WorldWideScience

Sample records for intense electromagnetic field

  1. Particle Physics in Intense Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kurilin, A V

    1999-01-01

    The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic fields is reviewed. We give a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. We also discuss the possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by the strong electromagnetic environment.

  2. Electromagnetic cascades and the depletion of intense fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Seipt, Daniel; Heinzl, Thomas; Marklund, Mattias; Ji, Qing; Steinke, Sven; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim P.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of electrons, positrons, and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multi-photon Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution. Moreover the multi-photon nature of Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to a significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. The relevance of these results to the proposed BELLA-i beamline at BELLA center at LBNL is discussed. We acknowledge support from the Office of Science of the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  3. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Alexander I; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g.\\ laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields

  4. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an asymmetric double quantum well under non-resonant, intense laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency in an asymmetric double quantum well subjected to a non-resonant, intense laser field is theoretically investigated. We found that the energy levels configuration could be switched between a Λ-type and a ladder-type scheme by varying the non-resonant radiation intensity. This effect is due to the laser-induced electron tunneling between the wells and it allows a substantial flexibility in the manipulation of the optical properties. The dependence of the susceptibilities on the control field Rabi frequency, intensity of the nonresonant laser, and the control field detuning for both configurations are discussed and compared.

  6. Influence of electromagnetic field intensity on the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization in circulating water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Liang, Yandong; Chen, Si

    2016-09-01

    In this study, changes in the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization was determined through conductivity titration by altering electromagnetic field parameters applied to the circulating water system. The critical conductivity value and metastable zone curves of CaCO3 crystallization were determined under different solution concentrations and electromagnetic field intensities. Experimental results indicate that the effect of the electromagnetic field intensity on the critical conductivity value intensifies with the increase of solution concentration. Moreover, the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization increases with the increase of electromagnetic field intensity within 200 Gs, thereby prolonging the induction period of nucleation.

  7. High intensity electromagnetic field gerenation using a transportable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A reverberation chamber can create very high field strength with moderate input power. Existing chambers are making use of a paddle wheel to change the resonant modes in the chamber. A transportable reverberation chamber with vibrating walls will be presented. Inside this Vibrating Intrinsic Reverbe

  8. Electromagnetic Confined Plasma Target for Interaction Studies with Intense Laser Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielbauer, B; Ursescu, U; Trotsenko, S; Spillmann, U; Schuch, R; Stohlker, T; Kuhl, T; Borneis, S; Schenkel, T; McDonald, J; Schneider, D

    2006-08-09

    The paper describes a novel application of an electron beam ion trap as a plasma target facility for intense laser-plasma interaction studies. The low density plasma target ({approx}10{sup 13}/cm{sup 3}) is confined in a mobile cryogenic electromagnetic charged particle trap, with the magnetic confinement field of 1-3T maintained by a superconducting magnet. Ion plasmas for a large variety of ion species and charge states are produced and maintained within the magnetic field and the space charge of an energetic electron beam in the ''Electron Beam Ion Trap'' (EBIT) geometry. Intense laser beams (optical lasers, x-ray lasers and upcoming ''X-Ray Free Electron Lasers'' (XFEL)) provide strong time varying electromagnetic fields (>10{sup 12} V/cm in femto- to nano-sec pulses) for interactions with electromagnetically confined neutral/non-neutral plasmas. The experiments are aimed to gain understanding of the effects of intense photon fields on ionization/excitation processes, the ionization balance, as well as photon polarization effects. First experimental scenarios and tests with an intense laser that utilize the ion plasma target are outlined.

  9. Resonant Acceleration of Electrons in Combined Self-Consistent Quasistatic Electromagnetic Fields and Intense Laser Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fen-Ce; HE Xian-Tu; SHENG Zheng-Mao; QIAO Bin; ZHANG Hong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Using the single electron model, the acceleration of electrons in combined circularly polarized intense laser fields and the spontaneous quasistatic fields (including axial and azimuthal magnetic fields, the axial and transverse electric fields) produced in intense laser plasma interaction is investigated analytically and numerically by fitting the proper parameters of the quasistatic fields based on the data from the experiment and numerical calculation.A new resonant condition is given. It is found that the resonance acceleration of electron depends not only on laser field, but also on the bounce frequency oscillating in the quasistatic magnetic field and electric field. The net energy gained by electron does not increase monotonously with axial electric field, but there are some optimal axial electric fields.

  10. Influence of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on endothelial function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokeria O.L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the influence of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on endogenous bioresonance therapy on the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine in blood, as well as on the parameters of microcirculation in the assessment of endothelial function in patients with chronic heart failure. Material and Methods. The basic group included 40 patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA II: 17 female and 23 male patients. The average age of the patients was 56,4±10 years. The control group consisted of healthy volunteers (20 patients, including 10 women, 10 men aged 31 ±5 years. Assessment of vasomotor state of the endothelium microcirculation was carried out with the help of laser Dopplerflow-metry on the apparatus LAKK-TEST (T («Lazma», Russia. After the procedure endogenous bioresonance therapy was held. The intervention by low-intensity electromagnetic fields was carried out with the help of a hardware-software complex IMEDIS-EXPERT mode of endogenous bioresonance therapy for 15 minutes. Vasomotor endothelial function of microcirculation was evaluated. The concentration of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, asymmetric dimethylar-ginine in blood before and after the exposure to the intervention by low-intensity electromagnetic fields was studied. Results. After the endogenous bioresonance therapy the microcirculation M parameter in the main group, on the background of iontophoresis with acetylcholine counted in average6,13±4,7 PF units. After iontophoresis with nitroprusside it was 5,9±3,8 PF units. In the control group the rate of myogenic oscillation amplitude (Am amounted in average 0,75±0,13 Hz, in the main group it was 0,68±0,26 Hz. Reduction of myogenic tone in the control group was statistically significant (p<0,05. Conclusions. The results obtained have proved the positive influence of electromagnetic fields on endothelial function. The normalization of endothelium-dependentvasodilation marked the possibility of their

  11. Origin of intense magnetic fields near black holes due to non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rafael S. de, E-mail: Rafael@astro.iag.usp.br [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Opher, Reuven, E-mail: Opher@astro.iag.usp.br [IAG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-17

    The origin of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects is a challenging problem in astrophysics. Throughout the years, many scientists have suggested that non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling (NMGEC) could be the origin of the ubiquitous astrophysical magnetic fields. We investigate the possible origin of intense magnetic fields by NMGEC near rotating black holes, connected with quasars and gamma-ray bursts. Whereas these intense magnetic fields are difficult to explain astrophysically, we find that they are easily explained by NMGEC.

  12. In vitro magnetic stimulation: a simple stimulation device to deliver defined low intensity electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Grehl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive electromagnetic field brain stimulation (NIBS appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined.Here we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS delivered at 3 frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modelling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency (BHFS, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganisation. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-minute stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially

  13. In vitro Magnetic Stimulation: A Simple Stimulation Device to Deliver Defined Low Intensity Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehl, Stephanie; Martina, David; Goyenvalle, Catherine; Deng, Zhi-De; Rodger, Jennifer; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by electromagnetic fields appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although, in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits) so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined. Here, we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) delivered at three frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modeling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganization. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-min stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially modified

  14. Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer or other health problems. The phones do give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. So far, scientific evidence has not found a ...

  15. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; Kooten, van Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  16. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...

  17. [Bioeffects of chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of low intensity (standardization strategy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Shafirkin, A V; Vasin, A L

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the experimental researches on the effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health, carried out in the USSR, is presented. The results of chronic exposure of laboratory animals to EMF have been considered. Apparently, EMF in the range of 1750-2750 MHz with power density up to 100-500 W/cm2 caused in immune globullin fractions, and a development of autoimmune processes. The changes in parameters of reproductive functions and posterity, the increase in embryo mortality were found. The standartization strategy used in the USSR and currently applied in Russia has been discussed.

  18. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, J E; Scott, I R; Wood, S J; Nettell, J J; Bevir, M K; Wang, Z; Somasiri, N P; Chen, X

    2001-06-15

    Slices of rat hippocampus were exposed to 700 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency (RF) fields (25.2-71.0 V m(-1), 5-15 min exposure) in a stripline waveguide. At low field intensities, the predominant effect on the electrically evoked field potential in CA1 was a potentiation of the amplitude of the population spike by up to 20%, but higher intensity fields could produce either increases or decreases of up to 120 and 80%, respectively, in the amplitude of the population spike. To eliminate the possibility of RF-induced artefacts due to the metal stimulating electrode, the effect of RF exposure on spontaneous epileptiform activity induced in CA3 by 4-aminopyridine (50-100 microM) was investigated. Exposure to RF fields (50.0 V m(-1)) reduced or abolished epileptiform bursting in 36% of slices tested. The maximum field intensity used in these experiments, 71.0 V m(-1), was calculated to produce a specific absorption rate (SAR) of between 0.0016 and 0.0044 W kg(-1) in the slices. Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields.

  19. Theory of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the theory of electromagnetic fields, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to radiofrequency systems in particle accelerators. We begin by reviewing Maxwell's equations and their physical significance. We show that in free space, there are solutions to Maxwell's equations representing the propagation of electromagnetic fields as waves. We introduce electromagnetic potentials, and show how they can be used to simplify the calculation of the fields in the presence of sources. We derive Poynting's theorem, which leads to expressions for the energy density and energy flux in an electromagnetic field. We discuss the properties of electromagnetic waves in cavities, waveguides and transmission lines.

  20. The effect of external magnetic field on the density distributions and electromagnetic fields in the interaction of high-intensity short laser pulse with collisionless underdense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi-Darian, Masoomeh; Ettehadi-Abari, Mehdi; Sedaghat, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Laser absorption in the interaction between ultra-intense femtosecond laser and solid density plasma is studied theoretically here in the intensity range I{λ^2} ˜eq 10^{14}{-}10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}} \\upmu{{{m}}2} . The collisionless effect is found to be significant when the incident laser intensity is less than 10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}}\\upmu{{{m}}2} . In the current work, the propagation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, for underdense collisionless plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. When a constant magnetic field parallel to the laser pulse propagation direction is applied, the electrons rotate along the magnetic field lines and generate the electromagnetic part in the wake with a nonzero group velocity. Here, by considering the ponderomotive force in attendance of the external magnetic field and assuming the isothermal collisionless plasma, the nonlinear permittivity of the plasma medium is obtained and the equation of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma is solved. Here, by considering the effect of the ponderomotive force in isothermal collisionless magnetized plasma, it is shown that by increasing the laser pulse intensity, the electrons density profile leads to steepening and the electron bunches of plasma become narrower. Moreover, it is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic field oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also grows in comparison to the unmagnetized collisionless plasma.

  1. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field as prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Heterotopic ossification (HO is an important complication of head and spinal cord injuries (SCI. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field (PLIMF therapy increases blood flow to an area of pain or inflammation, bringing more oxygen to that area and helps to remove toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PLIMF as prophylaxis of HO in patients with SCI. Methods. This prospective random control clinical study included 29 patients with traumatic SCI. The patients were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control group (n = 15. The patients in the experimental group, besides exercise and range of motion therapy, were treated by PLIMF of the following characteristics: induction of 10 mT, frequency of 25 Hz and duration of 30 min. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy started in the 7th week after the injury and lasted 4 weeks. The presence or absence of HO around the patients hips we checked by a plane radiography and Brookers classification. Functional capabilities and motor impairment were checked by Functional Independent Measure (FIM, Barthel index and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA impairment class. Statistic analysis included Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann Whitney Exact test, Exact Wilcoxon signed rank test and Fischer Exact test. Statistical significance was set up to p < 0.05. Results. At the end of the treatment no patient from the experimental group had HO. In the control group, five patients (33.3% had HO. At the end of the treatment the majority of the patients from the experimental group (57.14% moved from ASIA-A to ASIA-B class. Conclusion. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy could help as prophylaxis of HO in patients with traumatic SCI.

  2. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  3. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, James C

    2016-01-01

    As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosi...

  4. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  5. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  6. Depletion of intense fields

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D; Marklund, M; Bulanov, S S

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of charged particles and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multi-photon Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. These are usually described in the framework of the external field approximation, where the electromagnetic field is assumed to have infinite energy. However, the multi-photon nature of these processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons, which scales as the external field amplitude cubed. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. We provide relevant estimates for this depletion and find it to become important in the interaction between fields of amplitude $a_0 \\sim 10^3$ and electron bunches with charges of the order of nC.

  7. Depletion of Intense Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Heinzl, T.; Marklund, M.; Bulanov, S. S.

    2017-04-01

    The interaction of charged particles and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multiphoton Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. These are usually described in the framework of the external field approximation, where the electromagnetic field is assumed to have infinite energy. However, the multiphoton nature of these processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons, which scales as the external field amplitude cubed. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. We provide relevant estimates for this depletion and find it to become important in the interaction between fields of amplitude a0˜1 03 and electron bunches with charges of the order of 10 nC.

  8. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rojansky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory covers the major aspects, including scalar fields, vectors, laws of Ohm, Joule, Coulomb, Faraday, Maxwell's equation, and more. With numerous diagrams and illustrations.

  9. SIMLA: Simulating particle dynamics in intense laser and other electromagnetic fields via classical and quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. G.; Harvey, C. N.

    2015-07-01

    We present the Fortran program SIMLA, which is designed for the study of charged particle dynamics in laser and other background fields. The dynamics can be determined classically via the Lorentz force and Landau-Lifshitz equations or, alternatively, via the simulation of photon emission events determined by strong-field quantum-electrodynamics amplitudes and implemented using Monte-Carlo routines. Multiple background fields can be included in the simulation and, where applicable, the propagation direction, field type (plane wave, focussed paraxial, constant crossed, or constant magnetic), and time envelope of each can be independently specified.

  10. Kinesonde observations of ionosphere modification by intense electromagnetic fields from Platteville, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Observations by the Kinesonde (a multifrequency, spaced antenna, digitized complex-amplitude radio sounding system) of ionospheric responses to excitation by the high-power transmitter at Platteville, Colo., are described. Increases of echo scintillation rate and intensity at frequencies reflected near and far from the excitation level are shown. Significant onset delays of these responses suggest disturbance propagation velocities of a few kilometers per second. Calculated echolocations show a time-dependent development toward the excitation region, again with a delayed response. Comments are offered regarding the relative utility of ionogram and Kinesonde observations for study of these phenomena.

  11. Electric field effect on the impurity-related electromagnetically induced transparency in a quantum disk under non-resonant, intense laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, E. C.

    2017-04-01

    By considering a three-level ladder-type system under electromagnetically induced transparency, the absorption and dispersion of the probe field in a GaAs disk-like quantum dot under simultaneous action of the electric field and non-resonant, intense laser radiation are investigated. We found that some characteristics such as the width of the transmission window and group velocity can be efficiently manipulated by tuning the control field intensity, non-resonant radiation amplitude and electric field strength. Our results may be relevant for future investigations of the optical process in semiconductor quantum structures and for the technological applications in solid- state optoelectronics.

  12. Electromagnetic fields and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Richard

    1982-01-01

    For more than a century, ""Becker"" and its forerunner, ""Abraham-Becker,"" have served as the bible of electromagnetic theory for countless students. This definitive translation of the physics classic features both volumes of the original text.Volume I, on electromagnetic theory, includes an introduction to vector and tensor calculus, the electrostatic field, electric current and the field, and the theory of relativity. The second volume comprises a self-contained introduction to quantum theory that covers the classical principles of electron theory and quantum mechanics, problems involving

  13. Bioeffects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields: variation with intensity, waveform, and individual or combined electric and magnetic fields. [Effects on mitosis and respiration in Physarium polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, E.M.; Greenebaum, B.; Marron, M.T.

    1979-06-01

    Prolonged exposure of the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum to either continuous wave (75 Hz) or frequency modulated wave (76 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) (0.1 to 2.0 G and 0.035 to 0.7 V/m) lengthens the mitotic cycle and depresses the respiration rate. Once induced, these effects persist indefinately in the presence of EMF without increasing or decreasing in magnitude beyond that due to normal variability of the organism. Similar effects are observed when either individual electric fields (0.7 V/m) or magnetic fields (2.0 G) are applied; however, the magnitude of the response is less than that observed with simultaneous fields. The individual field effects appear to be additive for respiration but not for nuclear division rate. For fields applied simultaneously at levels below 0.14 V/m and 0.4 G the response was independent of field intensity. No threshold was observed for simultaneously applied electric and magnetic fields; however, indirect evidence is presented that suggests either the electric or magnetic field is below threshold at levels of 0.14 V/m and 0.4 G, respectively. Frequency modulation of the fields seems to have no major effect o the response induced in P. polycephalum.

  14. 基于介稳区的电磁抑垢最佳磁场强度探寻%Detecting the best electromagnetic field intensity in experiment of electromagnetic anti-fouling based on metastable zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 李斌; 梁延东; 尹钊; 陈思

    2016-01-01

    电磁抑垢技术以其投资少、无污染等优点备受业内人士瞩目。合理选择电磁参数,是达到电磁抑垢最佳效果的必要条件之一。根据电导率滴定法,设计了动态电磁实验装置,在给定实验条件下进行了实验,并对电导率随时间变化的特征进行了对比分析,得到不同溶液浓度和不同电磁场强度作用下的碳酸钙结晶介稳曲线,从介稳区的角度分析电磁场对碳酸钙结晶成核诱导期的影响,确定了电磁场抑制碳酸钙结晶的最佳磁场强度值为200Gs。%Electromagnetic field anti-fouling technology has received great attention because of its advantages of low investment, zero pollution,etc. Reasonable selection of electromagnetic parameter is one of the necessary conditions for the best result of electromagnetic anti-scaling. This research designed a set of dynamic electromagnetic experiment with electrical conductivity method. The characteristics of varying conductivity with time in the titration process under the given experimental conditions were compared, and the calcium carbonate crystallization metastable curve under different solution concentration and intensity of the electromagnetic field were obtained. Then, the influence of electromagnetic field on the induction period of calcium carbonate precipitation from the perspective of the metastable zone was analyzed. Finally, it was found that the 200 Gs was the best magnetic field intensity values of electromagnetic fields inhibiting calcium carbonate crystallization.

  15. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  16. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  17. Oscillations and waves in intense gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Kolebaniia i volny v sil'nykh gravitatsionnykh i elektromagnitnykh poliakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibgatullin, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    This book is concerned with the study of the behavior of waves and oscillations in the presence of intense gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The propagation of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in pseudo-Riemann spaces of the general theory of relativity is investigated in detail. Particular attention is given to the classical problems of the theory of black holes and the waves in their vicinity. The principles of relativistic hydrodynamics, magnetic hydrodynamics, and the acoustics of a relativistic gas are presented. A detailed analysis is conducted of the self-similar motions of an ultrarelativistic gas in the context of the special and general theories of relativity. An outline is provided of theoretical considerations regarding the equations of state of an ideal gas under conditions of intense compression or at high temperatures, and an investigation is performed concerning the development of nonuniformity in models of a universe with a cosmological magnetic field. 329 references.

  18. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  19. Childhood Leukemia and Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Türkkan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the relationship between very low frequency electromagnetic fields, originating from high voltage powerlines, and childhood leukemia was evaluated. Electromagnetic fields have biological effects. Whole populations are effected by different levels of electromagnetic fields but children are more sensible. In urban areas high voltage powerlines are the main sources of electromagnetic fields. The relation of electromagnetic fields due to high voltage powerlines and leukemia with consideration of dose-response and distance is investigated in several studies. There are different opinions on the effects of electromagnetic fields on general health. The relation between electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia must be considered separately. Although there is no limit value, it is generally accepted that exposure to 0.4 µT and over doubles the risk of leukemia in children 15 years and younger. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 137-41

  20. Consideration of the effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI: simulations for MRgFUS in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuegang Xin, Sherman; Gu, Shiyong; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Collins, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the strong dependence of tissue electrical properties on temperature, it is important to consider the potential effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI, as can occur in MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. In principle, changes of the RF electromagnetic fields could affect both efficacy of RF pulses, and the MRI-induced RF heating (SAR) pattern. In this study, the equilibrium temperature distribution in a whole-body model with 2 mm resolution before and during intense tissue heating up to 60 °C at the target region was calculated. Temperature-dependent electric properties of tissues were assigned to the model to establish a temperature-dependent electromagnetic whole-body model in a 3T MRI system. The results showed maximum changes in conductivity, permittivity, ≤ft|\\mathbf{B}1+\\right|, and SAR of about 25%, 6%, 2%, and 20%, respectively. Though the B1 field and SAR distributions are both temperature-dependent, the potential harm to patients due to higher SARs is expected to be minimal and the effects on the B1 field distribution should have minimal effect on images from basic MRI sequences.

  1. Discrete Classical Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M

    1997-01-01

    The classical electromagnetic field of a spinless point electron is described in a formalism with extended causality by discrete finite transverse point-vector fields with discrete and localized point interactions. These fields are taken as a classical representation of photons, ``classical photons". They are all transversal photons; there are no scalar nor longitudinal photons as these are definitely eliminated by the gauge condition. The angular distribution of emitted photons coincides with the directions of maximum emission in the standard formalism. The Maxwell formalism and its standard field are retrieved by the replacement of these discrete fields by their space-time averages, and in this process scalar and longitudinal photons are necessarily created and added. Divergences and singularities are by-products of this averaging process. This formalism enlighten the meaning and the origin of the non-physical photons, the ones that violate the Lorentz condition in manifestly covariant quantization methods.

  2. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  3. The relation between the specific absorption rate and electromagnetic field intensity for heterogeneous exposure conditions at mobile communications frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Georg; Preiner, Patrick; Cecil, Stefan; Mitrevski, Niki; Gonter, Johannes; Garn, Heinrich

    2009-12-01

    The relation between the incident electromagnetic field strength and both the whole-body and the local specific absorption rate (SAR) was investigated for typical heterogeneous exposure scenarios for frequencies relevant for mobile communication. The results were compared to results from plane wave exposure. Heterogeneous exposure arises from multiple path propagation of the electromagnetic waves to the location of interest. It is shown that plane wave exposure does not represent worst-case exposure conditions. When the electric field strength arising at plane wave exposure is compared to the electric field strength averaged over the volume of the human body occurring during multipath exposure, 12% of all heterogeneous cases examined represent worse exposure conditions than plane wave exposure for whole-body exposure at 946 MHz, 15% at 1840 MHz, and 22% at 2140 MHz. The deviation between plane wave and heterogeneous whole-body SAR ranges from -54% to 54%. For partial-body SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue, a range from -93% to 209% was found when comparing multiple wave exposure to single incoming plane waves. The investigations performed using the Visible Human as phantom showed that the basic restrictions are met as long as the reference levels are not exceeded. However, this must not be necessarily the case when different phantoms are used to perform similar investigations because recent studies demonstrated that reference levels might not be conservative when phantoms of children are used. Therefore, the results of this work indicate the need to extend the investigations to numerical simulations with additional human phantoms representing parts of the human population having different anatomy and morphology compared to the phantom used within the frame of this project. This also applies to phantoms of children.

  4. Electromagnetic field and cosmic censorship

    CERN Document Server

    Düztaş, Koray

    2013-01-01

    We construct a gedanken experiment in which an extremal Kerr black hole interacts with a test electromagnetic field. Using Teukolsky's solutions for electromagnetic perturbations in Kerr spacetime, and the conservation laws imposed by the energy momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field and the Killing vectors of the spacetime, we prove that this interaction cannot convert the black hole into a naked singularity, thus cosmic censorship conjecture is not violated in this case.

  5. On extreme field limits in high power laser matter interactions: radiation dominant regimes in high intensity electromagnetic wave interaction with electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Stepan S; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kato, Yoshiaki; Korn, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the key important regimes of electromagnetic field interaction with charged particles. Main attention is paid to the nonlinear Thomson/Compton scattering regime with the radiation friction and quantum electrodynamics effects taken into account. This process opens a channel of high efficiency electromagnetic energy conversion into hard electromagnetic radiation in the form of ultra short high power gamma ray flashes.

  6. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  7. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P, E-mail: hlai@u.washington.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  8. Amplification of electromagnetic field in the course of the nonrelativistic electron scattering by ion in the presence of the field of the medium-intensity elliptically polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, S. P.

    2009-08-01

    The amplification factor of the electromagnetic field is theoretically studied for the scattering of nonrelativistic electrons by ions in the presence of the field of the elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave. A simple analytical formula for the gain is derived for the medium-intensity range. The formula supplements and extends the domain of applicability of the known Marcuse formula for the linear polarization in the presence of a weak field. It is demonstrated that the maximum gain is reached when the initial electron velocities belong to the polarization plane of the electromagnetic wave. In the range of optical frequencies, the amplification factor of the laser radiation can be significant for relatively high powers of electron beams.

  9. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, M. A.; Di Luzio, Sr.; Di Luzio, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, concerns about hazards from electromagnetic fields represent an alarming source for human lives in technologically developed countries. We are surrounded by electromagnetic fields everywhere we spend our working hours, rest or recreational activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the biological effects due to these fields arising from power and transmission lines, electrical cable splices, electronic devices inside our homes and work-places, distribution networks and associated devices such as cellular telephones and wireless communication tower, etc. Special care has been reserved to study the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on cell lines of the mammalian immune system about which our research group has been working for several years.

  10. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  11. The classical electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Eyges, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.

  12. Electromagnetic field theories for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Salam, Md Abdus

    2014-01-01

    A four year Electrical and Electronic engineering curriculum normally contains two modules of electromagnetic field theories during the first two years. However, some curricula do not have enough slots to accommodate the two modules. This book, Electromagnetic Field Theories, is designed for Electrical and Electronic engineering undergraduate students to provide fundamental knowledge of electromagnetic fields and waves in a structured manner. A comprehensive fundamental knowledge of electric and magnetic fields is required to understand the working principles of generators, motors and transformers. This knowledge is also necessary to analyze transmission lines, substations, insulator flashover mechanism, transient phenomena, etc. Recently, academics and researches are working for sending electrical power to a remote area by designing a suitable antenna. In this case, the knowledge of electromagnetic fields is considered as important tool.

  13. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained.

  14. A primer on electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Frezza, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This book is a concise introduction to electromagnetics and electromagnetic fields that covers the aspects of most significance for engineering applications by means of a rigorous, analytical treatment. After an introduction to equations and basic theorems, topics of fundamental theoretical and applicative importance, including plane waves, transmission lines, waveguides, and Green's functions, are discussed in a deliberately general way. Care has been taken to ensure that the text is readily accessible and self-consistent, with conservation of the intermediate steps in the analytical derivations. The book offers the reader a clear, succinct course in basic electromagnetic theory. It will also be a useful lookup tool for students and designers.

  15. Note on Inverse Bremsstrahlung in a Strong Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-09-01

    The collisional energy loss of an electron undergoing forced oscillation in an electromagnetic field behaves quite differently in the low and high intensity limits. ... It is shown that in the case of an electromagnetic field v {sub o} >> v {sub t} the rate of transfer is much slower, and actually decreases with the strength of the field.

  16. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  17. Gauge Invariant Fractional Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  18. Electromagnetic Fields and Bioenergy Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Koşalay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic energy is defined in the large frequency range and it shows its existence in different manners for every frequency range. When considering history of mankind, discovery of the electricity and presence of electrical and electronics based equipments is not very old. Human beings are exposed to electromagnetic fields and waves which they aren't used to live with those fields for ages. In this connection, lots of studies were done for the thesis of that these fields can produce harmful effects on people. Although results of the studies which were done in this area point out important subjects, sufficient outputs and judgments haven't been appeared yet in general meaning. This study was done to introduce findings which support that electromagnetic energy in some frequency can have beneficial effects on the living being.

  19. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields with Frequencies Lower Than 50 Hz and Intensity of 50 μT on Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Hamzavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological effects of magnetic fields have been investigated by scientists for many years and a vast amount of research using different frequencies and intensities have been performed on humans and laboratory animals. The results of these studies, which have mostly been done by applying high frequencies, have shown that electromagnetic fields are effective on structure and function of biological systems. Material and Methods: Sixty male Sprague Dawly rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of ten each. The first group was sham exposed and the other groups were exposed to fields with frequencies of 5, 10, 15, 25 and 40 Hz and intensity of 50 μT. To investigate the effects on learning, 20 trials were undertaken for each animal using a shuttle box that was sandwiched between the arms of the field generator, which was adjusted to produce the desired frequency and intensity. To evaluate the reversibility of the possible effects of the fields and also to evaluate memory, the 20 trials were repeated 24 hours later under the same condition but in the absence of the field. In this study, we measured the latency and number of conditioning responses. Results: According to our findings, a significant difference was found between latency and number of conditioning responses of the second day of the 25 Hz group and the sham and other experimental groups. For that group, latency increased and number of conditioning responses decreased on the second day compared to the first day, in contrast to all other groups.                                                                                                                               Conclusion: Exposure to the field with frequency of 25 Hz caused disruption of memory, however, there was no significant difference between the groups regarding learning.

  20. Photon Propagation in Slowly Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, F.

    2017-03-01

    Effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields is studied at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counterpropagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. Treating the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters, this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set equal to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  1. Photon propagation in slowly varying electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We study the effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counter-propagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. As we treat the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  2. Traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Ross

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this hypothesis are presented. Other traditional beliefs such as remote sensing of game and the importance of connection to the Earth Mother may also contain a kernel of truth. A series of testable scientific hypotheses concerning traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields is presented. At this stage, the theory does not have sufficient evidence to be accepted as proven; its purpose is to stimulate thought and research

  3. Explanations, Education, and Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Explaining complex scientific and environmental subjects in the mass media is difficult to do, particularly under such constraints as short deadlines and lack of space or time. When a scientific controversy and human health risk are involved, this becomes an even harder task to accomplish. The subject of electromagnetic fields (EMF) involves…

  4. Fast electromagnetic field strength probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Serra, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is impor

  5. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... cell level studies have shown that electromagnetic fields do not have a directly .... The ionic flows, which can be formed in case these molecules are affected from ...... Electr Magn Biol Med 1st Orlando FL. 13. Magnusson M ...

  6. Generation of higher order nonclassical states via interaction of intense electromagnetic field with third order nonlinear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, A

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of intense laser beam with an inversion symmetric third order nonlinear medium is modeled as a quartic anharmonic oscillator. A first order operator solution of the model Hamiltonian is used to study the possibilities of generation of higher order nonclassical states. It is found that the higher order squeezed and higher order antibunched states can be produced by this interaction. It is also shown that the higher order nonclassical states may appear separately, i.e. a higher order antibunched state is not essentially higher order squeezed state and vice versa.

  7. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnetic fields and the risk of brain tumors. Neuro-Oncology 2009; 11(3):242-249. [PubMed Abstract] ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department ...

  8. Large amplitude electromagnetic solitons in intense laser plasma interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bai-Wen; Ishiguro S; Skoric M M

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that the standing, backward- and forward-accelerated large amplitude relativistic electromagnetic solitons induced by intense laser pulse in long underdense collisionless homogeneous plasmas can be observed by particle simulations. In addition to the inhomogeneity of the plasma density, the acceleration of the solitons also depends upon not only the laser amplitude but also the plasma length. The electromagnetic frequency of the solitons is between about half and one of the unperturbed electron plasma frequency. The electrostatic field inside the soliton has a one-cycle structure in space, while the transverse electric and magnetic fields have half-cycle and one-cycle structure respectively.Analytical estimates for the existence of the solitons and their electromagnetic frequencies qualitatively coincide with our simulation results.

  9. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones Fact sheet N° ... an estimated 6.9 billion subscriptions globally. The electromagnetic fields produced by mobile phones are classified by the ...

  10. A System for Electromagnetic Field Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...

  11. Gallilei covariant quantum mechanics in electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Wilhelm

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A formulation of the quantum mechanics of charged particles in time-dependent electromagnetic fields is presented, in which both the Schroedinger equation and wave equations for the electromagnetic potentials are Galilei covariant, it is shown that the Galilean relativity principle leads to the introduction of the electromagnetic substratum in which the matter and electromagnetic waves propagate. The electromagnetic substratum effects are quantitatively significant for quantum mechanics in reference frames, in which the substratum velocity w is in magnitude comparable with the velocity of light c. The electromagnetic substratum velocity w occurs explicitly in the wave equations for the electromagnetic potentials but not in the Schroedinger equation.

  12. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z. A. A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  13. Electromagnetic field analysis of inductor-robot-work-piece system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Smalcerz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the influence of the industrial robot located nearby an induction heater on the electromagnetic field distribution. The experiment consisted of numerical analysis and measurement verification. The analysis of the electromagnetic field distribution was conducted for low frequency (50 Hz heater. Two variants which differed in the presence (or absence of the robot were considered. As a result, the distributions of the electromagnetic field around the heater were obtained. The evaluation of the influence of the industrial robot location on the magnetic field intensity was presented and discussed.

  14. Electromagnetic field anomalies above an isometric depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubtsova, N. S.

    1981-12-01

    The paper examines the three-dimensional simulation of the electromagnetic field above an isometric depression with conducting deposits. The model makes it possible to study the development of electromagnetic anomalies over such a depression and to make qualitative as well as quantitative assessments of the dependence of electromagnetic anomalies on field frequency, the dimensions of geoelectric inhomogeneities, and the specific resistance of the foundation of the depression. The present approach can be used in geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies of electromagnetic anomalies.

  15. Electromagnetic fields, environment and health

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A good number of false ideas are circulating on the effects of non-ionizing radiations on our health, which can lead to an oversimplification of the issue, to potentially dangerous misconceptions or to misleading data analysis. Health effects may be exaggerated, or on the contrary underplayed. The authors of this work (doctors, engineers and researchers) have endeavored to supply validated and easily understandable scientific information on the electromagnetic fields and their biological and health effects. After a general review of the physics of the waves and a presentation of non-ionizing r

  16. Sensing Random Electromagnetic Fields and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0172 SENSING RANDOM ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND APPLICATIONS Aristide Dogariu UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/23... Electromagnetic Fields and Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...14. ABSTRACT Random electromagnetic fields (REF) exist in all forms and one common origin is a result of the interaction of coherent fields with

  17. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  18. Communication between osteoblasts stimulated by electromagnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JianBao; ZHANG XiaoJun

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field can affect the proliferation of osteoblasts, but the mechanism is obscure yet. The communication between osteoblasts, isolated from calvaria bone of newborn SD rats and stimulated with the rectangular electromagnetic field of 15 Hz and 4 mT, was studied. Our results showed that the osteoblasts radiated a kind of light after they were stimulated with the electromagnetic field and it is the light that promotes the proliferation of un-stimulated osteoblasts.

  19. [Electromagnetic field intolerance: a nonexistent disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safářová, Sárka

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields is a relatively new phenomenon, which is not fully understood. Extensive research has been carried out to exclude or confirm out that symptoms reported by sufferers are caused by electromagnetic field. This article describes outcomes of recent experiments and meta-analyses. The article may answer to the question if electromagnetic field does really cause reported symptoms, furthermore, it provides hypothetical explanation of this phenomenon.

  20. Electromagnetic fields in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.

  1. Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.

  2. Design method of electromagnetic field applied to Al-alloy electromagnetic casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; DANG Jing-zhi; PENG You-gen; CHENG Jun

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic pump imposes the electromagnetic motive force (Lorentz force) on the liquid metal directly and makes it move along the definite direction by using the function of electric current and magnetic field in the conducting fluid.Compared with the traditional die casting, the system of counter-gravity casting can effectively control the speed of fillingto make Al-alloy liquid fill steadily by adjusting controlled-current. So the foundry defects can be decreased or avoided effectively by this system. Based on the theory of electromagnetic pump, the design method of electromagnetic field in electromagnetic pump was investigated emphatically. The rule of magnetic induction intensity B influenced by the divided electromagnet airgap's size was founded. Furthermore, the empirical formula of magnetic induction intensity B in a magnetic airgap for an open magnet in the saturated state was deduced by mathematics regression analysis. Counter-gravity casting applied to the Al-alloy electromagnetic filling was developed with this method. Besides, the electromagnetism filling counter-gravity casting process of the turbo-charge blade wheel was also fixed. The eligibility rate of blade wheel produced by such technique can be increased to 98%. The casts have compact structure and excellent capability.

  3. Electromagnetic field and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Suleyman; Deniz, Omur Gulsum; Önger, Mehmet Emin; Türkmen, Aysın Pınar; Yurt, Kıymet Kübra; Aydın, Işınsu; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Davis, Devra

    2016-09-01

    Rapid advances in technology involve increased exposures to radio-frequency/microwave radiation from mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices. As cell phones are held close to the head during talking and often stored next to the reproductive organs, studies are mostly focused on the brain. In fact, more research is especially needed to investigate electromagnetic field (EMF)'s effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system.

  4. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, George L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) disturb cell homeostasis at very low intensities by influencing discrete intracellular magnetic fields. The article reviews current research about the health effects of EMF, examining historical implications, childhood studies, adult studies, and popular press reports, and…

  5. Alterations in Adenylate Kinase Activity in Human PBMCs after In Vitro Exposure to Electromagnetic Field: Comparison between Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF) and Therapeutic Application of a Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Field (TAMMEF)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta Albanese; Emilio Battisti; Daniela Vannoni; Emilia Aceto; Gianmichele Galassi; Stefania Giglioni; Valentina Tommassini; Nicola Giordano

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic fields on enzymes involved in purine metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cells were obtained from 20 volunteers. We tested both low-energy, extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic fields and the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields (TAMMEFs); the latter is characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and wave shapes. Adenylate kinase activity was increas...

  6. Effects of electromagnetic field intensity on as-cast microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-bo; ZHAO Zhi-hao; WANG Qi-wei; GUI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr ingots with diameter of 200 mm were made by low frequency electromagnetic casting (LFEC) and conventional direct chill (DC) casting process. The results show that under the low fiequency electromagnetic field (25 Hz, 32 mT)the microstructures of LFEC ingot from the border to the center on the cross section are all equiaxed grains, and the grains are much finer and more uniform than that of DC ingot. The magnetic flux density plays an important role in the microstructure formation of LFEC ingots. With increasing the magnetic flux density from 0 mT to 32 mT, grains become finer (from about 120 μm to 30 μm) and more uniform. While, with increasing the magnetic flux density from 32 mT to 46 mT, the grains change much slowly. In the range of experimental parameters, the optimum magnetic flux density for LFEC process is found to be 32 mT.

  7. Reducing the in-vitro electromagnetic field effect of cellular phones on human DNA and the intensity of their emitted radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syldona, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated detrimental effects of cellular phone radiation on in-vitro biological systems. This article introduces a novel in-vitro method for demonstrating conformational changes in human DNA induced by a 5 minute exposure to cellular phone radiation emitted by an actual contemporary cellular phone. Dynamic changes in DNA conformation was determined in real-time by measuring the rate of DNA rewinding (in a spectrophotometer) following exposure to heat which causes the unwinding of the two strands of the helix. Cellular phone radiation produced a 40% increase in the rate of DNA rewinding. This effect was 95% attenuated when the experiment was repeated with the same cellular phone to which was attached a commercially available shielding disk shaped sheet containing a paramagnetic mineral. In a separate series of experiments the intensity of the cellular phone radiation was measured using an electromagnetic frequency spectrum analyzer. The intensity was reduced by approximately 50% in the presence of the shielding disk. Taken together these studies indicate the efficacy of a shielding disk to protect the body from cellular phone radiation.

  8. Solidification of Al alloys under electromagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建忠

    2003-01-01

    New theories and technology in the electromagnetic field were put forward about DC casting of Al alloys, including the fundamental research works, I.e, effects of the electromagnetic field on solidus and liquidus, macrosegregation of the main alloying elements, microstructures, content of alloying elements in grains and grain size after solidification under electromagnetic field, and also including a new process-DC casting under low frequency electromagnetic field(LFEMC), which can refine microstructure, eliminate macrosegregation, increase the content of alloying elements within grains, decrease the residual stress, avoid cracks and improve surface quality, and another new process-DC casting under low frequency electromagnetic vibration(LFEVC), which is a high effective method for grain refining.

  9. Composite Vector Particles in External Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can be additionally obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasi-static response of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within t...

  10. Interactions between electromagnetic fields and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between Electromagnetic Fields and Matter deals with the principles and methods that can amplify electromagnetic fields from very low levels of signals. This book discusses how electromagnetic fields can be produced, amplified, modulated, or rectified from very low levels to enable these for application in communication systems. This text also describes the properties of matter and some phenomenological considerations to the reactions of matter when an action of external fields results in a polarization of the particle system and changes the bonding forces existing in the matter.

  11. [Health effects of electromagnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Use of electricity causes extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and wireless communication devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Average ELF-MF exposure is mainly determined by high voltage power lines and transformers at home or at the workplace, whereas RF-EMF exposure is mainly caused by devices operating close to the body (mainly mobile and cordless phones). Health effects of EMF are controversially discussed. The IARC classified ELF-MF and RF-EMF as possible carcinogenic. Most consistent epidemiological evidence was found for an association between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. If causal, 1 - 4 percent of all childhood leukaemia cases could be attributed to ELF-MF. Epidemiological research provided some indications for an association between ELF-MF and Alzheimer's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although not entirely consistent. Regarding mobile phones and brain tumours, some studies observed an increased risk after heavy or long term use on the one hand. On the other hand, brain tumour incidence was not found to have increased in the last decade in Sweden, England or the US. Acute effects of RF-EMF on non-specific symptoms of ill health seem unlikely according to randomized and double blind provocation studies. However, epidemiological research on long term effects is still limited. Although from the current state of the scientific knowledge a large individual health risk from RF-EMF exposure is unlikely, even a small risk would have substantial public health relevance because of the widespread use of wireless communication technologies.

  12. Gravitational redshift from rotating body having intense magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dubey, Anuj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    It is well known fact that gravitational field can alter the space-time structure and gravitational redshift is its one example. Electromagnetic field can also alter the space-time similar to gravitational field. So electromagnetic field can give rise to an additional effect on gravitational redshift. There are many objects in nature, like neutron stars, magnetars etc which have high amount of rotation and magnetic field. In the present paper we will derive the expression of gravitational redshift from rotating body having intense magnetic field by using the action function of the electromagnetic fields.

  13. Application of nano material for shielding power-frequency electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hualiang; Li, Li; Liu, Jiawen

    2015-07-01

    Only limited data are available on shielding electromagnetic field exposure in professional work. In our paper, we studied the electromagnetic field intensity in 500 kV substations, and explored influence of nanomaterial in high voltage laboratory simulation. Moreover, the results of nano-fabrics material for shielding power frequency electromagnetic field indicated that, both shielding fabrics can almost completely shield the electric field, but have weak shielding effectiveness against magnetic field.

  14. Electromagnetic measurements in the near field

    CERN Document Server

    Bienkowski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to the specific problems of electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements in the near field and to the analysis of the main factors which impede accuracy in these measurements. It focuses on careful and accurate design of systems to measure in the near field based on a thorough understanding of the fundamental engineering principles and on an analysis of the likely system errors. Beginning with a short introduction to electromagnetic fields with an emphasis on the near field, it them presents methods of EMF measurements in near field conditions. It details the factors limiting

  15. Electromagnetic Field Theory A Collection of Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mrozynski, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the theory of electromagnetic fields and the definition of the field quantities the book teaches the analytical solution methods of Maxwell’s equations by means of several characteristic examples. The focus is on static and stationary electric and magnetic fields, quasi stationary fields, and electromagnetic waves. For a deeper understanding, the many depicted field patterns are very helpful. The book offers a collection of problems and solutions which enable the reader to understand and to apply Maxwell’s theory for a broad class of problems including classical static problems right up to waveguide eigenvalue problems. Content Maxwell’s Equations - Electrostatic Fields - Stationary Current Distributions – Magnetic Field of Stationary Currents – Quasi Stationary Fields: Eddy Currents - Electromagnetic Waves Target Groups Advanced Graduate Students in Electrical Engineering, Physics, and related Courses Engineers and Physicists Authors Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerd Mrozynski...

  16. Electromagnetic field computation by network methods

    CERN Document Server

    Felsen, Leopold B; Russer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This monograph proposes a systematic and rigorous treatment of electromagnetic field representations in complex structures. The book presents new strong models by combining important computational methods. This is the last book of the late Leopold Felsen.

  17. Nonadiabatic Effects of Atomic Coherence on Laser Intensity Fluctuations in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qing; HU Xiang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In an electromagnetically induced transparency system,the atoms have long-lived coherence compared to the cavity lifetime and interact nonadiabatically with the laser fields.We show that the high frequency fluctuations of both the intensities and the intensity difference can be squeezed below the shot noise limit due to the nonadiabatic effects.This noise squeezing can be used to enhance the precision in the short time measurements based on the intensities or the intensity difference.

  18. Pure quadratic or higher-order optical effects in anisotropic crystals induced by external dc fields and probed by a single low-intensity plane electromagnetic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnichuk, Mike; Wood, Lowell T.

    2017-07-01

    The determination of a clear theoretical demarcation between a true or a false quadratic or higher-order low-intensity optical effect induced by an externally applied static or quasistatic (dc) vector field in anisotropic crystals is the scope of the present work. A complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions required for the practical possibility of direct detection, measurement, and tabulation of only those pure optical contributions is finally obtained. The dc electro-optic effect stands out as the most representative of all of these low-power dc optical effects. However, although the dc Kerr effect remains the main topic of application of the analytical treatment developed in this work, the current theoretical formalism is extended to include other dc conventional crystal optics effects, such as electrogyration, electroabsorption, and externally induced ray or energy propagation. Even more, the theoretical conditions are further generalized to apply to any pure higher-order crystal optics effect induced by external dc fields. These can be electric, magnetic, force, and even temperature or concentration gradient fields. The current treatment does not extend to multiple-beam high-intensity nonlinear optics effects induced by optical (ac) fields. Compared to previously published expressions, a more general Fresnel equation is also provided here together with the most general Jones vectors describing the eigenpolarizations of the single probing beam of light. All the generalizations and extensions mentioned in this article are valid as long as the field-dependent coefficients of the particular optical effect under consideration satisfy the equation of a positive-definite complex Hermitian form.

  19. Ultrarelativistic electron states in a general background electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining analytical results in the realm of QED in the presence of a background electromagnetic field is almost exclusively limited to a few tractable cases, where the Dirac equation can be solved exactly in the corresponding background field. This circumstance has restricted, in particular, the theoretical analysis of QED processes in intense laser fields to within the plane-wave approximation even at those high intensities, achievable experimentally only by tightly focusing the laser energy in space. Here, we construct analytically quasiclassical one-particle electron states in the presence of a background electromagnetic field of general space-time structure in the realistic assumption that the initial energy of the electron is the largest scale in the problem. The relatively compact expression of these states opens, in particular, the possibility of investigating analytically strong-field QED processes in the presence of spatially focused laser beams, which is of particular relevance i...

  20. Nonlinear properties of gated graphene in a strong electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisyan, A. A., E-mail: artakav@ysu.am; Djotyan, A. P., E-mail: adjotyan@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics (Armenia); Moulopoulos, K., E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.cy [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics (Cyprus)

    2017-03-15

    We develop a microscopic theory of a strong electromagnetic field interaction with gated bilayer graphene. Quantum kinetic equations for density matrix are obtained using a tight binding approach within second quantized Hamiltonian in an intense laser field. We show that adiabatically changing the gate potentials with time may produce (at resonant photon energy) a full inversion of the electron population with high density between valence and conduction bands. In the linear regime, excitonic absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a graphene monolayer with opened energy gap is also studied.

  1. Fluid/Gravity Correspondence with Scalar Field and Electromagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Chia-Jui; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Pei-Hung

    2016-01-01

    We consider fluid/gravity correspondence in a general rotating black hole background with scalar and electromagnetic fields. Using the method of Petrov-like boundary condition, we show that the scalar and the electromagnetic fields contribute external forces to the dual Navier-Stokes equation and the rotation of black hole induces the Coriolis force.

  2. Calculating Electromagnetic Fields Of A Loop Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffer, Mitchell B.

    1987-01-01

    Approximate field values computed rapidly. MODEL computer program developed to calculate electromagnetic field values of large loop antenna at all distances to observation point. Antenna assumed to be in x-y plane with center at origin of coordinate system. Calculates field values in both rectangular and spherical components. Also solves for wave impedance. Written in MicroSoft FORTRAN 77.

  3. Program For Displaying Computed Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1995-01-01

    EM-ANIMATE computer program specialized visualization displays and animates output data on near fields and surface currents computed by electromagnetic-field program - in particular MOM3D (LAR-15074). Program based on windows and contains user-friendly, graphical interface for setting viewing options, selecting cases, manipulating files, and like. Written in FORTRAN 77. EM-ANIMATE also available as part of package, COS-10048, includes MOM3D, IRIS program computing near-field and surface-current solutions of electromagnetic-field equations.

  4. [Fluorescence used to investigate the sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Gang; Yang, Yun-Jing; Lu, Hong

    2009-07-01

    A system for studying biological effect of radio frequency electromagnetic field was developed. The system can form an area where electromagnetic wave with large frequency range is well distributed. The strength of electromagnetic wave was measured easily. Electromagnetic wave in the system did not have effect on environment. The sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of 300 MHz under power density of 5 mW x cm(-2) was studied by the spectral analysis method of fluorescence of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) and the changes in chlorophyll a (Chla) fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane. The result showed that the position of spectrum of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane did not change, but the intensity of ANS fluorescence was obviously increased under the action of electromagnetic radiation with power density of 1-5 mW x cm(-2). There was an increase in the intensity of ANS fluorescence with the increase in electromagnetic radiation. The increase of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane showed that low level electromagnetic field induced the decrease in fluidity of chloroplast membrane compared with control experiment. The cause of the change in the fluidity could be related to the polarization of chloroplast membrane under the electromagnetic field. The analysis of Chla fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane indicated that low level electromagnetic field of 300 MHz made the fluorescence parameters F0 and F(VI/)F(V) decrease, and F(V)/Fo, Fv/F(m) and deltaF(V)/T increase. It was showed that low level electromagnetic field caused the change of non-active center of photosystem II of spinach chloroplast membrane to active center and the increase in potential active and photochemical efficiency of PSII, and promoted the transmit process of electron in photosynthesis of chloroplast membrane of photosynthesis cell in spinach leaf. The study confirmed

  5. Electromagnetic currents induced by color fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tanji, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The quark production in classical color fields is investigated with a focus on the induction of an electromagnetic current by produced quarks. We show that the SU(2) and the SU(3) theories lead significantly different results for the electromagnetic current. In uniform SU(2) color fields, the net electromagnetic current is not generated, while for SU(3) the net current is induced depending on the color direction of background fields. Also the numerical study of the quark production in inhomogeneous color fields is done. Motivated by gauge field configurations provided by the color glass condensate framework, we introduce an ensemble of randomly distributed color electric fluxtubes. The spectrum of photons emitted from the quarks by a classical process is shown.

  6. The electromagnetic field in accelerated frames

    CERN Document Server

    Maluf, J W

    2011-01-01

    We develop a geometrical framework that allows to obtain the electromagnetic field quantities in accelerated frames. The frame of arbitrary accelerated observers in space-time is defined by a suitable set of tetrad fields, whose timelike components are adapted to the worldlines of a field of observers. We consider the Faraday tensor and Maxwell's equations as abstract tensor quantities in space-time, and make use of tetrad fields to project the electromagnetic field quantities in the accelerated frames. As an application, plane and spherical electromagnetic waves are projected in linearly accelerated frames in Minkowski space-time. We show that the amplitude, frequency and the wave vector of the plane wave in the accelerated frame vary with time, while the light speed remains constant. We also obtain the variation of the Poynting vector with time in the accelerated frame.

  7. Reasearch and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields of Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of refrigerators causes the occurence of electromagnetic fields that are invisible and intangible, which therefore makes difficulties in protecting ourselves from them. A refrigerator is an irreplaceable item in domestic household and thus can be hardly ignored by a modern way of human life. In order to preserve the characteristics of products, the refrigerator must operate continuously (24 hrs a day, regardless of the time of the year. This results in a huge increase in electricity consumption, which leads to energy consumption related pollution of the environment emitting CO2 gas. On these grounds, it is necessary to assess electromagnetic fields created by the refrigerator. Studies on electromagnetic fields produced by refrigerators were conducted in domestic premises where people spent a significant part of the day. For comparison purposes, five different power refrigerators were chosen (1 – 0.20 kW; 2 – 0.25 kW; 3 – 0.30 kW; 4 – 0.35 kW; 5 – 0.40 kW. The obtained results, according to the parameters of their electromagnetic fields, were presented in graphs and charts and showed that the values of electric and magnetic intensity of refrigerators depended on the distance and the power of the refrigerator. The conducted research also disclosed that none of tested refrigerators exceeded the permissible limits of electromagnetic fields.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Electromagnetic homeostasis and the role of low-amplitude electromagnetic fields on life organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ninno, Antonella; Pregnolato, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The appearance of endogenous electromagnetic fields in biological systems is a widely debated issue in modern science. The electrophysiological fields have very tiny intensities and it can be inferred that they are rapidly decreasing with the distance from the generating structure, vanishing at very short distances. This makes very hard their detection using standard experimental methods. However, the existence of fast-moving charged particles in the macromolecules inside both intracellular and extracellular fluids may envisage the generation of localized electric currents as well as the presence of closed loops, which implies the existence of magnetic fields. Moreover, the whole set of oscillatory frequencies of various substances, enzymes, cell membranes, nucleic acids, bioelectrical phenomena generated by the electrical rhythm of coherent groups of cells, cell-to-cell communication among population of host bacteria, forms the increasingly complex hierarchies of electromagnetic signals of different frequencies which cover the living being and represent a fundamental information network controlling the cell metabolism. From this approach emerges the concept of electromagnetic homeostasis: that is, the capability of the human body to maintain the balance of highly complex electromagnetic interactions within, in spite of the external electromagnetic noisy environment. This concept may have an important impact on the actual definitions of heal and disease.

  9. Composite vector particles in external electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William

    2016-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can additionally be obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasistatic responses of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within the effective theory, providing explicit expressions that can be used to match directly onto lattice QCD correlation functions. The viability of an extraction of the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron from the upcoming lattice QCD calculations of this nucleus is discussed.

  10. Electromagnetic field standards and exposure systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grudzinski, Eugeniusz

    2013-01-01

    When measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF), there are multiple factors that affect accuracy. Everything from proper instrument calibration, to external environmental factors, and even the competence and training of the instrument operator can bring precision into question. This book discusses factors that limit accuracy of electromagnetic field standards. These standards are one of the least accurate among the standards of physical magnitudes. They limit the accuracy of the EMF measurements, as well as the accuracy of the standards' use as exposure systems in a wide range of experiments in el

  11. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO LOW-INTENSITY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS IN MICE%低强度电磁辐射对小鼠脑皮质神经元的损伤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤慧; 张新昌; 王刚; 陈小义

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic fields on cerebral cortical neurons in mice, so as to provide the basis for working out protective measures against electromagnetic radiation damage. Methods Primary neonatal mouse neurons were exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields with power density of 8 mW/cm2 for 1 h, 6 h, and 12 h respectively. Analysis of cell viability was performed by CCK-8 kit, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FTTC)/propidium (PI) kit and flow cytometry after exposure. Results The cell viability of neurons exposed to power density of 8 mW/cm2 for 1 h was generally not affected, and the measurement of apoptosis showed no differences between exposed neurons and unexposed control neurons too. However, significant changes were observed in the neurons exposed to electromagnetic fields for 6 h or 12 h. The cell viability in neurons exposed for 6 h or 12 h decreased 22% and 37% more respectively than in the unexposed control neurons. The cell apoptosis rate was 5.6% in control, but in exposed ones for 6 h, or 12 h increased to 17.6% or 30.8% respectively(P <0.05). Conclusion Exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic fields for more than 6 h might cause primary cerebral cortical neurons damage and apoptosis.%目的 研究低强度电磁辐射对原代培养的小鼠脑皮质神经元的损伤效应,为制定防护电磁辐射对中枢神经系统危害的措施提供依据.方法 将原代培养的小鼠脑皮质神经元给予900 MHz平均功率密度为8 mW/cm2的电磁波持续辐射1 h、6 h、12 h,辐射后分别用CCK-8试剂盒检测细胞活力,用Annexin V-F1TC/PI双标记试剂盒流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率.结果 细胞活力分析显示,与对照组细胞比较,持续辐射1 h组差异不显著;辐射6 h组细胞活力则降低22%(P<0.05),辐射12 h组细胞活力则降低37%(P<0.05);Annexin V-FITC/PI细胞凋亡分析显示

  12. Electromagnetic field representation in inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the basic developments in the theory of electromagnetic field representation in terms of Hertz vectors are reviewed. A solution for the field in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium is given in terms of the two Hertz vectors. Conditions for presentation of the field in terms of uncoupled transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes, in a general orthogonal coordinate system, are derived when the permeability and permittivity tensors have only diagonal components. These conditions are compared with some known special cases.

  13. Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, E; Montanari, Enrico; Calura, Mirco

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exactgravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's generalrelativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations asa Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to aset of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solutionin the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressedour results by means of Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC), which define the properreference frame of the laboratory. Moreover we have provided some "gedankenexperiments", showing that an external gravitational wave induces measurableeffects of non tidal nature via electromagnetic interaction. Consequently it isnot possible to eliminate gravitational effects on electromagnetic field, evenin an arbitrarily small spatial region around an observer freely falling in thefield of a gravitational wave. This is opposite to the case of mechanicalinteraction invo...

  14. Near-field thermal electromagnetic transport

    CERN Document Server

    Edalatpour, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    A general near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism that is independent of the size, shape and number of heat sources is derived. The formalism is based on fluctuational electrodynamics, where fluctuating currents due to thermal agitation are added into Maxwell's curl equations, and is thus valid for heat sources in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using a volume integral formulation, it is shown that the proposed formalism is a generalization of the classical electromagnetic scattering framework in which thermal emission is implicitly assumed to be negligible. The near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism is afterwards applied to a problem involving three spheres exchanging thermal radiation, where all multipolar interactions are taken into account. Using the thermal discrete dipole approximation, it is shown that depending on the dielectric function, the presence of a third sphere slightly affects the spatial distribution of power absorbed compared to the two-sphere case. The forma...

  15. Photon propagation in slowly varying inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian, we determine the photon current and photon polarization tensor in inhomogeneous, slowly varying electromagnetic fields. To this end, we consider background field configurations varying in both space and time, paying special attention to the tensor structure. As a main result, we obtain compact analytical expressions for the photon polarization tensor in realistic Gaussian laser pulses, as generated in the focal spots of high-intensity lasers. These expressions are of utmost importance for the investigation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in realistic high-intensity laser experiments.

  16. DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS OF LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRICA POPOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more studies have shown that, the low frequency field strength (particularly magnetic, 50 / 60Hz are a major risk factor; according to some specialists - even more important as the radiation field. As a result, the personnel serving equipment and facilities such as: electric generators, synchronous, the motors, the inverters or power transformers is subjected continually to intense fields, in their vicinity, with possible harmful effects in the long term by affecting metabolism cell, espectively, the biological mechanisms.Therefore, finding new methods and tools for measurement and analysis of low frequency electromagnetic fields may lead to improved standards for exposure limits of the human body.

  17. Electromagnetic field reduction; Riduzione del campo magnetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, R. [Cesi SpA, Milan (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    The consistent reduction of electromagnetic fields requested in according to the italian 36/01 law are difficult to obtain a simple and low cost one. [Italian] Le considerevoli riduzioni dei campi magnetici che potrebbero essere richieste dalla legge 36/01 sono difficilmente ottenibili con metodi semplici e poco costosi.

  18. Electromagnetic Fields Restrictions and Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Katsenelenbaum, Boris Z

    2003-01-01

    The fields scattered by metallic bodies or radiated by some types of antennas are created by the surfaces currents and therefore they are subject to some restrictions. The book is the first one where the properties of these fields are investigated in details. The properties have the important significance for the antenna synthesis, body shape reconstruction and other diffraction problems. The material of the book lies in the meetingpoint of the antenna theory, highfrequency electrodynamics and inverse scattering problems. The author is an internationally renowned investigator in the field of e

  19. Amplification of an electromagnetic field at the scattering of the nonrelativistic electron by an ion in the external field of medium intensity for an arbitrary angle of the initial electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybul'nik, V. A.; Roshchupkin, S. P.

    2014-08-01

    We theoretically study the gain coefficient for a electromagnetic field, in the scattering of nonrelativistic electrons by ions in a elliptically polarized light wave. We obtain a simple analytical expression for a field amplification constant in logarithmic approach to an arbitrary angle of the initial electron. The formula supplements and extends the domain of applicability of the known Marcuse formula for the linear polarization in the presence of a weak field. It is demonstrated that the maximum gain is reached when the initial electron velocity directs along the major semi-axis of the polarization ellipse. In the range of optical frequencies, the gain coefficient of the laser radiation can be significant for relatively high powers of electron beams. Obtained results may be experimentally verified, for example, by the scientific facilities at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany).

  20. Contribution of Electromagnetic Field to Atomic Spin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Tao; LIANG Wen-Feng; WU Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We examine the contribution of electromagnetic field to the atomic spin, by adopting two different, both gauge invariant definitions of the electromagnetic angular momentum: →JI≡ ∫ d3x∈0→γ× (→E × →B) and →JII ≡ ∫ d3x(∈0→E × A→⊥ + ∈0Ei→ γ× ▽A⊥i). Notably, at the classical level, J→II gives an exactly null result while →JI gives a finite value.This suggests that JII leads to a simpler and more reasonable picture of the atomic spin, therefore qualifies as a more appropriate definition of the electromagnetic angular momentum. Our observation gives important hint on the delicate issue of gluon contribution to the nucleon spin.

  1. Polarizable vacuum analysis of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Xing-Hao

    2009-01-01

    By examining the electric displacement in a dielectric medium and in a vacuum, the polarization property of quantum vacuum is discussed. Both the electric and magnetic fields are analysed in the framework of polarizable vacuum. It is found that the energy and force generated by the electric and magnetic fields can then be understood in a natural way. As an application, the electromagnetic wave is also investigated, which reaches a polarizable vacuum interpretation of the energy and spin of a photon.

  2. Relativistic diffusive motion in random electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Z, E-mail: zhab@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, 50-204 Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9 (Poland)

    2011-08-19

    We show that the relativistic dynamics in a Gaussian random electromagnetic field can be approximated by the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley. Lorentz invariant dynamics in the proper time leads to the diffusion in the proper time. The dynamics in the laboratory time gives the diffusive transport equation corresponding to the Juettner equilibrium at the inverse temperature {beta}{sup -1} = mc{sup 2}. The diffusion constant is expressed by the field strength correlation function (Kubo's formula).

  3. The Electromagnetic Field as a Synchrony Gauge Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Building on our previous work, we investigate the identification of the electromagnetic field as a local gauge field of a restricted group of synchrony transformations. We begin by arguing that the inability to measure the one-way speed of light independent of a synchronization scheme necessitates that physical laws must be reformulated without distant simultaneity. As a result, we are forced to introduce a new operational definition of time which leads to a fundamental space-time invariance principle that is related to a subset of the synchrony group. We identify the gauge field associated with this new invariance principle with the electromagnetic field. Consequently, the electromagnetic field acquires a space-time interpretation, as suggested in our previous work. In addition, we investigate the static, spherically symmetric solution of the resulting field equations. Also, we discuss implications of the present work for understanding the tension between classical and quantum theory.

  4. 中频交变磁场抑制人舌鳞癌细胞的增生%Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Different Intensity on Human Squamous Tongue Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 赵凌云; 刘继光; 唐劲天

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of alternating magnetic field with different intensities on the proliferation of human squa-mous tongue cancer cells in vitro. Methods Viable cells with the OD value cell and flow cytometry were revealed through MTT assay to evaluate the proliferation and apeptosis and cell cycle respectively after the cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields of different intensity (5mT,8mT,11mT) once per day lasting 1 hour for 3 days. The sham -exposure controls were correspondingly established. Results We compared the electromagnetic field groups with the normal groups by MTT assay after 24,48,72 hours. By analyzing the data in SPSS sta-tistical software , we found that the OD value of electromagnetic field groups was significantly less than that of the control groups (P <0.01) . The rates of apoptosis cells by flow cytometry revealed that EMF groups had no change as compared with control groups. But the cell cycle displayed significant chang at 0.5rot. Conclusion The cells displayed significant changes with obvious Tca8113 cell prolifera-tion inhibition and hold - up cell cycle after being exposed to alternating magnetic field of different intensity. But human squamous tongue cancer ceils could not be induced to apeptosis.%目的 探讨不同强度的交变磁场辐照对人舌鳞癌细胞(TCa8113)增生的影响.方法 不同强度的交变磁场(5mT、8mT、11mT)对人舌鳞癌细胞进行连续3天的辐照刺激,每天1h,通过MTT法和流式细胞术检测细胞的增生、凋亡和细胞周期的变化.对照组(假实验组)采用相同的实验条件和作用时间但不加磁场辐照.结果 MTT法检测实验组与对照组辐照后24h、48h、72h的OD值,通过SPSS软件分析显示实验组比对照组的OD值显著降低(P<0.01).流式细胞术检测电磁场组与对照组细胞凋亡率无差异.但细胞周期有显著改变(0.5mT).结论 不同强度的交变磁场辐照对人舌鳞癌细胞增生有明显抑制作用,并可

  5. Visualization of circuit card electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwillinger, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Circuit boards are used in nearly every electrical appliance. Most board failures cause differing currents in the circuit board traces and components. This causes the circuit board to radiate a differing electromagnetic field. Imaging this radiated field, which is equivalent to measuring the field, could be used for error detection. Using estimates of the fields radiated by a low power digital circuit board, properties of known materials, and available equipment, we determined how well the following technologies could be used to visualize circuit board electromagnetic fields (prioritized by promise): electrooptical techniques, magnetooptical techniques, piezoelectric techniques, thermal techniques, and electrodynamic force technique. We have determined that sensors using the electrooptical effect (Pockels effect) appear to be sufficiently sensitive for use in a circuit board imaging system. Sensors utilizing the magnetooptical effect may also be adequate for this purpose, when using research materials. These sensors appear to be capable of achieving direct broadband measurements. We also reviewed existing electromagnetic field sensors. Only one of the sensors (recently patented) was specifically designed for circuit board measurements.

  6. Effects of alternative electromagnetic field on surface tension and filling ability of molten metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hong-liang; KANG Fu-wei; WANG Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    Surface tension and filling ability of molten metal play an important role on the shaping of the molten metal. The surface tension was calculated from wetting angles of the molten metal by the sessile drop method. The specimen for filling ability was designed and the filling ability experiments under the alternative electromagnetic field were performed. The results show that the intensity and frequency of the alternative electromagnetic field have significant effects on the surface tension of the molten metal. The surface tension of Al-6%Si alloy decreases with increasing the intensity of the electromagnetic field. For pure Sn, the surface tension decreases gradually when the frequency of electromagnetic field is reduced. The filling ability is improved by applying the alternative electromagnetic field.

  7. Complex Relativity: Gravity and Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, R; Teisseyre, Roman; Bialecki, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    We present new aspects of the electromagnetic field by introducting the natural potentials. These natural potentials are suitable for constructing the first order distortions of the metric tensor of Complex Relativity - the theory combining the General Relativity with the electromagnetic equations. A transition from antisymmetric tensors to the symmetric ones helps to define the natural potentials; their form fits a system of the Dirac matrices and this representation leads to distortion of the metric tensor. Our considerations have originated from the recent progresses in the asymmetric continuum theories. One version of such theories assumes an existence of the antisymmetric strain and stress fields; these fields originate due to some kind of internal friction in a continuum medium which have elastic bonds related to rotations of the particles.

  8. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Yoshida, Shin

    2009-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves (GW), the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic (EM) radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  9. The effects of different intensities, frequencies and exposure times of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayır, Ece; Bilgi, Eyüp; Şendemir-Ürkmez, Aylin; Hameş-Kocabaş, E Esin

    2015-03-01

    The impact of different types of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated. The cultures of bacteria in broth media were exposed to sinusoidal homogenous ELF-EMF with 2 and 4 mT magnetic intensities. Each intensity for each bacteria was combined with three different frequencies (20, 40 and 50 Hz), and four different exposure times (1, 2, 4 and 6 h). A cell suspension of each experiment was diluted for the appropriate range and inoculated to Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates after exposure to ELF-EMF. The number of colony forming units (CFU) of both strains was obtained after incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. Data were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), statistical significance was described at p exposure time of ELF-EMFs changed the characteristic responses for both microorganisms. Samples exposed to ELF-EMF showed a statistically significant decrease compared to their controls in colony forming capability, especially at long exposure times. An exposure to 4 mT-20 Hz ELF-EMF of 6 h produced maximum inhibition of CFU compared to their controls for both microorganisms (95.2% for S. aureus and 85% for E. coli).

  10. Electromagnetic field of a linear antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Norman; Olbert, Stanislaw

    2008-11-01

    Animated computer simulations of the electric field of a radiating antenna can capture the attention of students in introductory electromagnetism courses and stimulate active discussions. The simulations raise questions not usually addressed in textbooks. In certain cases, some of the field lines appear to move toward the antenna, the speed of the field lines can change as they move, and the field lines exhibit strange behavior (circling or splitting) at certain points. Because their fields can be expressed in terms of elementary functions, animations of point dipole antennas are common, but animations showing the fields of antennas with more realistic lengths are not as common because analytical expressions for these fields are not as well known. We show that it is possible to derive analytical expressions in terms of elementary functions for the electromagnetic field of linear antennas of finite length. We draw attention to an open-source method for displaying the fine details within the field patterns and then give a general discussion of singular points and their motions, derive expressions for their location and phase velocity, and apply these results to some of the phenomena that are visible in visualizations of the fields of various antennas.

  11. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  12. Time-Machine Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ming; SUN Qing-You

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the time-machine problem in the electromagnetic field.Based on a metric which is a more general form of Ori's, we solve the Einstein's equations with the energy-momentum tensors for electromagnetic field, and construct the time-machine solutions, which solve the time machine problem in electromagnetic field.

  13. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccà, I; Scapellato, M L; Carrieri, M; Pasqua di Bisceglie, A; Saia, B; Bartolucci, G B

    2008-01-01

    To assess occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, 11 microwave (MW), 4 short-wave diathermy and 15 magneto therapy devices were analysed in eight physiotherapy departments. Measurements taken at consoles and environmental mapping showed values above European Directive 2004/40/EC and ACGIH exposure limits at approximately 50 cm from MW applicators (2.45 GHz) and above the Directive magnetic field limit near the diathermy unit (27.12 MHz). Levels in front of MW therapy applicators decreased rapidly with distance and reduction in power; this may not always occur in work environments where nearby metal structures (chairs, couches, etc.) may reflect or perturb electromagnetic fields. Large differences in stray field intensities were found for various MW applicators. Measurements of power density strength around MW electrodes confirmed radiation fields between 30 degrees and 150 degrees , with a peak at 90 degrees , in front of the cylindrical applicator and maximum values between 30 degrees and 150 degrees over the whole range of 180 degrees for the rectangular parabolic applicator. Our results reveal that although most areas show substantially low levels of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy units, certain cases of over-occupational exposure limits do exist.

  14. Intense Cherenkov-type terahertz electromagnetic radiation from ultrafast laser-plasma interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qiang-Lin; Liu Shi-Bing; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    A Cherenkov-type terahertz electromagnetic radiation is revealed, which results efficiently from the collective effects in the time-domain of ultrafast pulsed electron current produced by ultrafast intense laser-plasma interaction.The emitted pulse waveform and spectrum, and the dependence of laser pulse parameters on the structure of the radiation field are investigated numerically. The condition of THz radiation generation in this regime and Cherenkov geometry of the radiation field are studied analytically.

  15. Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico MontanariUniversity of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy; Mirco Calura(University of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy)

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exact gravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations as a Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to a set of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solution in the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressed our ...

  16. Charged Scalars in Transient Stellar Electromagnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina-Aura Dariescu; Ciprian Dariescu; Ovidiu Buhucianu

    2011-01-01

    We consider a non-rotating strongly magnetized object, whose magnetic induction isof the form Bx = Bo{t)sin kz. In the electromagnetic field generated by only one component of the four-vector potential, we solve the Klein-Gordon equation and discuss the sudden growth of the scalar wave functions for wavenumbers inside computable ranges. In the case of unexcited transversal kinetic degrees, we write down the recurrent differential system for the amplitude functions and compute the respective conserved currents.

  17. Stirring, not shaking: binary black holes' effects on electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Neilsen, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to producing gravitational waves (GW), the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic (EM) radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as a possible enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  18. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  19. Lagrangian Formulation of Relativistic Particle Average Motion in a Laser Field of Arbitrary Intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Dodin, I Y; Fraiman, G M

    2003-01-01

    The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.

  20. 输电走廊工频电磁场的测量和解决方案%Electromagnetic Field Intensity Measurement and Solution for Unsafe Environment along Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊兰; 宋道军; 张又力; 唐涛; 肖波; 杨帆; 何为

    2011-01-01

    With the development of extra high voltage power grid, electromagnetic radiation arouses people' s intensive concern. With an engineering example: physical discomfort of teachers and students in primary school near a 500 kV AC transmission lines,distribution of power frequency electric field and power frequency magnetic field under the lines is analyzed with program based on charge simulation method (CSM) and simulation current method (SCM) respectively. Moreover, measured data indicate that electric field intensity on the roof of the teaching building partially approaches national public exposure limit in good weather condition; it exceeds the limit in bad weather condition (high relative humidity). The solution proposal for unsafe electric field environment is to fix three shielding lines (LGJ-50/30) to reduce electric field strength from 3.43 kV/m to 1.35 kV/m. Even in rainy weather condition, electric field strength also meets the national standards' request.%随着超高压电网的迅速发展,输电线路走廊的电磁辐射问题引起越来越多的关注.结合工程实例—某500 kV交流线路靠近小学校园引起师生身体不适,运用模拟电荷法和模拟电流法,分别分析了该线路走廊的工频电场和工频磁场的空间分布特性.同时,现场测量数据表明:在晴朗天气条件下,教学楼顶部分区域的电场强度接近国标限值;在阴雨(湿度较大)天气条件下,电场强度确已超标.针对电场超标问题,通过架设3根LGJ-50/30-地屏蔽线将电场强度最大值由3.75 kV/m降至1.35 kV/m,阴雨天气条件下亦满足国家标准要求.

  1. Distribution of Si particles in hypereutectic aluminum alloy tubes prepared under electromagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-qing; LI Qiu-lin; LIU Wei; LIU Qing

    2006-01-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy tubes were produced by centrifugal casting process using an electromagnetic field (EMF). A gradient distribution of the primary Si particles was formed along the tube thickness direction. In the absence of EMF the primary Si moves to inner periphery with increasing rotation speed. The distribution of primary Si can be controlled by the EMF. With increasing electromagnetic field intensity, the primary Si moves from the inner periphery to the outer periphery of the tubes. Most of the primary Si can be driven to the outer if the electromagnetic field intensity is increased to a certain value. It is found that the particle distribution and local volume fraction vary with both the rotation speed and the electromagnetic field intensity.

  2. On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.

  3. Hamiltonian dynamics of the parametrized electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    G., J Fernando Barbero; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S

    2015-01-01

    We study the Hamiltonian formulation for a parametrized electromagnetic field with the purpose of clarifying the interplay between parametrization and gauge symmetries. We use a geometric approach which is tailor-made for theories where embeddings are part of the dynamical variables. Our point of view is global and coordinate free. The most important result of the paper is the identification of sectors in the primary constraint submanifold in the phase space of the model where the number of independent components of the Hamiltonian vector fields that define the dynamics changes. This explains the non-trivial behavior of the system and some of its pathologies.

  4. Hamiltonian dynamics of the parametrized electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero G, J. Fernando; Margalef-Bentabol, Juan; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.

    2016-06-01

    We study the Hamiltonian formulation for a parametrized electromagnetic field with the purpose of clarifying the interplay between parametrization and gauge symmetries. We use a geometric approach which is tailor-made for theories where embeddings are part of the dynamical variables. Our point of view is global and coordinate free. The most important result of the paper is the identification of sectors in the primary constraint submanifold in the phase space of the model where the number of independent components of the Hamiltonian vector fields that define the dynamics changes. This explains the non-trivial behavior of the system and some of its pathologies.

  5. A New Theory of the Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriske, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This author has previously introduced a new theory of the Electromagnetic Field and its interaction with matter. There was from the start a problem with Einstein's formulation of Invariants and its use in describing The EM field. The photon produced by first varying a stationary Electric field in one observer's reference frame is not the same as a photon produced from varying the a stationary Magnetic Field. The Magnetic field photon is thought of as being ``off the mass shell''. The Quantum information seems to carry with it an ordering of these events. You see this ordering in Wick's theory and in Feynman diagrams. This author is proposing that other fields can vary first in another Observers reference frame, not just the ``Scalar Field'' or the ``Fermion Field'', but many other forms of Energy. If the ``Nuclear Field'' varies first, it results in Quantum information that produces a photon that has the Nuclear Field in it and also the Magnetic Field, this is the strange effect seen in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This author proposed that there is a large number of photons with different properties, because of this ordering of events that occurs in Quantum Information. One of these photons is the Neutrino which appears to be a three field photon. This is Kriske's Field Theory.

  6. Bianchi Class B Spacetimes with Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Kei

    2011-01-01

    We carry out a thorough analysis on a class of cosmological spacetimes which admit three space-like Killing vectors of Bianchi class B and contain electromagnetic fields. Using dynamical system analysis, we show that a family of vacuum plane-wave solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations is the stable attractor for expanding universes. Phase dynamics are investigated in detail for particular symmetric models. We integrate the system exactly for some special cases to confirm the qualitative features. Some of the obtained solutions have not been presented previously to the best of our knowledge. Finally, based on those solutions, we discuss the relation between those homogeneous models and perturbations of open FLRW universes. We argue that the vacuum plane-wave modes correspond to a certain long-wavelength limit of electromagnetic perturbations.

  7. Electromagnetic fields, pacemakers and defibrillators; Champs electromagnetiques, cardiostimulateurs et defibrillateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiguet, J.C. [Agence Nationale des Frequences (ANFR), 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Dodinot, B.; Sadoul, N.; Blangy, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Brabois, Clinique Cardiologique, 54 - Vandoeuvre Brabois (France); Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Schmitt, P. [Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy, Lab. d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy, Faculte des Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Joly, L.; Dodinot, B.; Aliot, E. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Brabois, Service de Cardiologie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Silny, J. [Aachen University (Germany); Franck, R.; Himbert, C.; Hidden-Lucet, F.; Petitot, J.C.; Fontaine, G. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Institut de Cardiologie, Service de Rythmologie, 75 - Paris (France); Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J. [Electricite de France (EDF-Gaz de France), Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France); Magne, I.; Bailly, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF-Gaz de France), Div. Recherche Developpement, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Trigano, J.A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Nord, 13 - Marseille (France); Burais, N. [CEGELY, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 - Ecully (France); Gaspard, J.Y. [Magtech, 69 - Ecully (France); Andrivet, Ph. [Societe Medtronic France, 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2004-07-01

    Presentation of electromagnetic sources constituted by various radio transmitters contributing to different radio communication services in the environment. Results of a measures campaign to assess the electromagnetic field in the close neighbourhood of various stations. Analysis by frequency domains. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves in Fractional Dimensional Space

    CERN Document Server

    Zubair, Muhammad; Naqvi, Qaisar Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the concept of fractional dimensional space applied to the use of electromagnetic fields and waves. It provides demonstrates the advantages in studying the behavior of electromagnetic fields and waves in fractal media. The book presents novel fractional space generalization of the differential electromagnetic equations is provided as well as a new form of vector differential operators is formulated in fractional space. Using these modified vector differential operators, the classical Maxwell's electromagnetic equations are worked out. The Laplace's, Poisson's and Helmholtz's

  9. Radiation (absorbing) boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevensee, R. M.; Pennock, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    An important problem in finite difference or finite element computation of the electromagnetic field obeying the space-time Maxwell equations with self-consistent sources is that of truncating the outer numerical boundaries properly to avoid spurious numerical reflection. Methods for extrapolating properly the fields just beyond a numerical boundary in free space have been treated by a number of workers. This report avoids plane wave assumptions and derives boundary conditions more directly related to the source distribution within the region. The Panofsky-Phillips' relations, which enable one to extrapolate conveniently the vector field components parallel and perpendicular to a radial from the coordinate origin chosen near the center of the charge-current distribution are used to describe the space-time fields.

  10. Spatial bandlimitedness of scattered electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Khankhoje, Uday K

    2015-01-01

    In this tutorial paper, we consider the problem of electromagnetic scattering by a bounded dielectric object, and discuss certain interesting properties of the scattered field. Using the electric field integral equation, along with the techniques of Fourier theory and the properties of Bessel functions, we show analytically and numerically, that the scattered fields are spatially bandlimited. Further, we derive an upper bound on the number of incidence angles that are useful as constraints in an inverse problem setting (determining permittivity given measurements of the scattered field). We also show that the above results are independent of the dielectric properties of the scattering object and depend only on geometry. Though these results have previously been derived in the literature using the framework of functional analysis, our approach is conceptually far easier. Implications of these results on the inverse problem are also discussed.

  11. Z-Boson Decays in a Strong Electromagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kurilin, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    The probability of Z-boson decay to a pair of charged fermions in a strong electromagnetic field, is calculated. On the basis of a method that employs exact solutions to relativistic wave equations for charged particles, analytic expressions for the partial decay widths of Z-boson are obtained at an arbitrary value the external-field strength. The total Z-boson decay width in an intense electromagnetic field, is calculated by summing these results over all known generations of charged leptons and quarks. It is found that, in the region of relatively weak fields, the field-induced corrections to the standard Z-boson decay width in a vacuum do not exceed 2%. As the external-field strength increases, the total decay width develops oscillations against the background of its gradual decrease to the absolute-minimum point. In the region of strong fields the total decay width of Z-boson grows monotonically. In this case the t-quark-production process, which is forbidden in the absence of an external field, begins co...

  12. [Biological effects of electromagnetic fields (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, J

    1979-08-01

    This résumé deals with thermal and nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields on man. In consideration of two aspects a limitation is necessary. Firstly, there will be discussed only direct and immediate influences on biological cells and tissues, secondly, the treatment is limited to such phenomena, for which biophysical aproximations, based on experimental data, could be developed. Hazards for the human being may occur only by thermal effects within the microwave range. Regarding frequencies below approximately 30 kHz, excitation processes cannot be excluded in exceptional cases. Thermal effects are predominant, between 30 kHz and 100 kHz, before excitations can appear. Furthermore, by comparing the electrically and magnetically induced currents with the naturally flowing currents in man caused by the brain's and heart's electrical activity, a "lower boundaryline" was estimated. Regarding electric or magnetic field strengths undercutting this boundary-line, direct effects on the central nervous system may be excluded; other mechanisms should be responsible for demonstrated biological effects. The paper closes referring to some reports--presently discussed--on experimental findings of biological effects, which are observed as a result of the influence of electromagnetic fields of small field strengths.

  13. Electromagnetic fields on a quantum scale. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Dale M; Grimes, Craig A

    2002-10-01

    This is the first in a series of two articles, the second of which provides an exact electro-magnetic field description of photon emission, absorption, and radiation pattern. Photon energy exchanges are analyzed and shown to be the triggered, regenerative response of a non-local eigenstate electron. This first article presents a model-based, hidden variable analysis of quantum theory that provides the statistical nature of wave functions. The analysis uses the equations of classical electro-magnetism and conservation of energy while modeling an eigenstate electron as a nonlocal entity. Essential to the analysis are physical properties that were discovered and analyzed only after the historical interpretation of quantum mechanics was established: electron non-locality and the standing electro-magnetic energy that accompanies and encompasses an active, electrically small volume. The standing energy produces a driving radiation reaction force that, under certain circumstances, is many orders of magnitude larger than currently accepted values. These properties provide a sufficient basis for the Schrödinger equation as a descriptor of non-relativistic eigenstate electrons in or near equilibrium. The uncertainty principle follows, as does the exclusion principle. The analysis leads to atomic stability and causality in the sense that the status of physical phenomena at any instant specifies the status an instant later.

  14. 高压线电磁场强度对大孔径闪烁仪观测的影响%Effect of high voltage wire electromagnetic field intensity on Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凡; 张玉翠; 齐永青; 胡文清; Bridget R.Scanlon; 沈彦俊

    2011-01-01

    大孔径闪烁仪(Large Aperture Scintillometer,LAS)是测量水平距离上250~4 500 m地表能量平衡和水热通量的仪器.在其红外波传输的过程中会受到环境因素以及下垫面属性的影响.鉴于外界条件的复杂性,还会受到树木的阻挡以及高压线电磁场辐射等因素的影响.本文通过分析2009年8月~2010年3月在中国科学院栾城农业生态系统试验站开展LAS观测过程中的影响因素,研究了高压输电线电磁场对LAS观测的影响.结果表明,当LAS红外光路径距高压线过近时对测定的感热通量HLAS影响较大,导致计算结果与实际不符.通过计算提出了避免高压输电线电磁场干扰LAS观测信号的安全安装距离应是保证高压输电线电磁场强度小于4.05 μT的距离.结果可为开展同类观测试验提供参考.%Large Aperture Scintillometer was widely used to measure horizontal distance (250~4 500 m) surface energy balance and fluxes of water and heat. In transmitting infrared waves, several environmental factors and land surface properties affect LAS signal.Further given the complexity of external conditions, high trees and electromagnetic fields of high voltage wires in the path of LAS light also blur receiver signal detection. Through experimentation at Luancheng Agro-Ecosystem Experimental Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in August 2009 through March 2010, this paper, analyzed the effects of electromagnetic fields of high voltage wires on LAS observation. The result indicated when the space between the path of LAS infrared waves and high voltage wire was too narrow, measured sensitive heat flux (HLAs) was greatly affected, causing the difference between the calculations and the practice.Following detailed analysis of the experimental data, the paper suggested safe distance, in which electromagnetic field intensity should be less than 4.05 μT, from high voltage wires during LAS installation in densely populated areas. The

  15. Degassing of Bioliquids in Low Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Shatalov, Vladimir; Zinchenko, Alina

    2011-01-01

    A similarity of changes in physical-chemical properties of pure water induced by low electromagnetic fields (EMF) and by degassing treatment brought us to a conclusion that EMF produces some degassing of water. Degassing in turn gives rise to some biological effects by increasing the surface tension and activity of dissolved ions. In such a way the degassing can modify conformations of proteins and others biomolecules in bioliquids. That was confirmed in our observation of changes in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the prothrombinase activity in blood clotting processes.

  16. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  17. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    Uggerhoj, U I; Mikkelsen, F K

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  18. Vacuum birefringence in strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix; Reuter, Maria; Zepf, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Birefringence is one of the fascinating properties of the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. The scattering of linearly polarized incident probe photons into a perpendicularly polarized mode provides a distinct signature of the optical activity of the quantum vacuum and thus offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of non-linear QED. Precision tests require accurate predictions and thus a theoretical framework that is capable of taking the detailed experimental geometry into account. We derive analytical solutions for vacuum birefringence which include the spatio-temporal field structure of a strong optical pump laser field and an x-ray probe. We show that the angular distribution of the scattered photons depends strongly on the interaction geometry and find that scattering of the perpendicularly polarized scattered photons out of the cone of the incident probe x-ray beam is the key to making the phenomenon experimentally accessible with the current generatio...

  19. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields.

  20. Equalizing the near and far electromagnetic fields around particles made of different materials

    CERN Document Server

    Devilez, Alexis; Stout, Brian; Bonod, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the electromagnetic fields scattered by particles made of different materials can be equalized. Emphasize is placed first in metallic nanoparticles that host localized surface plasmons and it is shown that their electromagnetic fields can be identically reproduced with dielectric particles. We derive the explicit formulas relating the different constitutive parameters that yield identical electromagnetic responses. This method provides the dielectric permittivities of spherical particles that reproduce the strong near electric field intensities observed around metallic particles featuring localized surface plasmon resonances in optics or near infrared frequencies. We also demonstrate the ability of homogenous dielectric particles to host the magnetic resonances predicted for exotic materials with negative permeability.

  1. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  2. Simple and effective monitoring of the electromagnetic field in the smart cities arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares-Pena, Francisco J.; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Iodice, Antonio; Salas-Sánchez, Aarón A.

    2016-08-01

    A simple and economical method for monitoring the electromagnetic field intensity in built-up areas is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the field level over a limited number of points at street level in the city and their transmission to an operative control center, where the field values all over the city are correctly interpolated in real time. Citizens might obtain these values at their sites, via Internet, or by connecting with a dedicated call center. Numerical evaluations of the electromagnetic field intensity via the new developed model and confirming experimental results are finally presented.

  3. Electromagnetic multipole fields of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A formalism is developed for treating general multipole electromagnetic fields of neutron stars. The electric multipoles induced in a neutron star by its rotation with an arbitrary magnetic multipole at its center are presented. It is shown how to express a family of off-centered multipoles having the same l weight as an infinite array of centered multipoles of increasing l weight referred to the rotational axis. General expressions are given for the linear momentum present in the superposition of arbitrary multipole fields, and the results are combined to compute the radiation rate of linear momentum by an off-centered dipole to zeroth order in the parameter Omega x R/c. The general Deutsch (1955) solution is then rederived in a clear consistent manner, and some minor additions and corrections are provided.

  4. Electromagnetic field patterning or crystal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Piotr; Wymysłowski, Artur; Czarczyński, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Using the orbital angular momentum of light for the development of a vortex interferometer, the underlying physics requires microwave/RF models,1 as well as quantum mechanics for light1, 2 and fluid flow for semiconductor devices.3, 4 The combination of the aforementioned physical models yields simulations and results such as optical lattices,1 or an Inverse Farday effect.5 The latter is explained as the absorption of optical angular momentum, generating extremely high instantenous magnetic fields due to radiation friction. An algorithmic reduction across the computational methods used in microwaves, lasers, quantum optics and holography is performed in order to explain electromagnetic field interactions in a single computational framework. This work presents a computational model for photon-electron interactions, being a simplified gauge theory described using differentials or disturbances (photons) instead of integrals or fields. The model is based on treating the Z-axis variables as a Laplace fluid with spatial harmonics, and the XY plane as Maxwell's equations on boundaries. The result is a unified, coherent, graphical computational method of describing the photon qualitatively, quantitatively and with proportion. The model relies on five variables and is described using two equations, which use emitted power, cavity wavelength, input frequency, phase and time. Phase is treated as a rotated physical dimension under gauge theory of Feynmann's QED. In essence, this model allows the electromagnetic field to be treated with it's specific crystallography. The model itself is described in Python programming language. PACS 42.50.Pq, 31.30.J-, 03.70.+k, 11.10.-z, 67.10.Hk

  5. Stable Propagating Waves and Wake Fields in Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi-Shi; XIE Bai-Song; TIAN Miao; YIN Xin-Tao; ZHANG Xin-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Stable propagating waves and wake fields in relativistic electromagnetic plasma are investigated. The incident electromagnetic field has a finite initial constant amplitude meanwhile the longitudinal momentum of electrons is taken into account in the problem. It is found that in the moving frame with transverse wave group velocity the stable propagating transverse electromagnetic waves and longitudinal plasma wake fields can exist in the appropriate regime of plasma.

  6. Correlation between intensity fluctuations of electromagnetic waves scattered from a spatially quasi-homogeneous, anisotropic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Feinan; Chang, Liping

    2016-10-17

    Within the validity of the first-order Born approximation, expressions are derived for the correlation between intensity fluctuations (CIF) of an electromagnetic plane wave scattered from a spatially quasi-homogeneous (QH), anisotropic medium. Upon establishing the correlation matrix of the scattering potential of the medium, we show that the CIF is the summation of Fourier transforms of the strengths and normalized correlation coefficients (NCCs) of the scattering potential matrix. Numerical results reveal that the CIF is susceptible to the effective width and correlation length of the medium, and degree of polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave. Our study not only extends the current knowledge of the CIF of a scattered field but also provides an important reference to the study of high-order intensity correlations of light scattered from a spatially anisotropic medium.

  7. The classical theory of fields electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2012-01-01

    The study of classical electromagnetic fields is an adventure. The theory is complete mathematically and we are able to present it as an example of classical Newtonian experimental and mathematical philosophy. There is a set of foundational experiments, on which most of the theory is constructed. And then there is the bold theoretical proposal of a field-field interaction from James Clerk Maxwell. This textbook presents the theory of classical fields as a mathematical structure based solidly on laboratory experiments. Here the student is introduced to the beauty of classical field theory as a gem of theoretical physics. To keep the discussion fluid, the history is placed in a beginning chapter and some of the mathematical proofs in the appendices. Chapters on Green’s Functions and Laplace’s Equation and a discussion of Faraday’s Experiment further deepen the understanding. The chapter on Einstein’s relativity is an integral necessity to the text. Finally, chapters on particle motion and waves in a dis...

  8. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Vian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc. are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor, and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight after low power (i.e., nonthermal HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism.

  9. Public Protection from Electromagnetic Fields of Industry Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with intensity more than 0,2-0,3 µT is dangerous for carcinogenic risk. International Agency for research on Cancer (IARC initiated a program to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of low frequency electromagnetic fields to humans and till 2002 year collected a lot of information for different countries with quantitative analysis of epidemic data. Standardized incidents ratio (SIR was proposed for evaluation of leukaemia in humans and especially children. Exposure of children in magneticfields > 0,4 µT showed a twofold SIR increasing. Data concerning the subject of an evaluation did not disclose inadequate evidence in humans and experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of magnetic fields of industry frequency, but they are classified as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”.

  10. Electromagnetic fields produced by simulated spacecraft discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonevicz, J. E.; Adamo, R. C.; Beers, B. L.; Delmer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    The initial phase of a broader, more complete program for the characterization of electrical breakdowns on spacecraft insulating materials is described which consisted of the development of a discharge simulator and characterization facility and the performance of a limited number of discharge measurements to verify the operation of the laboratory setup and to provide preliminary discharge transient field data. A preliminary model of the electromagnetic characteristics of the discharge was developed. It is based upon the "blow off" current model of discharges, with the underlying assumption of a propagating discharge. The laboratory test facility and discharge characterization instrumentation are discussed and the general results of the "quick look" tests are described on quartz solar reflectors aluminized Kapton and silver coated Teflon are described.

  11. Some consequences of intense electromagnetic wave injection into space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena; Rothwell, Paul L.; Silevitch, Michael

    1986-10-01

    The future possibility of actively testing the current understanding of how energetic particles may be accelerated in space or dumped from the radiation belts using intense electromagnetic energy from ground based antennas is discussed. The ground source of radiation is merely a convenience. A space station source for radiation that does not have to pass through the atmosphere and lower ionosphere, is an attractive alternative. The text is divided into two main sections addressing the possibilities of: (1) accelerating electrons to fill selected flux tubes above the Kennel-Petscheck limit for stably trapped fluxes, and (2) using an Alfven maser to cause rapid depletion of energetic protons or electrons from the radiation belts.

  12. Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-11

    In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.

  13. Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies in electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbach, Holm; Morachkovsky, Oleg; Naumenko, Konstantin; Lavinsky, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies under the action of electromagnetic fields is analyzed. Governing equations for non-stationary electromagnetic field propagation and elastic-plastic deformation are presented. The variational principle of minimum of the total energy is applied to formulate the numerical solution procedure by the finite element method. With the proposed method, distributions of vector characteristics of the electromagnetic field and tensor characteristics of the deformation process are illustrated for the inductor-workpiece system within a realistic electromagnetic forming process.

  14. Using strong electromagnetic fields to control x-ray processes

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Linda; Dunford, Robert W; Ho, Phay J; Kanter, Elliot P; Krässig, Bertold; Peterson, Emily R; Rohringer, Nina; Santra, Robin; Southworth, Stephen H

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of a new ultrafast-ultrasmall frontier in atomic and molecular physics has begun. Not only is is possible to control outer-shell electron dynamics with intense ultrafast optical lasers, but now control of inner-shell processes has become possible by combining intense infrared/optical lasers with tunable sources of x-ray radiation. This marriage of strong-field laser and x-ray physics has led to the discovery of methods to control reversibly resonant x-ray absorption in atoms and molecules on ultrafast timescales. Using a strong optical dressing field, resonant x-ray absorption in atoms can be markedly suppressed, yielding an example of electromagnetically induced transparency for x rays. Resonant x-ray absorption can also be controlled in molecules using strong non-resonant, polarized laser fields to align the framework of a molecule, and therefore its unoccupied molecular orbitals to which resonant absorption occurs. At higher laser intensities, ultrafast field ionization produces an irreversible...

  15. Cosmic Electromagnetic Fields due to Perturbations in the Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mongwane, Bishop; Osano, Bob

    2012-01-01

    We use non-linear gauge-invariant perturbation theory to study the interaction of an inflation produced seed magnetic field with density and gravitational wave perturbations in an almost Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime. We compare the effects of this coupling under the assumptions of poor conductivity, infinite conductivity and the case where the electric field is sourced via the coupling of velocity perturbations to the seed field in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime, thus generalizing, improving on and correcting previous results. We solve our equations for long wavelength limits and numerically integrate the resulting equations to generate power spectra for the electromagnetic field variables, showing where the modes cross the horizon. We find that the rotation of the electric field dominates the power spectrum on small scales, in agreement with previous arguments.

  16. Electromagnetic field at Finite Temperature: A new view

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Valverde, J S

    2005-01-01

    In this work we study the electromagnetic field at Finite Temperature via the massless DKP formalism. The constraint analysis is performed and the partition function for the theory is constructed and computed. When it is specialized to the spin 1 sector we obtain the well-known result for the thermodynamic equilibrium of the electromagnetic field.

  17. Electromagnetic field at finite temperature: A first order approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valverde, J. S.

    2006-10-01

    In this work we study the electromagnetic field at finite temperature via the massless DKP formalism. The constraint analysis is performed and the partition function for the theory is constructed and computed. When it is specialized to the spin 1 sector we obtain the well-known result for the thermodynamic equilibrium of the electromagnetic field.

  18. Sensing network for electromagnetic fields generated by seismic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2014-06-01

    The sensors network is becoming prolific and play now increasingly more important role in acquiring and processing information. Cyber-Physical Systems are focusing on investigation of integrated systems that includes sensing, networking, and computations. The physics of the seismic measurement and electromagnetic field measurement requires special consideration how to design electromagnetic field measurement networks for both research and detection earthquakes and explosions along with the seismic measurement networks. In addition, the electromagnetic sensor network itself could be designed and deployed, as a research tool with great deal of flexibility, the placement of the measuring nodes must be design based on systematic analysis of the seismic-electromagnetic interaction. In this article, we review the observations of the co-seismic electromagnetic field generated by earthquakes and man-made sources such as vibrations and explosions. The theoretical investigation allows the distribution of sensor nodes to be optimized and could be used to support existing geological networks. The placement of sensor nodes have to be determined based on physics of electromagnetic field distribution above the ground level. The results of theoretical investigations of seismo-electromagnetic phenomena are considered in Section I. First, we compare the relative contribution of various types of mechano-electromagnetic mechanisms and then analyze in detail the calculation of electromagnetic fields generated by piezomagnetic and electrokinetic effects.

  19. Generation of magnetic fields by the ponderomotive force of electromagnetic waves in dense plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, P K; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    We show that the non-stationary ponderomotive force of a, large-amplitude electromagnetic move in a very dense quantum plasma wall streaming degenerate electrons can spontaneously create d.c. magnetic fields. The present result can account for the seed magnetic fields in compact astrophysical objects and in the next-generation intense laser-solid density, plasma interaction experiments.

  20. Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklen, Carter B.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of ElectroMagnetic Fields (EMF) completed at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars Program. This project was performed to determine levels of electromagnetic fields, determine the significance of the levels present, and determine a plan to reduce electromagnetic field exposure, if necessary. This report also describes the properties of electromagnetic fields and their interaction with humans. The results of three major occupational epidemiological studies is presented to determine risks posed to humans by EMF exposure. The data for this report came from peer-reviewed journal articles and government publications pertaining to the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

  1. The dielectric response to the magnetic field of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shouvik; Mukhopadhyay, Sourabh; Datta, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Light–matter interaction in transparent dielectrics is revisited, including the magnetic force on bound charges in the Lorentz oscillator model. The parameter ranges of incident radiation and the medium on which the magnetic field of the electromagnetic radiation will have a significant effect are traced using Floquet theory. The analysis reveals that the threshold intensity for a significant response of the magnetic field of the radiation at the second harmonic of the incident radiation can be reduced to {10}12 {{W}}{{cm}}-2 for off resonant and even lower for resonant interaction. This phenomenon has already been observed indirectly in experiments [1, 2]. Induced magnetizing current due to the magnetic force is shown to originate from a modified dielectric response, which may be useful in future magneto-optic devices, solar energy harvesting, and studying the ultrafast dynamics in doped dielectrics.

  2. Flow Field of Metallic Fluid Acted by Electromagnetic and Centrifugal Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yi-qing; LUO Zong-an; JIA Guang-lin; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    According to the principle of electromagnetism and hydrodynamics, a mathematical model of flow field for metallic fluid acted by electromagnetic and centrifugal forces was established. The calculation results showed that the relative velocity between metallic fluid layers rises and the absolute rotational velocity of metallic fluid falls with the increase of magnetic induction intensity. The increase of centrifugal revolution hardly affects the relative velocity between metallic fluid layers, but can enhance the absolute rotational velocity of metallic fluid.

  3. Electromagnetic Fields, Oxidative Stress, and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Consales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields (EMFs originating both from both natural and manmade sources permeate our environment. As people are continuously exposed to EMFs in everyday life, it is a matter of great debate whether they can be harmful to human health. On the basis of two decades of epidemiological studies, an increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with Extremely Low Frequency fields has been consistently assessed, inducing the International Agency for Research on Cancer to insert them in the 2B section of carcinogens in 2001. EMFs interaction with biological systems may cause oxidative stress under certain circumstances. Since free radicals are essential for brain physiological processes and pathological degeneration, research focusing on the possible influence of the EMFs-driven oxidative stress is still in progress, especially in the light of recent studies suggesting that EMFs may contribute to the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. This review synthesizes the emerging evidences about this topic, highlighting the wide data uncertainty that still characterizes the EMFs effect on oxidative stress modulation, as both pro-oxidant and neuroprotective effects have been documented. Care should be taken to avoid methodological limitations and to determine the patho-physiological relevance of any alteration found in EMFs-exposed biological system.

  4. Effect of electromagnetic field on okra (Hibiscus sculentus L.) developmental stages and the effect of okra extract on breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Hasani Sadrabadi; A. Majd; M. Hamzeloo-Moghdam; Irian,S

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can act as stress factors with different effects on biological systems. Due to the nutritional and medicinal values, and the increasing electromagnetic radiations, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field on the developmental stages and cytotoxic properties of okra. Methods: Both dry and wet seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with the intensities of 2 and 4 mT for 6...

  5. Electromagnetism

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the electromagnetic force, you would not be solid. The atoms of your body are held together by electromagnetism: negatively charged electrons are held around the positively charged nucleus. Atoms share electrons to form molecules, so building up the structure of matter. As its name suggests, electromagnetism has a double nature: a moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. This intimate connection between electricity and magnetism was described by James Maxwell in 1864. The electromagnetic force can be both positive and negative : opposite charges attract, whereas like charges repel. Electromagnetic radiation, such as radio, microwaves, light and X-rays, is emitted by charges when they are made to move. For example, an oscillating current in a wire emits radio waves. Text for the interactive: Why do the needles move when you switch on the current ?

  6. Occupational medicine and electromagnetic fields; Medecine du travail et champs electromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seze, R. de [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)

    2001-07-01

    Numerous industrial areas are concerned by electromagnetic fields exposures. The most intense sources are constituted by high frequencies. The most known are the relay antenna for cellular radio communications (type GSM). The principal sources of electromagnetic fields are given and the levels fields susceptible to be encountered at working posts. The interaction mechanisms of fields are given in function of frequencies, then the biological effects are studied. The results of epidemiological studies are synthesised. The recommendations in France and in Europe are presented as well the standardisation organisms. (N.C.)

  7. Electromagnetic Field Scattering on rf-SQUID Based Metasurfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Сaputo J.G; Gabitov I.R.; Kudyshev Zh.; Kupaev T.; Maimistov A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic field scattering on a 2D array of rf-SQUIDs is considered. We show that the scattering changes for large amplitudes of the incident electromagnetic wave; above a critical amplitude, two different refraction states occur (bistability). In particular, for these two states, the transmitted wave polarization and angle of refraction are different. One could then switch the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave and its polarization with a “thin film”, whose thickness ...

  8. Electromagnetic Field Scattering on rf-SQUID Based Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raputo, J. G.; Gabitov, I. R.; Kudyshev, Zh.; Kupaev, T.; Maimistov, A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Electromagnetic field scattering on a 2D array of rf-SQUIDs is considered. We show that the scattering changes for large amplitudes of the incident electromagnetic wave; above a critical amplitude, two different refraction states occur (bistability). In particular, for these two states, the transmitted wave polarization and angle of refraction are different. One could then switch the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave and its polarization with a "thin film", whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelength.

  9. New foundations for applied electromagnetics the spatial structure of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mikki, Said

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive new resource focuses on applied electromagnetics and takes readers beyond the conventional theory with the use of contemporary mathematics to improve the practical use of electromagnetics in emerging areas of field communications, wireless power transfer, metamaterials, MIMO and direction-of-arrival systems. The book explores the existing and novel theories and principles of electromagnetics in order to help engineers analyze and design devices for todays applications in wireless power transfers, NFC, and metamaterials.

  10. Quantum Mechanics Action of ELF Electromagnetic Fields on Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    There is presently an intense discussion if extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure has consequences for human health. This include exposure to structures and appliances from this range of frequency in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Biological effects of such exposures have been noted frequently, although the implications for specific health effects is not that clear. The basic interactions mechanisms between such fields and living matter is unknown. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested, although none is convincingly supported by experimental data. Various cellular components, processes, and systems can be affected by EMF exposure. Since it is unlikely that EMF can induce DNA damage directly, most studies have examined EMF effects on the cell membrane level, general and specific gene expression, and signal transduction pathways. Even more, a large number of studies have been performed regarding cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, metabolism, and various physiological characteristics of cells. The aim of this letter is present the hypothesis of a possible quantum mechanic effect generated by the exposure of ELF EMF, an event which is compatible with the multitude of effects observed after exposure. Based on an extensive literature review, we suggest that ELF EMF exposure is able to perform such activation restructuring the electronic level of occupancy of free radicals in molecules interacting with DNA structures.

  11. 78 FR 33654 - Reassessment of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... electromagnetic fields. The Commission's further proposals reflect an effort to provide more efficient, practical... RF electromagnetic fields. The Commission underscores that in conducting this review it will...

  12. IN VITRO CYTOSTATIC EFFECT OF SOME NON-IONIZING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Mihai

    2007-12-01

    model, intensity and type of electromagnetic field, exposure time, metabolic state and type of the exposed cells. This primary characterization of the low intensity and frequency fields as cytostatic agent justifies the study of their effect upon cell proliferation and viability in order to enlarge the reasoning basis for the introduction of this physical agent in the in vivo antitumoral screening program on different experimental tumoral systems.

  13. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  14. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Shvets

    2008-10-03

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  15. An eigen theory of static electromagnetic field for anisotropic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua GUO

    2009-01-01

    Static electromagnetic fields are studied based on standard spaces of the physical presentation,and the modal equations of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media are derived. By introducing a new set of first-order potential functions,several novel theoretical results are obtained. It is found that,for isotropic media,electric or magnetic potentials are scalar; while for anisotropic media,they are vectors. Magnitude and direction of the vector potentials are related to the anisotropic subspaces. Based on these results,we discuss the laws of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media.

  16. The Potential-Vortex Theory of the Electromagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Tomilin, A K

    2010-01-01

    Maxwell-Lorenz theory describes only vortex electromagnetic processes. Potential component of the magnetic field is usually excluded by the introduction of mathematical terms: Coulomb and Lorenz gauges. Proposed approach to the construction of the four-dimensional electrodynamics based on the total (four-dimensional) field theory takes into account both vortex and potential components of its characteristics. It is shown that potential components of the electromagnetic field have physical content. System of modified (generalized) Maxwell equations is written. With their help contradictions usually appearing while describing the distribution of electromagnetic waves, are eliminated. Works of other authors obtained similar results are presented and analyzed.

  17. The plane wave spectrum representation of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Clemmow, P C

    1966-01-01

    The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields presents the theory of the electromagnetic field with emphasis to the plane wave. This book explains how fundamental electromagnetic fields can be represented by the superstition of plane waves traveling in different directions. Organized into two parts encompassing eight chapters, this book starts with an overview of the methods whereby plane wave spectrum representation can be used in attacking different characteristic problems belonging to the theories of radiation, diffraction, and propagation. This book then discusses the co

  18. Finite Element Analysis of 3-D Electromagnetic Field in Bloom Continuous Casting Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu-dong; YANG Xiao-dong; ZHU Miao-yong; CHEN Yong; YANG Su-bo

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element model of electromagnetic stirrer was built to predict magnetic field in a bloom continuous casting mold for steel during operation. The effects of current intensity, current frequency, and mold copper plate thickness on the magnetic field distribution in the mold were investigated. The results show that the magnetic induction intensity increases linearly with the increase in current intensity and decreases with the increase in current frequency. Increasing current intensity and frequency is available in increasing the electromagnetic force. The Joule heat decreases gradually from surface to center of bloom, and a maximum Joule heat can be found on corner of bloom. The prediction of magnetic induction intensity is in good agreement with the measured values.

  19. Correlation between intensity fluctuations induced by scattering of a partially coherent, electromagnetic wave from a quasi-homogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chang, Liping; Chen, Feinan

    2016-12-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, the correlation between intensity fluctuations is derived for a partially coherent, electromagnetic plane wave scattering from a spatially quasi-homogeneous medium. Young's pinholes are utilized to control the degree of coherence of the incident field. For the electromagnetic scattering case, it is shown that the CIF of the scattered field strongly depends on the degree of polarization of the incident wave, Young's pinhole parameter, effective radius and correlation length of the medium. The influences of these parameters on the CIF distributions are revealed by numerical calculations.

  20. Research on the ElectromagneticScattering Near the Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We calculate and analyze the scattering near the field from some simple and complex targets using the method of picture elements (PEL), based upon the method of high-frequency approximation. It introduces the critical distance of the near field and the far field which is related with the dimension of the target. The problem of the EMS near field from large size objects can be transformed to the problem of the far field by parting it to many very small size elements. By calculating the EMS near fields of some simple and complex targets based on the SCTE (scattering from complex targets and environments) system, the results show that there are much difference between the near field and the far field. And the characteristics of the near field are more complicated. This work has practical engineering value in the area of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI) prediction and electromagnetic scattering (EMS).

  1. A Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills Gauge Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendro I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold S4 via the connection, with the general- ized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.

  2. A Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and theA Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills Gauge Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendro I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold $S_4$ via the connection, with the generalized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.

  3. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on microstructures and macrosegregation of horizontal direct chill casting aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志浩; 崔建忠; 董杰; 张海涛; 张北江

    2004-01-01

    The influences of low frequency electromagnetic field on cast surface, microstructures and macrosegregation in horizontal direct chill(HDC) casting process were investigated experimentally. The cast surfaces, microstructures and macrosegregation of the ingots manufactured by conventional HDC and low frequency electromagnetic HDC casting were compared. The results show that low frequency electromagnetic field significantly improves the surface quality, refines the microstructures and reduces macrosegregation. Further more, increasing electromagnetic intensity or decreasing frequency is beneficial to the improvement. In the range of ampere-turns and frequency employed in the experiments, the optimum ampere-turns is found to be 10 000 A · turn and the frequency to be 30 Hz.

  4. Accelerating electromagnetic magic field from the C-metric

    CERN Document Server

    Bicak, Jiri; 10.1007/s10714-009-0816-8

    2009-01-01

    Various aspects of the C-metric representing two rotating charged black holes accelerated in opposite directions are summarized and its limits are considered. A particular attention is paid to the special-relativistic limit in which the electromagnetic field becomes the "magic field" of two oppositely accelerated rotating charged relativistic discs. When the acceleration vanishes the usual electromagnetic magic field of the Kerr-Newman black hole with gravitational constant set to zero arises. Properties of the accelerated discs and the fields produced are studied and illustrated graphically. The charges at the rim of the accelerated discs move along spiral trajectories with the speed of light. If the magic field has some deeper connection with the field of the Dirac electron, as is sometimes conjectured because of the same gyromagnetic ratio, the "accelerating magic field" represents the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated spinning electron. It generalizes the classical Born's solution for two u...

  5. EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON THE SPOILAGE FUNGI OF SOME SELECTED EDIBLE FRUITS IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele J. Akinyele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electromagnetic field wave on the survival of spoilage fungi associated with some edible fruits consumed in southwestern, Nigeria was studied using cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., pineapple (Ananas comosus, carrot (Daucus carota, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, apple (Malus domestica and African star apple (Chrysophyllum africanum. The spoilage fungi used include the genera of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Articulospora, Mucor, Staphylotrichum, Bisbyopeltis, Fusarium, Rhizopus and a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a general decrease in fungal growth as shown in the number of spores produced with increase in exposure time of isolates to electromagnetic field except in Articulospora inflata, Penicillium italicum and Mucor mucedo where there was stimulatory effect as there was increase in the fungal spores compared to the control. A decrease was also observed in growth of the fungal isolates with increase in the intensity of the electromagnetic field at voltage of 7 V to 10 V and from 10 V to 13 V. The highest percentage reduction was recorded by Bisbyopeltis phoebesii at intensity of voltage 13V after 60 minutes of exposure. Exposure of the fruits to electromagnetic field wave did not alter the nutrient components of the fruits as observed in the proximate and mineral contents of the treated and untreated fruits. The result of the study revealed that electromagnetic field wave has great potential for use in the control of fruits spoilage and food preservation.

  6. The Research on Anti-scaling Based on Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Han

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic scaling is a kind of physics method of anti-scaling. An Anti-scaling instrument that generates electromagnetic fields to prevent scaling is designed in this study. The two important functions of the instrument are as follows: The output of a single frequency signal and its frequency and voltage can be changed manually; the output of a swept-frequency signal, from 0 to 21 kHz. The instrument is composed of a signal generator and coils in which electromagnetic fields are induced. The production of the signal mainly depends on the chip of CD4046B CMOS Micro power Phase-Locked Loop. According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, the signal from the signal generator flows though coils which induce changed magnetic fields, then the magnetic fields effect the microstructure of water, the aim of anti-scaling is achieved. The experiment shows that the equipment effectively reduces scaling.

  7. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on spermatogenesis and sexual activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Shafik

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dear Sir, We read with interest the paper by Lee et al. [1].They reported that continuous exposure to an electromagnetic field with extremely low frequency may induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice.

  8. Parametric excitation of electromagnetic fields by two pump waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.; Stenflo, L. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Plasma Physics)

    1991-01-01

    A collisionless plasma in the presence of two monochromatic electric fields is considered. By means of a kinetic analysis, a dispersion relation that governs the excitation of transverse electromagnetic fluctuations is derived and analysed. (orig.).

  9. Influence of storm electromagnetic field on the aircraft crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Э. Г. Азнакаев

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered is the biophysical influence of alternative electromagnetic fields, caused by electrical discharges in atmosphere. Analyzed are conditions which may provoke inadequate actions and errors of the crew in airplane flight control

  10. Furry picture transition rates in the intense fields at a lepton collider interaction point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hartin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect on particle physics processes by intense electromagnetic fields in the charge bunch collisions at future lepton colliders is considered. Since the charge bunch fields are tied to massive sources (the e+e− charges, a reference frame is chosen in which the fields appear to be co-propagating. Solutions of the Dirac equation minimally coupled to the electromagnetic fields reasonably associated with two intense overlapping charge bunches are obtained and found to be a Volkov solution with respect to a null 4-vector whose 3-vector part lies in the common propagation direction. These solutions are used within the Furry interaction picture to calculate the beamstrahlung transition rate for electron radiation due to interaction with the electromagnetic fields of two colliding charge bunches. New analytic expressions are obtained and compared numerically with the beamstrahlung in the electromagnetic field of one charge bunch. The techniques developed will be applied to other collider physics processes in due course.

  11. Furry picture transition rates in the intense fields at a lepton collider interaction point

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The effect on particle physics processes by intense electromagnetic fields in the charge bunch collisions at future lepton colliders is considered. Since the charge bunch fields are tied to massive sources (the $e^{+}e^{-}$ charges), a reference frame is chosen in which the fields appear to be co-propagating. Solutions of the Dirac equation minimally coupled to the electromagnetic fields reasonably associated with two intense overlapping charge bunches are obtained and found to be a Volkov solution with respect to a null 4-vector whose 3-vector part lies in the common propagation direction. These solutions are used within the Furry interaction picture to calculate the beamstrahlung transition rate for electron radiation due to interaction with the electromagnetic fields of two colliding charge bunches. New analytic expressions are obtained and compared numerically with the beamstrahlung in the electromagnetic field of one charge bunch. The techniques developed will be applied to other collider physics process...

  12. Transcranial low voltage pulsed electromagnetic fields in patients with treatment-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    of a new principle using low-intensity transcranially applied pulsed electromagnetic fields (T-PEMF) in combination with antidepressants in patients with treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: This was a sham-controlled double-blind study comparing 5 weeks of active or sham T-PEMF in patients...

  13. Semi-quantitative proteomics of mammalian cells upon short-term exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzniar, A. (Arnold); C. Laffeber; B. Eppink (Berina); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); D.H. Dekkers (Dick); H. Woelders (Henri); A.P.M. Zwamborn; J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe potential effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), such as those emitted by power-lines (in extremely low frequency range), mobile cellular systems and wireless networking devices (in radio frequency range) on human health have been intensively researched and debated.

  14. Semi-quantitative proteomics of mammalian cells upon short-term exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzniar, Arnold; Laffeber, Charlie; Eppink, Berina; Bezstarosti, Karel; Dekkers, Dick; Woelders, Henri; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Demmers, Jeroen; Lebbink, Joyce H.G.; Kanaar, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The potential effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), such as those emitted by power-lines (in extremely low frequency range), mobile cellular systems and wireless networking devices (in radio frequency range) on human health have been intensively researched and debated. However,

  15. Semi-quantitative proteomics of mammalian cells upon short-term exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzniar, A.; Laffeber, C.; Eppink, B.; Bezstarosti, K.; Dekkers, D.; Woelders, H.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Demmers, J.; Lebbink, J.H.G.; Kanaar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The potential effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), such as those emitted by power-lines (in extremely low frequency range), mobile cellular systems and wireless networking devices (in radio frequency range) on human health have been intensively researched and debated. However, how

  16. Green function of an electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorian, L S; Saharian, A A

    1995-01-01

    The Green function of classical electromagnetic field is derived for a medium consisting of an arbitrary number of coaxial cylindrical layers. As an application of the general formula the radiation intensity from a charged particle, rotating around the cylinder surrounded by a homogeneous medium, is calculated. 9 refs.

  17. Anisotropic Harmonic Oscillator in a Static Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qiong-Gui

    2002-01-01

    A nonrelativistic charged particle moving in an anisotropic harmonic oscillator potential plus a homogeneousstatic electromagnetic field is studied. Several configurations of the electromagnetic field are considered. The Schrodingerequation is solved analytically in most of the cases. The energy levels and wave functions are obtained explicitly. Insome of the cases, the ground state obtained is not a minimum wave packet, though it is of the Gaussian type. Coherentand squeezed states and their time evolution axe discussed in detail.

  18. Multiband sensors for wireless electromagnetic field monitoring system - SEMONT

    OpenAIRE

    Milutinov, Miodrag; id_orcid 0000-0002-1725-3405; Đurić, Nikola; Pekarić-Nađ, Neda; Mišković, Dragiša; Knežević, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Substantial effort has been made to employ wireless sensor network and Internet technologies for environmental and habitat protection. Several monitoring systems are designed to collect data regarding temperature, humidity, pressure and some other environmental parameters, amongst which recently there is the exposure to electromagnetic field. In this paper, some basic features of the multiband sensors that are incorporated into the Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network - SEMONT are...

  19. A new dynamical variable for the electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Lara, B M

    2008-01-01

    Taking into account the characteristics of a free scalar field in elliptic coordinates, a new dynamical variable is found for the free electromagnetic field. The conservation law associated to this variable cannot be obtained by a direct application of standard Noether theorem since the symmetry generator is of second order. Consequences on the expected mechanical behavior of a particle interacting with electromagnetic waves exhibiting such a symmetry are also discussed.

  20. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  1. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  2. Electromagnetic Fields and General Health: A Case of LCDs vs. Office Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi Dehaghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Exposure to the electric and magnetic fields resulting from liquid crystaldisplays may cause adverse effects on users. Objectives This study aimed to assess the electromagnetic field intensities of liquid crystal displays and their impacts on the users’ general health. Materials and Methods Electric and magnetic field intensities were measured at 30, 50, and 60 cm around the screens using anHI-3603 device. Also, to investigate the probable relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields and the users’ general health, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was used. The questionnaires were completed by 69 employees, both in the study and control groups. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The magnetic field intensities were less than commonly accepted standards such as The Swedish confederation of professional employers (TCO for both laptop and desktop displays. Also, the electric field intensities in laptop displays were all within the allowable range in this study. However, values in the desktop displays were higher than 1 v/m (based on TCO standard in 15% ,4% and 2% of the cases involving the distances of 30, 50, and 60 cm in one or more directions, respectively. There is a significant relationship between the general health of the people exposed to electromagnetic radiation and that of the control group (P = 0.0001. Conclusions The study results are indicative of the impact of electromagnetic fields on computer users’ health, and it is thus advisable to avoid leaving computers switched on unnecessarily in addition to observing the minimum distance of 60 cm from computer monitors to control the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields.

  3. Investigation of the magnetoresistivity in compositional superlattices under the influence of an intense electromagnetic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Bau, Nguyen Quang; Nam, Nguyen Dinh

    2016-01-01

    The magnetoresistivity (MR) is theoretically calculated in a compositional semiconductor superlattice (CSSL), subjected to a crossed DC electric field and magnetic field, in the presence of an intense electromagnetic wave (EMW). The magnetic field is oriented along the growth direction of the CSSL and the electron-acoustic phonon interaction is taken into account at low temperature. Numerical results for the GaN/AlGaN CSSL show the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in the MR whose period does not depend on the temperature and amplitude decreases with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative amplitude of these oscillations is in good agreement with other theories and experiments in some two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. The influence of the EMW as well as superlattice structure on the MR is discussed and compared with available theoretical and experimental results.

  4. The power and beauty of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenthaler, Frederic R

    2011-01-01

    Unique, multi-level textbook is adaptable to introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels This revolutionary textbook takes a unique approach to electromagnetic theory, comparing both conventional and modern theories. It explores both the Maxwell-Poynting representation as well as the Alternate representation, which the author demonstrates is generally simpler and more suitable for analyzing modern electromagnetic environments. Throughout the text, students and researchers have the opportunity to examine both of these theories and discover how each one can be applied to solve problems.

  5. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  6. Electromagnetic fields and potentials generated by massless charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzurli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.azzurli@gmail.com [Scuola Galileiana di Studi Superiori, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Lechner, Kurt, E-mail: lechner@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo, 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    We provide for the first time the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for a massless charged particle moving on a generic trajectory at the speed of light. In particular we furnish explicit expressions for the vector potential and the electromagnetic field, which were both previously unknown, finding that they entail different physical features for bounded and unbounded trajectories. With respect to the standard Liénard–Wiechert field the electromagnetic field acquires singular δ-like contributions whose support and dimensionality depend crucially on whether the motion is (a) linear, (b) accelerated unbounded, (c) accelerated bounded. In the first two cases the particle generates a planar shock-wave-like electromagnetic field traveling along a straight line. In the second and third cases the field acquires, in addition, a δ-like contribution supported on a physical singularity-string attached to the particle. For generic accelerated motions a genuine radiation field is also present, represented by a regular principal-part type distribution diverging on the same singularity-string. - Highlights: • First exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for massless charges in arbitrary motion. • Explicit expressions of electromagnetic fields and potentials. • Derivations are rigorous and based on distribution theory. • The form of the field depends heavily on whether the motion is bounded or unbounded. • The electromagnetic field contains unexpected Dirac-delta-function contributions.

  7. Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; Chen, Huanyang

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a way to manipulate electromagnetic wave by introducing a rotation mapping of coordinates that can be realized by a specific transformation of permittivity and permeability of a shell surrounding an enclosed domain. Inside the enclosed domain, the information from outside will appear as if it comes from a different angle. Numerical simulations were performed to illustrate these properties.

  8. Electromagnetic fields and potentials generated by massless charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We provide for the first time the exact solution of Maxwell's equations for a massless charged particle moving on a generic trajectory at the speed of light. In particular we furnish explicit expressions for the vector potential and the electromagnetic field, which were both previously unknown, finding that they entail different physical features for bounded and unbounded trajectories. With respect to the standard Lienard-Wiechert field the electromagnetic field acquires singular delta-like contributions whose support and dimensionality depend crucially on whether the motion is a) linear, b) accelerated unbounded, c) accelerated bounded. In the first two cases the particle generates a planar shock-wave-like electromagnetic field traveling along a straight line. In the second and third cases the field acquires, in addition, a delta-like contribution supported on a physical singularity-string attached to the particle. For generic accelerated motions a genuine radiation field is also present, represented by a re...

  9. Sign reversal of Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption with orthogonal circularly polarized optical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Nibedita; Pattabiraman, M, E-mail: pattu@physics.iitm.ac.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2010-12-28

    We study by computation and experiment an electromagnetically induced absorption resonance in the Hanle configuration with a transverse magnetic field on a closed F{sub g} {yields} F{sub e} = F{sub g}+1 transition with co-propagating orthogonal circularly polarized probe and coupling optical fields. At high coupling field intensities, the Hanle resonance changes sign due to a shift in atomic population from Zeeman sublevels associated with a probe field cyclic transition to sublevels associated with a coupling field cyclic transition at zero magnetic field. We also show that a similar sign reversal does not occur for {pi}-polarized and {sigma}-polarized coupling fields.

  10. Finding of electromagnetic field by energy-momentum tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrofanova, T G

    2002-01-01

    One of the reverse problems on the electrodynamics consists in reducing the electromagnetic field by the known energy-momentum tensor of this field. The energy-momentum tensor aspect is of essential importance by developing new methods for analytical integration of field equations. Thereby there appears the question, whether the energy-momentum tensor corresponds to any physical system and if so - to which one namely. The formulated reverse problem in this paper is solved as applied to the electromagnetic field in the absence of charges and currents

  11. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  12. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Fields As a Source of Universe Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglov, S I

    2016-01-01

    A model of nonlinear electromagnetic fields with a dimensional parameter $\\beta$ is proposed. From PVLAS experiment the bound on the parameter $\\beta$ was obtained. Electromagnetic fields are coupled with the gravitation field and we show that the universe accelerates due to nonlinear electromagnetic fields. The magnetic universe is considered and the stochastic magnetic field is a background. After inflation the universe decelerates and approaches to the radiation era. The range of the scale factor, when the causality of the model and a classical stability take place, was obtained. The spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the running of the spectral index were estimated which are in approximate agreement with the PLANCK, WMAP, and BICEP2 data.

  13. Electromagnetic Field Scattering on rf-SQUID Based Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сaputo J.G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field scattering on a 2D array of rf-SQUIDs is considered. We show that the scattering changes for large amplitudes of the incident electromagnetic wave; above a critical amplitude, two different refraction states occur (bistability. In particular, for these two states, the transmitted wave polarization and angle of refraction are different. One could then switch the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave and its polarization with a “thin film”, whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelength.

  14. Unfolding-Induced in Haemoglobin by Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields: a Ftir Spectroscopy Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Calabrò

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on the secondary structure of hemoglobin were investigated by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. A decrease in intensity of the α-helix component in the amide I and amide II regions was observed after exposure of 4 h to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at 1 mT. In addition, Fourier self deconvolution analysis was carried out on exposed and not-exposed spectra. A relative increase of the β-sheet feature in the amide I region was evidenced, showing that an unfolding process of the protein occurred after exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field, suggesting the hypothesis of the formation of aggregates.

  15. [Improvement of light-cured indirect inlays durability by means of electromagnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzel'skiĭ, M Ia; Korotetskaia-Zinkevich, V L

    2014-01-01

    The main strength characteristics of light-cured resins used for replacement of dental hard tissues defects are destructive stress by compression, microhardness, resistance to abrasion, impact and water absorption. The study focuses on some strength features of composite materials for inlays processed by electromagnetic field. Four sample series of light cured resin (Charisma, Heraus Kulzer, Germany) were used to assess strength features changes in various curing methods: 10 control samples were polymerized by conventional light-curing device, while 30 were additionally processed by electromagnetic field of various intensity (60, 80 and 100 Oe, 10 samples for each group). The obtained results confirm the positive effects of electromagnetic field on strength features of light-cured resins which improves the quality of inlays.

  16. Electromagnetic field exposure and health among RF plastic sealer operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, Jonna; Hörnsten, Rolf; Sandström, Monica; Bjerle, Per; Wiklund, Urban; Stensson, Olov; Lyskov, Eugene; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2004-01-01

    Operators of RF plastic sealers (RF operators) are an occupational category highly exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The aim of the present study was to make an appropriate exposure assessment of RF welding and examine the health status of the operators. In total, 35 RF operators and 37 controls were included. The leakage fields (electric and magnetic field strength) were measured, as well as induced and contact current. Information about welding time and productivity was used to calculate time integrated exposure. A neurophysiological examination and 24 h ECG were also carried out. The participants also had to answer a questionnaire about subjective symptoms. The measurements showed that RF operators were exposed to rather intense electric and magnetic fields. The mean values of the calculated 6 min, spatially averaged E and H field strengths, in line with ICNIRP reference levels, are 107 V/m and 0.24 A/m, respectively. The maximum measured field strengths were 2 kV/m and 1.5 A/m, respectively. The induced current in ankles and wrists varied, depending on the work situation, with a mean value of 101 mA and a maximum measured value of 1 A. In total, 11 out of 46 measured RF plastic sealers exceeded the ICNIRP reference levels. RF operators, especially the ready made clothing workers had a slightly disturbed two-point discrimination ability compared to a control group. A nonsignificant difference between RF operators and controls was found in the prevalence of subjective symptoms, but the time integrated exposure parameters seem to be of importance to the prevalence of some subjective symptoms: fatigue, headaches, and warmth sensations in the hands. Further, RF operators had a significantly lower heart rate (24 h registration) and more episodes of bradycardia compared to controls.

  17. Aspects of electromagnetic radiation reaction in strong fields

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, D A

    2014-01-01

    With the recent advances in laser technology, experimental investigation of radiation reaction phenomena is at last becoming a realistic prospect. A pedagogical introduction to electromagnetic radiation reaction is given with the emphasis on matter driven by ultra-intense lasers. Single-particle, multi-particle, classical and quantum aspects are all addressed.

  18. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  19. Electromagnetic field in matter. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Apostol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The polarization and magnetization degrees of freedom are included in the general treatment of the electromagnetic field in matter, and their governing equations are given. Particular cases of solutions are discussed for polarizable, non-magnetic matter, including quasi-static fields, surface plasmons, propagation, zero-point fluctuations of the eigenmodes, especially for a semi-infinite homogeneous body (half-space. The van der Waals London-Casimir force acting between a neutral nano-particle and a half-space is computed and the response of this electromagnetically coupled system to an external field is given, with relevance for the surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  20. Magnetic fields, special relativity and potential theory elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic Fields, Special Relativity and Potential Theory is an introduction to electromagnetism, special relativity, and potential theory, with emphasis on the magnetic field of steady currents (magnetostatics). Topics covered range from the origin of the magnetic field and the magnetostatic scalar potential to magnetization, electromagnetic induction and magnetic energy, and the displacement current and Maxwell's equations. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of magnetostatics, followed by a chapter on the methods of solving potential problems drawn from elec

  1. Disorder fingerprint: Intensity distributions in the near field of random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, R. Rezvani; Sukhov, S.; Dogariu, A.

    2016-11-01

    The structural morphology of complex dielectric media determines their functionalities by driving the statistical properties of the electromagnetic fields. Our controlled experiments and full electromagnetic calculations that go beyond common dipolar approximations demonstrate that the specific characteristics of disorder lead to non-Rayleigh statistics of detected intensity, which can be directly accessed in the near field of random media and can be unambiguously related to the short-range correlations of disorder.

  2. Effects of Different Electromagnetic Fields on Circadian Rhythms of Some Haematochemical Parameters in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAURA CONTALBRIGO; CALOGERO STELLETTA; LAURA FALCIONI; STEFANIA CASELLA; GIUSEPPE PICCION; MORANDO SOFFRITTI; MASSIMO MORGANTE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of different electromagnetic fields on some haematochemical parameters of circadian rhythms in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods The study was carried out in 18 male and 18 female rats in good health conditions exposed to 50 Hz magnetic sinusoid fields at the intensity of 1000μT, 100μT, and 0μT (control group) respectively, and in 18 male and 18 female rats in good health conditions exposed to 1.8 GHz electromagnetic fields at the intensity of 50 V/m, 25 V/m and 0 V/m (control group), respectively. Following haematochemical parameters for glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were measured. Results Different effects of electromagnetic fields on circadian rhythms of both male and female rats were observed. Different changes occurred in some haematochemical parameters for glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol (P<0.05). Conclusion Exposure to different electromagnetic fields is responsible for the variations of some haematochemical parameters in rats.

  3. In vitro exposure of human chondrocytes to pulsed electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Nicolin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs on the proliferation and survival of matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI®-derived cells was studied to ascertain the healing potential of PEMFs. MACI-derived cells were taken from cartilage biopsies 6 months after surgery and cultured. No dedifferentiation towards the fibroblastic phenotype occurred, indicating the success of the surgical implantation. The MACI-derived cultured chondrocytes were exposed to 12 h/day (short term or 4 h/day (long term PEMFs exposure (magnetic field intensity, 2 mT; frequency, 75 Hz and proliferation rate determined by flow cytometric analysis. The PEMFs exposure elicited a significant increase of cell number in the SG2M cell cycle phase. Moreover, cells isolated from MACI® scaffolds showed the presence of collagen type II, a typical marker of chondrocyte functionality. The results show that MACI® membranes represent an optimal bioengineering device to support chondrocyte growth and proliferation in surgical implants. The surgical implant of MACI® combined with physiotherapy is suggested as a promising approach for a faster and safer treatment of cartilage traumatic lesions.

  4. Free charged particle behavior in intense laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, D. M.

    1984-03-01

    Theoretical studies were performed examining the effect of intense laser fields, together with auxiliary electromagnetic field configuration, on the behavior of otherwise free charged particles. The Lorentz-Dirac classical equation was employed to determine the effect of radiation reaction on the transfer of asymptotic energy momentum to a particle by a single intense plane wave pulse. The added effect due to a uniform magnetic field along the pulse propagation direction was determined. Single particle Dirac theory was employed to analyze particle polarization direction changes in a quantum-mechanical model. The general nature of the Lorentz transformation as a active transformation connecting initial and final states was determined, in which a single state characterization parameter was left unspecified. Analytic and computer studies were made of the effect of two simultaneous laser pulses, propagating in opposite directions on particle dynamics.

  5. Pregnancy and electromagnetic fields; Grossesse et champs electromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisseriex, Ch. [CARSAT Auvergne (France); Laurent, P. [Caisse d' Assurance Retraite et de la Sante au Travail - CARSAT Centre-Ouest (France); Cabaret, Ph. [CARSAT Languedoc-Roussillon (France); Bonnet, C. [CARSAT Centre (France); Marteau, E. [CRAM ile-de-France (France); Le Berre, G. [CARSAT Bretagne (France); Tirlemont, S. [CARSAT Nord-Picardie (France); Castro, H. [CARSAT Midi-Pyrenees (France); Becker, A.; Demaret, Ph.; Donati, M. [INRS Lorraine (France); Ganem, Y.; Moureaux, P. [INRS Paris (France)

    2011-07-15

    This document briefly indicates the status of knowledge regarding the effect of magnetic fields on biological tissues and pregnancy, outlines the lack of data on some frequencies and the weakness of studies on long term effects on child development. It evokes the issue of exposure assessment and that of identification of workstations exposed to electromagnetic fields

  6. Electromagnetic and gravitational fields in a Schwarzschild space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrill, J.; Stewart, J.M. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics)

    1981-05-19

    The propagation of electromagnetic fields and linearized perturbations of the vacuum Einstein equations on a Schwarzchild background space-time are discussed, and relations between the asymptotic form of the fields at null infinity and the data are established. Without suitable restrictions on the data, perturbations of a Schwarzschild space-time need not be weakly asymptotically simple.

  7. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Differentiation of HUES-17 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP, stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

  8. On guided versus deflected fields in controlled-source electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    The detection of electrically resistive targets in applied geophysics is of interest to the hydrocarbon, mining and geotechnical industries. Elongated thin resistive bodies have been extensively studied in the context of offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Such targets guide electromagnetic fields in a process which superficially resembles seismic refraction. On the other hand, compact resistive bodies deflect current in a process which has more similarities to diffraction and scattering. The response of a real geological structure is a non-trivial combination of these elements-guiding along the target and deflection around its edges. In this note the electromagnetic responses of two end-member models are compared: a resistive layer, which guides the electromagnetic signal, and a resistive cylinder, which deflects the fields. Results show that the response of a finite resistive target tends to saturate at a much lower resistivity than a resistive layer, under identical survey configurations. Furthermore, while the guided electromagnetic fields generated by a buried resistive layer contain both anomalous horizontal and vertical components, the process of electromagnetic deflection from a buried resistive cylinder creates mainly anomalous vertical fields. Finally, the transmitter orientation with respect to the position of a finite body is an important survey parameter: when the distance to the target is much less than the host skin depth, a transmitter pointing towards the resistive cylinder will produce a stronger signal than a transmitter oriented azimuthally with respect to the cylinder surface. The opposite situation is observed when the distance to the target is greater than the host skin depth.

  9. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.

  10. Cosmological Electromagnetic Fields due to Gravitational Wave Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Marklund, M; Brodin, G; Marklund, Mattias; Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Brodin, Gert

    2000-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of electromagnetic fields in an almost-Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe using the covariant and gauge-invariant approach of Ellis and Bruni. Focusing on the situation where deviations from the background model are generated by tensor perturbations only, we demonstrate that the coupling between gravitational waves and a weak magnetic test field can generate electromagnetic waves. We show that this coupling leads to an initial pulse of electromagnetic waves whose width and amplitude is determined by the wavelengths of the magnetic field and gravitational waves. A number of implications for cosmology are discussed, in particular we calculate an upper bound of the magnitude of this effect using limits on the quadrapole anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  11. Electromagnetic Propulsion System for Spacecraft using Geomagnetic fields and Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Anang

    This thesis concentrates on developing an innovative method to generate thrust force for spacecraft in localized geomagnetic fields by various electromagnetic systems. The proposed electromagnetic propulsion system is an electromagnet, like normal or superconducting solenoid, having its own magnetic field which interacts with the planet's magnetic field to produce a reaction thrust force. The practicality of the system is checked by performing simulations in order the find the varying radius, velocity, and acceleration changes. The advantages, challenges, various optimization techniques, and viability of such a propulsion system in present day and future are discussed. The propulsion system such developed is comparable to modern MPD Thrusters and electric engines, and has various applications like spacecraft propulsion, orbit transfer and stationkeeping.

  12. An explicit MOT-TDVIE scheme for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on nonlinear scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2015-02-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) based time domain electric field volume integral equation (TDVIE) solver for characterizing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers with nonlinear material properties is proposed. Discretization of the unknown electric field intensity and flux density is carried out by half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson basis functions, respectively. Coupled system of spatially discretized TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between the field intensity and the flux density is integrated in time to compute the samples of the unknowns. An explicit PE(CE)m scheme is used for this purpose. Explicitness allows for \\'easy\\' incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function only to be evaluated on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. A numerical example that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed MOT scheme to analyzing electromagnetic interactions on Kerr-nonlinear scatterers is presented. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. Electromagnetic field interactions with the human body: Observed effects and theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard.

  14. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, T M; Sinclair, P M

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of a simple surgically noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field could increase both the rate and amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed in guinea pigs. In addition, the objective was to evaluate the electromagnetic field's effects on bony physiology and metabolism and to search for possible systemic side effects. Laterally directed orthodontic force was applied to the maxillary central incisors of a sample of 40 young male, Hartley guinea pigs (20 experimental, 20 control) by means of a standardized intraoral coil spring inserted under constricting pressure into holes drilled in the guinea pigs' two maxillary central incisors. During the experimental period, the guinea pigs were placed in specially constructed, plastic animal holders with their heads positioned in an area of uniform electromagnetic field. Control animals were placed in similar plastic holders that did not carry the electrical apparatus. The application of a pulsed electromagnetic field to the experimental animals significantly increased both the rate and final amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed over the 10-day experimental period. The experimental animals also demonstrated histologic evidence of significantly greater amounts of bone and matrix deposited in the area of tension between the orthodontically moved maxillary incisors. This increase in cellular activity was also reflected by the presence of significantly greater numbers of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone surrounding the maxillary incisors of the experimental animals. After a 10-day exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field, minor changes in serologic parameters relating to protein metabolism and muscle activity were noted. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and bone deposition through the application of a noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field.

  15. Anisotropic Harmonic Oscillator in s Static Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINQiong-Gui

    2002-01-01

    A nonrelativistic charged particle moving in an anisotropic harmonic oscillator potential plus a homogeneous static electromagnetic field is studied.Several configurations of the electromagnetic field are considered.The Schoedinger equation is solved analytically in most of the cases.The energy levels and wave functions are obtained explicitly.In some of the cases,the ground state obtained is not a minimum wave packet,though it is of the Gaussian type.Coherent and squeezed states and their time evolution are discussed in detail.

  16. Lightning electromagnetic field generated by grounding electrode considering soil ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong; HE Jinliang; ZHANG Bo; GAO Yanqing

    2006-01-01

    A circuit model with lumped time-variable parameter is proposed to calculate the transient characteristic of grounding electrode under lightning current, which takes into consideration the dynamic and nonlinear effect of soil ionization around the grounding electrode. The ionization phenomena in the soil are simulated by means of time-variable parameters under appropriate conditions. The generated electromagnetic field in the air is analyzed by using electrical dipole theory and image theory when the lightning current flows into the grounding electrode. The influence of soil ionization on the electromagnetic field is investigated.

  17. Calculation of the Electromagnetic Field Around a Microtubule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Havelka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are important structures in the cytoskeleton which organizes the cell. A single microtubule is composed of electrically polar structures, tubulin heterodimers, which have a strong electric dipole moment. Vibrations are expected to be generated in microtubules, thus tubulin heterodimers oscillate as electric dipoles. This gives rise to an electromagnetic field which is detected around the cells. We calculate here the electromagnetic field of microtubules if they are excited at 1 GHz. This paper includes work done for the bachelor thesis of the first author. 

  18. Transmission-line networks cloaking objects from electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Alitalo, Pekka; Jylhä, Liisi; Venermo, Jukka; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    We consider a novel method of cloaking objects from the surrounding electromagnetic fields in the microwave region. The method is based on transmission-line networks that simulate the wave propagation in the medium surrounding the cloaked object. The electromagnetic fields from the surrounding medium are coupled into the transmission-line network that guides the waves through the cloak thus leaving the cloaked object undetected. The cloaked object can be an array or interconnected mesh of small inclusions that fit inside the transmission-line network.

  19. RESEARCH ON INDOOR ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FIELD OF MULTIPLE ANTENNA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Lu Yanhui; Zou Peng; Zhou Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the indoor environment brings great challenges to predict the electromagnetic radiation field of multiple antenna systems.Based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm,using the mobile phone shielding device as the multiple antenna systems example,the mobile phone shielding device's indoor electromagnetic radiation field is researched by measurment method and simulation method.The effectivity of prediction method is verified by comparing the prediciton results with the measurment results.About 80% of the error can be controlled less than ±4 dB.The quantitative research has certain guiding significance to the prediction of the multiple antenna systems radio wave propagation.

  20. Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum in electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, H. M.; González, C.; Martinelli, M.

    2016-07-01

    Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in the time domain the steep dispersion in the EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a Λ transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first-order term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sideband resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.

  1. Perturbative approach in the frequency domain for the intensity correlation spectrum at electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Florez, H M; Martinelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in time domain the steep dispersion in EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a $\\Lambda$-transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first oder term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sidebands resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.

  2. Spatial distribution of the internal and near-field intensities of large cylindrical and spherical scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Daniel S.; Barber, Peter W.; Zhang, Jian-Zhi; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Chang, Richard K.

    1987-04-01

    Spatial distributions of the near-field and internal electromagnetic intensities have been calculated and experimentally observed for dielectric cylinders and spheres which are large relative to the incident wavelength. Two prominent features of the calculated results are the high intensity peaks which exist in both the internal and near fields of these objects, even for nonresonant conditions, and the well-defined shadow behind the objects. Such intensity distributions were confirmed by using the fluorescence from iodine vapor to image the near-field intensity distribution and the fluorescence from ethanol droplets impregnated with rhodamine 590 to image the internal-intensity distribution.

  3. [Adaptation reactions of rat blood exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V N; Deriugina, A V

    2010-06-01

    It is carried out research of action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations--low-intensive laser radiation and radiations of the highest frequency on normal animals and at modelling the stress-reaction, caused by introduction of adrenaline. Absence of effects of system of blood is noted at action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations on normal an organism and them correction action on alteration an organism, shown in restoration of the broken parameters--leukocyte the blood count, electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes and phospholipide's structure of their membranes.

  4. Background Electromagnetic Fields and NRQED Matching: Scalar Case

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong-Wan

    2013-01-01

    The low-energy structure of hadrons can be described systematically using effective field theory, and the parameters of the effective theory can be determined from lattice QCD computations. Recent work, however, points to inconsistencies between the background field method in lattice QCD and effective field theory matching conditions. We show that the background field problem necessitates inclusion of operators related by equations of motion. In the presence of time-dependent electromagnetic fields, for example, such operators modify Green's functions, thereby complicating the isolation of hadronic parameters which enter on-shell scattering amplitudes. The particularly simple case of a scalar hadron coupled to uniform electromagnetic fields is investigated in detail. At the level of the relativistic effective theory, operators related by equations of motion are demonstrated to be innocuous. The same result does not hold in the non-relativistic effective theory, and inconsistencies in matching are resolved by ...

  5. Quantum description of electromagnetic fields in waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Using quantum theory, we study the propagation of an optical field in an inhomogeneous dielectric, and apply this scheme to traveling optical fields in a waveguide. We introduce a field-atom interaction Hamiltonian and derive the refractive index using quantum optics. We show that the transmission and reflection of optical fields at an interface between different materials can be described with normalized Fresnel coefficients and that this representation is related to the beam splitter operator. We then study the propagation properties of the optical fields for two types of slab waveguides: step-index and graded-index. The waveguides are divided into multiple layers to represent the spatial dependence of the optical field. We can evaluate the number of photons in an arbitrary volume in the waveguide using this procedure. Using the present method, the quantum properties of weak optical fields in a waveguide are revealed, while coherent states with higher amplitudes reduces to representation of classical wavegu...

  6. Optimal control of electromagnetic field using metallic nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Ilya; Haas, Stephan; Balatsky, Alexander; Levi, A. F. J.

    2008-04-01

    The dielectric properties of metallic nanoclusters in the presence of an applied electromagnetic field are investigated using the non-local linear response theory. In the quantum limit we find a nontrivial dependence of the induced field and charge distributions on the spatial separation between the clusters and on the frequency of the driving field. Using a genetic algorithm, these quantum functionalities are exploited to custom-design sub-wavelength lenses with a frequency-controlled switching capability.

  7. Electronic Wave Packet in a Quantized Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程太旺; 薛艳丽; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 傅盘铭

    2002-01-01

    We study a non-stationary electronic wave packet in a quantized electromagnetic field. Generally, the electron and field become entangled as the electronic wave packet evolves. Here we find that, when the initial photon state is a coherent one, the wavefunction of the system can be factorized if we neglect the transferred photon number. In this case, the quantized-field calculation is equivalent to the semi-classical calculation.

  8. [Patient exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance scanners: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibelalde del Castillo, E

    2013-12-01

    The use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the low frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and static fields, radiofrequencies (RF), and microwaves is fundamental both in modern communication systems and in diagnostic medical imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proliferation of these applications in recent decades has led to intense activity in developing regulations to guarantee their safety and to the establishment of guidelines and legal recommendations for the public, workers, and patients. In April 2012 it was foreseen that the European Parliament and Council would approve and publish a directive on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields, which would modify Directive 2004/40/EC. New studies related to the exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its impact on health published in recent years have led to a new postponement, and it is now foreseen that the directive will come into effect in October 2013. One of the most noteworthy aspects of the new version of the directive is the exclusion of the limits of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the clinical use of MRI. In exchange for this exception, physicians and experts in protection against non-ionizing radiation are asked to make additional efforts to train workers exposed to non-ionizing radiation and to establish mechanisms to guarantee the correct application of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in patients, along similar lines to the principles of justification and optimization established for ionizing radiation. On the basis of the most recently published studies, this article reviews some safety-related aspects to take into account when examining patients with MRI with high magnetic fields.

  9. Coulomb field in a constant electromagnetic background

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear Maxwell equations are written up to the third-power deviations from a constant-field background, valid within any local nonlinear electrodynamics including QED with Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian. Linear electric response to imposed static finite-sized charge is found in the vacuum filled by an arbitrary combination of constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields. The modified Coulomb field, corrections to the total charge and to the charge density are given in terms of derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants.

  10. A physically motivated quantization of the electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert; Barlow, Thomas M.; Beige, Almut

    2016-01-01

    The notion that the electromagnetic field is quantized is usually inferred from observations such as the photoelectric effect and the black-body spectrum. However accounts of the quantization of this field are usually mathematically motivated and begin by introducing a vector potential, followed by the imposition of a gauge that allows the manipulation of the solutions of Maxwell’s equations into a form that is amenable for the machinery of canonical quantization. By contrast, here we quantize the electromagnetic field in a less mathematically and more physically motivated way. Starting from a direct description of what one sees in experiments, we show that the usual expressions of the electric and magnetic field observables follow from Heisenberg’s equation of motion. In our treatment, there is no need to invoke the vector potential in a specific gauge and we avoid the commonly used notion of a fictitious cavity that applies boundary conditions to the field.

  11. Electromagnetic fields and Green functions in elliptical vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Persichelli, Serena; Migliorati, Mauro; Palumbo, Luigi; Vaccaro, Vittorio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic interaction between a point charge travelling inside a waveguide of elliptical cross section, and the waveguide itself. By using a convenient expansion of the Mathieu functions, useful in particular for treating a variety of problems in applied mathematics and physics with elliptic geometry, we first obtain the longitudinal electromagnetic field of a point charge (Green function) in free space in terms of elliptical coordinates. This expression allows, then, to calculate the scattered field due to the boundary conditions in our geometry. By summing the contribution of the direct or primary field and the indirect field scattered by the boundary, after a careful choice of some expansion expressions, we derive a novel formula of the longitudinal electric field, in any transverse position of the elliptical cross section, generated by the charge moving along the longitudinal axis of the waveguide. The obtained expression is represented in a closed form, it can be diffe...

  12. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  13. Ion Plasma Responses to External Electromagnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of ion plasmas to external radiation fields is investigated in a quantum mechanical formalism.We focus on the total electric field within the plasma. For general bandpass signals three frequency regions can be distinguished in terms of the plasma frequency. For low frequencies, the exte

  14. Electromagnetic time reversal focusing of near field waves in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalko, Matthew J.; Sample, Alanson P.

    2016-12-01

    Precise control of electromagnetic energy on a deeply subwavelength scale in the near field regime is a fundamentally challenging problem. In this letter we demonstrate the selective focusing of electromagnetic energy via the electromagnetic time reversal in the near field of a metamaterial. Our analysis begins with fundamental mathematics, and then is extended to the experimental realm where focusing in space and time of the magnetic fields in the near field of a 1-Dimensional metamaterial is shown. Under time reversal focusing, peak instantaneous fields at receiver locations are at minimum ˜200% greater than other receivers. We then leverage the strong selective focusing capabilities of the system to show individual and selective powering of light emitting diodes connected to coil receivers placed in the near field of the metamaterial. Our results show the possibility of improving display technologies, near field imaging systems, increasing channel capacity of near field communication systems, and obtaining a greater control of energy delivery in wireless power transfer systems.

  15. Transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields for multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Skovbjerg, Sine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . The symptoms may have severe impact on patients' lives, but an evidence-based treatment for the condition is nonexisting. The pathophysiology is unclarified, but several indicators point towards abnormal processing of sensory signals in the central nervous system. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) offer...

  16. What Message Should Health Educators Give regarding Electromagnetic Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa A.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) causing a number of medical conditions and common symptoms remains a concern and presents somewhat of a quandary to health educators in view of conflicting results. This study investigated the relationship of a number of EMF sources to reported symptoms in an attempt to,…

  17. Generation of a Desired Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed three-dimensional electromagnetic field based on generalized phase contrast imaging. Such a method and apparatus may be utilized in advanced optical micro and nano-manipulation, such as by provision of a multiple...

  18. The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim

    In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...

  19. Impact of high electromagnetic field levels on childhood leukemia incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepen, J.C.; Dijck, J.A. van

    2012-01-01

    The increasing exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has raised concern, as increased exposure may result in an increased risk of childhood leukemia (CL). Besides a short introduction of CL and EMF, our article gives an evaluation of the evidence of a causal relation between EMF and CL by critic

  20. The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim

    In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...

  1. Electromagnetic Field in Lyra Manifold: A First Order Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; de Melo, C. A. M.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2005-12-01

    We discuss the coupling of the electromagnetic field with a curved and torsioned Lyra manifold using the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory. We will show how to obtain the equations of motion and energy-momentum and spin density tensors by means of the Schwinger Variational Principle.

  2. 78 FR 33633 - Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Electromagnetic Fields), 18 FCC Rcd 13187 (2003). \\3\\ See 5 U.S.C. 604. A. Need for, and Objectives of, the Report... FCC Rcd 2732, 2811-2812, paras. 178-181 (``Paging Second Report and Order''); see also Revision of..., Memorandum Opinion and Order on Reconsideration, 14 FCC Rcd 10030, 10085-10088, paras. 98-107 (1999). \\38...

  3. Transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields for multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Skovbjerg, Sine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . The symptoms may have severe impact on patients' lives, but an evidence-based treatment for the condition is nonexisting. The pathophysiology is unclarified, but several indicators point towards abnormal processing of sensory signals in the central nervous system. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) offer...

  4. Electromagnetic Quantum Field Theory on Kerr-Newman Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casals, Marc

    2004-01-01

    We study classical and quantum aspects of electromagnetic perturbations on black hole space-times. We develop an elegant formalism introduced by Wald, which sets up the theory of linear perturbations in a Type-D background in a compact and transparent manner. We derive expressions for the electromagnetic potential in terms of the single Newman-Penrose scalar \\phi_0.This enables the formulation of the quantum theory of the electromagnetic field as that of a complex scalar field. We study the separable field equations obeyed by the various Newman-Penrose scalars in the Kerr-Newman background and find, for various limits, the asymptotic behaviour of the radial and angular solutions. We correct and build on a study by Breuer, Ryan and Waller to find a uniformly valid asymptotic behaviour for large frequency of the angular solutions and the eigenvalues. We follow Candelas, Chrzanowski and Howard (CCH) in their canonical quantization of the electromagnetic potential and field. We perform an asymptotic analysis of t...

  5. Electromagnetic Field in Lyra Manifold: A First Order Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Pimentel, B M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the coupling of the electromagnetic field with a curved and torsioned Lyra manifold using the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory. We will show how to obtain the equations of motion and energy-momentum and spin density tensors by means of the Schwinger Variational Principle.

  6. Electromagnetic Effects in Superconductors in Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmedov, B J

    2005-01-01

    The general relativistic modifications to the resistive state in superconductors of second type in the presence of a stationary gravitational field are studied. Some superconducting devices that can measure the gravitational field by its red-shift effect on the frequency of radiation are suggested. It has been shown that by varying the orientation of a superconductor with respect to the earth gravitational field, a corresponding varying contribution to AC Josephson frequency would be added by gravity. A magnetic flux (being proportional to angular velocity of rotation $\\Omega$) through a rotating hollow superconducting cylinder with the radial gradient of temperature $\

  7. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Xenophon K; Giotis, Christos; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Peschos, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2011-12-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) has been treated with various types of electromagnetic radiation methods such as transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), interstitial laser therapy (ILC), holmium laser resection (HoLRP). In the present study, the effects of a noninvasive method based on the exposure of patients with BPH to a pulsative EM Field at radiofrequencies have been investigated. Twenty patients with BPH, aging 68-78 years old (y.o), were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (10 patients, 74.0 ± 5.7 y.o) treated with the α-blocker Alfusosin, 10 mg/24 h for at least 4 weeks, and the electromagnetic group (10 patients, 73.7 ± 6.3 y.o) exposed for 2 weeks in a very short wave duration, pulsed electromagnetic field at radiofrequencies generated by an ion magnetic inductor, for 30 min daily, 5 consecutive days per week. Patients of both groups were evaluated before and after drug and EMF treatment by values of total PSA and prostatic PSA fraction, acid phosphate, U/S estimation of prostate volume and urine residue, urodynamic estimation of urine flow rate, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). There was a statistically significant decrease before and after treatment of IPSS (P < 0.02), U/S prostate volume (P < 0.05), and urine residue (P < 0.05), as well as of mean urine flow rate (P < 0.05) in patients of the electromagnetic group, in contrast to the treatment group who had only improved IPSS (P < 0.05). There was also a significant improvement in clinical symptoms in patients of the electromagnetic group. Follow-up of the patients of this group for one year revealed that results obtained by EMFs treatment are still remaining. Pulsed electromagnetic field at radiofrequencies may benefit patients with benign prostate hyperplasia treated by a non-invasive method.

  8. Propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J. D.; Rowland, H. L.

    1993-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere is presented in a theoretical and numerical analysis. The model assumes a source of electromagnetic radiation in the Venus atmosphere, such as that produced by lightning. Specifically addressed is wave propagation in the altitude range z = 130-160 km at the four frequencies detectable by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector: 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Parameterizations of the wave intensities, peak electron density, and Poynting flux as a function of magnetic field are presented. The waves are found to propagate most easily in conditions of low electron density and high magnetic field. The results of the model are consistent with observational data.

  9. The electromagnetic field for an open magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary-layer-dominated models of the earth EM field developed by Heikkila (1975, 1978, 1982, and 1983) and Heikkila et al. (1979) to account for deficiencies in the electric-field descriptions of quasi-steady-state magnetic-field-reconnection models (such as that of Cowley, 1980) are characterized, reviewing the arguments and indicating the most important implications. The mechanisms of boundary-layer formation and field direction reversal are explained and illustrated with diagrams, and it is inferred that boundary-layer phenomena rather than magnetic reconnection may be the cause of large-scale magnetospheric circulation, convection, plasma-sheet formation and sunward convection, and auroras, the boundary layer acting basically as a viscous process mediating solar-wind/magnetosphere interactions.

  10. Flows and chemical reactions in an electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This book - a sequel of previous publications 'Flows and Chemical Reactions', 'Chemical Reactions Flows in Homogeneous Mixtures' and 'Chemical Reactions and Flows in Heterogeneous Mixtures' - is devoted to flows with chemical reactions in the electromagnetic field. The first part, entitled basic equations, consists of four chapters. The first chapter provides an overview of the equations of electromagnetism in Minkowski spacetime. This presentation is extended to balance equations, first in homogeneous media unpolarized in the second chapter and homogeneous fluid medium polarized in the thir

  11. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  12. Electromagnetic Hydrophone with Tomographic System for Absolute Velocity Field Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; 10.1063/1.4726178

    2012-01-01

    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  13. Low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure enhances extracellular trap formation by human neutrophils through the NADPH pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golbach, L.A.; Scheer, M.H.; Cuppen, J.J.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are abundantly present in modern society, and the potential biological consequences of exposure to these fields are under intense debate. Immune cells are suggested as possible target cells, though a clear mechanism is lacking. Considering their cruci

  14. Spectral fluctuations and the statistics of electromagnetic transition intensities and electromagnetic moments in {sup 136}Xe using the framework of the shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoudi, A.K., E-mail: a.hamoudi@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2011-01-01

    The fluctuation properties of energy spectrum, electromagnetic transition intensities and electromagnetic moments in {sup 136}Xe nucleus are investigated within the framework of the interacting shell model, using a realistic effective interaction for the N82-model space with a {sup 132}Sn core. The spectral fluctuations (i.e., the nearest-neighbors level spacing distribution and the {Delta}{sub 3} statistic), the distributions of the electromagnetic transition intensities and of the electromagnetic moments are well described by the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. A clear quantum signature of the breaking of chaoticity (i.e., a transition towards regularity) is observed when the single particle energies are increased.

  15. Beta decay and other processes in strong electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmedov, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    We consider effects of the fields of strong electromagnetic waves on various characteristics of quantum processes. After a qualitative discussion of the effects of external fields on the energy spectra and angular distributions of the final-state particles as well as on the total probabilities of the processes (such as decay rates and total cross sections), we present a simple method of calculating the total probabilities of processes with production of non-relativistic charged particles. Using nuclear beta-decay as an example, we study the weak and strong field limits, as well as the field-induced beta-decay of nuclei stable in the absence of the external fields, both in the tunneling and multi-photon regimes. We also consider the possibility of accelerating forbidden nuclear beta-decays by lifting the forbiddeness due to the interaction of the parent or daughter nuclei with the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. It is shown that for currently attainable electromagnetic fields all effects on total beta-...

  16. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.

  18. Classical Electromagnetic Field Theory in the Presence of Magnetic Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kang(李康); CHEN Wen-Jun(陈文俊); NAON Carlos M.

    2003-01-01

    Using two new well-defined four-dimensional potential vectors, we formulate the classical Maxwell field theory in a form which has manifest Lorentz covariance and SO(2) duality symmetry in the presence of magnetic sources.We set up a consistent Lagrangian for the theory. Then from the action principle we obtain both Maxwell's equation and the equation of motion of a dyon moving in the electromagnetic field.

  19. Electromagnetic Fields Radiated by a Circular Loop with Arbitrary Current

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    We present a rigorous approach to compute the electromagnetic fields radiated by a thin circular loop with arbitrary current. We employ a polar transmission representation along with a Kontorovich-Lebedev transform to derive integral representations of the field in the interior and exterior regions of a sphere circumscribing the loop. The convergence of the obtained expressions is discussed and comparison with full-wave simulation and other methods are shown.

  20. Neutral Spinning Particles in Electromagnetic Fields and Neutron Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀香; 梁九卿

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of neutral spinning particles in electromagnetic fields is investigated. The phase interference of unpolarized neutron beams is reasonably interpreted as the observed spin precession in external fields instead of potential effects in the quantum physics; namely, the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects. It is also pointed out that the recent experiment claimed to be the verification of Aharonov-Casher phase with neutron interferometry, however, can be considered as a test of new anyon model.

  1. Classical electromagnetic field theory in the presence of magnetic sources

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W J; Naón, C M; Chen, Wen-Jun; Li, Kang

    2001-01-01

    Using two new well defined 4-dimensional potential vectors, we formulate the classical Maxwell's field theory in a form which has manifest Lorentz covariance and SO(2) duality symmetry in the presence of magnetic sources. We set up a consistent Lagrangian for the theory. Then from the action principle we get both Maxwell's equation and the equation of motion of a dyon moving in the electro-magnetic field.

  2. Superlattice conductivity sign change induced by intense electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, S. V.; Kukhar', E. I.; Ionkina, E. S.

    2016-07-01

    The current density in a superlattice exposed to a quantizing electric field and the terahertz field has been calculated. The calculations have been carried out taking into account inelastic scattering of charge carriers by phonons. The possibility of an absolute negative conductivity, i.e., the emergence of electric current opposing the direction of the quantizing electric field, has been demonstrated.

  3. Electromagnetic Field Effects in Semiconductor Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulikravich, George S.

    1996-01-01

    This proposed two-year research project was to involve development of an analytical model, a numerical algorithm for its integration, and a software for the analysis of a solidification process under the influence of electric and magnetic fields in microgravity. Due to the complexity of the analytical model that was developed and its boundary conditions, only a preliminary version of the numerical algorithm was developed while the development of the software package was not completed.

  4. Basic Materials for Electromagnetic Field Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-04

    UHF bio- logical effects. VIEM, 1937. 8. Anikin M.M., Varshaver G.S. Basics of a physiotherapy . Medgiz. 1950. 9. Osipov You.A., Ushinskaya O.F. On... strokes a 1 minute. Table. Frequency drift of frog heart beats in dependence from modulations of microwave field and initial frequency of heart...hearts with frequency of beats of 20–30 strokes a 1 minute. 23 EXAMINATIONS IN VIVO It was supposed, that the role of modulation in

  5. The electromagnetic force field, fluid flow field and temperature profiles in levitated metal droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical representation was developed for the electromagnetic force field, the flow field, the temperature field (and for transport controlled kinetics), in a levitation melted metal droplet. The technique of mutual inductances was employed for the calculation of the electromagnetic force field, while the turbulent Navier - Stokes equations and the turbulent convective transport equations were used to represent the fluid flow field, the temperature field and the concentration field. The governing differential equations, written in spherical coordinates, were solved numerically. The computed results were in good agreement with measurements, regarding the lifting force, and the average temperature of the specimen and carburization rates, which were transport controlled.

  6. Mapping individual electromagnetic field components inside a photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, T; Lee, J H H; van der Slot, P J M; Vos, W L; Boller, K -J

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We apply the method to map the electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to select Bloch standing waves and a subwavelength spherical scatterer is scanned inside the resulting resonator. The resonant Bloch frequencies shift depending on the electric field at the position of the scatterer. To map the electric field component Ez we measure the frequency shift in the reflection and transmission spectrum of the slab versus the scatterer position. Very good agreement is found between measurements and calculations without any adjustable parameters.

  7. STATIC SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC SOLUTION OF EINSTEIN GRAVITY COUPLED TO ELECTROMAGNETIC AND SCALAR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光

    2001-01-01

    The static spherically symmetric solution of Einstein gravity coupled to electromagnetic and scalar fields is obtained under the consideration of the self-gravitational interaction of the electromagnetic and scalar fields, which is singularityfree and stable.

  8. Proton Radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Edwards, M; Phillips, T; Lerner, S; Price, D; Hicks, D; Key, M; Hatchett, S; Wilks, S; King, J; Snavely, R; Freeman, R; Boehlly, T; Koenig, M; Martinolli, E; Lepape, S; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Audebert, P; Gauthier, J; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Pretzler, G; Willi, O

    2004-04-15

    Laser driven proton beams have been used to diagnose transient fields and density perturbations in laser produced plasmas. Grid deflectometry techniques have been applied to proton radiography to obtain precise measurements of proton beam angles caused by electromagnetic fields in laser produced plasmas. Application of proton radiography to laser driven implosions has demonstrated that density conditions in compressed media can be diagnosed with MeV protons. This data has shown that proton radiography can provide unique insight into transient electromagnetic fields in super critical density plasmas and provide a density perturbation diagnostics in compressed matter . PACS numbers: 52.50.Jm, 52.40.Nk, 52.40.Mj, 52.70.Kz

  9. Laser photon merging in an electromagnetic field inhomogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Shaisultanov, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of laser photon merging, or equivalently high harmonic generation, in the quantum vacuum subject to inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. Such a process is facilitated by the effective nonlinear couplings arising from charged particle-antiparticle fluctuations in the quantum vacuum subject to strong electromagnetic fields. We derive explicit results for general kinematic and polarization configurations involving optical photons. Concentrating on merged photons in reflected channels which are preferable in experiments for reasons of noise suppression, we demonstrate that photon merging is typically dominated by the competing nonlinear process of quantum reflection, though appropriate polarization and signal filtering could specifically search for the merging process. As a byproduct, we devise a novel systematic expansion of the photon polarization tensor in plane wave fields.

  10. Momentum of the Electromagnetic Field in Transparent Dielectric Media

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-01-01

    We present arguments in favor of the proposition that the momentum of light inside a transparent dielectric medium is the arithmetic average of the Minkowski and Abraham momenta. Using the Lorentz transformation of the fields (and of the coordinates) from a stationary to a moving reference frame, we show the consistent transformation of electromagnetic energy and momentum between the two frames. We also examine the momentum of static (i.e., time-independent) electromagnetic fields, and show that the close connection that exists between the Poynting vector and the momentum density extends all the way across the frequency spectrum to this zero-frequency limit. In the specific example presented in this paper, the static field inside a non-absorbing dielectric material turns out to have the Minkowski momentum.

  11. The wave-function description of the electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    For an arbitrary electromagnetic field, we define a prepotential $S$, which is a complex-valued function of spacetime. The prepotential is a modification of the two scalar potential functions introduced by E. T. Whittaker. The prepotential is Lorentz covariant under a spin half representation. For a moving charge and any observer, we obtain a complex dimensionless scalar. The prepotential is a function of this dimensionless scalar. The prepotential $S$ of an arbitrary electromagnetic field is described as an integral over the charges generating the field. The Faraday vector at each point may be derived from $S$ by a convolution of the differential operator with the alpha matrices of Dirac. Some explicit examples will be calculated. We also present the Maxwell equations for the prepotential.

  12. [Operational aspects of risk perception in the electromagnetic fields exposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennarola, E; Barletta, R; Quarto, E; Pennarola, R

    2007-01-01

    The increase of electromagnetic fields exposition is being associated with the increase of risk perception in the people exposed due to the uncertainty of the biological and sanitary effects. Research is being carried out on the symptomatology shown by the 45 people living near power-lines in the Benevento area and consequently exposed to electromagnetic fields. The measure of the magnetic and electric field was in the normal range while the people showed most symptoms in the subjective and behavioural sphere. The research findings suggest that risk assessement should take into account the subjectivity of the people exposed as shown in the special questionnaires with the aim of reducing the subjective and behavioural symptomatology for developing a new environmental medicine.

  13. Response of two-phase droplets to intense electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Maloney, Daniel J.; Lawson, William F.; Casleton, Kent H.

    1993-04-01

    The behavior of two-phase droplets subjected to high intensity radiation pulses is studied. Droplets are highly absorbing solids in weakly absorbing liquid medium. The objective of the study was to define heating thresholds required for causing explosive boiling and secondary atomization of the fuel droplet. The results point to mechanisms for energy storage and transport in two-phase systems.

  14. Enhancement of local electromagnetic fields in plasmonic crystals of coaxial metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Ikeda, Naoki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa

    2012-01-01

    We have experimentally and numerically examined resonant modes in plasmonic crystals (PlCs) of coaxial metallic nanostructures. Resonance enhancements of local electromagnetic (EM) fields were evaluated quantitatively. We clarified that a local mode induced in the coaxial metallic structure shows the most significant field enhancement. The enhancement factors are comprehensively discussed by comparison with other PlCs, indicating that the coaxial PlC provides a locally intense electric field and EM power flux in the annular slit of 50-nm metallic gaps.

  15. Bubble shape and electromagnetic field in the nonlinear regime for laser wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Kong, Q., E-mail: qkong@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gu, Y. J. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Kawata, S. [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yohtoh, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The electromagnetic field in the electron “bubble” regime for ultra-intense laser wakefield acceleration was solved using the d'Alembert equations. Ignoring the residual electrons, we assume an ellipsoidal bubble forms under ideal conditions, with bubble velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum. The general solution for bubble shape and electromagnetic field were obtained. The results were confirmed in 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. Moreover, slopes for the longitudinal electric field of larger than 0.5 were found in these simulations. With spherical bubbles, this slope is always smaller than or equal to 0.5. This behavior validates the ellipsoid assumption.

  16. Influence of electromagnetism field on the flame transmission and shock wave in gas explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). College of Metallurgy and Resources

    2008-01-15

    The influence of electromagnetic field on flame transmission and explosion wave overpressure in gas explosions was investigated. The research results show that the velocity of flame propagation and the explosion wave overpressure in an electromagnetic field is much higher than that in plain tube, and the stronger the electromagnetic field, the greater the influence. Based on experimental results, the influence of electromagnetic field on gas explosion propagation was analyzed and a reasonable explanation was put forward. The influence of electromagnetic field is not equal to the sum of the electric field and the magnetic field. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Controlling Electromagnetic Field by Graded Meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei

    Metamaterials , i.e. artificial materials with electromagnetic properties not readily available in nature, have become a major research topic in both scientific and engineering communities. Being different from conventional materials, metamaterials possess peculiar electromagnetic properties, e.g. negative refractive index, depending on their structures. In particular, metamaterials form a basis for achieving cloaking device that makes an object invisible or transparency to the probing electromagnetic wave. This topic has significant impact on various fields ranging from optics, medicine, biology to nanotechnology. Several cloaking techniques have been proposed by different research groups, namely, anomalous localized resonance, transformation optics, and scattering cancellation, etc. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, the limitation in working frequency is a primary disadvantage of them. This thesis is concentrated on controlling electromagnetic field by graded metamaterials, i.e, metamaterials with graded structures, with the objective to realize the broadband electromagnetic transparency by extending the working frequency. Regarding the limitations of existing cloaking techniques, we propose the graded model based on the scattering cancellation technique, because it does not rely on resonant phenomena, and is fairly robust to relatively high variations of the shape and electromagnetic properties of the cloaked object. We modify the original Mie theory and Rayleigh scattering theory to deal with the graded metamaterial structures, and calculate the scattering cross section of graded isotropic and anisotropic spherical structures, an alytically and numerically. For the graded isotropic spherical structure, we achieve the exact analytic expressions for both full-wave and Rayleigh scattering cross sections, within our modified Mie theory and Rayleigh scattering theory. The numerical studies on the scattering cross sections clearly

  18. Consequences of Coupled Electromagnetic-Gravitational Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Larry

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1980s there was a flurry of activities involving the newly discovered high Tc superconductors in the development of new devices such as more efficient current transmission, transformers, generators, and motors. One such developmental project by Podkletnov in 1992 noted some small, anomalous gravitational behaviors. A following unpublished paper by Podkletnov 1995 provided data with larger effects using a larger (approx. 25 cm) superconducting disk. Unfortunately this disk was extremely fragile and was broken beyond repair. To date, these experiments have not been successfully repeated because of the difficulties of producing stable, durable (and fired) superconducting disks. This problem with firing these disks has been solved by Li. What remains is to install the disk in "motor", at superconducting temperatures in the presence of appropriately tailored magnetic fields.

  19. Field and intensity correlation in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbah; Pnini; Genack

    2000-11-01

    We have obtained the spectral and spatial field correlation functions, C(E)(Deltaomega) and C(E)(Deltax), respectively, from measurement of the microwave field spectrum at a series of points along a line on the output of a random dielectric medium. C(E)(Deltaomega) and C(E)(Deltax) are shown to be the Fourier transforms, respectively, of the time of flight distribution, obtained from pulsed measurements, and of the specific intensity. Unlike C(E)(Deltaomega), the imaginary part of C(E)(Deltax) is shown to vanish as a result of the isotropy of the correlation function in the output plane. The complex square of the field correlation function gives the short-range or C1 contribution to the intensity correlation function C. Longer-range contributions to the intensity correlation function are obtained directly by subtracting C1 from C and are in good agreement with theory.

  20. ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES IN STRONG CRYSTALLINE FIELDS

    CERN Document Server

    Uggerhoj, U I; Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Lund, M; Møller, S P; Sørensen, A H; Thomsen, A H; Uggerhøj, U I; Geissel, H; Scheidenberger, C; Weick, H; Winfield, J; Sona, P; Connell S; Ballestrero, S; Ketel, T; Dizdar, A; Mangiarotti, A

    2009-01-01

    As an addendum to the NA63 proposal cite{Ande05}, we propose to measure 1) the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect in low-$Z$ targets, 2) Magnetic suppression of incoherent bremsstrahlung resulting from exposure to an external field during the emission event, and 3) the bremsstrahlung emission from relativistic ($gamma=170$), fully stripped Pb nuclei penetrating various amorphous targets. Concerning the LPM effect, both the 'traditional' Migdal approach and the modern treatment by Baier and Katkov display inaccuracies, i.e. a possible lack of applicability in low-$Z$ targets. Moreover, the LPM effect has been shown to have a significant impact on giant air showers for energies in the EeV range - evidently processes in a low-$Z$ material. A measurement of magnetic suppression is demanding in terms of necessary accuracy (an expected $lesssim$15% effect), but would prove the existence of a basic interplay between coherent and incoherent processes, also believed to be significant in beamstrahlung emission. For...

  1. Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-17-10 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release...N) Energy /Work/Power electron volt (eV) 1.602 177 × 10 –19 joule (J) erg 1 × 10 –7 joule (J) kiloton (kt) (TNT equivalent) 4.184 × 10 12...customary unit. Grant #  HDTRA 1-12-1-0044 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release Final Report PI: Keith A. Nelson 617-253-1423 kanelson

  2. Electromagnetic fields in the exterior of an oscillating relativistic star - II. Electromagnetic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.

    2016-07-01

    An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes, these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way, we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electromagnetic damping time-scales that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than in Newtonian gravity. Furthermore, with the only exception of g (gravity) modes, we find that f (fundamental), p (pressure), i (interface) and s (shear) modes are suppressed more efficiently by gravitational losses than by electromagnetic ones.

  3. Steady electric fields and currents elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W

    2013-01-01

    Steady Electric Fields and Currents, Volume 1 is an introductory text to electromagnetism and potential theory. This book starts with the fields associated with stationary charges and unravels the stationary condition to allow consideration of the flow of steady currents in closed circuits. The opening chapter discusses the experimental results that require mathematical explanation and discussion, particularly those referring to phenomena that question the validity of the simple Newtonian concepts of space and time. The subsequent chapters consider steady-state fields, electrostatics, dielectr

  4. Invariant superoscillatory electromagnetic fields in 3D-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, K. G.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2017-01-01

    We derive exact solutions of Maxwell’s equations based on superoscillatory superpositions of vectorial Bessel beams. These novel beams are diffraction-free and can support subwavelength features in their transverse electromagnetic fields, without the presence of any evanescent waves. These features can be propagated into the far field. Approximate solutions in closed form are also derived based on asymptotic expansions of Bessel functions for simple prescribed subwavelength patterns. The superoscillatory characteristics of both electric, magnetic field components (transverse and longitudinal), and the Poynting vector, as well as, the effect of nonparaxiality are systematically investigated.

  5. High Dynamic Range Electric Field Sensor for Electromagnetic Pulse Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Che-Yun; Lee, Beom Suk; Zhang, Xingyu; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01

    We design a high dynamic range electric field sensor based on domain inverted electro-optic (E-O) polymer Y-fed directional coupler for electromagnetic wave detection. This electrode-less, all optical, wideband electrical field sensor is fabricated using standard processing for E-O polymer photonic devices. Experimental results demonstrate effective detection of electric field from 16.7V/m to 750KV/m at a frequency of 1GHz, and spurious free measurement range of 70dB.

  6. Investigation of Interaction between Deferoxamine and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Angiogenesis in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Dashtizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferoxamine (DFO is an iron chelator. In the present research, the synergic effects of deferoxamine and electromagnetic field (with 50 H frequency and 100 Gauss intensity on angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 80 fertilized egg used and randomly divided 8 group: control group, laboratory control groups of 1 and 2, experimental group 1 (treatment with electromagnetic field, 2 and 3 (treatment with deferoxamine 10, 100 µmol, respectively, 4 and 5 (treatment both deferoxamine 10 and 100 µmol respectively and electromagnetic field. On 8th day of incubation, 2 and 4 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine and for 3 and 5 groups were incubated with 10 µL deferoxamine 100 µmol. On 10th day, 1, 4 and 5 groups were put in electromagnetic field. On 12th day, the number and length of vessels in all samples was measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed by SPSS-19, ANOVA and t-test. Results: The mean number and length of vessels in the control and experimental cases did not show any significant differences. Comparison between mean number of vessels in the control and group 2, 3, 4, 5 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05 and groups 2 and 4 was showed a significant decrease in the mean length of vessels compared with the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using deferoxamine with low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz and 100 G cause inhibition of angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

  7. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields in a Hospital for Safe Use of Electronic Medical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kai; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Hosokawa, Ren; Fujisaki, Tetsushi; Yoshino, Ryoji; Hirose, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Establishment of electromagnetic compatibility is important in use of electronic medical equipment in hospitals. To evaluate the electromagnetic environment, the electric field intensity induced by electromagnetic radiation in broadcasting spectra coming from outside the hospital was measured in a new hospital building before any patients visited the hospital and 6 months after the opening of the hospital. Various incoming radio waves were detected on the upper floors, with no significant difference in measured levels before and after opening of the hospital. There were no cellphone terminal signals before the hospital opened, but these signals were strongly detected at 6 months thereafter. Cellphone base stations signals were strongly detected on the upper floors, but there were no signals at most locations in the basement and in the center of the building on the lower floors. A maximum electrical intensity of 0.28 V/m from cellphone base stations (2.1 GHz) was detected at the south end of the 2nd floor before the hospital opened. This value is lower than the EMC marginal value for general electronic medical equipment specified in IEC 60601-1-2 (3 V/m). Therefore, electromagnetic interference with electronic medical equipment is unlikely in this situation. However, cellphone terminal signals were frequently detected in non-base station signal areas. This is a concern, and understanding signal strength from cellphone base stations at a hospital is important for promotion of greater safety.

  8. Soft hairs on isolated horizon implanted by electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Pujian; Zhang, Hongbao

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent proposal of soft hair on black holes in arXiv:1601.00921, we have shown that an isolated horizon carries soft hairs implanted by electromagnetic fields. The solution space and the asymptotic symmetries of coupled Einstein-Maxwell theory have been worked out explicitly near isolated horizon. The conserved current has been computed and an infinite number of near horizon charges have been introduced from the electromagnetic fields associated to the asymptotic $U(1)$ symmetry near the horizon, which indicates the fact that isolated horizon carries a large amount of soft electric hairs. The soft electric hairs, i.e. asymptotic $U(1)$ charges, are shown to be equivalent to the electric multipole moments of isolated horizons. It is further argued that the isolated horizon supertranslation is from the ambiguity of its foliation and an analogue of memory effect on horizon can be expected.

  9. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the Cookridge area of Leeds

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, K; Judd, P M; Lowe, A J; Shaw, J

    2002-01-01

    On the 8 and 9 May 2002 representatives of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) performed a radiofrequency electromagnetic field survey in the Cookridge area of Leeds in order to assess exposure to radio signals from transmitters mounted on a water tower/a lattice tower and a radio station tower. Guidelines on limiting exposure to radio signals have been published by NRPB and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are designed to prevent established adverse effects on human health. During this survey, the total exposures due to all radio signals from 30 MHz to 18000 MHz (18 GHz) were measured. This frequency range was chosen as it includes mobile phone base station transmissions, which are at around 900 and 1800 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) transmissions from most of the large microwave dish antennas mounted on the towers. In addition, other major sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the environment such as broadcast radio...

  10. Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Bogolubov, N N

    2012-01-01

    The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well known as the absorption radiation theory, and strongly dependent on the Mach type interaction of a charged point particle in an ambient vacuum electromagnetic medium. There are discussed some relationships between this problem and the one derived within the context of the vacuum field theory approach. The R. \\ Feynman's \\textquotedblleft heretical\\textquotedblright\\ approach \\cite{Dy1,Dy2} to deriving the Lorentz force based Maxwell electromagnetic equations is also revisited, its complete legacy is argued both by means o...

  11. Soft hairs on isolated horizon implanted by electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pujian; Wu, Xiaoning; Zhang, Hongbao

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by the recent proposal of soft hair on black holes in Hawking et al (2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 231301), we have shown that an isolated horizon carries soft hairs implanted by electromagnetic fields. The solution space and the asymptotic symmetries of Einstein–Maxwell theory have been worked out explicitly near the isolated horizon. The conserved current has been computed and an infinite number of near horizon charges have been introduced from the electromagnetic fields associated with the asymptotic U(1) symmetry near the horizon, which indicates the fact that the isolated horizon carries a large amount of soft electric hairs. The soft electric hairs, i.e. asymptotic U(1) charges, are shown to be equivalent to the electric multipole moments of isolated horizons. It is further argued that the isolated horizon supertranslation is from the ambiguity of its foliation and an analogue of memory effect on horizon can be expected.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Psenakova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.

  13. Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate

    CERN Document Server

    Acedo, L

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The resulting gravitational time-dilation near these masses gives rise to a frequency change of any periodic process, including electromagnetic oscillations as the wave propagates across the gravitational field. This phenomenon can be tackled with classical electrodynamics assuming a curved spacetime background and Maxwell's equations in a generally covariant form. In the present paper, we show that in a classical field-theoretical context the gravitational redshift can be interpreted as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with corresponding conductivity $\\sigma=g/(\\mu_0 c^3)$, where $g$ is the gravitational acceleration and $\\mu_0$ is the vacuum magnetic p...

  14. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on brain histopathology of Caspian Sea Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Samiee, Keivandokht

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on the effect of electromagnetic field on aquatic organisms, especially freshwater fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (50 Hz) exposure on brain histopathology of Cyprinus carpio, one of the important species of Caspian Sea with significant economic value. A total of 200 healthy fish were used in this study. They were classified randomly in two groups: sham-exposed group and experimental group, which were exposed to five different magnetic field intensities (0.1, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mT) at two different exposure times (0.5 and 1 h). Histologic results indicate that exposure of C. carpio to artificial ELF-EMF caused severe histopathological changes in the brain at field intensities ≥3 mT leading to brain necrosis. Field intensity and duration of exposure were key parameters in induction of lesion in the brain. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mechanism of EMF exposure on the brain.

  15. Time dependent electromagnetic fields and 4-dimensional Stokes' theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Andosca, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Stokes' theorem is central to many aspects of physics -- electromagnetism, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and Wilson loops to name a few. However, the pedagogical examples and research work almost exclusively focus on situations where the fields are time-independent so that one need only deal with purely spatial line integrals ({\\it e.g.} $\\oint {\\bf A} \\cdot d{\\bf x}$) and purely spatial area integrals ({\\it e.g.} $\\int (\

  16. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Gye, Myung Chan; Park, Chan Jin

    2012-01-01

    The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine h...

  17. Detachment of Conductive Coatings by Pulsed Electromagnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov, V.; Tatarinov, A.; Kolbe, M; Gluschenkov, V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies on the detachment of conductive coatings from the metal substrate by pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). It is known that at the boundary of a metal substrate and an electrically conductive coating having different electrical conductivities sharp changes of PEMF strength arise. This effect has been used to remove a copper layer from a steel substrate. Experimental studies were carried out in the Riga Technical University (Latvia), West Sax...

  18. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  19. [Biological action of electromagnetic fields of 4 MHz decametric waves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdol'naia, I S

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to the amplitude-modulated electromagnetic field, 4 MHZ, 400, 200, and 100 V/m over two months for 16 hours a day was found out to bring low the adaptation potential of a number of bodily physiological systems in animals (non-linebred rats). Changes in the brain functional activity, cell-bound, and humoral immunity were ascertained to be the structural-and-functional basis of reorganization of physiological prosesses.

  20. Low-frequency electromagnetic field in a Wigner crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Stupka, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Long-wave low-frequency oscillations are described in a Wigner crystal by generalization of the reverse continuum model for the case of electronic lattice. The internal self-consistent long-wave electromagnetic field is used to describe the collective motions in the system. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the obtained system of equations are derived. The velocities of longitudinal and transversal sound waves are found.

  1. Electromagnetic and transient shielding effectiveness for near-field sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Möller

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with an investigation of the recently proposed definitions for the electromagnetic and transient shielding effectiveness (SE in the case of an electric-dipole near-field source. To this end, new factors are introduced which depend on the distance between the dipole source and the measurement point inside the shield and which are valid for perpendicularly (with respect to the distance vector polarized dipoles. Numerical results support and confirm the theoretical derivations.

  2. Positron extraction to an electromagnetic field free region

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, D A; Vergani, S; Brown, B; Rubbia, A; Crivelli, P

    2015-01-01

    We describe a scheme for high efficiency (about 90%) extraction of 50 ns positron bunches from a buffer gas trap in an electromagnetic field free region. The positrons are time bunched to approximately 1 ns (FWHM) and focussed to less than 1 mm ({\\sigma}). The target is kept at ground potential which is an advantage for many applications. The results compare well with SIMION simulations.

  3. Opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In January 2015, the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) published its final opinion on "Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields." The purpose of this document was to update previous SCENIHR opinions in the light of recently available information since then, and to give special consideration to areas that had not been dealt with in the previous opinions or in which important knowledge gaps had been identified.

  4. Electromagnetic field interacting with a semi-infinite plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M; Vaman, G

    2009-07-01

    Plasmon and polariton modes are derived for an ideal semi-infinite (half-space) plasma by using a general, unifying procedure based on the equation of motion of the polarization and the electromagnetic potentials. Known results are reproduced in a much more direct manner, and new ones are derived. The approach consists of representing the charge disturbances by a displacement field in the positions of the moving particles (electrons). The propagation of an electromagnetic wave in this plasma is treated by using the retarded electromagnetic potentials. The resulting integral equations are solved, and the reflected and refracted fields are computed, as well as the reflection coefficient. Generalized Fresnel relations are thereby obtained for any incidence angle and polarization. Bulk and surface plasmon-polariton modes are identified. As is well known, the field inside the plasma is either damped (evanescent) or propagating (transparency regime), and the reflection coefficient exhibits an abrupt enhancement on passing from the propagating regime to the damped one (total reflection).

  5. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Osteoporosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowei, Yang; Liming, Wang; Guan, Z. C.; Yaou, Zhang; Xiangpeng, Wang

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the preventive effects and long term effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), generated by circular coils and pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulators, on osteoporosis in bilaterally ovariectomized rats. In preventive experiment, thirty three-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three different groups: sham (SHAM), ovariectomy (OVX), PEMFs stimulation (PEMFs). All rats were subjected to bilaterally ovariectomy except those in SHAM group. The PEMFs group was exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields with frequency 15 Hz, peak magnetic induction density 2.2mT and exposure time 2 hours per day. The bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebra and left femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at eighth week, twelfth week and sixteenth week after surgery. In long term effects experiment, forty four rats were randomly divided into sham (14 rats, SHAM), ovariectomy group (10 rats, OVX), 15Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 15Hz) and 30Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 30Hz) at twenty-sixth week after surgery. Rats in PEMFs groups were stimulated sixteen weeks. In preventive experiment, the Corrected BMD of vertebra and femur was significantly higher than that of OVX group after 16 weeks (Ptreatment of osteoporosis.

  6. Correlation between intensity fluctuations of light generated by scattering of Young’s diffractive electromagnetic waves by a quasi-homogeneous, anisotropic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Feinan

    2016-11-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, formulas are derived for the correlation between intensity fluctuations (CIF) of light generated by a Young’s diffractive electromagnetic wave scattered by a spatially quasi-homogeneous (QH), anisotropic medium. It is shown that the CIF of the scattered field can be written as the summation of the Fourier transforms of the strengths and normalized correlation coefficients (NCCs) of the scattering potentials. The differences between our results and those obtained in the previous literature are discussed. Our results might be important in investigating the high-order intensity correlation of an electromagnetic wave scattered from a 3D anisotropic object.

  7. Response of two-phase droplets to intense electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, J.F. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880 (United States)); Maloney, D.J.; Lawson, W.F.; Casleton, K.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880 (United States))

    1993-04-20

    The response of two-phase droplets to intense radiant heating is studied to determine the incident power that is required for causing explosive boiling in the liquid phase. The droplets studied consist of strongly absorbing coal particles dispersed in a weakly absorbing water medium. Experiments are performed by confining droplets (radii = 37, 55, and 80 [mu]m) electrodynamically and irradiating them from two sides with pulsed laser beams. Emphasis is placed on the transition region from accelerated droplet vaporization to droplet superheating and explosive boiling. The time scale observed for explosive boiling is more than 2 orders of magnitude longer than published values for pure liquids. The delayed response is the result of energy transfer limitations between the absorbing solid phase and the surrounding liquid.

  8. Response of two-phase droplets to intense electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Maloney, Daniel J.; Lawson, William F.; Casleton, Kent H.

    1993-01-01

    The response of two-phase droplets to intense radiant heating is studied to determine the incident power that is required for causing explosive boiling in the liquid phase. The droplets studied consist of strongly absorbing coal particles dispersed in a weakly absorbing water medium. Experiments are performed by confining droplets (radii of 37, 55, and 80 microns) electrodynamically and irradiating them from two sides with pulsed laser beams. Emphasis is placed on the transition region from accelerated droplet vaporization to droplet superheating and explosive boiling. The time scale observed for explosive boiling is more than 2 orders of magnitude longer than published values for pure liquids. The delayed response is the result of energy transfer limitations between the absorbing solid phase and the surrounding liquid.

  9. Comparison of the genotoxic effects induced by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in GC-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weixia; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; Pi, Huifeng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. However, their genotoxic effects remain controversial. To make experiments controllable and results comparable, we standardized exposure conditions and explored the potential genotoxicity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF and 1800 MHz RF-EMF. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was intermittently (5 min on and 10 min off) exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at an intensity of 1, 2 or 3 mT or to RF-EMF in GSM-Talk mode at the specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 2 or 4 W/kg. After exposure for 24 h, we found that neither ELF-EMF nor RF-EMF affected cell viability using Cell Counting Kit-8. Through the use of an alkaline comet assay and immunofluorescence against γ-H2AX foci, we found that ELF-EMF exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3 mT, whereas RF-EMF exposure had insufficient energy to induce such effects. Using a formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified alkaline comet assay, we observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage at a SAR value of 4 W/kg, whereas ELF-EMF exposure did not. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different.

  10. High-intensity, focused ultrasonic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1988-01-01

    distribution, etc. involving nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption in the high-intensity focused ultrasonic fields produced by an ellipsoid as well as a spherical cap focusing geometry. Data from the development of an ESWL of the piezoelectric disk type are reported including demands to transducers...

  11. Nonstationary random acoustic and electromagnetic fields as wave diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaut, L R

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of relatively rapid variations of the boundaries of an overmoded cavity on the stochastic properties of its interior acoustic or electromagnetic field. For quasi-static variations, this field can be represented as an ideal incoherent and statistically homogeneous isotropic random scalar or vector field, respectively. A physical model is constructed showing that the field dynamics can be characterized as a generalized diffusion process. The Langevin--It\\^{o} and Fokker--Planck equations are derived and their associated statistics and distributions for the complex analytic field, its magnitude and energy density are computed. The energy diffusion parameter is found to be proportional to the square of the ratio of the standard deviation of the source field to the characteristic time constant of the dynamic process, but is independent of the initial energy density, to first order. The energy drift vanishes in the asymptotic limit. The time-energy probability distribution is in general n...

  12. Influence of electromagnetic signal of antibiotics excited by low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on growth of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yin-Lung; Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Li, Shun-Lai; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Energy medicine (EM) provides a new medical choice for patients, and its advantages are the noninvasive detection and nondrug treatment. An electromagnetic signal, a kind of EM, induced from antibiotic coupling with weak, extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is utilized for investigating the growth speed of Escherichia coli (E. coli). PEMFs are produced by solenoidal coils for coupling the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics (penicillin). The growth retardation rate (GRR) of E. coli is used to investigate the efficacy of the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The E. coli is cultivated in the exposure of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The maximum GRR of PEMFs with and without the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics on the growth of E. coli cells in the logarithmic is 17.4 and 9.08%, respectively. The electromagnetic signal of antibiotics is successfully coupled by the electromagnetic signal coupling instrument to affect the growth of E. coli. In addition, the retardation effect on E. coli growth can be improved of by changing the carrier frequency of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. GRR caused by the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics can be fixed by a different carrier frequency in a different phase of E. coli growth.

  13. Confining a closed configuration of a liquid with an electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getselev, Z.N.; Martynov, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    The authors consider an arrangement for electromagnetic ingot shaping. A liquid metal mass is contained by electromagnetic forces excited in its surface layer, where the field intensity is adjusted by a shield. The mass forces which maintain the configuration of the ingot during cooling are broken down into potential and vortex forces. Surface tension forces are not considered in the analysis since the meniscus surface curvature is small and the energy of the mass forces exceeds that of the surface forces by several times. An analytical procedure for computing the potential and vortex fields of force is developed for two special cases of the liquid phase surface shape. Formulas are derived for the acting electromagnetic force, the potential of the mass forces, the vortex mass force and the maximum mechanical energy of the vortex forces at any point in the liquid phase, where the liquid phase is limited to the following cases: (a) a rectangular meniscus; (b) a meniscus of constant slope; (c) a hardened flat wall, at the surface of which the electromagnetic force is constant. The distribution and relationship of the mass potential and vortex forces acting in the melt are shown graphically.

  14. Plasma wakefields driven by intense, broadband, incoherent electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Trines, R M G M; Mendonça, J T; Mori, W B; Norreys, P A; Bingham, R

    2014-01-01

    Non-linear wave-driven processes in plasmas are normally described by either a monochromatic pump wave that couples to other monochromatic waves, or as a random phase wave coupling to other random phase waves. An alternative approach involves an incoherent, random or broadband pump coupling to monochromatic and/or coherent structures in the plasma. This approach can be implemented through the wave kinetic model. In this model, the incoming pump wave is described by either a bunch (for coherent waves) or a sea (for random phase waves) of quasi-particles. A particle-in-cell type code has been developed to perform numerical simulations of such interactions using the quasi-particle approach. This code allows for a comparatively easy description of both random phase and coherent pump pulses coupling to slow electrostatic plasma waves, while providing an extended range of powerful diagnostics leading to a deeper physical insight into the dynamics of the fast waves. As an example, the propagation of short, intense l...

  15. Force-Free Electromagnetic Fields within Spinor Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trishin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with spinor representation of the force-free electrodynamics. The equations of the force-free electromagnetic field describe the physics of pulsars and black holes whose magnetospheres are filled with magnetically dominated relativistic plasma.The paper is a brief pedagogical introduction to the mathematics of the subject, based on 2-spinor calculi. The objective is to present the nonlinear theory of force-free fields in a compact and elegant form that the spinor framework provides. First, the algebraic classification of the Maxwell tensor is presented. Then, the reduced system of differential equations is obtained for two types of electromagnetic field and the basic features of the solutions are described.  The null force-free field is connected with the shear-free geodesic null congruence in a space-time and is derived from a linear equation for a complex function. The magnetic force-free field is associated with the time-like 2-surface that represents the world-sheet of magnetic field line. The simplified system includes 4 linear differential equations for a real function. The article is educational in nature and there are no new solutions of force-free equations obtained.

  16. Time-Domain Computation Of Electromagnetic Fields In MMICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Faiza S.; Rascoe, Daniel L.

    1995-01-01

    Maxwell's equations solved on three-dimensional, conformed orthogonal grids by finite-difference techniques. Method of computing frequency-dependent electrical parameters of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) involves time-domain computation of propagation of electromagnetic field in response to excitation by single pulse at input terminal, followed by computation of Fourier transforms to obtain frequency-domain response from time-domain response. Parameters computed include electric and magnetic fields, voltages, currents, impedances, scattering parameters, and effective dielectric constants. Powerful and efficient means for analyzing performance of even complicated MMIC.

  17. Electromagnetic fields of a massless particle and the eikonal

    CERN Document Server

    Jackiw, Roman W; Ortiz, M; Jackiw, Roman; Kabat, Dan; Ortiz, Miguel

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields of a massless charged particle are described by a gauge potential that is almost everywhere pure gauge. Solution of quantum mechanical wave equations in the presence of such fields is therefore immediate and leads to a new derivation of the quantum electrodynamical eikonal approximation. The elctromagnetic action in the eikonal limit is localised on a contour in a two-dimensional Minkowski subspace of four-dimensional space-time. The exact S-matrix of this reduced theory coincides with the eikonal approximation, and represents the generalisatin to electrodynamics of the approach of 't Hooft and the Verlinde's to Planckian scattering.

  18. Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Román

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.

  19. Synergistic health effects between chemical pollutants and electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoigt, Gérard; Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Souguir, Dalila; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health. Concomitant presence of various pesticides and their transformation products adds further complexity to chemical risk assessment since chronic inflammation is a key step for cancer promotion. Degradation of a parent molecule can produce several by-products which can trigger various toxic effects with different impacts on health and environment. For instance, the cocktail of sunlight irradiated sulcotrione pesticide has a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule, sulcotrione, and questions about the impact of photochemical process on environment. Adjuvants were shown to modify the biological features of pesticides. Addition of other elements, metals or biological products, can differently enhance cell toxicity of pesticides or electromagnetic radiations suggesting a synergy in living organisms. Electromagnetic fields spreading, pesticide by-products and mixtures monitoring become greater for environmental contamination evaluations.

  20. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  1. Effect of the different winding methods of coil on electromagnetic field during transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Xu, Guizhi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful, non-invasive tool for investigating functions in the brain. The target inside the head is stimulated with eddy currents induced in the tissues by the time-varying magnetic field. TMS has been used in several applications in medical and clinical research which include brain mapping, treatment of mood disorder and schizophrenia, treatment of epilepsy, treatment of chronic pain and so on. The stimulation effect can be affected by the stimulation intensity. For coils with the same shape, different winding methods make the coil have different stimulation intensity. In this paper, three different methods for winding circular coils are discussed. The electromagnetic fields induced by the three different circular coils were analyzed. The results show that the circular coil with the pancake coil winding has the strongest stimulation intensity.

  2. Noise induced calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yongli; Chen, Yafei; Yuan, Changqing; Zhan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of noise on the calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields are described by a dynamic model. Noise is a very important factor to be considered in the dynamic research on the calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields. Some meaningful results have been obtained here based on the discussion. The results show that the pattern of intracellular calcium oscillations exposure to electromagnetic fields can be influenced by noise. Furthermore, the intracellular calcium oscillations exposure to electromagnetic fields can also be induced by noise. And the work has also studied the relationships between the voltage sensitive calcium channel's open probability and electromagnetic field. The result can provide new insights into constructive roles and potential applications of selecting appropriate electromagnetic field frequency during the research of biological effect of electromagnetic field.

  3. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Milan; Lazetic, Bogosav; Poljacki, Mirjana; Djuran, Verica; Matic, Aleksandra; Gajinov, Zorica

    2009-05-01

    Wound healing is a very complex process, some phases of which have only recently been explained. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields can modulate this process in a non-thermal way. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of constant and pulsed electromagnetic fields and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in experimental animals. The experiment was conducted on 120 laboratory rats divided into four groups of 30 animals each (constant electromagnetic field, pulsed electromagnetic field, LLLT and control group). It lasted for 21 days. Under the influence of the constant electromagnetic field the healing of the skin defect was accelerated in comparison with the control group. The difference was statistically significant in all the weeks of the experiment at the P electromagnetic field (P electromagnetic fields have a promoting effect on the wound healing process.

  4. Optical switching of cross intensity correlation in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shi; Hu, Xiangming; Xu, Jun; Li, Lingchao

    2017-03-01

    We present optical switching of cross intensity correlation in the context of cavity electromagnetically induced transparency configuration. For symmetrical parameters, the cross intensity correlation switches from negative to positive as the atom–pump detunings change symmetrically from one case to the other. In terms of the dressed atomic states and the Bogoliubov modes we analyze the atom–photon interaction mechanism for the switching behavior, and present a numerical verification. As a by-product, we show noise squeezing of the sum or difference intensity in a limited region of parameters.

  5. Seminal magnetic fields from inflato-electromagnetic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-10-15

    We extend some previous attempts to explain the origin and evolution of primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced from a 5D vacuum. We show that the usual quantum fluctuations of a generalized 5D electromagnetic field cannot provide us with the desired magnetic seeds. We show that special fields without propagation on the extra non-compact dimension are needed to arrive at appreciable magnetic strengths. We also identify a new magnetic tensor field B{sub ij} in this kind of extra dimensional theory. Our results are in very good agreement with observational requirements, in particular from TeV blazars and CMB radiation limits we see that primordial cosmological magnetic fields should be close to scale invariance. (orig.)

  6. The electron propagator in external electromagnetic fields in low dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Gabriela; Raya, Alfredo; Sánchez, Ángel; Reyes, Edward

    2010-07-01

    We study the electron propagator in quantum electrodynamics in one and two spatial dimensions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. In this case, the propagator is not diagonal in momentum space. We obtain the propagator on the basis of the eigenfunctions of the operator (γ ṡΠ)2 in terms of which the propagator acquires a free form. Πμ is the canonical momentum operator and γμ are the Dirac matrices. In two dimensions, we work with an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra and consider to all orders the effects of an arbitrary magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of motion of the electrons. We then discuss the special cases of a uniform magnetic field and an exponentially damped static magnetic field. These cases are relevant to graphene in the massless limit. We further consider the electron propagator for the massive Schwinger model and incorporate the effects of a constant electric field to all orders.

  7. Effects of Bluetooth device electromagnetic field on hearing: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, R; Prepageran, N; Prepagaran, N; Rahmat, O; Zulkiflee, A B; Hufaida, K S

    2012-04-01

    The Bluetooth wireless headset has been promoted as a 'hands-free' device with a low emission of electromagnetic radiation. To evaluate potential changes in hearing function as a consequence of using Bluetooth devices, by assessing changes in pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emissions. Prospective study. Thirty adult volunteers were exposed to a Bluetooth headset device (1) on 'standby' setting for 6 hours and (2) at full power for 10 minutes. Post-exposure hearing was evaluated using pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emission testing. There were no statistically significant changes in hearing, as measured above, following either exposure type. Exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by a Bluetooth headset, as described above, did not decrease hearing thresholds or alter distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

  8. Spin light of neutrino in matter and electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, A

    2003-01-01

    A new type of electromagnetic radiation by a neutrino with non-zero magnetic (and/or electric) moment moving in background matter and electromagnetic field is considered. We have named this radiation as "spin light of neutrino". The total power of the spin light of neutrino, in contrast to the Cherenkov or transition radiation of neutrino in matter, does not vanish in the case of the refractive index of matter is equal to unit. The specific features of this new phenomenon are: (i) the total power of the radiation is proportional to $\\gamma ^{4}$, and (ii) the radiation is beamed within a small angle $\\delta \\gamma \\sim \\gamma^{-1}$, where $\\gamma$ is the neutrino Lorentz factor. Applications of this new type of neutrino radiation to astrophysics, in particular to gamma-ray bursts, should be important.

  9. The universal C*-algebra of the electromagnetic field II. Topological charges and spacelike linear fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Ciolli, Fabio; Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2017-02-01

    Conditions for the appearance of topological charges are studied in the framework of the universal C*-algebra of the electromagnetic field, which is represented in any theory describing electromagnetism. It is shown that non-trivial topological charges, described by pairs of fields localised in certain topologically non-trivial spacelike separated regions, can appear in regular representations of the algebra only if the fields depend non-linearly on the mollifying test functions. On the other hand, examples of regular vacuum representations with non-trivial topological charges are constructed, where the underlying field still satisfies a weakened form of "spacelike linearity". Such representations also appear in the presence of electric currents. The status of topological charges in theories with several types of electromagnetic fields, which appear in the short distance (scaling) limit of asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories, is also briefly discussed.

  10. Nonlinear optical field sensors in extreme electromagnetic and acoustic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzarella, Anthony; Wu, Dong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Sensors based on electro-optic (EO) and magneto-optic (MO) crystals measure external electric and magnetic fields through changes in birefringence which the fields induce on the nonlinear crystals. Due to their small size and all-dielectric structure, EO and MO sensors are ideal in environments involving very large electromagnetic powers. Conventional antennas and metallic probes not only present safety hazards, due to their metallic structure and the presence of large currents, but they can also perturb the very fields they intend to measure. In the case of railguns, the large electromagnetic signals are also accompanied by tremendous acoustic noise, which presents a noise background that the sensors must overcome. In this presentation, we describe extensive data obtained from fiber optic EO and MO sensors used in the railgun of the Naval Research Laboratory. Along with the field measurements obtained, we will describe the interactions between the acoustic noise and the nonlinear crystals (most notably, photoelastic effects), the noise equivalent fields they produce, and methods they could be suppressed through the optical and geometrical configurations of the sensor so that the signal to noise ratio can be maximized.

  11. Effects of electromagnetic fields on fecundity in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W F; Giarola, A J; Bradley, J W; Shrekenhamer, A

    1975-02-28

    Egg production was reduced when young laying hens were kept in contact with metal cages while being continuously exposed to the following cw fields: a vhf field at a frequency of 260 MHz, with an incident power that decreased from 100 to 4mW during the experiment; a uhf field at a frequency of 915 MHz, with an incident power of 800 mW during the first 2.5 weeks, zero during the following week, and 200 mW for the remainder of the experiment; a uhf field at 2.435 GHz, with an incident power of 800 mW; an elf electric field at a frequency of 60 Hz, with a calculated value of field strength of 1600 V/m; an elf magnetic field at 60 Hz, with a value of magnetic flux density of 1.4G. With the exception of the hens exposed to the uhf field at 915 MHz, all other treated groups laid significantly less eggs than the controls (p smaller than or equal to 0.01). This reduction (similar 15% less than the controls) began with the first 4-week production period. The egg production curves for the hens exposed to the vhf field at 260 MHz and to the uhf field at 2.435 GHz were approximately the same beginning with the sixth week of production, and they maintained comparable production levels for the remainder of the experiment. An 8% total drop in production also was experienced in the group of birds exposed to the 915-MHz field, which pulsed because of equipment failure. Egg production rate curves for the birds in the elf electric and magnetic fields were substantially different from those exhibited by birds in the other electromagnetic fields. The birds in the E-field regained a production level comparable to the controls after 11 weeks production, whereas those in the B-field dropped to 31% production, which was approximately 40% poorer than the controls by the twelfth week of production. Fertility of cocks and hens was not affected by continuous low-power vhf and uhf near-zone electromagnetic exposure or elf electric or magnetic field treatment. Fertility was exceptionally good

  12. Vafa-Witten theorem, vector meson condensates and magnetic-field-induced electromagnetic superconductivity of vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Chernodub, M N

    2012-01-01

    We show that the electromagnetic superconductivity of vacuum in strong magnetic field background is consistent with the Vafa-Witten theorem because the charged vector meson condensates lock relevant internal global symmetries of QCD with the electromagnetic gauge group.

  13. Do the standard expressions for the electromagnetic field-momentum need any modifications?

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    We investigate here the question raised in literature about the correct expression for the electromagnetic field-momentum, especially when static fields are involved. For this we examine a couple of simple but intriguing cases. First we consider a system configuration in which electromagnetic field momentum is present even though the system is static. We trace the electromagnetic momentum to be present in the form of a continuous transport of electromagnetic energy from one part of the system to another, without causing any net change in the energy of the system. In a second case we show that the electromagnetic momentum is nil irrespective of whether the charged system is stationary or in motion, even though the electromagnetic energy is present throughout. We demonstrate that the conventional formulation of electromagnetic field-momentum describes the systems consistently without any real contradictions. Here we also make exposition of a curiosity where electromagnetic energy decreases when the charged syst...

  14. Non-linear quantum dynamics in strong and short electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Alexander I; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    In our contribution we give a brief overview of two widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.m.) (e.g.\\ laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that at small and moderate laser field intensities the shape and duration of the pulse are very important for the probability of considered processes. However, at high intensities the multi-photon interactions of the fermions with laser field are decisive and completely determined all aspects of subthreshold electron-positron pairs and photon production

  15. Electromagnetic superconductivity of vacuum induced by strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Chernodub, M N

    2012-01-01

    The quantum vacuum may become an electromagnetic superconductor in the presence of a strong external magnetic field of the order of 10^{16} Tesla. The magnetic field of the required strength (and even stronger) is expected to be generated for a short time in ultraperipheral collisions of heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider. The superconducting properties of the new phase appear as a result of a magnetic-field-assisted condensation of quark-antiquark pairs with quantum numbers of electrically charged rho mesons. We discuss similarities and differences between the suggested superconducting state of the quantum vacuum, a conventional superconductivity and the Schwinger pair creation. We argue qualitatively and quantitatively why the superconducting state should be a natural ground state of the vacuum at the sufficiently strong magnetic field. We demonstrate the existence of the superconducting phase using both the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and an effective bosonic model based on the vector meson dominance (th...

  16. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.

  17. Behavior of radon progeny in low frequency electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, K; Yamamoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Whether the electro-magnetic (EM) fields are carcinogenic or not still remains to be discussed from scientific point of view. Recently a possibility was pointed out that increased deposition of radon progeny in the EM-fields should enhance exposure dose to internal body. We investigated the behavior of charged sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn progeny and aerosols containing them by measuring the pattern and the magnitude of the deposition rate of decay products on both CR-39 track detectors and imaging plates under various conditions. We concluded that the attachment to wire cables should be increased mainly by electric component of low frequency EM-fields and possibly by electric field induced by strong changing magnetic ones.

  18. ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - RECENT THEORETICAL ADVANCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BELEGGIA,M.; POZZI, G.; TONOMURA, A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown in this work that the Fourier space approach can be fruitfully applied to the calculation of the fields and the associated electron optical phase shift of several magnetic and electrostatic structures, like superconducting vortices in conventional and high-T{sub c} superconductors, reverse biased p-n junctions, magnetic domains and nanoparticles. In all these cases, this novel approach has led to unexpected but extremely interesting results, very often expressed in analytical form, which allow the quantitative and reliable interpretation of the experimental data collected by means of electron holography or of more conventional Lorentz microscopy techniques. Moreover, it is worth recalling that whenever long-range electromagnetic fields are involved, a physical model of the object under investigation is necessary in order to take into account correctly the perturbation of the reference wave induced by the tail of the field protruding into the vacuum. For these reasons, we believe that the Fourier space approach for phase computations we have introduced and discussed in this chapter will represent an invaluable tool for the investigation of electromagnetic fields at the meso- and nano-scale.

  19. Dynamics of Cometary Dust Particles in Electromagnetic Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranen, Joonas; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    The formation of cometary dust tails and comae is based on solar radiation pressure. The pressure effects of electromagnetic radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of comets and formulated mathematically by Maxwell in 1873. Today, the dynamics of cometary dust are known to be governed by gravity, electromagnetic forces, drag, solar wind, and solar radiation pressure.Solar radiation pressure has its roots in absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation. Due to modern advances in so-called integral equation methods in electromagnetics, a new approach of studying the effect of radiation pressure on cometary dust dynamics can be constructed. We solve the forces and torques due to radiation pressure for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle using volume integral equation methods.We then present a framework for solving the equations of motion of cometary dust particles due to radiative interactions. The solution is studied in a simplified cometary environment, where the radiative effects are studied at different orbits. The rotational and translational equations of motion are solved directly using a quaternion-based integrator. The rotational and translational equations of motion affect dust particle alignment and concentration. This is seen in the polarization of the coma. Thus, our direct dynamical approach can be used in modelling the observed imaging photo-polarimetry of the coma.In future studies, the integrator can be further extended to an exemplary comet environment, taking into account the drag, and the electric and magnetic fields. This enables us to study the dynamics of a single cometary dust particle based on fundamental physics.Acknowledgments. Research supported, in part, bythe European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HOMOGENIZATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD IN SOFT-CONTACT CONTINUOUS CASTING MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Y. Deng; G.L. Jia; J.C. He

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional electromagnetic characteristics and non-uniform distribution of electromagnetic field in soft-contact mold have been analyzed by numerical simulation. The results show that the maximum electromagnetic flux density is found in front of slit; the electromagnetic flux density becomes large as coil current and slit number increase. In a certain frequency range, the electromagnetic flux density increases with increasing frequency; and the frequency range is different with changing of azimuthal position along inner wall of mold. The uniformity of electromagnetic field is effected mainly by frequency and mold structure parameters. Increasing slit number and adjusting slit arrangement position can improve the electromagnetic flux density and the uniformity of electromagnetic field. For a soft-contact mold with 16 slits, when frequency is 20kHz, the optimal slit arrangement parameter is a: b = 1: 2.c=0.

  1. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  2. Electromagnetically-induced-transparency intensity-correlation power broadening in a buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aojie; Green, Alaina; Crescimanno, Michael; O'Leary, Shannon

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) noise correlation spectroscopy holds promise as a simple, robust method for performing high-resolution spectroscopy used in optical magnetometry and clocks. Of relevance to these applications, we report on the role of buffer gas pressure and magnetic field gradients on power broadening of Zeeman-EIT noise correlation resonances.

  3. An Optimization of Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, in our research we have focused on the use of normal human neuronal progenitor (NHNP) cells because of their importance in human nervous system regeneration, development and maintenance, but we have developed 2-D and 3-D bioreactors that can accommodate any cell line. In this Project, we will include the use of tissues important for physiological regeneration: Human osteoblasts or chondrocytes, and vascular cells. Our initial results with the NHNP cells were quite startling using extremely low-level electromagnetic fields (5 microtesla at 10Hz; 6mA). The low-amplitude, rapidly time-varying electromagnetic fields exert a very potent effect on the proliferation, morphology, and gene expression of the cells in culture, both in standard 2-dimensional culture plates as well as cells organized into 3-dimensional tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) in a 3D bioreactor. We have replicated our preliminary results many, many times, have analyzed the gene expression using gene arrays (followed by Luminex analysis for protein production), and have monitored cell proliferation, orientation, morphology, and glucose metabolism, and we are confident that we have a stable and reliable model to study the control of high-level cellular processes by application of low-amplitude, time varying electromagnetic fields (TVEMF) (1, 2). In additional studies at the University of Michigan, we have been able to generate functional in vitro engineered mammalian skeletal muscle, and have employed nerve-muscle co-culture techniques to promote axonal sprouting. We believe that nearly all tissues, in particular, neural, are susceptible to the influences of low-level TVEMF.

  4. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers' exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers' body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a spherical quantum dot with hydrogenic impurity in the external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Vladan; Stevanović, Ljiljana

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we analyzed the realization of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in the spherical quantum dot with on-center hydrogenic impurity under the influence of the external magnetic field. Three energy levels of hydrogen impurity 1s0, 2p-1, and 3d-2, together with the probe and control laser fields, which induce σ- transitions between the given states, form a ladder configuration. Optical Bloch equations for such a system are solved in a stationary regime. Dependence of the susceptibility for such a system on the Rabi frequency of the control field, intensity of the external magnetic field, detuning of the control field, and decay rates coefficients are then discussed in detail. Finally, the explanation in dressed state picture is given.

  6. Resonance fluorescence from an asymmetric quantum dot dressed by a bichromatic electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.; Shahnazaryan, V.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the theory of resonance fluorescence from an asymmetric quantum dot driven by a two-component electromagnetic field with two different frequencies, polarizations, and amplitudes (bichromatic field) in the regime of strong light-matter coupling. It follows from the elaborated theory that the broken inversion symmetry of the driven quantum system and the bichromatic structure of the driving field result in unexpected features of the resonance fluorescence, including the infinite set of Mollow triplets, the quench of fluorescence peaks induced by the dressing field, and the oscillating behavior of the fluorescence intensity as a function of the dressing field amplitude. These quantum phenomena are of general physical nature and, therefore, can take place in various double-driven quantum systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  7. Probability Distributions of Random Electromagnetic Fields in the Presence of a Semi-Infinite Isotropic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaut, L R

    2006-01-01

    Using a TE/TM decomposition for an angular plane-wave spectrum of free random electromagnetic waves and matched boundary conditions, we derive the probability density function for the energy density of the vector electric field in the presence of a semi-infinite isotropic medium. The theoretical analysis is illustrated with calculations and results for good electric conductors and for a lossless dielectric half-space. The influence of the permittivity and conductivity on the intensity, random polarization, statistical distribution and standard deviation of the field is investigated, both for incident plus reflected fields and for refracted fields. External refraction is found to result in compression of the fluctuations of the random field.

  8. Mapping the absolute electromagnetic field strength of individual field components inside a photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, T.; Reijnders, B.; Lee, J.H.H.; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We demonstrate our method by applying it to map the electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to create a

  9. Accuracy Improvement in Magnetic Field Modeling for an Axisymmetric Electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilin, Andrew V.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Gurieva, Yana L.; Il,in, Valery P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and calculation speed for the magnetic field computation in an axisymmetric electromagnet. Different numerical techniques, based on an adaptive nonuniform grid, high order finite difference approximations, and semi-analitical calculation of boundary conditions are considered. These techniques are being applied to the modeling of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket. For high-accuracy calculations, a fourth-order scheme offers dramatic advantages over a second order scheme. For complex physical configurations of interest in plasma propulsion, a second-order scheme with nonuniform mesh gives the best results. Also, the relative advantages of various methods are described when the speed of computation is an important consideration.

  10. Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic field with quantum plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of nonlinear interaction of transversal electromagnetic field with quantum collisionless plasma is carried out. Formulas for calculation electric current in quantum collisionless plasma at any temperature are deduced. It has appeared, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This second current is orthogonal to the known transversal classical current, received at the classical linear analysis. The case of degenerate electronic plasma is considered. It is shown, that for degenerate plasmas the electric current is calculated under the formula, not containing quadratures.

  11. Healing of Chronic Wounds through Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo, L.; Trigos, I.; García-Cantú, R.; Godina-Nava, J. J.; Serrano, G.

    2002-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) were configured to interact with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These ELF were applied in the arm to five patients with chronic wounds resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Wound healing began in all patients during the first two weeks after ELF exposure permiting their previously unresponsive chronic wounds to function as internal controls. All lesions were cured or healed >70% in less than four months. Systemic effects were explained by ELF activation of PBMC and their transportation through the blood to the affected site. This therapy is effective in selected patients with chronic wounds.

  12. RF Electromagnetic Field Treatment of Tetragonal Kesterite CZTSSe Light Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenenko, Mykola O.; Babichuk, Ivan S.; Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Bodnar, Ivan V.; Caballero, Raquel; Leon, Maximo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we propose a method to improve electro-optical and structural parameters of light-absorbing kesterite materials. It relies on the application of weak power hydrogen plasma discharges using electromagnetic field of radio frequency range, which improves homogeneity of the samples. The method allows to reduce strain of light absorbers and is suitable for designing solar cells based on multilayered thin film structures. Structural characteristics of tetragonal kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 structures and their optical properties were studied by Raman, infrared, and reflectance spectroscopies. They revealed a reduction of the sample reflectivity after RF treatment and a modification of the energy band structure.

  13. Basics of quantum field theory of electromagnetic interaction processes in single-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The content of this work is the study of electromagnetic interaction in single-layer graphene by means of the perturbation theory. The interaction of electromagnetic field with Dirac fermions in single-layer graphene has a peculiarity: Dirac fermions in graphene interact not only with the electromagnetic wave propagating within the graphene sheet, but also with electromagnetic field propagating from a location outside the graphene sheet and illuminating this sheet. The interaction Hamiltonian of the system comprising electromagnetic field and Dirac fermions fields contains the limits at graphene plane of electromagnetic field vector and scalar potentials which can be shortly called boundary electromagnetic field. The study of S-matrix requires knowing the limits at graphene plane of 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field which also can be shortly called boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field. As the first example of the application of perturbation theory, the second order terms in the perturbative expansions of boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field as well as of 2-point Green functions of Dirac fermion fields are explicitly derived. Further extension of the application of perturbation theory is also discussed.

  14. Clinical update of pulsed electromagnetic fields on osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li-qun; HE Hong-chen; HE Cheng-qi; CHEN Jian; YANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on chronic bony pain,bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the patients of osteoporosis.Data sources Using the key words "pulsed electromagnetic fields" and "osteoporosis", we searched the PubMed for related studies published in English from January 1996 to December 2007. We also searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies published in Chinese from January 1996 to December 2007.Study selection Inclusion criteria: (1) all articles which referred to the effects of low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields on osteoporosis either in primary osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis; (2) either observational studies or randomized controlled studies. Exclusion criteria: (1) articles on experimental studies about osteoporosis; (2) repetitive studies; (3)case reports; (4) meta analysis.Results Totally 111 related articles were collected, 101 of them were published in Chinese, 10 were in English.Thirty-four were included and the remaining 84 were excluded.Conclusions Low-frequency PEMFs relieves the pain of primary osteoporosis quickly and efficiently, enhances bone formation and increases BMD of secondary osteoporosis. But the effects of PEMFs on bone mineral density of primary osteoporosis and bone resorption were controversial.

  15. Motion of macroscopic bodies in the electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, S A R

    2013-01-01

    A theory is presented for calculating the effect of the electromagnetic field on the centre of mass of a macroscopic dielectric body that is valid in both quantum and classical regimes. We apply the theory to find the classical equation of motion for the centre of mass of a macroscopic object in a classical field, and the spreading of an initially localized wave-packet representing the centre of mass of a small object, in a quantum field. The classical force is found to be consistent with the identification of the Abraham momentum with the mechanical momentum of light, and the motion of the wave-packet is found to be subject to an acceleration due to the Casimir force, and a time dependent fluctuating motion due the creation of pairs of excitations within the object. The theory is valid for any dielectric that has susceptibilities satisfying the Kramers-Kronig relations, and is not subject to arguments regarding the form of the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor within a medium.

  16. Quantum backreaction (Casimir) effect. II. Scalar and electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Herdegen, A

    2005-01-01

    Casimir effect in most general terms may be understood as a backreaction of a quantum system causing an adiabatic change of the external conditions under which it is placed. This paper is the second installment of a work scrutinizing this effect with the use of algebraic methods in quantum theory. The general scheme worked out in the first part is applied here to the discussion of particular models. We consider models of the quantum scalar field subject to external interaction with ``softened'' Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on two parallel planes. We show that the case of electromagnetic field with softened perfect conductor conditions on the planes may be reduced to the other two. The ``softening'' is implemented on the level of the dynamics, and is not imposed ad hoc, as is usual in most treatments, on the level of observables. We calculate formulas for the backreaction energy in these models. We find that the common belief that for electromagnetic field the backreaction force tends to the strict...

  17. Drag current in a quantum superlattice during propagation of a high-intensity bichromatic electromagnetic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaeva, T. A.; Syrodoev, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the effect of electron drag in a semiconductor superlattice during intraband absorption of a biharmonic electromagnetic wave in a process accompanied by the emission (absorption) of a phonon. The problem has been solved in the second order of perturbation theory. The effective interaction Hamiltonian method makes it possible to take into account the multiphoton nature of the electromagnetic wave absorption. With increasing field, the current increases and attains a peak value, after which it decreases in an oscillatory manner due to the ionization stabilization effect.

  18. Conserved currents for electromagnetic fields in the Kerr spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Alexander; Flanagan, Eanna

    2017-01-01

    For any classical linear Lagrangian field theory, the symplectic product provides a conserved current that is bilinear on the space of solutions. Given a linear mapping from the space of solutions into itself, a ``symmetry operator'', one can therefore generate quadratic conserved currents for any linear classical field theory. We apply this procedure to the case of electromagnetism on a Kerr background, showing that this procedure can generate the conserved currents given by Andersson, Bäckdahl, and Blue, as well as two new conserved currents. These currents reduce to the sum of (positive powers of) the Carter constants of the photons in the geometric optics limit, and generalize the current for scalar fields discovered by Carter. We furthermore show that the fluxes of these new currents through null infinity and the horizon are finite.

  19. Variational Principles for Constrained Electromagnetic Field and Papapetrou Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Muminov, A T

    2007-01-01

    In our previous article [4] an approach to derive Papapetrou equations for constrained electromagnetic field was demonstrated by use of field variational principles. The aim of current work is to present more universal technique of deduction of the equations which could be applied to another types of non-scalar fields. It is based on Noether theorem formulated in terms of Cartan' formalism of orthonormal frames. Under infinitesimal coordinate transformation the one leads to equation which includes volume force of spin-gravitational interaction. Papapetrou equation for vector of propagation of the wave is derived on base of the equation. Such manner of deduction allows to formulate more accurately the constraints and clarify equations for the potential and for spin.

  20. [National system of protection against electromagnetic fields 0 Hz-300 GHz in the light of current legal regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) occurs when man is exposed to the effect of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields and contact currents different from those resulting from physiological processes in the organism or other natural phenomena. In Poland, the system of protection against EMF has been functioning for over 35 years. In 2001, when the Minister of Labor and Social Policy issued the regulation introducing the maximum admissible intensities (MAI) for electromagnetic fields and radiation within the range of 0 Hz-300 GHz, the system was directed mainly towards evaluation of exposure to EMF occurring in the occupational environment. The system is linked via MAI values with human protection in the natural environment. In this paper, the background, principles and the range of the national system of protection against EMF and its monitoring are presented. The project of implementation of EU directives, following Poland's accession to the European Union is also discussed.

  1. Exact Classical and Quantum Dynamics in Background Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzl, Tom; Ilderton, Anton

    2017-03-01

    Analytic results for (Q)ED processes in external fields are limited to a few special cases, such as plane waves. However, the strong focusing of intense laser fields implies a need to go beyond the plane wave model. By exploiting Poincaré symmetry and superintegrability we show how to construct, and solve without approximation, new models of laser-matter interactions. We illustrate the method with a model of a radially polarized (TM) laser beam, for which we exactly determine the classical orbits and quantum wave functions. Including in this way the effects of transverse field structure should improve predictions and analyses for experiments at intense laser facilities.

  2. Numerical simulation of electromagnetic and flow fields of TiAI melt under electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Ding Hongsheng; Jiang Sanyong; Chen Ruirun; Guo Jingjie

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at building an electromagnetic and fluid model, based on the Maxwell equations and Navier-Stokes equations, in TiAI melt under two electric fields. FEM (Finite Element Method) and APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language) were employed to perform the simulation, model setup, loading and problem solving. The melt in molds of same cross section area with different flakiness ratio (i.e. width/depth) under the load of sinusoidal current or pulse current was analyzed to obtain the distribution of electromagnetic field and flow field. The results show that the induced magnetic field occupies sufficiently the domain of the melt in the mold with a flakiness ratio of 5:1. The melt is driven bipolarly from the center in each electric field. It is also found that the pulse electric field actuates the TiAI melt to flow stronger than what the sinusoidal electric field does.

  3. Robust multiscale field-only formulation of electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a boundary integral formulation of electromagnetic scattering by homogeneous bodies that are characterized by linear constitutive equations in the frequency domain. By working with the Cartesian components of the electric E and magnetic H fields and with the scalar functions (r .E ) and (r .H ) where r is a position vector, the problem can be cast as having to solve a set of scalar Helmholtz equations for the field components that are coupled by the usual electromagnetic boundary conditions at material boundaries. This facilitates a direct solution for the surface values of E and H rather than having to work with surface currents or surface charge densities as intermediate quantities in existing methods. Consequently, our formulation is free of the well-known numerical instability that occurs in the zero-frequency or long-wavelength limit in traditional surface integral solutions of Maxwell's equations and our numerical results converge uniformly to the static results in the long-wavelength limit. Furthermore, we use a formulation of the scalar Helmholtz equation that is expressed as classically convergent integrals and does not require the evaluation of principal value integrals or any knowledge of the solid angle. Therefore, standard quadrature and higher order surface elements can readily be used to improve numerical precision for the same number of degrees of freedom. In addition, near and far field values can be calculated with equal precision, and multiscale problems in which the scatterers possess characteristic length scales that are both large and small relative to the wavelength can be easily accommodated. From this we obtain results for the scattering and transmission of electromagnetic waves at dielectric boundaries that are valid for any ratio of the local surface curvature to the wave number. This is a generalization of the familiar Fresnel formula and Snell's law, valid at planar dielectric boundaries, for the scattering and transmission

  4. Frequency-domain electromagnetic sounding with combination wave in near-field zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏发; 何继善

    1996-01-01

    By analysing the propagation law of electromagnetic wave,the distribution pattern of the field and the theory of frequency electromagnetic sounding,the physical mechanisms that make the frequency electromagnetic sounding in near-field zone difficult are discussed.Based on the theory of near source field,a new method of dual-frequency electromagnetic sounding of combination wave in near-field zone is advanced.Meanwhile,the method of measurement of fields,the definition of apparent resistivity and the numerical algorithm are approached.

  5. Public protection from electromagnetic fields of industry frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with inte...

  6. Generation of infant anatomical models for evaluating electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congsheng; Chen, Zhiye; Yang, Lei; Lv, Bin; Liu, Jianzhe; Varsier, Nadège; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Xie, Yi; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning

    2015-01-01

    Realistic anatomical modeling is essential in analyzing human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Infants have significant physical and anatomical differences compared with other age groups. However, few realistic infant models are available. In this work, we developed one 12-month-old male whole body model and one 17-month-old male head model from magnetic resonance images. The whole body and head models contained 28 and 30 tissues, respectively, at spatial resolution of 1 mm × 1 mm × 1 mm. Fewer identified tissues in the whole body model were a result of the low original image quality induced by the fast imaging sequence. The anatomical and physical parameters of the models were validated against findings in published literature (e.g., a maximum deviation as 18% in tissue mass was observed compared with the data from International Commission on Radiological Protection). Several typical exposure scenarios were realized for numerical simulation. Dosimetric comparison with various adult and child anatomical models was conducted. Significant differences in the physical and anatomical features between adult and child models demonstrated the importance of creating realistic infant models. Current safety guidelines for infant exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may not be conservative.

  7. Nonthermal electromagnetic fields: from first messenger to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Arthur A

    2013-06-01

    Nonthermal pulsed electromagnetic fields, from low frequency to pulse-modulated radio frequency, have been successfully employed as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of delayed and non-union fractures, fresh fractures and chronic wounds. Recent increased understanding of the mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has permitted technologic advances allowing the development of EMF devices which are portable and disposable, can be incorporated into dressings, supports and casts, and can be used over clothing. This broadens the use of non-pharmacological, non-invasive EMF therapy to the treatment of postoperative pain and edema to enhance surgical recovery. EMF therapy is rapidly becoming a standard part of surgical care, and new, more significant, clinical applications for osteoarthritis, brain and cardiac ischemia and traumatic brain injury are in the pipeline. This study reviews recent evidence which suggests that calmodulin (CaM)-dependent nitric oxide signaling is involved in cell and tissue response to weak nonthermal EMF signals. There is abundant evidence that EMF signals can be configured a priori to increase the rate of CaM activation, which, in turn, can modulate the biochemical cascades living cells and tissues employ in response to external insult. Successful applications in pilot clinical trials, coupled with evidence at the cellular and animal levels, provide support that EMF is a first messenger that can modulate the response of challenged biological systems.

  8. Radio frequency electromagnetic fields: cancer, mutagenesis, and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynick, Louis N; Johnston, Sheila A; Mason, Patrick A

    2003-01-01

    We present critiques of epidemiologic studies and experimental investigations, published mostly in peer-reviewed journals, on cancer and related effects from exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in the nominal frequency range of 3 kHz to 300 GHz of interest to Subcommittee 4 (SC4) of the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES). The major topics discussed are presented under the headings Epidemiologic and Other Findings on Human Exposure, Mammals Exposed In Vivo, Mammalian Live Tissues and Cell Preparations Exposed In Vitro, and Mutagenesis and Genotoxicity in Microorganisms and Fruit Flies. Under each major topic, we present minireviews of papers on various specific endpoints investigated. The section on Epidemiologic and Other Findings on Human Exposure is divided into two subsections, the first on possible carcinogenic effects of exposure from emitters not in physical contact with the populations studied, for example, transmitting antennas and other devices. Discussed in the second subsection are studies of postulated carcinogenic effects from use of mobile phones, with prominence given to brain tumors from use of cellular and cordless telephones in direct physical contact with an ear of each subject. In both subsections, some investigations yielded positive findings, others had negative findings, including papers directed toward experimentally verifying positive findings, and both were reported in a few instances. Further research on various important aspects may resolve such differences. Overall, however, the preponderance of published epidemiologic and experimental findings do not support the supposition that in vivo or in vitro exposures to such fields are carcinogenic.

  9. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-09-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2–3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100–250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation.

  10. Exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields near electrosurgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, Jonna

    2010-10-01

    Electrosurgical units (ESU) are widely used in medical health services. By applying sinusoidal or pulsed voltage in the frequency range of 0.3-5 MHz to the electrode tip, the desired mixture of coagulation and cutting are achieved. Due to the high voltage and current in the cable, strong electromagnetic fields appear near the ESU. The surgeon and others inside the operating room such as nurses, anesthesiologists, etc., will be highly exposed to these fields. The stray fields surrounding the ESU have previously been measured, but now a deeper analysis has been made of the curve shape of the field and the implication of this when assessing exposure from a commonly used ESU in accordance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The result showed that for some of the modes, especially those using high-pulsed voltage with only a few sinusoidal periods, the E-field close to the cable could reach linear spatially averaged values of 20 kV/m compared to the 2.1 kV/m stated in ICNIRP guidelines. Assessing the E- and B-field from ESU is not straightforward since in this frequency range, both induced current density and specific absorption rate are restricted by the ICNIRP guidelines. Nevertheless, work needs to be done to reduce the stray fields from ESU.

  11. Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Sakai, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecules in a seeded supersonic beam are aligned by the interaction between an intense nonresonant linearly polarized laser field and the molecular polarizability. We demonstrate the general applicability of the scheme by aligning I2, ICl, CS2, CH3I, and C6H5I molecules. The alignment is probed...... by mass selective two dimensional imaging of the photofragment ions produced by femtosecond laser pulses. Calculations on the degree of alignment of I2 are in good agreement with the experiments. We discuss some future applications of laser aligned molecules....

  12. Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields around High Voltage Power Supply in Hamadan Hospital Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Rostampour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Biological effects of non-ionizing radiation on the body of living organisms have been studied by researchers in recent years. High Voltage medical equipments are one of the sources generating electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic field intensity of the medical equipment installed at Hamadan hospitals and the potential hazards were investigated. The main purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of the electromagnetic field around high voltage power supplies in radiology ward of the Hamadan hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and we investigated the electromagnetic fields intensity around high voltage power supplies at Hamadan hospital wards. All measurements were performed using a calibrated Tesla-meter (HI-3603. The measurements were conducted at a range of distances varying from 25 cm to 3 m around the supporting high voltage power supply. Results: We found that the maximum intensity of the magnetic and electric fields at a distance of less than 1 m around the high voltage power supply was 29.625±5.738 mGauss and 25.17±0.92 V/m respectively, which is less than the safe amounts recommended by the ICNIRP for occupational exposure (5000 mG and 10000 V/m and even for public exposure (1000 mG and and 5000 V/m. The minimum intensity of EM fields for a less than 3 m distance was found to be 0.1±0.005 mGauss, which relates to a CT-scanner system installed at Farshchian hospital. Among the whole equipments evaluated in the current survey, the most intense magnetic and electric field was found to be for imaging technician office, which was 3.050±0.004 mGauss and 128.88±0.05 V/m respectively; it is lower than the tolerances recommended by the ICNIRP. Conclusion: According to our results, it seems that the EM field occupational exposure for radiation workers working at Hamadan hospitals does not exceed

  13. Effects of Electromagnetic Field and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Osteoblast's Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOYong; ZHANGXi-zheng; WANGHao; LIBin; LIRui-xin; WUJin-hui; ZHAOYun-shan; WUJi-min

    2004-01-01

    Osteoblasts of rat cultured in vitro were stimulated with pulsed 50 Hz electromagnetic field and basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF). The MTT method, flow cytometry and histochemistry staining were used to detect cell proliferation, cell cycle and alkaline phosphatase. The results indicated : after stimulated by 1 mT electromagnetic field, the cells are more abundant,have more S phase percentages, 2 mT electromagnetic field have no evident effect on cells' growth;compared with electromagnetic field, the cells stimulated by bFGF are more abundant and have larger S phase ratios. Electromagnetic field and bFGF have no effect on cells, alkaline phosphatase. Therefore ,we concluded that electromagnetic field can enhance osteoblasts growth like some growth factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and the osteoblasts', characteristics was not changed.

  14. Continuity equations for bound electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholmetskii, A L [Department of Physics, Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Missevitch, O V [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, 11 Bobruiskaya Street, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Yarman, T, E-mail: khol123@yahoo.com [Department of Engineering, Okan University, Akfirat, Istanbul, Turkey and Savronik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2011-05-01

    We analyze the application of the Poynting theorem to the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic (EM) field and show that an often-used arbitrary elimination of the term of self-interaction in the product j{center_dot}E (where j is the current density and E the electric field) represents, in general, an illegitimate operation, which leads to incorrect physical consequences. We propose correct ways of eliminating the terms of self-interaction from the Poynting theorem to transform it into the form that is convenient for problems with bound EM field, which yield the continuity equations for the proper EM energy density, the interaction part of EM energy density and the total EM energy density of bound fields, respectively. These equations indicate the incompleteness of the common EM energy-momentum tensor, and in our analysis, we find a missed term in its structure, which makes its trace non-vanished. Some implications of these results are discussed, in particular, in view of the notion of EM mass of charged particles.

  15. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  16. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  17. Geometric entropy and edge modes of the electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-11-01

    We calculate the vacuum entanglement entropy of Maxwell theory in a class of curved spacetimes by Kaluza-Klein reduction of the theory onto a two-dimensional base manifold. Using two-dimensional duality, we express the geometric entropy of the electromagnetic field as the entropy of a tower of scalar fields, constant electric and magnetic fluxes, and a contact term, whose leading-order divergence was discovered by Kabat. The complete contact term takes the form of one negative scalar degree of freedom confined to the entangling surface. We show that the geometric entropy agrees with a statistical definition of entanglement entropy that includes edge modes: classical solutions determined by their boundary values on the entangling surface. This resolves a long-standing puzzle about the statistical interpretation of the contact term in the entanglement entropy. We discuss the implications of this negative term for black hole thermodynamics and the renormalization of Newton's constant.

  18. Electromagnetic field limits set by the V-Curve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hudson, Howard Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    When emitters of electromagnetic energy are operated in the vicinity of sensitive components, the electric field at the component location must be kept below a certain level in order to prevent the component from being damaged, or in the case of electro-explosive devices, initiating. The V-Curve is a convenient way to set the electric field limit because it requires minimal information about the problem configuration. In this report we will discuss the basis for the V-Curve. We also consider deviations from the original V-Curve resulting from inductive versus capacitive antennas, increases in directivity gain for long antennas, decreases in input impedance when operating in a bounded region, and mismatches dictated by transmission line losses. In addition, we consider mitigating effects resulting from limited antenna sizes.

  19. Geometric entropy and edge modes of the electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, William

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the vacuum entanglement entropy of Maxwell theory in a class of curved spacetimes by Kaluza-Klein reduction of the theory onto a two-dimensional base manifold. Using two-dimensional duality, we express the geometric entropy of the electromagnetic field as the entropy of a tower of scalar fields, constant electric and magnetic fluxes, and a contact term, whose leading order divergence was discovered by Kabat. The complete contact term takes the form of one negative scalar degree of freedom confined to the entangling surface. We show that the geometric entropy agrees with a statistical definition of entanglement entropy that includes edge modes: classical solutions determined by their boundary values on the entangling surface. This resolves a longstanding puzzle about the statistical interpretation of the contact term in the entanglement entropy. We discuss the implications of this negative term for black hole thermodynamics and the renormalization of Newton's constant.

  20. Adaptive framework for uncertainty analysis in electromagnetic field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Javier; Alonso, Alonso A; de la Rosa, Ramón; Carrera, Albano

    2015-04-01

    Misinterpretation of uncertainty in the measurement of the electromagnetic field (EMF) strength may lead to an underestimation of exposure risk or an overestimation of required measurements. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has internationally been adopted as a de facto standard for uncertainty assessment. However, analyses under such an approach commonly assume unrealistic static models or neglect relevant prior information, resulting in non-robust uncertainties. This study proposes a principled and systematic framework for uncertainty analysis that fuses information from current measurements and prior knowledge. Such a framework dynamically adapts to data by exploiting a likelihood function based on kernel mixtures and incorporates flexible choices of prior information by applying importance sampling. The validity of the proposed techniques is assessed from measurements performed with a broadband radiation meter and an isotropic field probe. The developed framework significantly outperforms GUM approach, achieving a reduction of 28% in measurement uncertainty.

  1. Circadian neuroendocrine physiology and electromagnetic field studies: Precautions and complexities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warman, G.R.; Tripp, H.M.; Harman, V.L.; Arendt, J

    2003-07-01

    The suppression of melatonin by exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) 'the melatonin hypothesis' has been invoked as a possible mechanism through which exposure to these fields may result in an increased incidence of cancer. While the effect of light on melatonin is well established, data showing a similar effect due to EMF exposure are sparse and, where present, are often poorly controlled. The current review focuses on the complexities associated with using melatonin as a marker and the dynamic nature of normal melatonin regulation by the circadian neuroendocrine axis. These are issues which the authors believe contribute significantly to the lack of consistency of results in the current literature. Recommendations on protocol design are also made which, if followed, should enable researchers to eliminate or control for many of the confounding factors associated with melatonin being an output from the circadian clock. (author)

  2. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus Raimondas; Strukcinskiene Birute; Raistenskis Juozas

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the...

  3. Proposal for magnetic/electromagnetic fields protection norms on national level

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Drago; Raković Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The modern life is not possible without application of magnetic/electromagnetic fields, which can be both helpful and harmful for human body. Influence of magnetic/electromagnetic fields on biological systems The non-ionizing radiation, especially magnetic/electromagnetic fields of all frequencies (0-300 GHz), can have many harmful effects on the human health that is confirmed by numerous epidemiological studies, studies with volunteers, animal studies, and in vitro studies. Prop...

  4. FIELD IONIZATION OF MOLECULES IN AN INTENSE LASER FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成印; 龚旗煌

    2001-01-01

    In order to predict the field ionization probabilities, the accurate ab initio electrostatic potential of molecules has to be calculated. However, the calculation of the full ab initio electrostatic potential of molecules is complicated,even impossible for some larger molecules with low symmetry. Here, we present a semi-empirical model to treat the field ionization of molecules in an intense laser field. In this model, a modified Coulomb potential is used to take the place of the complicated ab initio electrostatic potential of molecules. The analytic equations of the Keldysh adiabatic parameter using the Coulomb potential and the modified Coulomb potential have first been given. Using our semiempirical model, we have calculated the field ionization probabilities and the Keldysh adiabatic parameters of O2,N2, SO2, C2H4, CH3CN and C6H6 in an intense laser field. The results agree excellently with the calculations using the ab initio electrostatic potential of molecules. As the modified parameter for the Coulomb potential can be found from experimental measurements, the field ionization mechanism of molecules can be immediately predicted with our semi-empirical model.

  5. Theory of diatomic molecules in an external electromagnetic field from first quantum mechanical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelka, Milan; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2006-04-27

    We study a general problem of the translational/rotational/vibrational/electronic dynamics of a diatomic molecule exposed to an interaction with an arbitrary external electromagnetic field. The theory developed in this paper is relevant to a variety of specific applications, such as alignment or orientation of molecules by lasers, trapping of ultracold molecules in optical traps, molecular optics and interferometry, rovibrational spectroscopy of molecules in the presence of intense laser light, or generation of high order harmonics from molecules. Starting from the first quantum mechanical principles, we derive an appropriate molecular Hamiltonian suitable for description of the center of mass, rotational, vibrational, and electronic molecular motions driven by the field within the electric dipole approximation. Consequently, the concept of the Born-Oppenheimer separation between the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom in the presence of an electromagnetic field is introduced. Special cases of the dc/ac-field limits are then discussed separately. Finally, we consider a perturbative regime of a weak dc/ac field, and obtain simple analytic formulas for the associated Born-Oppenheimer translational/rotational/vibrational molecular Hamiltonian.

  6. New model for high-power electromagnetic field instability in transparent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdev, Vitali E.

    1997-05-01

    A model of high-power field instability is developed to describe local abrupt increasing of electromagnetic field intensity in transparent dielectric. Small local enhancement of the field amplitude is initiated by low-absorbing spherical inclusion which size is less than radiation wavelength. Exceeding threshold of optical bistability results in abrupt increasing of field amplitude in the defect that also leads to local increasing of field amplitude in the host material in the vicinity of the inclusion. Bearing in mind nonlinear dependence of refractive index of the host material on light intensity we develop a model to describe 'spreading' of initial defect up to size appropriate for the first resonant field mode to be formed. Increasing of refraction index due to nonlinear light-matter interaction and existence of high-Q eigenmodes of dielectric sphere can both cause positive feedback's and result in field instability in the medium. Estimates are obtained of the threshold value of incident-field amplitude. This model is applied to analysis of some experimental data on optical breakdown of transparent dielectrics and thin films, both impurity-induced and intrinsic. The model can also be used to consider bulk optical breakdown by tightly focused light beams.

  7. Effect of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Macrosegregation of Horizontal Direct Chill Casting Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihao ZHAO; Jianzhong CUI; Jie DONG; Beijiang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The horizontal direct chill (HDC) casting process is a well-established production route for aluminum alloy ingot but the ingot may suffer from macrosegregation sometimes. In order to control the defect, a low frequency electromagnetic field has been applied in HDC casting process and the relevant influence has been studied. The results show that application of low frequency electromagnetic field can reduce macrosegregation in HDC casting process; and two main parameters of electromagnetic field density and frequency, have great influences on the solution distribution along the diameter of ingot. Moreover, the mechanisms of reduction of macrosegregation by electromagnetic field have been discussed.

  8. Impact of the strong electromagnetic field on the QCD effective potential for homogeneous Abelian gluon field configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Galilo, Bogdan V

    2011-01-01

    The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalysing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions ...

  9. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense electromagnetic noise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitava Roy; S K Singh; R Menon; D Senthil Kumar; R Venkateswaran; M R Kulkarni; P C Saroj; K V Nagesh; K C Mittal; D P Chakravarthy

    2010-01-01

    KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) electromagnetic noise. Initially, the diode detector output signal could not be recorded due to the high noise level persisting in the ambiance. It was found that the HPM pulse can be successfully detected using wide band antenna, RF cable and diode detector set-up in the presence of significant electromagnetic noise. Estimated microwave peak power was ∼ 59.8 dBm (∼ 1 kW) at 7 m distance from the VIRCATOR window. Peak amplitude of the HPM signal varies on shot-to-shot basis. Duration of the HPM pulse (FWHM) also varies from 52 ns to 94 ns for different shots.

  10. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  11. On the gravitational fields created by the electromagnetic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Loinger, A.; Marsico, T.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the Maxwell equations describing an electromagnetic wave are a mathematical consequence of the Einstein equations for the same wave. This fact is significant for the problem of the Einsteinian metrics corresponding to the electromagnetic waves.

  12. STATISTICAL-MECHANICAL ENTROPY OF THE GENERAL STATIC BLACK HOLE DUE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING JI-LIANG; YAN MU-LIN

    2000-01-01

    Statistical-mechanical entropy arising from the electromagnetic field in the general four-dimensional static blackhole spacetime is investigated by means of the "brick wall" model. An expression for the entropy is obtained and some examples are considered. The results show that the entropy arising from the electromagnetic field is exactly twice the one for a massless scalar field.

  13. The electromagnetic fields and the radiation of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The electric and magnetic fields of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop are calculated using the Jefimenko equations. The radiation and the nonradiation parts of the electromagnetic fields are derived in the framework of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic fields. In this way, a new, exact, analytical solution of the Maxwell equation is found.

  14. Quantum diffusion of electromagnetic fields of ultrarelativistic spin-half particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutka, Balthazar; Tuchin, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    We compute electromagnetic fields created by a relativistic charged spin-half particle in empty space at distances comparable to the particle Compton wavelength. The particle is described as a wave packet evolving according to the Dirac equation. It produces the electromagnetic field that is essentially different from the Coulomb field due to the quantum diffusion effect.

  15. Line geometry and electromagnetism IV: electromagnetic fields as infinitesimal Lorentz transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, D H

    2016-01-01

    It is first shown that the scalar product on any orthogonal space (V, g) allows one to define linear isomorphisms of the vector spaces of bivectors and 2-forms on V with the underlying vector spaces of the Lie algebra so(p, q) and its dual, respectively. When those isomorphisms are applied to the electromagnetic excitation bivector and field strength 2-form, resp., one can associate various algebraic constructions that pertain to them as bivector fields and 2-forms with corresponding constructions in terms of so(1, 3) and its dual. The subsequent association with corresponding things in line geometry will then become straightforward. In particular, the fields can be represented by motors, such as screws and wrenches, while the Cartan-Killing form on so(1, 3) is isometric to the scalar product on bivectors that gives the Klein quadric. When the space of bivectors (and therefore the space of 2-forms) is given an almost-complex structure (and therefore, a complex structure), one can also represent most of the co...

  16. Quantum Energy Teleportation with Electromagnetic Field: Discrete vs. Continuous Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Local measurements of quantum fluctuation in the vacuum state of electromagnetic field require energy infusion to the field. The infused energy is diffused to spatial infinity with light velocity and the state of the field soon becomes a local vacuum with zero energy around the measurement area. Of cource we cannot retrieve energy from this measurement area if we do not know the measurement result of the fluctuation. However, if the measurement result is available for us, we are able to extract energy from the local vacuum of the field, applying the protocol of quantum energy teleportation recently proposed. By performing a local unitary operation around the measurement area dependent on the measurement result, the fluctuaion of zero-point oscillation is squeezed and negative energy density appears around the area, accompanied by extraction of positive energy from the field. In this paper, we compare two different protocols of the energy retrieval. In the first protocol, a 1/2 spin is coupled with the fluctua...

  17. Equations of a Moving Mirror and the Electromagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Castaños, Luis Octavio

    2014-01-01

    We consider a slab of a material that is linear, isotropic, non-magnetizable, ohmic, and electrically neutral when it is at rest. The slab interacts with the electromagnetic field through radiation pressure. Using a relativistic treatment, we deduce the exact equations governing the dynamics of the field and of the slab, as well as, approximate equations to first order in the velocity and the acceleration of the slab. As a consequence of the motion of the slab, the field must satisfy a wave equation with damping and slowly varying coefficients plus terms that are small when the time-scale of the evolution of the mirror is much smaller than that of the field. Moreover, the dynamics of the mirror involve a time-dependent mass arising from the interaction with the field and it is related to the effective mass of mechanical oscillators used in optomechanics. By the same reason, the mirror is subject to a velocity dependent force which is related to the much sought cooling of mechanical oscillators in optomechanic...

  18. Probing Intergalactic Magnetic Fields with Simulations of Electromagnetic Cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Batista, Rafael Alves; Sigl, Guenter; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    We determine the effect of intergalactic magnetic fields on the distribution of high energy gamma rays by performing three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the development of gamma-ray-induced electromagnetic cascades in the magnetized intergalactic medium. We employ the so-called 'Large Sphere Observer' method to efficiently simulate blazar gamma ray halos. We study magnetic fields with a Batchelor spectrum and with maximal left- and right-handed helicities. We also consider the case of sources whose jets are tilted with respect to the line of sight. We verify the formation of extended gamma ray halos around the source direction, and observe spiral-like patterns if the magnetic field is helical. We apply the $Q$-statistics to the simulated halos to extract their spiral nature and also propose an alternative method, the $S$-statistics. Both methods provide a quantative way to infer the helicity of the intervening magnetic fields from the morphology of individual blazar halos for magnetic field strengths...

  19. Setting prudent public health policy for electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O; Sage, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate our environment, coming both from such natural sources as the sun and from manmade sources like electricity, communication technologies and medical devices. Although life on earth would not be possible without sunlight, increasing evidence indicates that exposures to the magnetic fields associated with electricity and to communication frequencies associated with radio, television, WiFi technology, and mobile cellular phones pose significant hazards to human health. The evidence is strongest for leukemia from electricity-frequency fields and for brain tumors from communication-frequency fields, yet evidence is emerging for an association with other diseases as well, including neurodegenerative diseases. Some uncertainty remains as to the mechanism(s) responsible for these biological effects, and as to which components of the fields are of greatest importance. Nevertheless, regardless of whether the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Inaction is not compatible with the Precautionary Principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration. Because of ubiquitous exposure, the rapidly expanding development of new EMF technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers, the failure to take immediate action risks epidemics of potentially fatal diseases in the future.

  20. Electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Don Bae

    1999-02-15

    This book gives descriptions of vector analysis on vector algebra and vector double, coulomb's law, electric intensity, Gauss theory and Gauss divergence theorem, the avant-garde and a potential difference, conductor in vacuum, a dielectric and capacitance like dielectric and polarization, equation of poisson and Laplace, coulomb's law, property of a magnetic substance, magnetic attraction of current, magnetic circuit, inductance and application of a magnetic field, Faraday's law and Maxwell equation, plane wave and transmission cable.

  1. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  2. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  3. Development and Application of Integrated Optical Sensors for Intense E-Field Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqing Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI, coupler interferometer (CI and common path interferometer (CPI. The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

  4. Tailored Fano resonance and localized electromagnetic field enhancement in Ag gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaozhu; Klopf, J. Michael; Wang, Lei; Yang, Kaida; Lukaszew, Rosa A.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic gratings can support Fano resonances when illuminated with EM radiation, and their characteristic reflectivity versus incident angle lineshape can be greatly affected by the surrounding dielectric environment and the grating geometry. By using conformal oblique incidence thin film deposition onto an optical grating substrate, it is possible to increase the grating amplitude due to shadowing effects, thereby enabling tailoring of the damping processes and electromagnetic field couplings of the Fano resonances, hence optimizing the associated localized electric field intensity. To investigate these effects we compare the optical reflectivity under resonance excitation in samples prepared by oblique angle deposition (OAD) and under normal deposition (ND) onto the same patterned surfaces. We observe that by applying OAD method, the sample exhibits a deeper and narrower reflectivity dip at resonance than that obtained under ND. This can be explained in terms of a lower damping of Fano resonance on obliquely deposited sample and leads to a stronger localized electric field. This approach opens a fabrication path for applications where tailoring the electromagnetic field induced by Fano resonance can improve the figure of merit of specific device characteristics, e.g. quantum efficiency (QE) in grating-based metallic photocathodes. PMID:28290545

  5. [Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on mammalian spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susa, Martina; Pavicić, Ivan

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews studies about the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic (RF EM) fields on male reproductive system and reproductive health in mammals. According to current data, there are almost 4 million active mobile phone lines in Croatia while this number has risen to 2 billion in the world. Increased use of mobile technology raises scientific and public concern about possible hazardous effects of RF fields on human health. The effects of radiofrequencies on reproductive health and consequences for the offspring are still mainly unknown. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that RF fields could interact with charged intracellular macromolecular structures. Results of several laboratory studies on animal models showed how the RF fields could affect the mammalian reproductive system and sperm cells. Inasmuch as, in normal physiological conditions spermatogenesis is a balanced process of division, maturation and storage of cells, it is particularly vulnerable to the chemical and physical environmental stimuli. Especially sensitive could be the cytoskeleton, composed of charged proteins; actin, intermedial filaments and microtubules. Cytoskeleton is a functional and structural part of the cell that has important role in the sperm motility, and is actively involved in the morphologic changes that occur during mammalian spermiogenesis.

  6. Finite element modeling of electromagnetic fields and waves using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. Thomas, Jr.; Schroeder, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    The various formulations of Maxwell's equations are reviewed with emphasis on those formulations which most readily form analogies with Navier's equations. Analogies involving scalar and vector potentials and electric and magnetic field components are presented. Formulations allowing for media with dielectric and conducting properties are emphasized. It is demonstrated that many problems in electromagnetism can be solved using the NASTRAN finite element code. Several fundamental problems involving time harmonic solutions of Maxwell's equations with known analytic solutions are solved using NASTRAN to demonstrate convergence and mesh requirements. Mesh requirements are studied as a function of frequency, conductivity, and dielectric properties. Applications in both low frequency and high frequency are highlighted. The low frequency problems demonstrate the ability to solve problems involving media inhomogeneity and unbounded domains. The high frequency applications demonstrate the ability to handle problems with large boundary to wavelength ratios.

  7. Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency in evanescent fields

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R; Agarwal, G S; Lvovsky, A I

    2012-01-01

    We observe and investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, electromagnetically-induced transparency experienced by evanescent fields arising due to total internal reflection from an interface of glass and hot rubidium vapor. This phenomenon manifests itself as a non-Lorentzian peak in the reflectivity spectrum, which features a sharp cusp with a sub-natural width of about 1 MHz. The width of the peak is independent of the thickness of the interaction region, which indicates that the main source of decoherence is likely due to collisions with the cell walls rather than diffusion of atoms. With the inclusion of a coherence-preserving wall coating, this system could be used as an ultra-compact frequency reference.

  8. Electromagnetic field energy density in homogeneous negative index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand; Webb, Kevin J

    2012-05-07

    An exact separation of both electric and magnetic energies into stored and lost energies is shown to be possible in the special case when the wave impedance is independent of frequency. A general expression for the electromagnetic energy density in such a dispersive medium having a negative refractive index is shown to be accurate in comparison with numerical results. Using an example metamaterial response that provides a negative refractive index, it is shown that negative time-averaged stored energy can occur. The physical meaning of this negative energy is explained as the energy temporarily borrowed by the field from the material. This observation for negative index materials is of interest when approaching properties for a perfect lens. In the broader context, the observation of negative stored energy is of consequence in the study of dispersive materials.

  9. Cosmic magnetic fields and dark energy in extended electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Maroto, Antonio L, E-mail: Jose.Beltran@unige.ch, E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    We discuss an extended version of electromagnetism in which the usual gauge fixing term is promoted into a physical contribution that introduces a new scalar state in the theory. This new state can be generated from vacuum quantum fluctuations during an inflationary era and, on super-Hubble scales, gives rise to an effective cosmological constant. The value of such a cosmological constant coincides with the one inferred from observations as long as inflation took place at the electroweak scale. On the other hand, the new state also generates an effective electric charge density on sub-Hubble scales that produces both vorticity and magnetic fields with coherent lengths as large as the present Hubble horizon.

  10. Separation of inclusions from aluminum melt using alternating electromagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克; 王俊; 疏达; 李天晓; 孙宝德; 周尧和

    2002-01-01

    Effects of processing variables such as frequency of imposed magnetic field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, diameter of inclusions, and value of r1/δ on the electromagnetic separating(EMS) removal efficiency were analyzed theoretically. The higher the frequency, the wider the range of r1/δ will be. Removal efficiency reaches the maximum while r1/δ ranges from 1.5 to 2. And the experimental results on aluminum melt show that higher frequency and magnetic flux density make for higher removal efficiency, matching well with the theoretical results. When f is 15.6kHz, Be is 0.1T, and imposed time is 10s, more than 80% inclusion particles with 6μm diameter can be removed.

  11. Mechanism of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fritz-Albert; Popp; 张锦珠

    2000-01-01

    Based on nonlinear phenomena of biophoton emission observed in the past, an interference model concerning with the mechanism of interaction between living organisms and electromagnetic fields was raised. Caused by biological nonlinearly polarizable double layer, destructive interference of incoming and reflected waves establishes in the outside. As a consequence, in the inside constructive interference takes place at the same time. The interference patterns may play an important role in biological self organization and in biological functions. We investigate the boundary conditions necessary for explaining these non-linear optical effects in terms of the phase conjugation. It turns out that there are solutions of the Maxwell equations which satisfy destructive interference of biophotons in agreement with the experimental results. Necessary provisions are nonlinearly polarizable optically active double layers of distances which are small compared to the wavelength of light. In addition, they have to be a

  12. Electromagnetic fields, size, and copy of a single photon

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    We propose the expressions of electromagnetic fields of a single photon which properly describe the known characteristics of a photon, derive the relations between the photon size and wavelength on basis of the expressions, reveal the differences between a photon and its copy, and give the specific expressions of annihilation and creation operators of a photon. The results show that a photon has length of half the wavelength, and its radius is proportional to square root of the wavelength; a photon and its copy have the phase difference of {\\pi} and constitute a phase-entangled state; the N-photon phase-entangled state, which is formed by the sequential stimulated emission and corresponds to the wave train in optics, is not a coherent state, but it is the eigenstate of the number operator of photons.

  13. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  14. The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Murat; Ozberk, Berra; Deniz, Omur Gulsum; Kaplan, Suleyman

    2016-09-01

    In the modern world, people are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as part of their daily lives; the important question is "What is the effect of EMFs on human health?" Most previous studies are epidemiological, and we still do not have concrete evidence of EMF pathophysiology. Several factors may lead to chemical, morphological, and electrical alterations in the nervous system in a direct or indirect way. It is reported that non-ionizing EMFs have effects on animals and cells. The changes they bring about in organic systems may cause oxidative stress, which is essential for the neurophysiological process; it is associated with increased oxidization in species, or a reduction in antioxidant defense systems. Severe oxidative stress can cause imbalances in reactive oxygen species, which may trigger neurodegeneration. This review aims to detail these changes. Special attention is paid to the current data regarding EMFs' effects on neurological disease and associated symptoms, such as headache, sleep disturbances, and fatigue.

  15. Exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields elicits an HSP-related stress response in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Sen; He, Gen-Lin; Hao, Yu-Tong; Xiao, Yang; Chen, Chun-Hai; Zhang, Guang-Bin; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The issue of possible neurobiological effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is highly controversial. To determine whether electromagnetic field exposure could act as an environmental stimulus capable of producing stress responses, we employed the hippocampus, a sensitive target of electromagnetic radiation, to assess the changes in its stress-related gene and protein expression after EMF exposure. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with body restrained were exposed to a 2.45 GHz EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 6 W/kg or sham conditions. cDNA microarray was performed to examine the changes of gene expression involved in the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. Of 2048 candidate genes, 23 upregulated and 18 downregulated genes were identified. Of these differential expression genes, two heat shock proteins (HSP), HSP27 and HSP70, are notable because expression levels of both proteins are increased in the rat hippocampus. Result from immunocytochemistry revealed that EMF caused intensive staining for HSP27 and HSP70 in the hippocampus, especially in the pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and granular cells of dentate gyrus (DG). The gene and protein expression profiles of HSP27 and HSP70 were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data provide direct evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields elicits a stress response in the rat hippocampus.

  16. High Frequency Electromagnetic Field Induces Lipocalin 2 Expression in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sNeutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2, comprise a group of small extracellular proteins with a common β-sheet-dominated 3-dimensional structure. In the past, it was assumed that the predominant role of lipocalin was acting as transport proteins. Recently it has been found that oxidative stress induces Lcn2 expression. It has been also proved that electromagnetic field (EMF produces reactive oxygen species (ROS in different tissues. Expression of Lcn2 following exposure to electromagnetic field has been investigated in this study. Materials and MethodsBalb/c mice (8 weeks old were exposed to 3 mT, 50 HZ EMF for 2 months, 4 hr/day. Afterwards, the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and livers were removed. The liver specimens were stained with Haematoxylin- Eosin (H&E and analyzed under an optical microscope. Total RNA was extracted from liver and reverse transcription was performed by SuperScript III reverse transcriptase with 1 µg of total RNA. Assessment of Lcn2 expression was performed by semiquantitative and real time- PCR.ResultsThe light microscopic studies revealed that the number of lymphocyte cells was increased compared to control and dilation of sinosoids was observed in the liver. Lcn2 was up-regulated in the mice exposed to EMF both in mRNA and protein levels.ConclusionTo the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report dealing with up-regulation of Lcn2 in liver after exposure to EMF. The up-regulation might be a compensatory response that involves cell defense pathways and protective effects against ROS. However, further and complementary studies are required in this regards.

  17. Electromagnetic fields in the exterior of an oscillating relativistic star -- II. Electromagnetic damping

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electro...

  18. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in a diamond spin ensemble enables all-optical electromagnetic field sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Victor M; Santori, Charles; Budker, Dmitry; Beausoleil1, Rymond G

    2013-01-01

    We use electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) to probe the narrow electron-spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Working with a multi-pass diamond chip at temperatures 6-30 K, the zero-phonon absorption line (637 nm) exhibits an optical depth of 6 and inhomogenous linewidth of ~30 GHz full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). Simultaneous optical excitation at two frequencies separated by the ground-state zero-field splitting (2.88 GHz), reveals EIT resonances with a contrast exceeding 6% and FWHM down to 0.4 MHz. The resonances provide an all-optical probe of external electric and magnetic fields with a projected photon-shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 0.2 V/cm/sqrt(Hz) and 0.1 nT/sqrt(Hz), respectively. Operation of a prototype diamond-EIT magnetometer measures a noise floor of less than 1 nT/sqrt(Hz) for frequencies above 10 Hz and Allan deviation of 1.3 +/- 1.1 nT for 100 s intervals. The results demonstrate the potential of diamond-EIT devices for applications ranging from quantum-opti...

  19. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  20. Do the standard expressions for the electromagnetic field momentum need any modifications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate here the question raised in the literature about the correct expression for the electromagnetic field momentum, especially when static or stationary fields are involved. For this, we examine a couple of simple but intriguing cases. First, we consider a system configuration in which electromagnetic field momentum is present even though the system is stationary. We trace the electromagnetic momentum to be present in the form of a continuous transport of electromagnetic energy from one part of the system to another, without causing any net change in the energy of the system. In a second case, we show that the electromagnetic momentum is zero irrespective of whether the charged system is static or in motion, even though the electromagnetic energy is present throughout. We demonstrate that the conventional formulation of electromagnetic field momentum describes the systems consistently without any real contradictions. Here, we also make exposition of a curiosity where electromagnetic energy decreases when the charged system gains velocity. Then we discuss the more general question that has been raised: Are the conventional formulas for energy-momentum of electromagnetic fields valid for all cases? Specifically, in the case of so-called "bound fields," do we need to change to some modified definitions? We show that in all cases it is only the conventional formulas that lead to results consistent with the rest of physics, including the special theory of relativity, and that any proposed modifications are thus superfluous.

  1. Effects of microwave and radio frequency electromagnetic fields on lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, M; Eicher, B; Siegenthaler, J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic fields on lichens were investigated. Field experiments of long duration (1-3 years) were combined with laboratory experiments and theoretical considerations. Samples of the lichen species Parmelia tiliacea and Hypogymnia physodes were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz; 0.2, 5, and 50 mW/cm2; and control). Both species showed a substantially reduced growth rate at 50 mW/cm2. A differentiation between thermal and nonthermal effects was not possible. Temperature measurements on lichens exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz, 50 mW/cm2) showed a substantial increase in the surface temperature and an accelerated drying process. The thermal effect of microwave on lichens was verified. The exposure of lichens of both species was repeated near a short-wave broadcast transmitter (9.5 MHz, amplitude modulated; maximum field strength 235 V/m, 332 mA/m). No visible effects on the exposed lichens were detected. At this frequency, no thermal effects were expected, and the experimental results support this hypothesis. Theoretical estimates based on climatic data and literature showed that the growth reductions in the initial experiments could very likely have been caused by drying of the lichens from the heating with microwaves. The results of the other experiments support the hypothesis that the response of the lichens exposed to microwaves was mainly due to thermal effects and that there is a low probability of nonthermal effects.

  2. The effect of electromagnetic interference from mobile communication on the performance of intensive care ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R P; Conway, D H

    2005-08-01

    Electromagnetic interference produced by wireless communication can affect medical devices and hospital policies exist to address this risk. During the transfer of ventilated patients, these policies may be compromised by essential communication between base and receiving hospitals. Local wireless networks (e.g. Bluetooth) may reduce the 'spaghetti syndrome' of wires and cables seen on intensive care units, but also generate electromagnetic interference. The aim of this study was to investigate these effects on displayed and actual ventilator performance. Five ventilators were tested: Drager Oxylog 2000, BREAS LTV-1000, Respironics BiPAP VISION, Puritan Bennett 7200 and 840. Electromagnetic interference was generated by three devices: Simoco 8020 radio handset, Nokia 7210 and Nokia 6230 mobile phone, Nokia 6230 communicating via Bluetooth with a Palm Tungsten T Personal Digital Assistant. We followed the American National Standard Recommended Practice for On-Site, Ad Hoc Testing (ANSI C63) for electromagnetic interference. We used a ventilator tester, to simulate healthy adult lungs and measure ventilator performance. The communication device under test was moved in towards each ventilator from a distance of 1 m in six axes. Alarms or error codes on the ventilator were recorded, as was ventilator performance. All ventilators tested, except for the Respironics VISION, showed a display error when subjected to electromagnetic interference from the Nokia phones and Simoco radio. Ventilator performance was only affected by the radio which caused the Puritan Bennett 840 to stop functioning completely. The transfer ventilators' performance were not affected by radio or mobile phone, although the mobile phone did trigger a low-power alarm. Effects on intensive care ventilators included display reset, with the ventilator restoring normal display function within 2 s, and low-power/low-pressure alarms. Bluetooth transmission had no effect on the function of all the

  3. The non-ionizing electromagnetic field: Derivation of valid biological exposure metrics from Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2003-03-01

    Standards for protecting health from exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation treat the power density (magnitude of Poynting vector) as the biological exposure metric. For a static electric or magnetic field, the presumed metric is field strength. Scientifically valid expressions for such exposure metrics have been derived theoretically [1]. Three regimes exist for which different expressions are obtained: high frequencies (where electric and magnetic fields are tightly coupled), low frequencies (where these fields are separable), and static fields (where time derivatives are zero). Unexpected results are obtained: * There are two exposure metrics: one for thermal, another for athermal effects. * In general, these two metrics are different. Only for a plane wave is the same metric (power density) valid for both effects. * Exposure metrics used today for static fields are invalid! These findings also apply in the ionizing portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. [1] Wireless Phones and Health II: State of the Science. G. Carlo, ed. NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000; Chapter 4.

  4. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries.......The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries....

  5. The quantum vacuum in electromagnetic fields: From the Heisenberg-Euler effective action to vacuum birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The focus of these lectures is on the quantum vacuum subjected to classical electromagnetic fields. To this end we explicitly derive the renowned Heisenberg-Euler effective action in constant electromagnetic fields in a rather pedagogical and easy to conceive way. As an application, we use it to study vacuum birefringence constituting one of the most promising optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity.

  6. [Medical and biologic research of electromagnetic fields in radiofrequencies range. Results and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliada, T V; Vishnevskiĭ, A M; Gorodetskiĭ, B N; Plekhanov, V P; Kuznetsov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The authors present research findings on the problem of technology-related electromagnetic fields as an occupational risk factor of workers health disturbances, and on the issue of prevention measures development against this adverse physical factor effects. Prospects for further research development in the field of electromagnetic safety are discussed.

  7. Coupling of translational and rotational motion in chiral liquids in electromagnetic and circularly polarised electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J; Kusalik, Peter G; Woods, Sarah A

    2012-03-07

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of R and S enantiomers of 1,1-chlorofluoroethane, both for pure liquids and racemic mixtures, have been performed at 298 K in the absence and presence of both electromagnetic (e/m) and circularly polarised electric (CP) fields of varying frequency (100-2200 GHz) and intensity (0.025-0.2 V Å(-1) (rms)). Significant non-thermal field effects were noted in the coupling of rotational and translational motion; for instance, in microwave and far-infrared (MW/IR) e/m fields, marked increases in rotational and translational diffusion vis-à-vis the zero-field case took place at 0.025-0.1 V Å(-1) (rms), with a reduction in translational diffusion vis-à-vis the zero-field case above 0.1 V Å(-1) (rms) above 100 GHz. This was due to enhanced direct coupling of rotational motion with the more intense e/m field at the ideal intrinsic rotational coupling frequency (approximately 700 GHz) leading to such rapidly oscillating rotational motion that extent of translational motion was effectively reduced. In the case of CP fields, rotational and translational diffusion was also enhanced for all intensities, particularly at approximately 700 GHz. For both MW/IR and CP fields, non-linear field effects were evident above around 0.1 V Å(-1) (rms) intensity, in terms of enhancements in translational and rotational motion. Simulation of 90-10 mol. % liquid mixtures of a Lennard-Jones solvent with R and S enantiomer-solutes in MW/IR and CP fields led to more limited promotion of rotational and translational diffusion, due primarily to increased frictional effects. For both e/m and CP fields, examination of the laboratory- and inertial-frame auto- and cross-correlation functions of velocity and angular velocity demonstrated the development of explicit coupling with the external fields at the applied frequencies, especially so in the more intense fields where nonlinear effects come into play. For racemic mixtures, elements of the laboratory

  8. Electromagnetic cascade in high energy electron, positron, and photon interactions with intense laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S S; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of high energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when 3D effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and...

  9. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (formerly 'electromagnetic hypersensitivity'): An updated systematic review of provocation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Nieto-Hernandez, Rosa; Wessely, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF; formerly 'electromagetic hypersensitivity') is a medically unexplained illness in which subjective symptoms are reported following exposure to electrical devices. In an earlier systematic review, we reported data from 31 blind provocation studies which had exposed IEI-EMF volunteers to active or sham electromagnetic fields and assessed whether volunteers could detect these fields or whether they reported worse symptoms when exposed to them. In this article, we report an update to that review. An extensive literature search identified 15 new experiments. Including studies reported in our earlier review, 46 blind or double-blind provocation studies in all, involving 1175 IEI-EMF volunteers, have tested whether exposure to electromagnetic fields is responsible for triggering symptoms in IEI-EMF. No robust evidence could be found to support this theory. However, the studies included in the review did support the role of the nocebo effect in triggering acute symptoms in IEI-EMF sufferers. Despite the conviction of IEI-EMF sufferers that their symptoms are triggered by exposure to electromagnetic fields, repeated experiments have been unable to replicate this phenomenon under controlled conditions. A narrow focus by clinicians or policy makers on bioelectromagnetic mechanisms is therefore, unlikely to help IEI-EMF patients in the long-term.

  10. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  11. Building a first order wave equation for the electromagnetic field: new perspectives on Dirac's equation

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Celso de Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the electromagnetic theory dictates the well-known second order differential equation for the components of the scalar and the vector potentials, or in other words, for the four-vector electromagnetic potential $\\phi^{\\mu}$. But the second order is not obligatory at least with respect to the electromagnetic radiation fields: actually, a heuristic first order differential equation can be constructed to describe the electromagnetic radiation, supported on the phenomenology of its electric and magnetic fields. Due to a formal similarity, such an equation suggests a direct comparative analysis with Dirac's equation for half spin fermions, conducting to the finding that the Dirac's spinor field $\\Psi$ for massive or massless fermions is equivalent to a set of two potential-like four vector fields $\\psi^{\\mu}$ and $\\chi^{\\mu}$. Under this point of view, striking similarities with the electromagnetic theory emerge with a category of "pseudo electric'' and "pseudo magnetic'' vector fermionic fields.

  12. In vitro low frequency electromagnetic field effect on fast axonal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowski, M; Atkinson, M; Lewandowski, J J; Jacobs, G; Mitchell, D; Breuer, A C; Nosé, Y

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low frequency electromagnetic field on fast axonal transport for future neuroprosthetic applications. Changes in speeds and densities of retrograde fast organelle transport in rat sciatic nerve preparations were measured in vitro upon exposure to 15 and 50 Hz pulsed magnetic fields with peak intensities of 4.4 and 8.8 mT. Maximum current density of the induced eddy current was calculated to be about 40 microA/cm2. Video enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy was used to record axons supporting active organelle transport. Strong effects were observed in myelinated axons (cessation of transport in up to 10 min). Such effects may eventually be used as part of a neuroprosthesis to noninvasively modify or couple to various parts of the nervous system.

  13. Novel concepts for differential-equation-based electromagnetic field simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Fernando Lisboa

    This thesis presents novel concepts for electromagetic field simulations via partial differential equation (PDE) solvers. A vital aspect for any successful general implementation of a PDE solver is the use of an efficient absorbing boundary condition (ABC). The perfectly matched layer (PML) is a recently introduced ABC in Cartesian coordinates which provides reflection errors orders of magnitude smaller than previously employed ABCs. In this work, a new interpretation of the PML as an analytic continuation of the coordinate space is used to extend the PML to other coordinate systems. Modified equations replace the original Maxwell's equations, mapping propagating solutions into exponentially decaying solutions. Alternative (Maxwellian) formulations are also put forth, where the PML is represented as an artificial media with complex constitutive tensors, and the form of Maxwell's equations is retained. The causality and dynamic stability of the PML is characterized through a spectral analysis. In addition, a rationale is presented to extend the PML to complex media, e.g., dispersive and/or (bi-)anisotropic. For the Maxwellian formulation, the general expressions for the PML tensors matched to any interior dispersive and/or (bi-)anisotropic linear media are obtained. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm in Cartesian coordinates which combines the PML ABC with piecewise-linear recursive convolution (PLRC) is proposed and implemented, allowing the simulation of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous and dispersive media with conductive loss. Two PML-PLRC-FDTD algorithms in cylindrical coordinates are also proposed and implemented. The first is developed through a split-field PML formulation, and the second through a Maxwellian (unsplit) PML formulation. A comparison is made between numerical properties of these two algorithms. The PML concept is then studied within the language of differential forms to unify the various PML formulations. Finally, the

  14. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species.

  15. The possibility of increasing production efficiency of al alloys applying electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gulišija

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between electromagnetic frequency, microstructure and mechanical properties of continuous casting aluminum alloys were studied in this paper. EN AW 2024 and EN AW 2007 aluminum alloys ingots were produced by electromagnetic continuous casting process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast ingots were examined. The results showed that electromagnetic field, especially low frequency electromagnetic field, greatly influenced the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast ingots. The significant energy savings and product quality can be achieved by the application of a proper frequency.

  16. Three-dimensional electromagnetic breathers in carbon nanotubes with the field inhomogeneity along their axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Fedorov, Eduard G.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2013-10-01

    We study the propagation of extremely short electromagnetic three-dimensional bipolar pulses in an array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. The heterogeneity of the pulse field along the axis of the nanotubes is accounted for the first time. The evolution of the electromagnetic field and the charge density of the sample are described by Maxwell's equations supplemented by the continuity equation. Our analysis reveals for the first time the possibility of propagation of three-dimensional electromagnetic breathers in CNTs arrays. Specifically, we found that the propagation of short electromagnetic pulse induces a redistribution of the electron density in the sample.

  17. Poole-Frenkel Effect in Terahertz Electromagnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The ionisation of deep impurity centres in germanium has been observed with radiation in the terahertz range where the photon energy is much less than the binding energy of the impurities. It is shown that for not too high radiation intensities the ionisation is caused by the Poole-Frenkel effect. As in the well-known case of d.c. fields, the electric field of the high-frequency radiation lowers the Coulomb potential barrier and enhances the thermal emission of carriers.

  18. Hyperthermic effect of magnetic nanoparticles under electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Baldi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasingly attention due to their potential applications in many industrial fields, even extending their use in biomedical applications. In the latter contest the main features of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility to be driven by external magnetic fields, the ability to pass through capillaries without occluding them and to absorb and convert electromagnetic radiation in to heat (Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia. The main challenges of the current works on hyperthermia deal with the achievement of highly efficiency magnetic nanoparticles, the surface grafting with ligands able to facilitate their specific internalisation in tumour cells and the design of stealth nanocomposites able to circulate in the blood compartment for a long time. This article presents the synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in diethylene glycol via the so called polyol strategy and the crystal size control through successive synthesis steps. Preliminary heat dissipation evaluations on the prepared samples were carried out and the question of how particles sizes affect their magnetic and hyperthermic properties was addressed as well. Furthermore we will present how surface chemistry can be modified in order to change the dispersity of the product without affecting magnetic and hyperthermic properties.

  19. Electromagnetic field generation by ATP-induced reverse electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Richard H

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a mechanism to explain low-level light emission in biology. A biological analog of the electrical circuitry, modeled on the parallel plate capacitor, traversed by a helical structure, required to generate electromagnetic radiation in the optical spectral range, is described. The charge carrier required for the emissions is determined to be an accelerating electron driven by an ATP-induced reverse electron transfer. The radial velocity component, the emission trajectory, of the moving charges traversing helical protein structures in a cyclotron-type mechanism is proposed to be imposed by the ferromagnetic field components of the iron in the iron-sulfur proteins. The redox systems NADH, riboflavin, and chlorophyll were examined with their long-wavelength absorption maxima determining the energetic parameters for the calculations. Potentials calculated from the axial velocity components for the riboflavin and NADH systems were found to equal the standard redox potentials of these systems as measured electrochemically and enzymatically. The mechanics for the three systems determined the magnetic moments, the angular momenta, and the orbital magnetic fluxes to be adiabatic invariant parameters. The De Broglie dual wave-particle equation, the fundamental equation of wave mechanics, and the key idea of quantum mechanics, establishes the wavelengths for accelerating electrons which, divided into a given radial velocity, gives its respective emission frequency. Electrons propelled through helical structures, traversed by biologically available electric and magnetic fields, make accessible to the internal environment the optical spectral frequency range that the solar spectrum provides to the external environment.

  20. Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Some Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Faisel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     New medical devices such as surgery devices, physiotherapy devices, cosmetological devices and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI systems generate a complex electromagnetic fields, so they consider as a potential   hazard for medical personnel during surgical procedures. The aim of this research is to detect the EMFs emitted from medical devices and determine the safety ranges from these devices which emit EMF radiations in order to protect Medical staff from its risks. The research has been performed in two parts, numerical calculation and practical measurement. Practical measurements are done in Dijlah hospital at Tikrit city. Obtaining results shows that the practical measurements are consistent with the mathematical calculation results. Comparison of these results with the safety standard guideline limits shows that they   are within the acceptable exposure limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP and that means there is no health risk from exposure to these fields if the exposure is for a short and not continued periods and lay within the acceptable limits.    

  1. The Electron Propagator in External Electromagnetic Fields in Lower Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Murguia, Gabriela; Sanchez, Angel; Reyes, Edward

    2009-01-01

    We study the electron propagator in quantum electrodynamics in lower dimensions. In the case of free electrons, it is well known that the propagator in momentum space takes the simple form $S_F(p)=1/(\\gamma\\cdot p-m)$. In the presence of external electromagnetic fields, electron asymptotic states are no longer plane-waves, and hence the propagator in the basis of momentum eigenstates has a more intricate form. Nevertheless, in the basis of the eigenfunctions of the operator $(\\gamma\\cdot \\Pi)^2$, where $\\Pi_\\mu$ is the canonical momentum operator, it acquires the free form $S_F(p)=1/(\\gamma\\cdot \\bar{p}-m)$ where $\\bar{p}_\\mu$ depends on the dynamical quantum numbers. We construct the electron propagator in the basis of the $(\\gamma\\cdot \\Pi)^2$ eigenfunctions. In the (2+1)-dimensional case, we obtain it in an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra incorporating to all orders the effects of a magnetic field of arbitrary spatial shape pointing perpendicularly to the plane of motion of the electrons...

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D., E-mail: davsark@yahoo.com, E-mail: david@ipr.sci.am [National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Institute for Physical Research (Armenia); Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Leroy, C. [Université de Bourgogne-Dijon, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS (France); Cartaleva, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electronics (Bulgaria); Wilson-Gordon, A. D. [Bar-Ilan University Ramat Gan, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Auzinsh, M. [University of Latvia, Department of Physics (Latvia)

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a Λ-system of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates γ{sub rel} are used: an Rb cell with antirelaxation coating (L ∼ 1 cm) and an Rb nanometric- thin cell (nanocell) with a thickness of the atomic vapor column L = 795 nm. For the EIT in the nanocell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (bright resonances (BR)). We suppose that such an unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e., the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of an alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic field.

  3. Convective heat transfer in engine coolers influenced by electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, C.; Kühndel, J.

    2017-08-01

    In engine coolers of off-highway vehicles, convective heat transfer at the coolant side limits both efficiency and performance density of the apparatus. Here, due to restrictions in construction and design, backwater areas and stagnation regions cannot be avoided. Those unwanted changes in flow characteristics are mainly triggered by flow deflections and sudden cross-sectional expansions. In application, mixtures of water and glysantine are used as appropriate coolants. Such coolants typically show an electrical conductivity of a few S/m. Coolant flow and convective heat transfer can then be controlled using Lorentz forces. These body forces are generated within the conducting fluid by the interactions of an electrical current density and a localized magnetic field, both of which are externally superimposed. In future application, this could be achieved by inserting electrodes in the cooler wall and a corresponding arrangement of permanent magnets. In this paper we perform numerical simulations of such magnetohydrodynamic flow in three model geometries that frequently appear in engine cooling applications: Carnot-Borda diffusor, 90° bend, and 180° bend. The simulations are carried out using the software package ANSYS Fluent. The present study demonstrates that, depending on the electromagnetic interaction parameter and the specific geometric arrangement of electrodes and magnetic field, Lorentz forces are suitable to break up eddy waters and separation zones and thus significantly increase convective heat transfer in these areas. Furthermore, the results show that hydraulic pressure losses can be reduced due to the pumping action of the Lorentz forces.

  4. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsam, Tayebeh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2012-11-30

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24-57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24-50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  5. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsam Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI. Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615. Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415 ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min (P-value=0.002. Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours. Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  6. Electrochemotherapy by pulsed electromagnetic field treatment (PEMF in mouse melanoma B16F10 in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranjc Simona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF induces pulsed electric field, which presumably increases membrane permeabilization of the exposed cells, similar to the conventional electroporation. Thus, contactless PEMF could represent a promising approach for drug delivery.

  7. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effec...

  8. Leptonic Decays of the W-Boson in a Strong Electromagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kurilin, Alexander V

    2004-01-01

    The probability of W-boson decay into a lepton and a neutrino in a strong electromagnetic field is calculated. On the basis of the method for deriving exact solutions to relativistic wave equations for charged particles, an exact analytic expression is obtained for the partial W-decay width at an arbitrary value of the external field strength. It is found that, in the region of comparatively weak fields, field-induced corrections to the standard decay width of the W-boson in a vacuum are about a few percent. In these conditions at first we observe the decrease of the W-boson partial decay width with the increase of the external field strength parameter. At absolute minimum the W-width deviates from the corresponding vacuum value by a factor 0,926. Then with further augmentation of the background field intensity the W-boson decay width grows monotonously. In superstrong fields the partial W-width is greater than the corresponding one in vacuum in a dozen of times.

  9. Ultrahigh Enhancement of Electromagnetic Fields by Exciting Localized with Extended Surface Plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Anran; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Li, Shuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of metal nanoparticles (NPs) residing on a flat metal film has attracted great attentions recently due to the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) fields found to be higher than the case of NPs on a dielectric substrate. In the present work, it is shown that even much higher enhancement of EM fields is obtained by exciting the LSPs through extended surface plasmons (ESPs) generated at the metallic film surface using the Kretschmann-Raether configuration. We show that the largest EM field enhancement and the highest surface-enhanced fluorescence intensity are obtained when the incidence angle is the ESP resonance angle of the underlying metal film. The finite-difference time-domain simulations indicate that excitation of LSPs using ESPs can generate 1-3 orders higher EM field intensity than direct excitation of the LSPs using incidence from free space. The ultrahigh enhancement is attributed to the strong confinement of the ESP waves in the vertical direction. The drast...

  10. The effects of green tea extract on teratogenicity induced by low frequency electromagnetic field on bone marrow Balb/C mice embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharara Javad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electromagnetic fields produce free radicals which might be teratogen. Camellia sinensis is rich in natural antioxidants and antioxidants can neutralize free radicals effects. In present research the effect of C. sinensis extract in reduction of teratogenicity induced by electromagnetic field with 50 gauss intensity was studied on bone marrow of Balb/C mice fetuses. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 Balb/C pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham exposed (off position, experimental 1 (electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity and experimental 2 (treatment by C. sinensis extract + electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity. After treatment period, the bone marrow aspirates of Balb/C mice embryos were prepared and studied by Giemsa. The quantitative data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov- Smirnov using SPSS16 software at the level of p<0.05. Results: The mean number of promyelocytes, myelocytes, erythrocytes, necrotic and apoptotic cells in experimental group1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant increase but the mean number of eosinophils in experimental group 1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant decrease. The mean number of promyelocyte and erythrocyte in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant decrease. The mean of necrotic and apoptotic cells, in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant increase. Conclusion: Usage of C. sinensis can decrease the damage due to teratogenicity induced by low frequency electromagnetic field in some cells.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on in Vitro Growth and Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Barzegari Firouzabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Access to modern methods for increasing the percentage of in vitro human and animal mature oocytes can be useful in the treatment of some forms of human infertility as well as proliferation of many domestic and wild animals which generation is endangered. Effect of low- frequency electromagnetic fields on in vitro growth and maturation of mouse oocytes is recently considered as a new approach. In this study we evaluated the effect of low- frequency electromagnetic field on in vitro growth and maturation of mouse oocyte. Methods: In this study electromagnetic fields with frequencies of 5, 50 and 100 Hz and 2mT intensity were used. For observation of the effect of electromagnetic field four groups were selected: Group 1 as control group, which included 35 prenatal follicles (immature oocytes. Groups 2, 3 and 4were exposed to 5, 50 and 100 Hz electromagnetic fields, respectively. Results: Prenatal follicles exposed to 5 and 50 Hz frequencies showed no significant changes in diameter and survival rates. In contrast at a frequency of 100 Hz in 72-hour culture period a significant increase in diameter(155μm, follicles livability power(59%, oocyte maturation(52% and GVBD(39% was shown in comparison to other experimental groups and control group(P <0.05. Conclusion: Low-frequency magnetic field effects gene expression and thus protein synthesis, cell division, proliferation and behavior. Although this effect can be temporary, it can increase the percentage of ovulation for in vitro environment along with other environmental factors.

  12. Evaluation of specific absorption rate as a dosimetric quantity for electromagnetic fields bioeffects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris J Panagopoulos

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. METHODS: We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. RESULTS: WE FIND THAT: a The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. CONCLUSIONS: SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar

  13. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Siyi; He, Hongchen; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Haiming; Gao, Chengfei; Yu, Xijie; He, Chengqi

    2017-09-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is considered to be a well-defined subject that has caused high morbidity and mortality. In elderly women diagnosed with PMOP, low bone mass and fragile bone strength have been proven to significantly increase risk of fragility fractures. Currently, various anabolic and anti-resorptive therapies have been employed in an attempt to retain healthy bone mass and strength. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), first applied in treating patients with delayed fracture healing and nonunions, may turn out to be another potential and effective therapy for PMOP. PEMFs can enhance osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis, thus contributing to an increase in bone mass and strength. However, accurate mechanisms of the positive effects of PEMFs on PMOP remain to be further elucidated. This review attempts to summarize recent advances of PEMFs in treating PMOP based on clinical trials, and animal and cellular studies. Possible mechanisms are also introduced, and the future possibility of application of PEMFs on PMOP are further explored and discussed. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:406-424, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gye, Myung Chan; Park, Chan Jin

    2012-03-01

    The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca(2+)]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels.

  15. Mechanism of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on nonlinear phenomena of biophoton emission observed in the past, an interference model concerning with the mechanism of interaction between living organisms and electromagnetic fields was raised. Caused by biological nonlinearly polarizable double layer, destructive interference of incoming and reflected waves establishes in the outside. As a consequence, in the inside constructive interference takes place at the same time. The interference patterns may play an important role in biological self organization and in biological functions. We investigate the boundary conditions necessary for explaining these non-linear optical effects in terms of the phase conjugation. It turns out that there are solutions of the Maxwell equations which satisfy destructive interference of biophotons in agreement with the experimental results. Necessary provisions are nonlinearly polarizable optically active double layers of distances which are small compared to the wavelength of light. In addition, they have to be able to move into the nodal planes of the impinging waves within a small time interval compared to the coherence time. These conditions are likely fulfilled in the optically dense, but ordered and optically excited, highly polarizable living matter.

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, A; Pashayan-Leroy, Y; Leroy, C; Cartaleva, S; Wilson-Gordon, A D; Auzinsh, M

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon has been investigated in a $\\Lambda$-system of the $^{87}$Rb D$_1$ line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates $\\gamma_{rel}$ are used: a Rb cell with antirelaxation coating ($L\\sim$1 cm) and a Rb nanometric-thin cell (nano-cell) with thickness of the atomic vapor column $L$=795nm. For the EIT in the nano-cell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (i.e. dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (i.e. bright resonances). We suppose that such unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e. the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic f...

  17. 家用和类似用途器具电磁场(EMF)的测量%Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Measurement for Household and Similar Electrical Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕

    2005-01-01

    The requirement of Electromagnetic Fields had been added into Low Voltage Directive, the test introduces the actuality of Electromagnetic Fields measurement, focuses in electromagnetic fields evaluation and measurement for household and similar electrical appliances.

  18. The Study of ECG Changes in Humans Exposed to 50 Hz Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Saiedi Zadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that cardiovascular effects are among the possible health effects of being exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMSs. Material and Methods: This study has been conducted to evaluate the long term effects of exposure to magnetic and electric fields on electrocardiogram signal changes. Nine power transmission posts having different voltages were chosen. The study was conducted in three stages. First, the intensity of root mean square (rms of magnetic and electrical fields was assessed in different spots where the operators were spending more time. Then based on each operator’s work habits the time–weighted mean of intensity of rms in magnetic and electrical fields over a 12 hour period was estimated and used as an index for each operator. In the next step, 102 individuals were chosen among the operators according to their job and medical history. Each subject had an eletrocardiogram taken while being relaxed. The cardiograms were used to extract 5 parameters including number of heart bit, wave time of P, complex QRS, interval time of PR and QTC. Using poly regression analysis method, the synchronized effects of independent variables such as age, job history, time–weighted mean of magnetic and electrical field on the extracted parameters of electrocardiogram signal was analyzed. Results: The obtained results show that the synchronized effects of the variables can cause changes on PR and QTC interval of electrocardiogram signal. The most changes on PR and QTC interval are caused by the exposure to magnetic and electrical fields. Discussion and Conclusion: Studying the effects of electromagnetic field on electrocardiogram signal is representative of effects of these fields on repolarization of cardiac cells. On the other hand, the heart rhythm and the number of heart bit are under the control of automatic system of central nervous system. Therefore, it is important to analyze

  19. Proposal for magnetic/electromagnetic fields protection norms on national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Drago

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The modern life is not possible without application of magnetic/electromagnetic fields, which can be both helpful and harmful for human body. Influence of magnetic/electromagnetic fields on biological systems The non-ionizing radiation, especially magnetic/electromagnetic fields of all frequencies (0-300 GHz, can have many harmful effects on the human health that is confirmed by numerous epidemiological studies, studies with volunteers, animal studies, and in vitro studies. Proposal for magnetic/electromagnetic fields protection norms Proposal for magnetic/electromagnetic fields protection norms on national level based on the WHO Program for Environment, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP], and WHO International EMF Project. Conclusion Protection from harmful effects of the magnetic/electromagnetic fields is still a great problem in many countries of modern society - huge costs, impaired quality of life, and more important, damage to the human health. Numerous data and publications of harmful effects of the magnetic/electromagnetic fields represents one's country basic necessary documentation for making decisions and law documents for protection norms on national level concerning the health maintenance according to the ICNIRP normatives.

  20. On the Implementation of General Background Electromagnetic Fields on a Periodic Hypercubic Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, once implemented in lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations of hadronic systems, provide a means to constrain a large class of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and nuclei, from their higher electromagnetic moments and charge radii to their electromagnetic form factors. We show how nonuniform fields can be constructed on a periodic hypercubic lattice under certain conditions and determine the precise form of the background U(1) gauge links that must be imposed on the quantum chromodynamics gauge-field configurations to maintain periodicity. Once supplemented by a set of quantization conditions on the background-field parameters, this construction guarantees that no nonuniformity occurs in the hadronic correlation functions across the boundary of the lattice. The special cases of uniform electric and magnetic fields, a nonuniform electric field that varies linearly in one spatial coordinate (relevant to the determination of quadruple moment and charge radii...