiting TMX-U performance. (author). 23 refs, 23 figs

  2. Neutron radiography using a transportable superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.A. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Hawkesworth, M.R. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Beynon, T.D. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Green, S. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Rogers, J.D. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Allen, M.J. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Plummer, H.C. (Rolls-Royce, MatEval, Derby (United Kingdom)); Boulding, N.J. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); Cox, M. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); McDougall, I. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom))

    1994-12-30

    A thermal neutron radiography system based on a compact 12 MeV superconducting proton cyclotron is described. Neutrons are generated using a thick beryllium target and moderated in high density polyethylene. Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to model the neutron and photon transport in order to optimise the performance of the system. With proton beam currents in excess of 100 [mu]A, it can provide high thermal neutron fluxes with L/D ratios of between 50 and 300 for various applications. Both film and electronic imaging are used to produce radiographs. The electronic imaging system consists of a [sup 6]Li-loaded ZnS intensifier screen, and a low light CCD or SIT camera. High resolution images can be recorded and computer-controlled data processing, analysis and display are possible. ((orig.))

  3. Electron - cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs

  4. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  5. Auxiliary accelerating system for TRIUMF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Fong, K.; Laxdal, R.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Pacak, V.; Pearson, J.; Richardson, J.R.; Stanford, G.; Worsham, R.

    1990-06-01

    A 92 MHz auxiliary accelerating cavity has been designed and manufactured for installation in the TRIUMF cyclotron. Operating at the fourth harmonic of the RF with a peak voltage of 150 kV, it almost doubles the present energy gain per turn in the 400-500 MeV range, and reduces by ∼50% the stripping loss of the H - beam. This significant improvement will allow a substantial increase in the extracted current above the present routine level of 150μA while maintaining the same levels of residual radioactivity. The system is completed and being commissioned. A description of the design and commissioning procedures is presented, and results of beam tests given. (Author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. Isochronization calculations for the Indiana University cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    A series of calculations using measured magnetic fields was performed to determine the optimal gradient coil currents for the wide range of operating conditions to be experienced by the Indiana University main stage cyclotron. Depending on the particle type to be accelerated and final energy desired, the required radial field increase varies from 0.5 percent to 22 percent. An iterative least squares fitting technique is used to minimize orbit time variations. For the acceleration of 200 MeV protons (330 revolutions, fourth harmonic), the maximum phase excursion is predicted to be less than two rf degrees. The technique used can be adapted to using measured phase histories to predict corrections to gradient coil currents. (auth)

  7. Magnetic field optimisation and orbit calculation for VEC superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, J.; Dey, M.K.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    At VECC, Kolkata preparations are underway to measure the magnetic field of the cyclotron. Also once the superconducting cyclotron is assembled prediction of beam related parameters will be a very important exercise to carry out. Considering this the beam behaviour in the cyclotron will be crucial to achieve these goals. The present paper deals with the efforts in this direction and using a test beam of He 1+ 20 MeV/n the trim coil currents, the tune variation and the (r,Pr) behaviour of the central trajectory

  8. Thermal Stabilization of Cryogenic System in Superconducting Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Jae; Kim, Kyung Min; Cho, Hyung Hee; Hong, Bong Hwan; Kang, Joon Sun; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Radiology has some useful applications for medical purpose. For cancer therapy, the superconducting cyclotron should generate heavy ion beams. It radiates heavy ion beams to cancer patients. In order to make cyclotron system stable, the cryogenic system which makes superconducting state should work constantly. However, radiation heat transfer of cryogenic system should be considered because liquid helium's boiling point is extremely low and there is huge temperature difference between the cryogenic system and ambient temperature. Accordingly, thermal analysis should be carried out. In this paper, the numerical analysis of the cryogenic system in practical superconducting cyclotron show temperature distribution and suggest the number of coolers using ANSYS Workbench program

  9. An experimental study on cyclotron-Cherenkov radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C Y; Masuzaki, M; Yoshida, H; Toyosugi, N; Kamada, K; Ando, R [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Department of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Dielectric-loaded cylindrical waveguide configurations with an injected electron beam in which the growth rate of the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability surpasses that of the Cherenkov instability were sought by numerical treatment, and one configuration of this kind was found. This configuration consists of a metallic core and an outer metallic cylinder with a dielectric liner on the inner surface. Based on the calculations, an experimental device was designed and assembled to investigate experimentally radiation due to the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability. Beam propagation in the dielectric-loaded coaxial waveguide and microwave radiation due to the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability and the Cherenkov instability were studied. (author). 6 figs., 10 refs.

  10. Report of the consultants' meeting on target and processing technologies for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Cyclotron produced radionuclides are used routinely for the diagnosis of a wide variety of diseases. Recently a number of radionuclides available from cyclotrons have been proposed for use in radiotherapy. In fact Pd-103 has become routinely available in some parts of the world for incorporation into brachytherapy seeds for treating prostate cancer. The consultants meeting reviewed the status of target and processing technologies associated with cyclotron production of radionuclides. The main topics of discussion included the basic nuclear data that is crucial to the production of the desired radionuclides, gas and solid target systems, the automated chemical processing units, the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) required in order to use these radionuclides in human patients in a safe and efficacious manner and a review of possible candidate nuclides that show promise for use in Nuclear Medicine in the near future. Advances in the preparation of solid targets using electroplating technology has created the possibility of preparing targets capable of operating at very high beam currents which would make the production of large quantities of SPECT agents possible at cyclotron facilities throughout the world. Recognising the needs of the developing countries which have established cyclotron facilities, the consultants focussed on how to provide the technology for preparing solid targets that could be used in the existing facilities. While solid target technology can be used for many radionuclides the report concentrated on several key radionuclides, which are of current importance or show potential for use in the near future. Tl-201 is currently used for cardiac profusion studies throughout the world. New target preparation techniques could potentially make many of the member states self sufficient in the production of this nuclide. I-123 has tremendous potential because of the near ideal photon energy for SPECT cameras and its well-understood chemistry. However, it

  11. Radio frequency heating in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Both the theory of the absorption process in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies and some of the experiments which slow the promise and problems with radio frequency plasma heating in this range are discussed. It is shown that mode conversion is invariably involved in the process and so an extensive review of mode conversion theory, expecially as it applies to problems with back-to-back cutoff-resonance pairs, is included. This includes a discussion of the tunneling equation with and without absorption effects and with and without energy conservation. The general theory is applied to various ion-cyclotron harmonics, the two-ion hybrid resonance, and to a case where a wave converts to a Bernstein mode at the plasma edge. The results are given analytically for a variety of cases without absorption, and empirical formulas are given for the second and third harmonics of the ion-cyclotron frequency, which include effects of absorption. Various problem areas in the theory are also discussed with some of the limitations caused by the approximations involved. A number of experiments are also discussed which show effective heating, and some show the features of the mode conversion process, indicating that the general processes of absorption are reasonably well understood. Areas where further work is necessary, both in fundamental theory and in comparing theory with experiment, are also discussed

  12. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-28

    Completion of magnet tests, followed by completion of installation of major cyclotron components, are reported. Intermediate level power tests of the rf system are also reported. Design and fabrication of the control system are reported to be under way. (LEW)

  13. Cyclotron radiation by a multi-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-energy group technique is developed to study conditions under which cyclotron radiation emission can shift a Maxwellian electron distribution into a non-Maxwellian; and if the electron distribution is non-Maxwellian, to study the rate of cyclotron radiation emission as compared to that emitted by a Maxwellian having the same mean electron density and energy. The assumptions in this study are: the electrons should be in an isotropic medium and the magnetic field should be uniform. The multi-group technique is coupled into a multi-group Fokker-Planck computer code to study electron behavior under the influence of cyclotron radiation emission in a self-consistent fashion. Several non-Maxwellian distributions were simulated to compare their cyclotron emissions with the corresponding energy and number density equivalent Maxwellian distribtions

  14. Cryogenic system for VECC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, G; Bhattacharyya, T K; Bhandari, R K

    2009-01-01

    VEC Centre, Kolkata in India is at an advanced stage of commissioning a K500 superconducting cyclotron. The superconducting coil of the magnet for cyclotron is cooled by liquid helium. Three liquid helium cooled cryopanels, placed inside the Dees of the radiofrequency system, maintain the vacuum in the acceleration region of the superconducting cyclotron. The cryogenic system for magnet for cyclotron has been tested by cooling the coil and energizing the magnet. The cryogenic system for cryopanels has also been tested. Heater and temperature sensor were placed on the liquid helium cold head for cryopanel. The temperature of the cold head was observed to be below 20 K upto a heat load of 11.7 watt.

  15. NORTICA—a new code for cyclotron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D.; Johnson, D.; Marti, F.

    2001-12-01

    The new package NORTICA (Numerical ORbit Tracking In Cyclotrons with Analysis) of computer codes for beam dynamics simulations is under development at NSCL. The package was started as a replacement for the code MONSTER [1] developed in the laboratory in the past. The new codes are capable of beam dynamics simulations in both CCF (Coupled Cyclotron Facility) accelerators, the K500 and K1200 superconducting cyclotrons. The general purpose of this package is assisting in setting and tuning the cyclotrons taking into account the main field and extraction channel imperfections. The computer platform for the package is Alpha Station with UNIX operating system and X-Windows graphic interface. A multiple programming language approach was used in order to combine the reliability of the numerical algorithms developed over the long period of time in the laboratory and the friendliness of modern style user interface. This paper describes the capability and features of the codes in the present state.

  16. Cyclotrons for clinical and biomedical research with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present some background material on cyclotrons and other particle accelerators particularly with a view toward the considerations behind acquiring and installing such a machine for purely clinical and/or biomedical research use

  17. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be ... has also found application in electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in fusion ... (few GHz) of microwave sources, a small linear ECR plasma system can also serve ..... References.

  18. Development of baby cyclotron for PET in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, J.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Hu, J.Y.; Shin, Y.C.; Yoon, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a 13 MeV cyclotron for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been in progress since April 1999 at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital (KCCH). The study has been carried out in a joint collaboration between KCCH and the Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). Increasing desire for an uninterrupted, reliable and timely supply of the isotopes to customers has prompted obtaining a dedicated 5-13 MeV cyclotron for PET applications and pursuing the purchase of another 30MeV medical cyclotron in the very near future. A decision has been made to design the PET cyclotron in Korea. This will not only ease the problems associated with maintenance during operation but also keep the door open for continuous upgrading of the machine in the future

  19. Remote machining and robotic welding in a proton cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, W; Mark, C

    1984-09-01

    Increasing residual radiation in the TRIUMF meson research facility cyclotron at the University of British Columbia has required development of a remotely operable industrial robot cutting and vacuum tight welding capabili

  20. The beam handling system of the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messelt, S.

    1985-11-01

    The beam optic system of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. A computer program for the calculation of optimal settings of quadropoles is presented. The reliability of the computer program is confirmed by experimental data

  1. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  2. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P.; Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I.; Barquero, R.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during 18 F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  3. Parallel gradient effects on ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects on Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating of parallel nonuniformity in the magnetic field which arises from the poloidal field in a tokamak and the universal (major radius)/sup /minus/1/ scaling of the cyclotron frequency. The goal of the analysis is the macroscopic warm plasma current including temperature in the sense of the finite Larmor radius expansion and the quasilocal approximation of the parallel guiding center motion. A 1-D numerical application of the fully nonlocal integral dielectric is performed. Parallel gradient effects are studied for He-3 minority, 2nd harmonic deuterium, and hydrogen minority heating in tokamaks. The results show quite significant alteration of the toroidal wavenumber absorption spectrum, and a wealth of new behavior on the local propagation scale. 95 refs., 37 figs

  4. Electron cyclotron emission from optically thin plasma in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Hiroshi; Kubo, Shin; Hosokawa, Minoru; Iguchi, Harukazu; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Sato, Teruyuki.

    1994-01-01

    A frequency spectrum of second harmonic electron cyclotron emission was observed for an optically thin plasma produced by fundamental electron cyclotron heating in a compact helical system. A radial electron temperature profile deduced from this spectrum neglecting the multiple reflections effect shows a clear difference from that measured by Thomson scattering. We relate the spectrum with the electron temperature profile by the modified emission model including the scrambling effect. The scrambling effect results from both mode conversion and change in the trajectory due to multiple reflections of the emitting ray at the vessel wall. The difference between the two temperature profiles is explained well by using the modified emission model. Reconstruction of the electron temperature profile from the spectrum using this model is also discussed. (author)

  5. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  6. The Medical Cyclotron Facility in RMC, Parel, BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishna, Arjun; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    The Medical Cyclotron Facility in Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is the first one of its kind, installed in 2002. "1"8F based radiotracers are produced in this facility on a routine basis for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), of in-house patients, as well as for supply to other nuclear medicine centers in Mumbai as well as Pune. The facility consists of the following sub parts - Cyclotron and support equipment; Radiochemistry synthesis laboratory; Quality control (QC) laboratory

  7. Channel of Axial Injection of DC-60 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Bogomolov, S L; Borisenko, A N; Borisov, O N; Gulbekyan, G G; Ivanenko, I A; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Khabarov, M V; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N; Paschenko, S V; Tikhomirov, A V

    2006-01-01

    The design study and realization of the axial injection beam line of DC-60 cyclotron constructed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are given. The channel allows one to transport and to inject into the cyclotron ions with mass-to-charge ratio $A/Z$ being within interval A/Z=6-12 and kinetic energy up to 17 $Z/A$ keV/m.u.

  8. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  9. Parameters of the eigenellipsoid for separated sector cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferme, J.

    1989-01-01

    The analytical expressions of the elements of the beam matrix corresponding to the eigenellipsoid for a beam injected on an equilibrium orbit of a cyclotron are presented. The four dimensional phase space of the horizontal plane is only considered. Some restrictive hypotheses are made: there is no acceleration, and space charge effects are not taken into account. The beam matrix has been computed for the general case of spiraled sectors cyclotrons, and is valid for any given azimuth

  10. Process of a cyclotron modeling with SNOP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The description of the SNOP program developed in JINR and intended for numerical modeling of a beam dynamics in accelerating setups of cyclotron type is presented. The main methods of work with program components, and also stages of numerical modeling of a cyclotron, the analysis of the main characteristics of the accelerated bunch by means of the SNOP are given. The explanation of some algorithms and procedures used in the program is given. [ru

  11. Design study of electrostatic inflector in compact cyclotron injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    1996-01-01

    The beam dynamics behaviour in electrostatic inflector is investigated for a vertical type injection system to a compact cyclotron. The computer aided design and matching of the inflector are based on the simulation of computed beam orbit. Modeling and simulation are done on PC-486 to form a software package. The software package can be used to develop a new type cyclotron design combining with the software package CYCCAE developed by China Institute of Atomic Energy three years ago

  12. Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1977-12-01

    Wave trajectories propagating obliquely to magnetic field in toroidal plasmas are studied theoretically. Results show that the ordinary wave at appropriate incident angle is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at first turning point and is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a hooked nail curve near second turning point and is cyclotron-damped away, resulting in local electron heating, before arriving at cyclotron resonance layer. (auth.)

  13. Mass measurements with the CIME cyclotron at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornillos, M B Gomez; Chartier, M; Mittig, W; Blank, B; Chautard, F; Demonchy, C E; Gillibert, A; Jacquot, B; Jurado, B; Lecesne, N; Lepine-Szily, A; Orr, N A; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Villari, A C C

    2005-01-01

    A new direct technique using the CIME cyclotron as a high-resolution mass spectrometer is being developed in order to measure the masses of exotic nuclei. Tests have been performed to check the feasibility of the method with a mixed beam of stable ions extracted from the SPIRAL ion source and injected into the CIME cyclotron. Preliminary results obtained with this new technique are presented and discussed

  14. A full wave code for ion cyclotron waves in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.

    1996-02-01

    The code TORIC solves the finite Larmor radius wave equations in the ion cyclotron frequency range in arbitrary axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The model used describes the compressional and torsional Alfven waves (or, depending on the parallel phase velocity, the kinetic counterpart of the latter), and ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion near the first ion cyclotron harmonic. In the ion response the broadening of the absorption regions due to the finite width of the cyclotron resonance of individual ions in toroidal geometry is taken into account. The parallel component of the wave electric field is evaluated on the same footing as the transverse ones; the response of the electrons includes Landau damping, Transit Time damping and the mixed term. The numerical approach uses a spectral representation of the solution in the poloidal angle θ, and cubic finite elements in the radial variable ψ. Great flexibility is provided in the way ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion are damped when their wavelength becomes comparable with the ion Larmor radius, in the regularization of Alfven resonances, and in the treatment of the outer plasma layers. As an option, we have also implemented the Order Reduction Algorithm, which provides a particularly fast, yet accurate evaluation of the power deposition profiles in toroidal geometry. Thee present report describes the model and its numerical implementation, and provides the information needed to use the code. A few examples illustrating applications of TORIC are also included. (orig.)

  15. Evaluating secondary neutron doses of a refined shielded design for a medical cyclotron using the TLD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jye-Bin; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Liu, Wen-Shan; Lin, Ding-Bang; Hsieh, Teng-San; Chen, Chien-Yi

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of cyclotrons at medical centers in Taiwan have been installed to generate radiopharmaceutical products. An operating cyclotron generates immense amounts of secondary neutrons from reactions such the 18 O(p, n) 18 F, used in the production of FDG. This intense radiation can be hazardous to public health, particularly to medical personnel. To increase the yield of 18 F-FDG from 4200 GBq in 2005 to 48,600 GBq in 2011, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital (CSMUH) has prolonged irradiation time without changing the target or target current to meet requirements regarding the production 18 F. The CSMUH has redesigned the CTI Radioisotope Delivery System shield. The lack of data for a possible secondary neutron doses has increased due to newly designed cyclotron rooms. This work aims to evaluate secondary neutron doses at a CTI cyclotron center using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-600). Two-dimensional neutron doses were mapped and indicated that neutron doses were high as neutrons leaked through self-shielded blocks and through the L-shaped concrete shield in vault rooms. These neutron doses varied markedly among locations close to the H 2 18 O target. The Monte Carlo simulation and minimum detectable dose are also discussed and demonstrated the reliability of using the TLD-600 approach. Findings can be adopted by medical centers to identify radioactive hot spots and develop radiation protection. - Highlights: • Neutron doses were verified using TLD approach. • Neutron doses were increased at cyclotron centers. • Revised L-shaped shield suppresses effectively the neutrons. • Neutron dose can be attenuated to 1.13×10 6 %

  16. Stability and nonlinear dynamics of gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrotrons operating at higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequency can overcome the frequency limitations caused by achievable strength of the magnetic field. However, the excitation of modes at the fundamental frequency exhibit a major problem for stable operation of harmonic gyrotron at high power with high efficiency. Therefore the issues of stability of gyrotron operation at the cyclotron harmonics and nonlinear dynamics of mode interaction are of great importance. The results of the authors stability analysis and multimode simulation are presented here. A detailed nonlinear theory of steady state single mode operation at cyclotron harmonics has been presented previously, taking into account beam-wave coupling and nonlinear gain function at cyclotron harmonics. A set of equations describing low gain regime interaction of modes resonant at different cyclotron harmonics was studied before. The multifrequency time-dependent nonlinear analysis presented here is based on previous gyrotron studies and beam-wave interaction at cyclotron harmonics. The authors have determined the parameter space for stable single mode operation at the second harmonic. The nonlinear dynamics of mode evolution and mode interaction for a harmonic gyrotron is presented. A new nonlinear effect in which the parasite at the fundamental harmonic helps excite the operating mode at the second harmonic has been demonstrated

  17. Rf structure of superconducting cyclotron for therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekoshi, Hidekuni; Matsuki, Seishi; Mashiko, Katuo; Shikazono, Naomoto.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages of fast neutrons in therapeutical application are now widely recognized. Fast neutrons are generated by bombarding a thick beryllium target with high energy protons and deuterons. The AVF cyclotrons which deliver 50 MeV protons and 25 MeV deuterons are commonly used and are commercially available now. At the treatment usually rotational irradiation is taken to prevent an injury to normal tissue from the high LET effect of fast neutrons. The construction cost of both cyclotrons and isocentric irradiation installation are relatively high, so that the spread of neutron therapy is obstructed. A superconducting cyclotron for neutron therapy application was proposed by a Chalk River group. This low cost design allows the installation to be a dedicated facility located in a hospital, and small size allows installations of the complete cyclotron in a rotatable gantry. The design studies of the superconducting cyclotron based on this idea are going on at Kyoto University. The full scale model experiments for a rf structure of the cyclotron were carried out. (author)

  18. A mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R.

    1988-01-01

    The report addresses the development of a mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET (positron emission tomography) and neutron radiography. Proposals for an ultralight cyclotron were made by Finlan et al., who suggested a novel technique of utilising a superconducting magnet with RF acceleration and iron sectors contained within the room temperature bore of the magnet. Detailed design of a cyclotron based on this concept has progressed well at Oxford Instruments. The main design priorities were to minimise the weight and power consumption of the cyclotron. The cyclotron required a large amount of shielding to reduce either radiation background levels or stray magnetic field. Thus low background levels of radiation and magnetic field are key design criteria. The superconducting magnet has a mean field of 2.35 Tesla and a room temperature bore diameter of 500 mm. Three pairs of profiled iron sectors placed in the center of the warm bore of the magnet provide an azimuthally varying magnetic field. This permits the use of high beam currents with low background. A novel technique is incorporated to reduce the stray magnetic field and radiation from the cyclotron. The RF system consists of three pairs of resonators mounted within the warm bore of the magnet between the iron sectors. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Low-Intensity Ultrasound-Induced Anti-inflammatory Effects Are Mediated by Several New Mechanisms Including Gene Induction, Immunosuppressor Cell Promotion, and Enhancement of Exosome Biogenesis and Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders.Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS.Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1 LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2 LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells, MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells, B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells; (3 LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4 LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5 Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6 LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways.Conclusions: Our results have provided novel insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS, and have provided guidance for the development of future novel therapeutic LIUS for cancers, inflammatory disorders, tissue regeneration and tissue repair.

  20. Electron cyclotron emission measurements during 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating in Wendelstein WVII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Gasparino, U.; Tutter, M.; Brakel, R.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Engelhardt, K.; Erckmann, V.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Raeuchle, E.; Schueller, P.G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, M.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator. Blackbody radiation from the thermalized plasma main body as well as radiation from a small amount of weakly relativistic suprathermal electrons has been detected. In addition sideband emission has been observed near the second harmonic of the heating line source. Harmonic generation and parametric wave decay at the upper hybrid layer may be a reasonable explanation. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas yield low energy and high ion density plasmas. The characteristics downstream of an ECR hydrogen plasma were investigated as a function of microwave power and magnetic field. A fast-injection Langmuir probe and a carbon resistance probe were used to determine plasma potential (V p ), electron density (N e ), electron temperature (T e ), ion energy (T i ), and ion fluence. Langmuir probe results showed that at 17 cm downstream from the ECR chamber the plasma characteristics are approximately constant across the center 7 cm of the plasma for 50 Watts of absorbed power. These results gave V p = 30 ± 5 eV, N e = 1 x 10 8 cm -3 , and T e = 10--13 eV. In good agreement with the Langmuir probe results, carbon resistance probes have shown that T i ≤ 50 eV. Also, based on hydrogen chemical sputtering of carbon, the hydrogen (ion and energetic neutrals) fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec. at a pressure of 1 x 10 -4 Torr and for 50 Watts of absorbed power. 19 refs

  2. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatagai, F [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Takahashi, T; Matsuyama, A

    1975-06-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with ..cap alpha..-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/..mu..m, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of ..cap alpha..-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/..mu..m were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept.

  3. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Beams of protons with several different energies have now been successfully transported between the injector cyclotron SPC1 and the SSC. Some small modifications to the placement of steering magnets and diagnostic equipment have been made in the light of our operational experience, which should improve the ease of tuning this beamline. Proton beams up to 200 MeV in energy have been transported to the experimental areas, where experiments in nuclear physics have been successful conducted. Three of the experimental beamlines are now in operation. Beams of 66 MeV protons have also been transported to targets in the isotope production vault, without difficulty. Field mapping of the remaining quadrupoles on site has been completed. Installation of and alignment of magnets up to the beam swinger is also complete, although the beam tube itself, plus vacuum and diagnostic equipment must still be tackled. The beam swinger has been designed and detailed in the drawing office, and is now being manufactured locally. The beamline elements for the sepctrometer beamline remain to be purchased. A personal computer has been purchased for controlling the field-mapping equipment for the spectrometer magnets, which are being manufactured in this country. A number of computer programs have been written for conversion of calibrated quadrupole and dipole magnet field data to absolute current values for the control system. Other programs permit diagnostic measurements of beam profiles to be used to calculated the beam emittance, or to set steering magnets so that the beam is correctly aligned

  4. Ferrite-guided cyclotron-resonance maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerby, Eli; Kesar, A.; Aharony, A.; Breitmeier, G.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) with a ferrite loading incorporated in its waveguide is proposed. The CRM interaction occurs between the rotating electron beam and the em wave propagating along a longitudinally magnetized ferrite medium. The ferrite anisotropic permeability resembles the CRM susceptibility in many aspects, and particularly in their similar response to the axial magnetic field (the ferrite susceptibility can be regarded as a passive analog of the active CRM interaction). The ferrite loading slows down the phase velocity of the em wave and thus the axial (Weibel) mechanism of the CRM interaction dominates. The ferrite loading enables also a mechanism of spectral tunability for CRM's. The ferrite loading is proposed, therefore, as a useful ingredient for high-power CRM devices. A linear model of the combined ferrite-guided CRM interaction reveals its useful features. Future schemes may also incorporate ferrite sections functioning as isolators, gyrators, or phase shifters within the CRM device itself for selective suppression of backward waves and spurious oscillations, and for gain and efficiency enhancement

  5. Automation in irradiating target systems for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Sumair G.; Sciani, Valdir; Almeida, Rosemeire S.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d, 3 He 4 and α, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 μA; the other one, model cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 μ A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotope production for use in Nuclear Medicine, such as 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 111 In, 123 I, 18 F, and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatized was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increasing the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PLC was developed using Simatic Step Seven (S7), Software from Siemens, where all the steps are supervised in screens at a microcomputer. The assembling and sequence of leading were developed using the software from Unisoft, that keeps the operator informed about the work being carried out, at any time. (author)

  6. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Takahashi, Tadashi; Matsuyama, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with α-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/μm, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of α-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/μm were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept. (auth.)

  7. Ion cyclotron system design for KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Jeong, S. H.; Yoony, J. S.; Bae, Y. D.; Kwak, J. G.; Ju, M. H.

    1998-05-01

    The KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak (R=1.8 m, a=0.5 m, k=2, b=3.5T, I=2MA, t=300 s) is being constructed to do long-pulse, high-b, advanced-operating-mode fusion physics experiments. The ion cyclotron (IC) system (in conjunction with an 8-MW neutral beam and a 1.5-MW lower hybrid system) will provide heating and current drive capability for the machine. The IC system will deliver 6 MW of RF power to the plasma in the 25 to 60 MHz frequency range, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. It will be used for ion heating, fast-wave current drive (FWCD), and mode-conversion current drive (MCCD). The phasing between current straps in the antenna will be adjustable quickly during operation to provide the capability of changing the current-drive efficiency. This report describes the design of the IC system hardware: the electrical characteristics of the antenna and the matching system, the requirements on the power sources, and electrical analyses of the launcher. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 40 figs

  8. Ion cyclotron system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Jeong, S. H.; Yoony, J. S.; Bae, Y. D.; Kwak, J. G.; Ju, M. H

    1998-05-01

    The KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak (R=1.8 m, a=0.5 m, k=2, b=3.5T, I=2MA, t=300 s) is being constructed to do long-pulse, high-b, advanced-operating-mode fusion physics experiments. The ion cyclotron (IC) system (in conjunction with an 8-MW neutral beam and a 1.5-MW lower hybrid system) will provide heating and current drive capability for the machine. The IC system will deliver 6 MW of RF power to the plasma in the 25 to 60 MHz frequency range, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. It will be used for ion heating, fast-wave current drive (FWCD), and mode-conversion current drive (MCCD). The phasing between current straps in the antenna will be adjustable quickly during operation to provide the capability of changing the current-drive efficiency. This report describes the design of the IC system hardware: the electrical characteristics of the antenna and the matching system, the requirements on the power sources, and electrical analyses of the launcher. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 40 figs.

  9. Electron cyclotron emission spectroscopy on thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbing, B.J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) enables one to infer the radial profile of the electron temperature in tokamaks. The Dutch FOM institute for plasma physics has designed, built, installed and operated a grating polychromator for ECE measurements at JET. This thesis deals with a few instrumental aspects of this project and with applications of ECE measurements in tokamak physics studies. Ch. 3 and 4 deal with the wave transport in ECE systems. In Ch. 3 a method is developed to infer the mode conversion, which is a source for transmission losses, in a waveguide component from the antenna pattern of its exit aperture. In Ch. 4 the design and manufacture of the waveguide transition system to the grating polychromator are described. In Ch. 5 a method is reported for calibration of the spectrometers, based on the use of a microwave source which simulates a large area blackbody of very high temperature. The feasibility of the method is tested by applying it to two different ECE systems. In Ch. 6 a study of heat pulse propagation in tokamak plasma's, based on measurement of the electron temperature with the grating polychromator, is presented. 105 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  10. Estimation of edge electron temperature profiles via forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeber, S K; Barrera, L; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Suttrop, W; Wolfrum, E; Nold, B; Willensdorfer, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to obtain reliable edge profiles of the electron temperature by forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport. While for the core of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas, straightforward analysis of electron cyclotron intensity measurements based on the optically thick plasma approximation is usually justified, reasonable analysis of the steep and optically thin plasma edge needs to consider broadened emission and absorption profiles and radiation transport processes. This is carried out in the framework of integrated data analysis which applies Bayesian probability theory for joint analysis of the electron density and temperature with data of different interdependent and complementary diagnostics. By this means, electron cyclotron radiation intensity delivers highly spatially resolved electron temperature data for the plasma edge. In H-mode, the edge gradient of the electron temperature can be several times higher than the one of the radiation temperature. Furthermore, we are able to reproduce the ‘shine-through’ peak—the observation of increased radiation temperatures at frequencies resonant in the optically thin scrape-off layer. This phenomenon is caused by strongly down-shifted radiation of Maxwellian tail electrons located in the H-mode edge region and, therefore, contains valuable information about the electron temperature edge gradient. (paper)

  11. Cyclotron Production of Radionuclides for Nuclear Medicine at Academic Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging has led to the development of new accelerator targetry and separation techniques for isotope production. For example, the development of longer-lived position emitting radionuclides has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller cyclotrons (10-25 MeV) at academic or hospital based facilities. Recent research has further expanded the toolbox of PET tracers to include additional isotopes such as 52Mn, 55Co, 76Br and others. The smaller scale of these types of facilities can enable the straightforward involvement of students, thus adding to the next generation of nuclear science leaders. Research pertaining to development of robust and larger scale production technologies including solid target systems and remote systems for transport and purification of these isotopes has enabled both preclinical and clinical imaging research for many diseases. In particular, our group has focused on the use of radiolabeled antibodies for imaging of receptor expression in preclinical models and in a clinical trial of metastatic breast cancer patients.

  12. Development of the RF cavity for the SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seungwook; Lee, Jongchul; LEE, Byeong-No; Ha, Donghyup; Namgoong, Ho; Chai, Jongseo

    2015-01-01

    A 9 MeV compact cyclotron, named SKKUCY-9, for a radiopharmaceutical compound especially fludeoxyglucose (FDG) production for a positron emission tomography (PET) machine was developed at Sungkyunkwan University. H − ions which are produced from a Penning Ionization Gauge(PIG) ion source, travel through a normal conducting radio frequency (RF) cavity which operates at 83.2 MHz for an acceleration and electro-magnet for a beam focusing until the ions acquire energy of about 9 MeV. For installation at a small local hospital, our SKKUCY-9 cyclotron is developed to be compact and light-weight, comparable to conventional medical purpose cyclotrons. For compactness, we adapted a deep valley and large angle hill type for the electro-magnet design. Normally a RF cavity is installed inside of the empty space of the magnet valley region, which is extremely small in our case. We faced problems such as difficulties of installing the RF cavity, low Q-value. Despite of those difficulties, a compact RF cavity and its system including a RF power coupler to feed amplified RF power to the RF cavity and a fine tuner to compensate RF frequency variations was successfully developed and tested

  13. Simulation of operation modes of isochronous cyclotron by a new interactive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taraszkiewicz, R.; Talach, M.; Sulikowski, J.; Doruch, H.; Norys, T.; Sroka, A.; Kiyan, I.N.; )

    2007-01-01

    Operation mode simulation methods are based on selection of trim coil currents in the isochronous cyclotron for formation of the required magnetic field at a certain level of the main coil current. The traditional current selection method is based on finding a solution for all trim coils simultaneously. After setting the calculated operation mode, it is usually necessary to perform a control measurement of the magnetic field map and to repeat the calculation for a more accurate solution. The new current selection method is based on successively finding solutions for each particular trim coil. The trim coils are taken one by one in reverse order from the edge to the center of the isochronous cyclotron. The new operation mode simulation method is based on the new current selection method. The new method, as against the traditional one, includes iterative calculation of the kinetic energy at the extraction radius. A series of experiments on proton beam formation within the range of working acceleration radii at extraction energies from 32 to 59 MeV, which were carried out at the AIC144 multipurpose isochronous cyclotron (designed mainly for the eye melanoma treatment and production of radioisotopes) at the INP PAS (Cracow), showed that the new method makes unnecessary any control measurements of magnetic fields for getting the desired operation mode, which indicates a high accuracy of the calculation. (authors)

  14. Radiation exposure to the staff working in PET/CT and Cyclotron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been available in number of centers for more than 25 years, but its use was not wide spread until 10 years ago. In Bulgarian PET/CT was installed for the first time in 2009 and the dose on demand cyclotron also for the first time – in 2013 in Nuclear Medicine Department in University Hospital St. Marina in Varna, Bulgaria. Responsibility of every radiation protection officer is to educate the stuff how to protect their selves from radioactive exposure and to observe and calculate the dose to the people and the stuff. The purpose of this paper is to show how big the doses of the stuff working in Nuclear Medicine Center including PET/CT and Cyclotron facilities situated in University Hospital St. Marina in Varna, Bulgaria are. The Department is working now with about 15 patients every day. The dose rates measured with personal TLD’s and personal dose rate meters for the last 5 years for the stuff are under 3 mSv. As the average dose is under 1 mSv, and the doses over 1mSv are only for nurses who injected the FDG. Keywords: radiation exposure, effective dose, PET/CT, Cyclotron, FDGbf

  15. Gyrokinetic theory of perpendicular cyclotron resonance in a nonuniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Dendy, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    The extension of gyrokinetic theory to arbitrary frequencies by Chen and Tsai [Phys. Fluids 26, 141 (1983); Plasma Phys. 25, 349 (1983)] is used to study cyclotron absorption in a straight magnetic field with a perpendicular, linear gradient in strength. The analysis includes the effects of magnetic field variation across the Larmor orbit and is restricted to propagation perpendicular to the field. It yields the following results for propagation into the field gradient. The standard optical depths for the fundamental O-mode and second harmonic X-mode resonances are obtained from the absorption profiles given in this paper, without invoking relativistic mass variation [see also Antonsen and Manheimer, Phys. Fluids 21, 2295 (1978)]. The compressional Alfven wave is shown to undergo perpendicular cyclotron damping at the fundamental minority resonance in a two-ion species plasma and at second harmonic resonance in a single-ion species plasma. Ion Bernstein waves propagating into the second harmonic resonance are no longer unattenuated, but are increasingly damped as they approach the resonance. It is shown how the kinetic power flow affects absorption profiles, yielding information previously obtainable only from full-wave theory. In all cases, the perpendicular cyclotron damping arises from the inclusion of magnetic field variation across the Larmor orbit

  16. Development of the RF cavity for the SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwook; Lee, Jongchul; LEE, Byeong-No; Ha, Donghyup; Namgoong, Ho; Chai, Jongseo

    2015-09-01

    A 9 MeV compact cyclotron, named SKKUCY-9, for a radiopharmaceutical compound especially fludeoxyglucose (FDG) production for a positron emission tomography (PET) machine was developed at Sungkyunkwan University. H- ions which are produced from a Penning Ionization Gauge(PIG) ion source, travel through a normal conducting radio frequency (RF) cavity which operates at 83.2 MHz for an acceleration and electro-magnet for a beam focusing until the ions acquire energy of about 9 MeV. For installation at a small local hospital, our SKKUCY-9 cyclotron is developed to be compact and light-weight, comparable to conventional medical purpose cyclotrons. For compactness, we adapted a deep valley and large angle hill type for the electro-magnet design. Normally a RF cavity is installed inside of the empty space of the magnet valley region, which is extremely small in our case. We faced problems such as difficulties of installing the RF cavity, low Q-value. Despite of those difficulties, a compact RF cavity and its system including a RF power coupler to feed amplified RF power to the RF cavity and a fine tuner to compensate RF frequency variations was successfully developed and tested.

  17. Improving the performance of the power supply of the MGC-20 cyclotron harmonic coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagras, A.A.M

    2008-01-01

    Correction of lower harmonics of the MGC-20 cyclotron magnetic field is of great importance for its operation. Actually, stability of the acceleration process, attainment of the final energy of the accelerated beam and efficiency of the beam extraction system depend on the lower harmonics control. Error in the magnetic field lower harmonics can reduce the efficiency of the beam extraction resulting in complete disappearance of the extracted beam of the cyclotron. For control of the cyclotron MGC-20 magnetic field lower harmonics, the so called inner and outer harmonic coils are provided.These harmonic coils must be fed by a very high accuracy current source power supply. This power supply must be equipped with a high resolution measurement and control scheme to achieve the imposed requirements of adjustment of the first harmonic magnetic field.Harmonic coils are supplied with conventional SCR controlled converters with analog control strategy. Frequent interruption of operation and difficulties in the adjustment of harmonic coil current lead to economical and research - time losses.This research project aims to replace this conventional system with a more effective, accurate and less complicated digital control system based on Motorola DSP56F807 and high switching frequency power circuit. Actually all the bulky modules including the analog integrator, the signal monitoring and protection, the pulse phase modulator and the comparator are all replaced by a single module circuit.

  18. National cyclotron centre at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Asova, G.; Artinyan, A.; Demerdjiev, A.; Georgiev, L. S.; Yavahchova, M.; Bashev, V.; Genchev, S. G.; Geleva, E.; Mincheva, M.; Nikolov, A.; Dimitrov, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that can be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99mTc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, materials sciences, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. Presently we perform investigations in the fields of target design for production of radioisotopes, shielding and radioprotection, new ion sources etc.

  19. Synchrotron radiation and absorption at electron cyclotron harmonics in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jian-Long.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand fully the absorption, emission and conversion phenomena for any electron cyclotron harmonic, one must include all relevant mode conversion processes and a finite parallel wave number k parallel . Relativistic plasma mode conversion and tunneling equations at the second and third electron cyclotron harmonics have been derived analytically. A finite k parallel has been introduced which keeps the coupling between the O-mode, the X-mode and the Bernstein wave in the mode conversion problems without absorption have been obtained, and the connection formulas between different wave branches have been established. The corresponding transmission, reflection and conversion coefficients have also been given. Mode conversion problem at any harmonic has been generalized to either a three branch or a five branch problem. A comparison between the coupled equation and the uncoupled equation has been made. The effort has been directed at the third harmonic since the adsorption at ω = 2ω ce is known to be very strong in virtually every fusion case. Both the low density limit and the high density limit cases have been studied separately. The relativistic effects on the mode conversion and absorption problem has been analyzed. The mode conversion equation with absorption has been solved by using the Green function method. The electron cyclotron emission experiments have already begun at 3ω ce , and the third harmonic is the first nontrivial case of importance

  20. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe 48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe 26+ approximately 4x10 10 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 10 12 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C 6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 10 10 from the 5x10mm 2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe 15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached [ru

  1. Performance test of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, K.; Sawada, J.; Sakata, T.; Uno, K.; Okanishi, K.; Harada, H.; Itano, A.; Higashi, A.; Akagi, T.; Yamada, S.; Noda, K.; Torikoshi, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2000-02-01

    Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were manufactured for the accelerator facility at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. H2+, He2+, and C4+ were chosen as the accelerating ions because they have the highest charge to mass ratio among ion states which satisfy the required intensity and quality. The sources have the same structure as the 10 GHz ECR source at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba except for a few improvements in the magnetic structure. Their performance was investigated at the Sumitomo Heavy Industries factory before shipment. The maximum intensity was 1500 μA for H2+, 1320 μA for He2+, and 580 μA for C4+ at the end of the ion source beam transport line. These are several times higher than required. Sufficient performance was also observed in the flatness and long-term stability of the pulsed beams. These test results satisfy the requirements for medical use.

  2. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be ∼70 π mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was ∼25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data

  3. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  4. Magneto-optical and cyclotron resonance studies of semiconductors and their nanostructures in pulsed high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We present a review on the recent advances in physics of magneto-optical spectroscopy in the visible range and of infrared cyclotron resonance in pulsed high magnetic fields, which are produced by electromagnetic flux compression up to 500T, by the single-turn coil technique up to 200T or by conventional non-destructive long pulse magnets up to 50T. We discuss the recent results on the spectroscopy of low dimensional excitons in quantum wells and short period superlattices. In very high fields up to 500T, we observed anomalous field dependence of the exciton absorption lines and the 2D - 3D cross-over effects in GaAs/AlAs quantum wells. In GaP/AlP short period superlattices, it was found that the exciton photoluminescence intensity shows a dramatic decrease and the diamagnetic shift was negative when high magnetic fields were applied parallel to the growth direction. We observed also remarkable effects of uniaxial stress, which are ascribed to the cross-over effect between the two inequivalent valleys at the X points. Cyclotron resonance was measured by using various molecular gas lasers as radiation sources in the range 5 - 119 m . We present the results of cyclotron resonance in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with tilted magnetic fields from the growth direction. It was found that the resonant field and the peak intensity show many different features depending on the extent of the Landau level-subband coupling and on the relation between the photon energy and the barrier height. A large hysteresis was observed between the rising and the falling sweeps of the magnetic field, when the cyclotron resonance energy became comparable with the subband spacing. In a diluted magnetic semiconductor CdFeS, we observed anomalous temperature dependence of the effective mass, suggestive of the magnetic polaron effect

  5. Accurate Monte Carlo modeling of cyclotrons for optimization of shielding and activation calculations in the biomedical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended

  6. Electron cyclotron current drive in the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassberg, H [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rome, M [I.N.F.N., I.N.F.M., Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Erckmann, V [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Geiger, J [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Laqua, H P [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Marushchenko, N B [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    High power electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments in the W7-AS stellarator are analysed. In these net-current-free discharges, the ECCD and the bootstrap current are feedback controlled by an inductive current. Based on the measured density and temperature profiles, the neoclassical predictions of the bootstrap (with the ambipolar radial electric field taken into account) and the inductive current densities as well as the ECCD from the linear adjoint approach with trapped particles included are calculated. For stationary conditions, the current balance is checked. Launch-angle scans at fixed density as well as density scans at fixed launch-angle are described. Low-frequency MHD mode activity is obtained for strong co-ECCD, and for counter-ECCD a ' {iota}-bar approx.= 0 feature' with complete loss of the central confinement is found. The linear ECCD prediction is in reasonable agreement with the current balance except for low-density discharges with highly peaked on-axis deposition, where the ECCD predicted from linear theory exceeds by a factor of about 2 the one from the current balance. Since the bootstrap current is well balanced by the inductive current without ECCD, the linear ECCD overestimate is compared with nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) simulations, where two different power loss models are used to reach steady state. These volume-averaged FP simulations cannot describe the ECCD degradation at the low densities.

  7. HEATING AND CURRENT DRIVE BY ELECTRON CYCLOTRON WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, R.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The physics model of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) is becoming well validated through systematic comparisons of theory and experiment. This work has shown that ECH and ECCD can be highly localized and robustly controlled in toroidal plasma confinement systems, leading to applications including stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities like neoclassical tearing modes, control and sustainment of desired profiles of current density and plasma pressure, and studies of localized transport in laboratory plasmas. The experimental work was supported by a broad base of theory based on first principles which is now well encapsulated in linear ray tracing codes describing wave propagation, absorption, and current drive and in fully relativistic quasilinear Fokker-Planck codes describing in detail the response of the electrons to the energy transferred from the wave. The subtle balance between wave-induced diffusion and Coulomb relaxation in velocity space provides an understanding of the effects of trapping of current-carrying electrons in the magnetic well. Strong quasilinear effects and radial transport of electrons, which may broaden the driven current profile, have also been observed under some conditions and appear to be consistent with theory, but in large devices these are usually insignificant. The agreement of theory and experiment, the wide range of established applications, and the technical advantages of ECH support the application of ECH in next-step tokamaks and stellarators

  8. Building of radio frequency cavity for Superconducting Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammed, M.; DuttaGupta, A.; Mandal, B.Ch.; Saha, S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Manna, B.; Hembrom, B.; Murmu, S.; Sur, S.; Murali, S.; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: RF cavity for Superconducting Cyclotron is a room temperature cavity having 10 m tall coaxial structure placed symmetrically above and below the median plane. The structure is made of copper and operates within the frequency range of 9 to 27 MHz. The frequency is varied with the help of sliding shorts, which moves up and down. Part of the cavity is in air and rest is in vacuum. After fabrication of individual components, assembly of sub-system has been started by carrying out numeral critical (around 500 joints approx.) soldering and brazing joints of which some of them are located within centimeter of distance. All these joints were tested for vacuum and water sealing including many temporary joints sealed by O rings and C seals. Main criticalities involve in fabricating these sub-assemblies are maintaining dimensional accuracies, concentricity and parallelism. Moreover challenges faced during transportation and handling of this subassembly while carrying out soldering and actual site assembly, were overcome by employing several specially designed fixtures. Fixtures were used to control distortion that would take place during soldering and brazing and to avoid any damage which is likely to occur because of less mechanical strength of soldering and brazing joint. This paper highlights the above difficulties and challenges faced during the actual site assembly of the whole RF system because of its limited accessibility, compactness, requirements of upper and lower resonator cavity to be symmetric and ultra cleanliness. (author)

  9. Quasilinear ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.

    1993-12-01

    The quasilinear modification of the ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron (FHIC) heating is investigated both with a simple already well established analytic one-dimensional approach, and with a new two dimensional steady state solver of the quasilinear kinetic equation, SSFPQL. By accepting to disregard the effects of ion trapping in banana orbits, but including finite Larmor radius effects, the latter code has been made much faster than full surface-averaged codes; yet it can provide most of the relevant information on the suprathermal ion tail produced by this heating method. With SSFPQL we confirm that the one-dimensional model gives fair approximations for global properties of the distribution function, such as the average energy content of the tail and the fusion reactivity. On the other hand the tail is found to be very anisotropic, the increase of the parallel effective temperature being a small fraction of the total energy increase. Information on the anisotropy is essential to study the feedback of the fast ion tail on wave propagation and absorption, which is quite sensitive to the distribution of parallel velocities. The insight gained in the derivation and discussion of this model can be used to build a selfconsistent description of this heating scenario, whose implementation requires only a reasonable numerical effort. (orig.)

  10. Electron cyclotron current drive in the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H; Rome, M; Erckmann, V; Geiger, J; Laqua, H P; Marushchenko, N B

    2005-01-01

    High power electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments in the W7-AS stellarator are analysed. In these net-current-free discharges, the ECCD and the bootstrap current are feedback controlled by an inductive current. Based on the measured density and temperature profiles, the neoclassical predictions of the bootstrap (with the ambipolar radial electric field taken into account) and the inductive current densities as well as the ECCD from the linear adjoint approach with trapped particles included are calculated. For stationary conditions, the current balance is checked. Launch-angle scans at fixed density as well as density scans at fixed launch-angle are described. Low-frequency MHD mode activity is obtained for strong co-ECCD, and for counter-ECCD a ' ι-bar approx.= 0 feature' with complete loss of the central confinement is found. The linear ECCD prediction is in reasonable agreement with the current balance except for low-density discharges with highly peaked on-axis deposition, where the ECCD predicted from linear theory exceeds by a factor of about 2 the one from the current balance. Since the bootstrap current is well balanced by the inductive current without ECCD, the linear ECCD overestimate is compared with nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) simulations, where two different power loss models are used to reach steady state. These volume-averaged FP simulations cannot describe the ECCD degradation at the low densities

  11. Applied research with cyclotron beams at FLNR JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu Ts; Apel, P Yu; Didyk, A Yu; Dmitriev, S N; Gulbekian, G G [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation). Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions

    1997-03-01

    The Center of Applied Physics at the Flerov Laboratory carries out an R and D program comprising development of track membrane technology, materials research with heavy ion beams and production of radioisotopes. Experiments are performed on three cyclotrons: U-400, U-200 and IC-100 providing a wide variety of ion beams with the energies of 1 to 10 MeV/u. The activity on track membranes (TMs) includes studies of track formation in polymers and latent track structure, track sensitization and etching, methods of membrane testing, development of track membranes on the basis of new materials, surface modification of TMs, design and construction of facilities for track membrane production. Recent experiments on heavy ion-induced radiation damage in non-polymeric substances have been devoted to defect creation in semiconductor and dielectric single crystals. TEM, SEM, STM and `in situ` luminescent spectroscopy are used to investigate heavy ion effects. Methods for producing several isotopes of high radiochemical and isotopic purity for medical, biomedical and environmental protection applications have been developed. (author)

  12. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Dept. of Radiation Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI.

  13. The PET / cyclotron facility at Putrajaya Hospital - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Suzilawati Muhd Sarowi; Munira Shaikh Nasir; Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia desire to have a cyclotron for nuclear medical use came into realisation recently with the establishment of a PET/Cyclotron Facility at Putrajaya Hospital. The testing and commissioning of the cyclotron, hot cells, QC equipment and PET/CT started on March 27, culminating in the first patient to be injected on May 10 2006. Three other patients were to be followed on May 15. The patients from both the Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya Hospital were pre-selected by physicians from these hospitals. The 18 MeV cyclotron is capable of generating 16.4 MeV protons and 8.4 MeV deuterons. The cyclotron at Putrajaya has three targets (2 liquid and 1 gas) and is capable of producing 18 F-FDG and 18 F-DOPA. To complement this, the facility has 2 modules for FDG synthesis, 1 for F-DOPA and 1 for nucleophilic synthesis. The facility will be GMP compliant. For the first production for human use, the water-18 target was irradiated for 50 minutes at 20 mA to produce 1.3 Ci of F-18. At the end of synthesis, the activity of the FDG obtained was 600 mCi. The product was then injected to a 26-year-old female, with a suspected adenocarcinoma. (Author)

  14. Radiation protection problems by the operation of the cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcik, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center in Bratislava will consist of two cyclotrons. First - cyclotron DC-72 with maximal energy of 72 MV for protons for making experiments, for teaching process, for radioisotope production as 123 I and for neutron and proton therapy. Second - compact cyclotron with maximal proton energy of 18 MeV will be used for radioisotopes production for medical diagnosis as 1 *F (fluorodeoxyglucose), 81 Rb/ 81 Kr generator. This paper deals with the radiation protection problems by the operation of tis cyclotron facility as radiation protection of workers, monitoring plan, ventilation, safety lock and limitation and radiation monitoring. For proposed and continuing practices at the accelerator facility, the following general principles have to be fulfilled: (1) practices should produce sufficient benefit to offset the radiation detriment they case (justification); (2) the magnitude of the individual doses should be kept as low as achievable (optimization of protection); (3) individual exposures are subject to dose limits and some control of risk from potential exposures (dose and risk limits)

  15. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Chong Yeal

    2017-01-01

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI

  16. In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Zagni, Federico; Corazza, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Skliarova, Hanna; Mou, Liliana; Cisternino, Sara; Carturan, Sara; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Uzunov, Nikolay M; Bello, Michele; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi; Esposito, Juan; Duatti, Adriano

    2018-05-30

    In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [ 99m Tc][TcO 4 ] - ubiquitously employed for the production of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of first harmonic field effects on beam extraction for VEC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.; Debnath, J.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    In superconducting cyclotron large momentum compaction at extraction region makes the turn separation very small. The first harmonic effects on the He +1 beam using simulated magnetic field for VEC K500 cyclotron is reported

  18. Reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Langkau, R; Schirm, N [Hamburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1976-04-01

    A system for the reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the energy-variable Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron comprising beam pulse supression in the cyclotron center and in the external beam is described.

  19. Superconducting cyclotron deflector conditioning status - an experience with high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhash; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bhattacharjee, Tanushyam; De, Anirban; Paul, Santanu; Pal, Gautam; Saha, Subimal; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report about the status of the electrostatic deflector which will be used in K500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata. For extraction of beams from superconducting cyclotron we have to achieve 130 kV/cm. Titanium and tungsten are used for anode and septum respectively. The deflector fits within the median plane of the superconducting magnet. We report here the voltage limit, sparking rates, dark current levels and the effects observed on conditioning. For commissioning of the superconducting cyclotron, the plan is to accelerate Neon beam of 50 MeV/n for which the required extraction voltage is 81 kV/cm and we reached up to 110 kV/cm. The conditioning test chamber is maintained at a pressure of 8.0 x 10 -7 mbar. (author)

  20. Electron cyclotron waves, transport and instabilities in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    1987-01-01

    A number of topics relevant to the magnetic confinement approach to the thermonuclear fusion is addressed. The absorption and emission of electron cyclotron waves in a thermal plasma with a small population of supra-thermal, streaming electrons is examined and the properties of electron cyclotron waves in a plasma with a pure loss-cone distribution are studied. A report is given on the 1-D transport code simulations that were performed to assist the interpretation of the electron cyclotron heating experiments on the TFR tokamak. Transport code simulations of sawteeth discharges in the T-10 tokamak are discussed in order to compare the predictions of different models for the sawtooth oscillations with the experimental findings. 149 refs.; 69 figs.; 7 tabs

  1. Radioisotope production by reactors and cyclotrons in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yukio

    1978-01-01

    Present status of radioisotope production in Japan and the increasing demand from various fields are generally reviewed. Future problems associated with the shortage of economical supply are also discussed. The first half of this report is devoted to general review of the increasing demand for various radioisotopes from increasing number of users. The present status and future trends of the distribution of users of specific radioisotopes and their demands are shown. The remaining half of this report reviews the production with reactors and cyclotrons. The Japanese reactors producing radioisotopes are limited to low flux (10 13 ) research reactors at JAERI. Some problems associated with the improvement of availability and with the organizational structure are discussed. As for the production with cyclotrons, available facilities and the method of production are explained in detail. For clinical use, especially for the production of short lived radioisotopes, the advantage of a small special purpose cyclotron at each medical organization is emphasized. (Aoki, K.)

  2. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  3. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...... of the electron cyclotron frequency. These are injected obliquely from the outside of the tokamak near an optimal angle to the magnetic field lines. This method involves two mode conversions. The ordinary waves are converted into extraordinary waves near the plasma cut-off layer. The extraordinary waves...... are subsequently converted into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer, and the Bernstein waves are completely absorbed close to the plasma centre. Results are presented from ray-tracinq calculations in full three-dimensional geometry using the dispersion function for a hot non...

  4. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-01-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the "1"2C"6"+ ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  5. Radiation monitoring in a self-shielded cyclotron installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, L.; Gori, C.; Mazzocchi, S.; Spano, G.

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear medicine is approaching a new era with the spectacular growth of PET diagnosis, the number of medical cyclotrons installed within the major hospitals is increasing accordingly. Therefore modern medical cyclotron are highly engineered and highly reliable apparatus, characterised with reduced accelerating energies (as the major goal is the production of fluorine 18) and often self-shielded. However specific dedicated monitors are still necessary in order to assure the proper radioprotection. At the Careggi University Hospital in Florence a Mini trace 10 MeV self-shielded cyclotron produced by General Electric has been installed in 2000. In a contiguous radiochemistry laboratory, the preparation and quality control of 1 8F DG and other radiopharmaceuticals takes place. Aim of this work is the characterisation and the proper calibration of the above mentioned monitors and control devices

  6. Isochronous variable energy cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, G.; Zanchetta, A.A.; Gouveia, S.; Klein, H.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron CV-28 installed at the Radiation Damage Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP is a multi-particle radiation source where protons, deuterons, 3 He ions and alpha particles can be accelerated with variable energy up to 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively. The cyclotron is a versatile machine that can be applied in research and development of : radioisotope production - materials science - nuclear physics - activation analysis and others. First internal beam with 24 MeV protons has been obtained in April 23, 1981. First irradiation of Cu sample, at the external beam (beam current 1.5 μA), with 28 MeV alpha particles was performed in December 29, 1983. Main characteristics of the cyclotron are given together with a description of peripheral systems and experimental capability. Presently the accelerator is being optimized for cpontinuous running. (Author) [pt

  7. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun, E-mail: genuinei@kirams.re.kr; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-07-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  8. Radiation effects testing at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Koga, Rokotura

    2002-01-01

    The effects of ionizing particles on sensitive microelectronics is an important component of the design of systems as diverse as satellites and space probes, detectors for high energy physics experiments and even internet server farms. Understanding the effects of radiation on human cells is an equally important endeavor directed towards future manned missions in space and towards cancer therapy. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Berkeley Laboratory, facilities are available for radiation effects testing (RET) with heavy ions and with protons. The techniques for doing these measurements and the advantages of using a cyclotron will be discussed, and the Cyclotron facilities will be compared with other facilities worldwide. RET of the same part at several facilities of varying beam energy can provide tests of the simple models used in this field and elucidate the relative importance of atomic and nuclear effects. The results and implications of such measurements will be discussed

  9. Automatized target devices for radioisotope production at the RITs cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Karasev, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    An automation target device intended for isotope production on the internal beam of the RITs cyclotron is decribed. The target device comprises the following main units: target head, vacuum lock, charging device, transport system for bringing the target for charging; mechanism of target discharge transport device, control interlocking and signalling control system of target radiation power. The automation target device permits radioisotope production on the cyclotron in commercial scales with automation substitution of irradiated targets. The time of substitution of one of six targets makes up only 5 min. The time of charging a new group of targets to the charge device - 60 min. Contact of the personnel with irradiated targets is practically excluded and the necessity of entering the cyclotron room for maintenance of the plant is reduced to the minimum [ru

  10. The Ion Cyclotron, Lower Hybrid, and Alfven Wave Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    2004-01-01

    This lecture covers the practical features and experimental results of the three heating methods. The emphasis is on ion cyclotron heating. First, we briefly come back to the main non-collisional heating mechanisms and to the particular features of the quasilinear coefficient in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The specific case of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is treated, as well as the polarisation issue and minority heating scheme. The various ICRF scenarios are reviewed. The experimental applications of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems are outlined. Then, the lower hybrid and Alfven wave heating and current drive experimental results are covered more briefly. Where applicable, the prospects for ITER are commented

  11. Nonlinear cyclotron-resonance accelerations by a generalized EM wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Hojo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerations by a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, dispersive pulse in an external magnetic field are investigated. It is found that the well-known cyclotron resonance may be classified into three regimes as the length and/or the amplitude of the pulse are varied. Namely, as the pulse amplitude increases, the transit-time cyclotron-resonance acceleration (CRA) evolves to phase trapping, and reflect particles. The amplitude and wave dispersion as well as the pulse length strongly affect those accelerations. The interesting phenomena of quantization of resonance velocities in between the two regimes are also investigated. This new mechanism may lead to wave amplification at some discrete frequencies other than the cyclotron frequency. (authors)

  12. Calibration of the simulation model of the VINCY cyclotron magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Saša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The MERMAID program will be used to isochronise the nominal magnetic field of the VINCY Cyclotron. This program simulates the response, i. e. calculates the magnetic field, of a previously defined model of a magnet. The accuracy of 3D field calculation depends on the density of the grid points in the simulation model grid. The size of the VINCY Cyclotron and the maximum number of grid points in the XY plane limited by MERMAID define the maximumobtainable accuracy of field calculations. Comparisons of the field simulated with maximum obtainable accuracy with the magnetic field measured in the first phase of the VINCY Cyclotron magnetic field measurements campaign has shown that the difference between these two fields is not as small as required. Further decrease of the difference between these fields is obtained by the simulation model calibration, i. e. by adjusting the current through the main coils in the simulation model.

  13. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  14. Band rejection filter for measurement of electron cyclotron emission during electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Makoto; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Kubo, Shin; Idei, Hiroshi.

    1996-05-01

    For the measurement of electron cyclotron emission from the high temperature plasma, a band rejection filter in the range of 40-60 GHz is designed to reject the 53.2 GHz signal with large amplitude from the gyrotron for the purpose of plasma electron heating. The filter developed with ten sets of three quarters-wavelength coupled by TE 111 mode of tunable resonant cavity has rejection of 50 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz. The modified model of Tschebysheff type for the prediction of rejection is proposed. It is confirmed that the measured rejection as a function of frequency agrees well with the experimental results for small coupling hole, and also clarified that the rejection ratio increases for the large coupling hole. (author)

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: Physics and technology (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are scientific instruments particularly useful for physics: they are extensively used in atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics, for the production of multicharged beams. Moreover, these sources are also of fundamental interest for plasma physics, because of the very particular properties of the ECR plasma. This article describes the state of the art on the physics of the ECR plasma related to multiply charged ion sources. In Sec. I, we describe the general aspects of ECR ion sources. Physics related to the electrons is presented in Sec. II: we discuss there the problems of heating and confinement. In Sec. III, the problem of ion production and confinement is presented. A numerical code is presented, and some particular and important effects, specific to ECR ion sources, are shown in Sec. IV. Eventually, in Sec. V, technological aspects of ECR are presented and different types of sources are shown

  16. Next customers to cyclotron center meanwhile are not entered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bato, R.; Zackova, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the financial aspects of construction of the Cyclotron Centre of the Slovak Republic (CC SR) are analysed. This building represents the problems of exploitation of commodity deblocation of Russian Federation debt to Slovakia. The estimated expenses have risen from original planned 2 billion Slovak crowns to 6 billion Slovak crowns. Devices which should be part of centre - a cyclotron used for radiopharmaceuticals production for oncological purposes and a big cyclotron for industrial purposes, a centre of positron emissive tomography (PET), a laboratory of nano-technologies, a source of heavy ions - they indicates that the oncological institutes, departments of health service, of education, of economy, of defence, of environment, also Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic and Slovak Academy of Sciences should become the customers principally. Around 2.2 billion of Slovak crowns from deblocation have been spent for a construction of Cyclotron Centre of SR yet. The national budget has contributed by 95 million Slovak crowns; 90.5 million USD will be obtained from deblocation of Russian debt yet. IAEA has supported this centre by grant of almost 800 thousand USD. Budget of Cyclotron Centre of SR is still rising also because of rising of VAT from 10 percent to 19 percent. VAT will be paid also for goods imported within the framework of deblocation after integration of Slovak Republic to European Union; besides also 10 percent duty is paid. Project of CC SR has not passed the state expert opinion. Agreement for construction of Cyclotron Centre of SR was issued by State Health Institute of Bratislava, therefore it was confirmed also by the main hygienist of Slovak Republic

  17. Calculations for the design and modification of the 2 cyclotrons of S.A.R.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrand, P.S.; Belmont, J.L.; Ripouteau, F.

    1983-09-01

    S.A.R.A. is a heavy ion accelerator constituted by 2 cyclotrons. The second cyclotron (post-accelerator) was entirely calculated at the I.S.N. The pole tips of the first cyclotron which is much older, have recently been modified. An almost identical procedure was used for the calculation of each element of the post-accelerator of S.A.R.A. and also for the modifications to the first cyclotron

  18. Status and results from the TR30 cyclotron centre region model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeven, W.; Lanz, P.; McDonald, M.; Milton, B.F.; Schmor, P.W.; Schneider, H.R.; Jayamanna, K.; Sura, J.; Uzat, W.; Gyles, W.

    1990-06-01

    A full scale model for the centre region of the compact 30 MeV, 350 μA H - cyclotron (TR30) has been constructed, to test the design of critical components and to study beam properties and space charge effects out to the 5. turn (1 MeV). The ion source and injection line system duplicates that used in the TR30. The centre region can be accessed with diagnostic probes at four different angles. The normalized circulating emittances as estimated from beam profile measurements are 1.7π mm-mrad (radially) and 1.8π mm-mrad (vertically). The radial centering error of the beam is less than 1.5 mm. After initial tests the maximum intensity achieved at the 5. turn is 650 μA. This corresponds with a transmission efficiency of 12.5% for a continuous (non-bunched) input beam. No significant space charge effects are observed up to 650 μA. For the TR30 bunching is not a must because of the high current available from the source. Nevertheless, it was considered useful to study beam bunching for the Centre Region Cyclotron (CRC). Some of these results are described. (Author) 11 refs., 6 figs

  19. Proposal for a heavy ion ECR-source at the PSI-Philips cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.

    1989-10-01

    It is proposed by a large community of PSI- and external scientists to install an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source for highly charged heavy ions at the PHILIPS (injector I) cyclotron. Such a facility would then allow to produce high intensity ion beams with energies up to 30 MeV/u. A workshop hold in June 1989 clearly showed that with such a machine a large variety of interesting heavy ion experiments could be performed. While at foreign heavy ion centres the main focus is given to basic research in the field of nuclear physics we propose to concentrate the scientific effort at a PSI heavy ion facility mainly onto applications in the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, accelerator mass spectrometry, radiation biology and solid state physics. This is adequate, in view of the broad infrastructure available at PSI together with the existing know-how in many different fields. The proposed machine will thus be of great potential use for a large community. (author) 19 figs., 3 tabs., 82 refs

  20. Electron temperature measurements during electron cyclotron heating on PDX using a ten channel grating polychromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Hsuan, H.; Boyd, D.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Kritz, A.; Mikkelsen, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-10-01

    During first harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECH) on the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX) (R 0 = 137 cm, a = 40 cm), electron temperature was monitored using a grating polychromator which measured second harmonic electron cyclotron emission from the low field side of the tokamak. Interference from the high power heating pulse on the broadband detectors in the grating instrument was eliminated by using a waveguide filter in the transmission line which brought the emission signal to the grating instrument. Off-axis (approx. 4 cm) location of the resonance zone resulted in heating without sawtooth or m = 1 activity. However, heating with the resonance zone at the plasma center caused very large amplitude sawteeth accompanied by strong m = 1 activity: ΔT/T/sub MAX/ approx. = 0.41, sawtooth period approx. = 4 msec, m = 1 period approx. = 90 μ sec, (11 kHz). This is the first time such intense MHD activity driven by ECH has been observed. (For both cases there was no sawtooth activity in the ohmic phase of the discharge before ECH.) At very low densities there is a clear indication that a superthermal electron population is created during ECH