WorldWideScience

Sample records for intellectual odyssey involving

  1. Cosmic odyssey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidmann, J.

    1989-01-01

    The immensity of the cosmos, the richness of the universe, the limits of space and time: these are the themes of Cosmic Odyssey, which takes the reader on imaginary journeys through the past, present and future of our universe. After a first look at the starry night sky, the enigmas posed since ancient times by the universe are reviewed. There then follows a broadbrush view of the universe as we understand it today. Following this, a trio of chapters take us to ultimate questions about its nature. The author explores in turn the relativistic universe, the quantum universe and the inflationary universe. Finally the journey returns to questions that touch on our own presence in the universe. Cosmology, the science of understanding the nature of the universe as a whole, has gone through an extraordinary revolution in its approach. This book explains in detail the link between particle physics and cosmology, the very early universe, the significance of Grand Unified Theory and superstrings, the magical qualities of the inflationary universe, and the seemingly bleak scenarios for the farthest future. (author)

  2. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  3. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  4. Community Involvement of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Experiences and Perspectives on Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A

    2017-09-01

    Inclusion in the community is essential to enhancing a person's quality of life. Although people with intellectual disabilities have a desire to be more involved in activities, they experience barriers that limit their inclusion. The purpose of this study was to describe the community involvement of young adults with intellectual disability. I interviewed fourteen young adults with intellectual disability to explore their involvement in work, recreation and leisure activities. Four themes emerged from the data: vocational endeavours, leisure pursuits, social inclusion and supports. The contexts of their experiences either facilitated or hindered their community involvement. The community involvement of young adults with intellectual disability varies depending on the opportunities and supports available to them. Their inclusion in the community may be enhanced by additional transportation options, continuing education in vocational and social skills, personalized guidance from group members and environments that are welcoming to people with disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. College Students' Conceptualizations of Deficits Involved in Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Mandi W.; Barker, Alyse A.; Proto, Daniel A.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2012-01-01

    Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the…

  6. [An unconscious odyssey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Walter H

    2008-12-01

    A 76-year-old ex-manager of a shipping company with preexisting pneumopathy suffered from massive pulmonary embolism after an operation in Germany and had to be mechanically ventilated. His wife requested a transportation by helicopter to the intensive care unit of a smaller hospital in the Engadin, Grisons, Switzerland, where he was later tracheotomized. Weeks later, the wife insisted on a transfer to another, even smaller hospital in the area. During that stay an emergency pericardiocentesis had to be performed. Thereafter, he was transferred to the intensive care unit of our hospital. The last journey was again by request of his wife against medical advices a flight back to his home in Germany, what he survived only for a few hours and was followed by the suicide of his wife. Why could nobody prevent or stop this insane odyssey?

  7. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  8. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  9. Fostering Emotion Expression and Affective Involvement with Communication Partners in People with Congenital Deafblindness and Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marga A W; Janssen, Marleen J; Ruijssenaars, Wied A J J M; Huisman, Mark; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to foster affective involvement between people with congenital deafblindness and their communication partners. Affective involvement is crucial for well-being, and it is important to know whether it can also be fostered with people who have congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities. This study used a multiple-baseline design to examine whether an intervention based on the Intervention Model for Affective Involvement would (i) increase affective involvement between four participants with congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities and their 13 communication partners and (ii) increase the participants' positive emotions and decrease their negative emotions. In all cases, dyadic affective involvement increased, the participants' very positive emotions also increased and the participants' negative emotions decreased. The results indicate that communication partners of persons with congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities can be successfully trained to foster affective involvement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fathers of children with Down's syndrome versus other types of intellectual disability: perceptions, stress and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, L A; Hodapp, R M

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined fathers' perceptions of, stress relating to and involvement with children with Down's syndrome (DS) (n = 30) versus those with other types of intellectual disability (ID) (n = 20). Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires about their children's personalities and maladaptive behaviours, their own parenting stress, and the fathers' level of involvement. Both fathers and mothers rated their children with DS as having more positive personality traits and fewer maladaptive behaviours. Possibly because of these positive perceptions, fathers of children with DS also reported less child-related stress, particularly in the areas of acceptability, adaptability and demandingness. The two groups of fathers were very similarly involved in child rearing. The personality, age and maladaptive behaviours of the children related to stress levels in the fathers of children with DS, while maladaptive behaviours, gender and the fathers' education levels related to stress levels in the fathers of children with other types of ID. These results highlight the importance of examining parental stress and involvement with children with different types of ID.

  11. "…Their Opinions Mean Something": Care Staff's Attitudes to Health Research Involving People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Natalie; Durand, Marie-Anne; Mengoni, Silvana E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite experiencing health inequalities, people with intellectual disabilities are under-represented in health research. Previous research has identified barriers but has typically focused on under-recruitment to specific studies. This study aimed to explore care staff's attitudes to health research involving people with intellectual…

  12. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  13. Dr. Tulp attends the soft machine: patient simulators, user involvement and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Lewis, Robin; Brewster, Jacqui

    2012-09-01

    Simulation as a way to teach clinical skills attracts much critical attention. Its benefits, however, might be significantly reduced when the simulation model used relies exclusively on patient simulators. This is particularly true if the intended patient population for students taught is characterized by intellectual disability. Learning to care for people with intellectual disability might be better supplemented when the simulation model used incorporates input from 'real' people. If these people themselves have intellectual disabilities then the verisimilitude of the simulation will be higher and the outcomes for learners and potential patients will also be improved.

  14. Old women in the Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Skafte Jensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Being a heroic epic, the Odyssey is peopled by male protagonists in their prime. Nevertheless, the poem gives attention also to humbler figures, among them old women. They are few, but important. A couple of them belong to the highest stratum of society, the rest are slaves. Especially, they are trophoi, nurses, and the impression given is that such nurses are an indispensable part of any big household. The most impressive of them is Odysseus’ nurse Eurycleia, who has a role to play all the way through the poem. When her story is traced from beginning to end it unfolds as a poem inside the poem, with its own inner coherence. Her character is ambiguous: in some scenes she is the quintessence of care and kindness, in others she is brutal, so much so as to make of her one of the scariest characters in the poem. What has made her so full of hatred? the hard life as a slave. She has accustomed herself to her fate and shows unbroken solidarity with her masters, only to feel all the more offended by the amount of work the feasting suitors have caused. Besides, a traditional fairy tale pattern runs as an undercurrent through the epic, with Penelope and Eurycleia filling in the same tale role so that good and bad is split between them.

  15. Diachronic Homer and a Cretan Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Nagy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the kaleidoscopic world of Homer and Homeric poetry from a combined diachronic and synchronic perspective. Linguists refer to “synchronic” as a given structure that exists in a given time and space, and “diachronic” as a structure that evolves through time. Nagy argues that from a diachronic perspective, the structure known as Homeric poetry can be viewed as an “evolving medium.” From a diachronic perspective, Homeric poetry is not only an evolving medium of oral poetry, but it is also a medium that actually views itself diachronically. In other words, Homeric poetry demonstrates aspects of its own evolution. A case in point is “the Cretan _Odyssey_”—or, better, “a Cretan _Odyssey_”—as reflected in the “lying tales” of Odysseus in the _Odyssey_. The author claims that these tales give the medium an opportunity to open windows into an _Odyssey_ that is otherwise unknown. In the alternate universe of this “Cretan _Odyssey_,” the adventures of Odysseus take place in the exotic context of Minoan-Mycenaean civilization.

  16. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  17. Mindful Parenting and Care Involvement of Fathers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    There are few data addressing psychological variables that may explain some variation in parenting by fathers of children with intellectual disabilities. In the present study, we hypothesized that fathers who were more mindful in their parenting role (specifically, fathers who reported more present-centered attention in their relationship with…

  18. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  19. Well-Being, Involvement in Paid Work and Division of Child-Care in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and…

  20. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    Personal communications places severe demands on service providers and transmission facilities. Customers are not satisfied with the current levels of service and want improvements. Among the characteristics that users seek are: lower service rates, hand held convenience, acceptable time delays, ubiquitous service, high availability, reliability, and high quality. The space industry is developing commercial space systems for providing mobile communications to personal telephones. Provision of land mobile satellite service is fundamentally different from the fixed satellite service provided by geostationary satellites. In fixed service, the earth based antennas can depend on a clear path from user to satellite. Mobile users in a terrestrial environment commonly encounter blockage due to vegetation, terrain or buildings. Consequently, high elevation angles are of premium value. TRW studied the issues and concluded that a Medium Earth Orbit constellation is the best solution for Personal Communications Satellite Service. TRW has developed Odyssey, which uses twelve satellites in medium altitude orbit to provide personal communications satellite service. The Odyssey communications system projects a multibeam antenna pattern to the Earth. The attitude control system orients the satellites to ensure constant coverage of land mass and coastal areas. Pointing can be reprogrammed by ground control to ensure optimized coverage of the desired service areas. The payload architecture features non-processing, "bent pipe" transponders and matrix amplifiers to ensure dynamic power delivery to high demand areas. Circuit capacity is 3000 circuits per satellite. Each satellite weighs 1917 kg (4226 pounds) at launch and the solar arrays provide 3126 Watts of power. Satellites are launched in pairs on Ariane, Atlas, or other vehicles. Each satellite is placed in a circular orbit at an altitude of 10,354 km. There are three orbit planes inclined at 55° to the equatorial plane

  1. Issues Concerning Self-Report Data and Population-Based Data Sets Involving People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Felce, David; Stancliffe, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two methodological issues regarding ways of obtaining and analyzing outcome data for people with intellectual disabilities: (a) self-report and proxy-report data and (b) analysis of population-based data sets. Some people with intellectual disabilities have difficulties with self-reporting due to problems of understanding and…

  2. Modeling Reaction Control System Effects on Mars Odyssey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanna, Jill

    2002-01-01

    ...) simulations to determine rotational motion of the spacecraft. The main objective of this study was to assess the reaction control system models and their effects on the atmospheric flight of Odyssey...

  3. Functional convergence of histone methyltransferases EHMT1 and KMT2C involved in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S Koemans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1, is characterized by intellectual disability (ID, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C, in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C. Our clinical data delineates the KMT2C phenotypic spectrum and reinforces the phenotypic overlap with Kleefstra syndrome and other related ID disorders. To elucidate the common molecular basis of the neuropathology associated with mutations in KMT2C and EHMT1, we characterized the role of the Drosophila KMT2C ortholog, trithorax related (trr, in the nervous system. Similar to the Drosophila EHMT1 ortholog, G9a, trr is required in the mushroom body for short term memory. Trr ChIP-seq identified 3371 binding sites, mainly in the promoter of genes involved in neuronal processes. Transcriptional profiling of pan-neuronal trr knockdown and G9a null mutant fly heads identified 613 and 1123 misregulated genes, respectively. These gene sets show a significant overlap and are associated with nearly identical gene ontology enrichments. The majority of the observed biological convergence is derived from predicted indirect target genes. However, trr and G9a also have common direct targets, including the Drosophila ortholog of Arc (Arc1, a key regulator of synaptic plasticity. Our data highlight the clinical and molecular convergence between the KMT2 and EHMT protein families, which may contribute to a molecular network underlying a larger group of ID/ASD-related disorders.

  4. Identification of a novel synaptic protein, TMTC3, involved in periventricular nodular heterotopia with intellectual disability and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Sali M K; Nixon, Kevin C J; Everest, Michelle; Edwards, Tara N; Long, Shirley; Segal, Dmitri; Knip, Maria J; Arts, Heleen H; Chakrabarti, Rana; Wang, Jian; Robinson, John F; Lee, Donald; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Rupar, C Anthony; Siu, Victoria M; Poulter, Michael O; Hegele, Robert A; Kramer, Jamie M

    2017-11-01

    Defects in neuronal migration cause brain malformations, which are associated with intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. Using exome sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous variants (p.Arg71His and p. Leu729ThrfsTer6) in TMTC3, encoding transmembrane and tetratricopeptide repeat containing 3, in four siblings with nocturnal seizures and ID. Three of the four siblings have periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), a common brain malformation caused by failure of neurons to migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortex. Expression analysis using patient-derived cells confirmed reduced TMTC3 transcript levels and loss of the TMTC3 protein compared to parental and control cells. As TMTC3 function is currently unexplored in the brain, we gathered support for a neurobiological role for TMTC3 by generating flies with post-mitotic neuron-specific knockdown of the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster TMTC3 ortholog, CG4050/tmtc3. Neuron-specific knockdown of tmtc3 in flies resulted in increased susceptibility to induced seizures. Importantly, this phenotype was rescued by neuron-specific expression of human TMTC3, suggesting a role for TMTC3 in seizure biology. In addition, we observed co-localization of TMTC3 in the rat brain with vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a presynaptic marker for inhibitory synapses. TMTC3 is localized at VGAT positive pre-synaptic terminals and boutons in the rat hypothalamus and piriform cortex, suggesting a role for TMTC3 in the regulation of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. TMTC3 did not co-localize with Vglut2, a presynaptic marker for excitatory neurons. Our data identified TMTC3 as a synaptic protein that is involved in PVNH with ID and epilepsy, in addition to its previously described association with cobblestone lissencephaly. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. A systematic review of interventions aiming to improve involvement in physical activity among adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Katie; van Dooren, Kate; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nick; Ware, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Evidence suggests that most adults with intellectual disability do not participate in sufficient amounts of physical activity (PA). A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies that reported an intervention aiming to improve PA levels of adults with intellectual disability was conducted. Keywords related to intellectual disability and physical activity were used to search relevant databases. Studies were excluded if they did not measure PA as an outcome for adults with intellectual disability, were non-English, and were not peer-reviewed. All relevant studies were included in the review regardless of methodological quality and design. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. These included health education or health promotion programs with PA, nutrition, and weight loss components. The quality of studies included in this review was generally poor. Most studies used a prepost design, sample sizes were small, and measurement tools were used that are not valid and reliable for the population assessed. PA interventions have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability, a vulnerable group who require attention from public health practitioners and researchers. Given the health inequities that exist, public health researchers should target efforts to improve PA levels among this group.

  6. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  7. Judicial Reliance on Parental IQ in Appellate-Level Child Welfare Cases Involving Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Ella; Tahir, Munazza; Feldman, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are over-represented in child welfare cases. Although IQ "per se" is an invalid indicator of parenting abilities, this study examined the prevalence of judicial consideration of parental IQ test evidence in US appellate cases. Methods: The present authors…

  8. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons during Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). Methods: The sample comprised 229 police…

  9. Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  10. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons During Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2018-03-01

    Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). The sample comprised 229 police officers who attended a mandatory firearms training course in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010. Participants commonly reported utilizing independent support persons and displayed a fair understanding of their role. Overall, volunteers were engaged more frequently than family/friends; police considered the volunteers to be more impartial during interviews, whereas family/friends provided a greater level of emotional support to interviewees. Independent support persons need to demonstrate two quite different types of support to people with intellectual disability(ies) during police interviews; these require quite different skill sets and suggest the need for more tailored training and support for these volunteers. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Odyssey Approach for Optimizing Federated SPARQL Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Gabriela; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Hose, Katja

    2017-01-01

    . Nevertheless, these plans may still exhibit a high number of intermediate results or high execution times because of heuristics and inaccurate cost estimations. In this paper, we present Odyssey, an approach that uses statistics that allow for a more accurate cost estimation for federated queries and therefore...

  12. Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  13. Osteopathia striata congenita with cranial sclerosis and intellectual disability due to contiguous gene deletions involving the WTX locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Sk; Morgan, T; Baujat, G

    2013-01-01

    Osteopathia striata congenita with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is a skeletal dysplasia caused by germline deletions of or truncating point mutations in the X-linked gene WTX (FAM123B, AMER1). Females present with longitudinal striations of sclerotic bone along the long axis of long bones and cranial...... sclerosis, with a high prevalence of cleft palate and hearing loss. Intellectual disability or neurodevelopmental delay is not observed in females with point mutations in WTX leading to OSCS. One female has been described with a deletion spanning multiple neighbouring genes suggesting that deletion of some...... neighbouring loci may result in abnormal neurodevelopment. In this cohort of 13 females with OSCS resulting from deletions of WTX, a relationship is observed where deletion of ARHGEF9 and/or MTMR8 in conjunction with WTX results in an additional neurodevelopmental phenotype whereas deletion of ASB12 along...

  14. Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome as emerging clinical diagnosis in intellectually disabled children with autistic traits and ocular involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolini, Giulia; Agolini, Emanuele; Majore, Silvia; Novelli, Antonio; Grammatico, Paola; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2018-05-01

    A recent syndromic condition with craniofacial dysmorphisms, comprising congenital ocular defect and neurodevelopmental delay named Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome (HVDAS) (OMIM#615873), has been described and molecularly defined, identifying pathogenic mutations in the ADNP gene (OMIM#611386) as biological cause. We report on two children, displaying intellectual disability (ID) and peculiar congenital eyes anomalies, both carrying a de novo nonsense mutation in the ADNP gene. The review of present and literature reports, suggests that the diagnosis of HVDAS should be suspected in patients with ID accompanied by behavioral features in the Autism Spectrum Disorder and distinctive craniofacial phenotype. Among dysmorphisms due to malformation of the periorbital region, ptosis appears to be particularly recurrent in HVDAS. Furthermore, the present patients could support the inclusion of the HVDAS associated with specific mutations clustering within a small ADNP genomic region among clinical conditions reminiscent of the blepharophimosis/mental retardation syndromes (BMRS). Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Zero Energy Building Pays for Itself: Odyssey Elementary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Odyssey Elementary is a large public school in an area of Utah with a growing population. Created as a prototype for the Davis School District, Odyssey is a zero energy building whose design has already been copied for two other new schools, both of which are targeting zero energy. It has a unique design with four 'houses' (or classroom wings) featuring generously daylit classrooms. This design contributes to the school's energy efficiency. In an effort to integrate positive messages about fitness into the learning environment, each house has a different take on the theme of 'bodies in motion' in the natural world. In a postoccupancy survey of parents, students, and teachers, more than 87% were satisfied with the building overall.

  16. Fostering Emotion Expression and Affective Involvement with Communication Partners in People with Congenital Deafblindness and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marga A. W.; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Huisman, Mark; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that it is possible to foster affective involvement between people with congenital deafblindness and their communication partners. Affective involvement is crucial for well-being, and it is important to know whether it can also be fostered with people who have congenital deafblindness and intellectual…

  17. Do Service Users with Intellectual Disabilities Want to Be Involved in the Risk Management Process? A Thematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcommons, Aoiffe M.; Withers, Paul; Moreno-Lopez, Agueda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Involving ID service users in risk decision making necessitates consideration of an individual's ability to assess the implications and associated risks and thus make an informed choice. This calls for research on service users' awareness and understanding of risk management (RM). Method: Thirteen people in a residential ID service who…

  18. Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  19. The couple's odyssey: Hollywood's take on love relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Psychiatrists need to be aware of how their individual clients are impacted by issues they may be having in their intimate relationships and how couples issues, in turn, impact and are impacted by emotional and mental disorders. In addition, psychiatrists need to be able to offer sound advice to individuals in troubled relationships, know how to make referrals to trained marriage therapists and know how medications they prescribe may impact couples. Over the past twenty years, there have been significant advances in couple research to assist health professionals in offering insight to couples struggling with communication, conflict resolution, affairs, addictions and many other aspects of the couple's odyssey. Movie clips offer an effective way of teaching psychiatrists about common issues in coupling and couple therapy. The use of movies for teaching health professionals is well documented in previous articles and books on cinemeducation. This paper highlights movies and movie clips which are useful for educating psychiatrists about common clinical issues in couple therapy.

  20. Communication Patterns and Intellectual Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galegher, Jolene

    1992-01-01

    Finds that both experienced scientists and college students found it difficult to carry out intellectual teamwork involving collaboratively authored documents without the interactivity and expressiveness permitted by face-to-face communication. (SR)

  1. Intellectual emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev, Igor A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

  2. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  3. The Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Novak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Book jackets sometimes provide insightful provocation about the content and flavour of a text. Certainly the designers of the front jacket for Steve Fuller’s The Intellectual intended to be provocative when they placed the words, “the positive power of negative thinking,” at the top centre.

  4. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  5. Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Gloriana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues of copyright and the transfer or use of intellectual property as they relate to librarians. Topics addressed include the purpose of copyright laws, financial losses to publishers from pirating, cultural views of pirating, the fair use doctrine, concerns of authors of scholarly materials, impact of increasing library automation and…

  6. Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of international trade, and its importance keeps increasing, since effective use of knowledge is increasingly influencing the economic prosperity of peoples. One may say that there is little originality in the creative sphere. Naturally, this originality can only be reflected by individuality and human identity in intellectual creativity The author rights in the Kosovo legislation is a novelty, a necessity of developing a creative environment in the fields of science, arts and industrial property. First and foremost, the individual benefit, which is secured by the author as the creator of the work, is a moral and material right. Secondly, there is a need for harmonization, not only of values for the creator, but also for the development of science, culture, increased competitive advantage, and the public sphere, as a benefit for the public health and security, and the fiscal policy. The deficiency one must record is with the Office for Copy Rights, which is to play a strong role in implementing and protecting copy rights and other related rights by licensing collective management agencies, imposing administrative fines, awareness raising, provision of information, and other capacity building and educative measures. Naturally, the enactment of good legislation is a system without any meaning or sense if not associated with the court practice. Any establishment of a legal system not pursued with enforcement mechanisms remains only in legal frameworks.

  7. Understanding intellectual disability through RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Y2K+1: Technology, Community-College Students, the Millennium, and Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Considers how screening Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey" in a sophomore film class shows modern community-college students that millennial anxiety existed well before late 1999, the time of "Y2K" fears. Presents an assignment that examines "2001: A Space Odyssey" in the context of its time and in 2001. (SG)

  9. INTELLECTUAL DISHONESTY IN SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to obtain answers about the most important questions involving dishonesty in science. If we consider scientific work, we have to mention that various forms of errors need to be divided into two groups: reputable and disreputable errors. The third group, called the “grey zone”, includes “cooking” and “trimming”. When we consider the problem of dishonesty in science we should mention the most important question: who and for what reasons commits plagiarism and other forms of intellectual crookedness? Is it for financial benefits or for advancement? It is difficult to say, but it is necessary to use all available remedies to eradicate all forms of intellectual dishonesty, which is hard, especially in biomedical sciences. However, some reputable journals in this field use some special software packages to detect plagiarism.

  10. Meeting the support needs of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: still a long way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, P J G; Smulders, N B M; Embregts, P J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, C

    2017-12-01

    Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the type of healthcare providers involved matched the specific support needs of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. Five (previously identified) profiles of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were used to investigate to what extent the support needs of this group had been met. For the 250 persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning who matched these five profiles, data were collected retrospectively from their case files. Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning received a very similar amount and type of support/treatment programs. Differences between the profiles were found for non-verbal therapy, residential treatment and contacts with social work. Regarding the type of healthcare providers involved, differences between the profiles emerged for specialised intellectual disability services, youth services and specialised addiction services. The support programs for a heterogeneous population of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning seem to be suboptimal, indicating that more differentiation is required in the services offered to these individuals. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  12. Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1, a gene involved in X-linked intellectual disability, undergoes RNA editing and alternative splicing during human brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Barresi

    Full Text Available Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1 encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development.

  13. Role of a heterotrimeric G-protein, Gi2, in the corticogenesis: possible involvement in periventricular nodular heterotopia and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Nanako; Negishi, Yutaka; Mizuno, Makoto; Miya, Fuyuki; Hattori, Ayako; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Yamasaki, Mami; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Tabata, Hidenori; Saitoh, Shinji; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the role of a heterotrimeric G-protein, Gi2, in the development of the cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of the α-subunit (Gαi2) with in utero electroporation caused delayed radial migration of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis, perhaps because of impaired morphology. The migration phenotype was rescued by an RNAi-resistant version of Gαi2. On the other hand, silencing of Gαi2 did not affect axon elongation, dendritic arbor formation or neurogenesis at ventricular zone in vivo. When behavior analyses were conducted with acute Gαi2-knockdown mice, they showed defects in social interaction, novelty recognition and active avoidance learning as well as increased anxiety. Subsequently, using whole-exome sequencing analysis, we identified a de novo heterozygous missense mutation (c.680C>T; p.Ala227Val) in the GNAI2 gene encoding Gαi2 in an individual with periventricular nodular heterotopia and intellectual disability. Collectively, the phenotypes in the knockdown experiments suggest a role of Gαi2 in the brain development, and impairment of its function might cause defects in neuronal functions which lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. ODYSSEY: A PUBLIC GPU-BASED CODE FOR GENERAL RELATIVISTIC RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN KERR SPACETIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Hung-Yi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yun, Kiyun; Yoon, Suk-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Younsi, Ziri [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    General relativistic radiative transfer calculations coupled with the calculation of geodesics in the Kerr spacetime are an essential tool for determining the images, spectra, and light curves from matter in the vicinity of black holes. Such studies are especially important for ongoing and upcoming millimeter/submillimeter very long baseline interferometry observations of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Sgr A* and M87. To this end we introduce Odyssey, a graphics processing unit (GPU) based code for ray tracing and radiative transfer in the Kerr spacetime. On a single GPU, the performance of Odyssey can exceed 1 ns per photon, per Runge–Kutta integration step. Odyssey is publicly available, fast, accurate, and flexible enough to be modified to suit the specific needs of new users. Along with a Graphical User Interface powered by a video-accelerated display architecture, we also present an educational software tool, Odyssey-Edu, for showing in real time how null geodesics around a Kerr black hole vary as a function of black hole spin and angle of incidence onto the black hole.

  15. Mathematics Intervention Utilizing Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor® and Compass Learning's Odyssey Math®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…

  16. Remembering PESA: An Intellectual Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    This author's interest in philosophy derived from a passion for mathematics that developed in middle high school, which he attended in Sydney. In this article, he provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life and his involvement with the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). He states that despite the research demands of his…

  17. The Impact of a School-Based Weight Management Program Involving Parents via mHealth for Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lai-Tong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of resources and studies that utilize targeted weight management interventions to engage parents via mHealth tools targeting obese children and adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (MIDs extended from school to a home setting. To test the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based weight program (SBWMP involving parents via mHealth tools designed to reduce weight, enhance knowledge and adopt healthy lifestyles, and thereby achieve better psychosocial well-being among children and adolescents with MIDs. Four special schools were randomly assigned as intervention or control schools. Students from the intervention group (n = 63 were compared to those in the control group (n = 52, which comprised those with usual school planned activities and no parental involvement. Demographics were considered as covariates in a general linear model, an ordinal regression model and a binary logistic regression model analyzing the relationships between the SBWMP and the outcome variables at baseline (T0 and six months later (T1. Body weight, body mass index, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were lower in the intervention group compared to the control group, although the differences were not statistically significant. There was a positive and direct impact of the SBWMP on students’ health knowledge and psychological impacts in the intervention group. The SBWMP extended to the home involving parents via mHealth tools is a feasible and acceptable program for this group with MIDs and their parents.

  18. Debates on Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAŞCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper supports the understanding of the definition of intellectual property rights and strong connection with intangible assets and, on the other hand, provides a brief presentation of the organizations supporting the protection of such rights. The essential aim of this article is represented by the detailed information obtained as a result of research carried out in order to define, identify and study the application of IPR in general and especially in our country. At the end of the paper I mentioned what involves protecting intellectual property rights and brought little concerned how our country is perceived to protect such rights. Most often, intellectual property is defined as a formal document of title, like a lease, which means that the property is a legal concept distinct from real property that are actually good without concrete material form. Constitute a special category of assets being perceived as an original creation, derived from creative ideas; has or may have a commercial value due to its contribution to earnings for its owner. The need for protection of intellectual property rights has emerged because of the changes in the contemporary society. The aim and purpose of which is to protect human intelligence product and, at the same time, ensuring that consumers benefit from the use of the attributes of this product. Always remember that the violation of intellectual property rights, causes injury to major economic, signifying a strong threat to the consumers health and safety.

  19. Operations Odyssey Dawn and Unified Protector: Another Win for Warden s Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    the aircraft aimed at armoured vehicles just outside Benghazi. At night, US Navy ships and Royal Navy submarine HMS Triumph launched 112 Tomahawk...the vicinity of Zintan: 3 tanks, 1 anti-aircraft weapon system and 1 armoured vehicles were destroyed. In the vicinity of Brega: 1 building was... demographic groups) to be sympathetic and helpful in a variety of ways.”95 For Operations Odyssey Dawn and Unified Protector, the objective was

  20. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...

  1. Sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Li, Eria Ping

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.

  2. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieth, Donald L.; Voegele, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  3. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  4. Rational drug design paradigms: the odyssey for designing better drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellici, Tahsin; Ntountaniotis, Dimitrios; Vrontaki, Eleni; Liapakis, George; Moutevelis-Minakakis, Panagiota; Kokotos, George; Hadjikakou, Sotiris; Tzakos, Andreas G; Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Bryant, Sharon; Langer, Thierry; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the time and effort requirements for the development of a new drug, and the high attrition rates associated with this developmental process, there is an intense effort by academic and industrial researchers to find novel ways for more effective drug development schemes. The first step in the discovery process of a new drug is the identification of the lead compound. The modern research tendency is to avoid the synthesis of new molecules based on chemical intuition, which is time and cost consuming, and instead to apply in silico rational drug design. This approach reduces the consumables and human personnel involved in the initial steps of the drug design. In this review real examples from our research activity aiming to discover new leads will be given for various dire warnings diseases. There is no recipe to follow for discovering new leads. The strategy to be followed depends on the knowledge of the studied system and the experience of the researchers. The described examples constitute successful and unsuccessful efforts and reflect the reality which medicinal chemists have to face in drug design and development. The drug stability is also discussed in both organic molecules and metallotherapeutics. This is an important issue in drug discovery as drug metabolism in the body can lead to various toxic and undesired molecules.

  5. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  6. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  7. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  8. Scholars, Intellectuals, and Bricoleurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores three orientations to knowledge: the scholar, the intellectual, and the bricoleur. It argues that although the scholar and the intellectual are tied closely to the Liberal Arts and Humanities and dominate academic public relations discourse, both students and faculty increasingly use the practice of bricolage to gather and…

  9. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...

  10. Space odysseys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antologi om unge danske arkitekter og designere. Udgivet som Arkitektur DK 5/2006 og som selvstændig publikation. Den indledende artikel er af arkitekturteoretisk karakter, de øvrige formidlende.   ...

  11. Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.

  12. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  13. Anesthesia for intellectually disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.

  14. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  15. Stand up for epilepsy San Diego photo-shoot: a personal odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Kaufman, Nathaniel D

    2013-06-01

    Stigma towards epilepsy results in barriers to social integration, education, employment, and marriage, with increased divorce rates. There is a societal need to realise that many persons with epilepsy (PWE) lead normal lives and can be highly educated with effective employment. Integration of PWE into sports is therapeutic both for PWE (decreased seizure frequency, decreased comorbid conditions, and increased psychosocial skills) and society. Stand Up For Epilepsy (SUFE), overseen by the ILAE Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy, is an international project in which action photographs with PWE were taken as a means to destigmatise epilepsy. This autobiographical narrative describes how SUFE initiated effective athlete-PWE interactions with positive PWE, athlete, and parent responses. Expansion of SUFE is recommended to further destigmatise epilepsy. Participation in SUFE can serve as a personal odyssey for PWE.

  16. Climate Odyssey: Resources for Understanding Coastal Change through Art, Science, and Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.; Holtsnider, L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate Odyssey (climateodyssey.org) is a year-long sailing expedition and continuing collaboration aimed at using overlaps in science and visual art to communicate coastal climate change impacts and solutions. We, visual artist Lucy Holtsnider and climate scientist Zion Klos, are using our complimentary skills in art, science and communication to engage audiences both intuitively and cognitively regarding the urgency of climate change through story and visualization. Over the 2015 - 2016 academic year, we embarked on the sailing portion of Climate Odyssey, beginning in Lake Michigan, continuing along the Eastern Seaboard, and concluding in the tropics. Along the way we photographed climate change impacts and adaptation strategies, interviewed stakeholders, scientists, and artists. We are now sharing our photographs and documented encounters through a tangible artist's book, interactive digital map, blog, and series of K16 lesson plans. Each of our images added to the artist's book and digital map are linked to relevant blog entries and other external scientific resources, making the map both a piece of art and an engaging education tool for sharing the science of climate change impacts and solutions. After completing the sailing component of the project, we have now finalized our multi-media resources and are working to share these with the public via libraries, galleries, and K16 classrooms in coastal communities. At AGU, we will share with our peers the completed version of the series of K16 lesson plans that provide educators an easy-to-use way to introduce and utilize the material in the artist's book, digital map, and online blog. Through this, we hope to both discuss climate-focused education and engagement strategies, as well as showcase this example of art-science outreach with the broader science education and communication community that is focused on climate literacy in the U.S. and beyond.

  17. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  18. Intellectual disability, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identifying pathogenic copy number variations (CNV) involved in genomic disorders ... pathogenicity in the diagnosis of patients with intellectual disability, the ... tein has an essential role in the developing nervous system for the correct timing ...

  19. Malnutrition, poverty and intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J L; Pollitt, E

    1996-02-01

    New findings with important policy implications have revealed that malnutrition in childhood impairs intellectual function in more ways than was previously recognized, but also that some of the damage to the brain caused by malnutrition may be reversed. Early research indicated that malnourished animals lacked the energy to interact with their environment and, thus, performed poorly on tests of mental ability. To determine the effect of poor diet and an impoverished environment on mental development in humans, an extensive follow-up study was made of Guatemalan children who received two different nutritional supplements in a 1969-77 study. Mothers and children in two villages received a high-protein supplement (Atole), and those in two additional villages received a supplement with no protein (Fresco). Both supplements reduced mortality, but Atole villages saw a 69% reduction in infant mortality (vs. 24% in the Fresco villages). The 1988-89 follow-up of 70% of the original participants involved extensive cognitive testing and socioeconomic assessment. Atole subjects performed significantly better on the cognitive tests, and the lowest-income children did as well as their more economically advantaged (but still poor) peers. Those who received Atole exhibited an increased benefit from their years of education and grew up faster and stronger than those who received Fresco. Smaller children who appear younger than their age may receive less stimulation from adult expectations than larger children. These findings indicate that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on intellectual development can continue into adulthood. Other research has revealed that iron supplements can improve the intellectual and motor abilities of infants. While enriched educational programs can ameliorate some of the problems associated with malnutrition, poor children rarely live where such programs are available. The best and least expensive policy would be to prevent malnutrition among

  20. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  1. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  2. Seasonal and Static Gravity Field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k 2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k 2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k 2 of 0.1697 +/-0.0027 (3- sigma). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C 30 and, for the first time, C 50 . Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C 30 for approx.1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics ( l = 60–80) than previous solutions.

  3. El asunto del “Nuestra señora de la Mercedes” (Odyssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jesús Carrera Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye, básicamente, una valoración del informe emitido en Estados Unidos por el Juez Pizzo en el que ya podemos calificar como asunto del “Nuestra Señora de La Mercedes”, iniciado hace dos años tras las actividades de expolio desarrolladas por la empresa Odyssey en aguas del Atlántico próximas al Estrecho de Gibraltar. Se trata de un caso que afecta directamente a los intereses españoles en relación con el patrimonio cultural submarino situado en zonas próximas a nuestras costas. De convertirse en jurisprudencia, estaremos dando un paso más en aras de la protección del patrimonio cultural, soslayando la aplicación de legislaciones ancladas enla aplicación de principios de salvamento y hallazgos a bienes que poseen un valor arqueológico, histórico o cultural, y que se encuentran en santuarios de nuestros antepasados.

  4. The effectiveness of experiential environmental education: O'Neill Sea Odyssey program case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneman, Lauren E.

    Environmental education programs aim to develop participant awareness, sensitivity, and understanding of their affective relationship to the natural environment through conceptual knowledge and personal experiences. Previous findings have suggested that participation in environmental education programs leads to short-term positive increases in environmental knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, and intentions to act in environmentally responsible behaviors; however, few studies have included long-term, follow-up assessment. This research provided an analysis of the effectiveness of the O'Neill Sea Odyssey (OSO) education program in fostering a long-term awareness of personal responsibility about ocean pollution among student participants. A survey administered to 261 students from the greater San Francisco Bay Area in California was used to explore 7th through 10 th grade students' conceptions about the connection between ocean pollution and stewardship behaviors. The study revealed that 75% of 86 former OSO participants retained a high level of awareness of the connection between non-point source pollution and personal behaviors two to five years after the program, regardless of differences in sex, language, grade level, and community setting. These results indicate that OSO participants retained a long-term conceptual awareness about environmental stewardship behaviors taught during the OSO program.

  5. Reporting on intellectual capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der; Zijlstra, Siebren M.

    2001-01-01

    In today’s knowledge-based economy intellectual capital (IC) is becoming a major part of companies’ value. Being able to manage and control IC requires that companies can identify, measure and report internally on IC. As financial accounting rules ban full disclosure of IC in the annual report the

  6. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...

  7. Intellectuals For Hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that working beyond the academy should be understood not as an abandonment of the academic job market, a response to failure, or a curse: instead, it should be understood as a new avenue for intellectual work, one that neither graduate-school programs nor the Modern Language Association would be wise to ignore. (RS)

  8. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  9. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  10. Whole exome sequencing in neurogenetic odysseys: An effective, cost- and time-saving diagnostic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Córdoba

    Full Text Available Diagnostic trajectories for neurogenetic disorders frequently require the use of considerable time and resources, exposing patients and families to so-called "diagnostic odysseys". Previous studies have provided strong evidence for increased diagnostic and clinical utility of whole-exome sequencing in medical genetics. However, specific reports assessing its utility in a setting such as ours- a neurogeneticist led academic group serving in a low-income country-are rare.To assess the diagnostic yield of WES in patients suspected of having a neurogenetic condition and explore the cost-effectiveness of its implementation in a research group located in an Argentinean public hospital.This is a prospective study of the clinical utility of WES in a series of 40 consecutive patients selected from a Neurogenetic Clinic of a tertiary Hospital in Argentina. We evaluated patients retrospectively for previous diagnostic trajectories. Diagnostic yield, clinical impact on management and economic diagnostic burden were evaluated.We demonstrated the clinical utility of Whole Exome Sequencing in our patient cohort, obtaining a diagnostic yield of 40% (95% CI, 24.8%-55.2% among a diverse group of neurological disorders. The average age at the time of WES was 23 (range 3-70. The mean time elapsed from symptom onset to WES was 11 years (range 3-42. The mean cost of the diagnostic workup prior to WES was USD 1646 (USD 1439 to 1853, which is 60% higher than WES cost in our center.WES for neurogenetics proved to be an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for the molecular diagnosis of this heterogeneous and complex group of patients.

  11. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  12. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    -identify with and which will allow companies to focus on the IP and IP Management issues most relevant to them. By doing so, the authors offer further insights as to the use of IP and IP management practices across firms. By looking at empirical data covering the population of firms, the findings not only pertain......Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  13. Intellectual disability and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C; Picard, S

    2011-04-01

    The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...

  15. Understanding Intellectual Disability through Rasopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...

  16. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Facco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety (DA can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation, effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and

  17. The Odyssey of Dental Anxiety: From Prehistory to the Present. A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Zanette, Gastone

    2017-01-01

    Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness. Basic emotions are related to survival functions in an inseparable psychosomatic unity that enable an immediate response to critical situations rather than generating knowledge, which is why many anxious patients are unaware of the cause of their anxiety. Archeological findings suggest that humans have been surprisingly skillful and knowledgeable since prehistory. Neanderthals used medicinal plants; and relics of dental tools bear witness to a kind of Neolithic proto-dentistry. In the two millennia BC, Egyptian and Greek physicians used both plants (such as papaver somniferum ) and incubation (a forerunner of modern hypnosis, e.g., in the sleep temples dedicated to Asclepius) in the attempt to provide some form of therapy and painless surgery, whereas modern scientific medicine strongly understated the role of subjectivity and mind-body approaches until recently. DA has a wide range of causes and its management is far from being a matter of identifying the ideal sedative drug. A patient's proper management must include assessing his/her dental anxiety, ensuring good communications, and providing information (iatrosedation), effective local anesthesia, hypnosis, and/or a wise use of sedative drugs where necessary. Any weak link in this chain can cause avoidable suffering, mistrust, and emergencies, as well as having lifelong psychological consequences. Iatrosedation and hypnosis are no

  18. Intellectual Video Filming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    in favour of worthy causes. However, it is also very rewarding to draw on the creativity, enthusiasm and rapidly improving technical skills of young students, and to guide them to use video equipment themselves for documentary, for philosophical film essays and intellectual debate. In the digital era......Like everyone else university students of the humanities are quite used to watching Hollywood productions and professional TV. It requires some didactic effort to redirect their eyes and ears away from the conventional mainstream style and on to new and challenging ways of using the film media...

  19. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  20. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…

  1. Patterns of sport participation for youth with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Weiss, Jonathan A

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about sport participation in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study examined sport characteristics (frequency, diversity, positive social experiences [PSE]) for youth with ASD and intellectual disability compared to youth with intellectual disability alone and explored the personal and contextual correlates of involvement. Parents (N = 409) completed an online survey, and multiple mediation analyses were used to examine the factors that explained the relationships between sport involvement in youth with ASD and intellectual disability. No significant main effects of ASD status were found for frequency or diversity, but youth with intellectual disability alone had higher scores for PSE compared to youth with ASD and intellectual disability. Sociocommunicative abilities, coach relationship and resources mediated the relationship between ASD status and PSE. A better understanding of the factors related to sport is essential for allowing families, service providers and policy makers to improve involvement for youth with ASD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities - A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Anne E

    2018-03-01

    Whereas 'health promotion' is a well-known concept for healthcare professionals, the concept of 'health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities' and its unique associated challenges are not well understood. This article provides a systematic analysis of how health promotion is being conceptualised for people with intellectual disabilities and how health promotion can work best in the light of this group's specific needs and limitations. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SocINDEX were searched using the search terms 'health promotion', 'people with intellectual disabilities' and 'developmental disabilities'. This review includes studies published between 1992 and 2014. A total of 52 articles were included. Health promotion for people intellectual disabilities, as discussed in the literature, focuses on four aspects, namely supporting a healthy lifestyle, providing health education, involving supporters and being person-centred. Antecedents of the concept 'health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities' were healthcare access and sensitised healthcare providers. The outcomes were improved health, being empowered, enhanced quality of life and reduced health disparities. This analysis provides a solid foundation for healthcare stakeholders' planning, implementing and evaluating health-promotion activities for people with intellectual disabilities at the policy level and in the community. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Mind the Gap! How the Digital Turn Upsets Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vică, Constantin; Socaciu, Emanuel-Mihail

    2017-10-27

    Intellectual property is one of the highly divisive issues in contemporary philosophical and political debates. The main objective of this paper is to explore some sources of tension between the formal rules of intellectual property (particularly copyright and patents) and the emerging informal norms of file sharing and open access in online environments. We look into the file sharing phenomena not only to illustrate the deepening gap between the two sets of norms, but to cast some doubt on the current regime of intellectual property as an adequate frame for the new type of interactions in online environments. Revisiting the classic Arrow-Demsetz debate about intellectual property and the epistemological issues involved in assessing institutions, we suggest that seeking out new institutional arrangements aligned with the norms-in-use seems to be a more promising strategy in the new technological setting than attempting to reinforce the current legal framework. Moreover, such a strategy is less prone to committing the so-called 'Nirvana fallacies'. As a secondary task, we try to cast some doubt on the two most common moral justifications of intellectual property as being able to ground the full extent of the current intellectual property regime.

  4. The Development of Research Skills in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability in Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.; Cuskelly, Monica

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information about specific research constructs developed by adults with intellectual disability in undertaking research despite increasing involvement in research "with" rather than "on" these individuals. Participatory research was used with three young adults with intellectual disability to collaboratively…

  5. Homicide Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities: Issues in Diagnosis in Capital Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the many issues involved in establishing the diagnosis of intellectual disability in a so-called Atkins (death penalty exemption) hearing. Among the issues addressed are the need to go beyond IQ scores in establishing intellectual deficits, the need to go beyond rating scores in establishing adaptive behavior deficits, the…

  6. Identifying the key concerns of Irish persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-11-01

    Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money

  7. The Odyssey of the Ancestral Escherich Strain through Culture Collections: an Example of Allopatric Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, M; Royer, G; Roche, D; Mercier-Darty, M; Vallenet, D; Médigue, C; Bastard, K; Rodriguez, C; Clermont, O; Denamur, E; Decousser, J-W

    2018-01-01

    More than a century ago, Theodor Escherich isolated the bacterium that was to become Escherichia coli , one of the most studied organisms. Not long after, the strain began an odyssey and landed in many laboratories across the world. As laboratory culture conditions could be responsible for major changes in bacterial strains, we conducted a genome analysis of isolates of this emblematic strain from different culture collections (England, France, the United States, Germany). Strikingly, many discrepancies between the isolates were observed, as revealed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the presence of virulence-associated genes, core genome MLST, and single nucleotide polymorphism/indel analyses. These differences are correlated with the phylogeographic history of the strain and were due to an unprecedented number of mutations in coding DNA repair functions such as mismatch repair (MutL) and oxidized guanine nucleotide pool cleaning (MutT), conferring a specific mutational spectrum and leading to a mutator phenotype. The mutator phenotype was probably acquired during subculturing and corresponded to second-order selection. Furthermore, all of the isolates exhibited hypersusceptibility to antibiotics due to mutations in efflux pump- and porin-encoding genes, as well as a specific mutation in the sigma factor-encoding gene rpoS . These defects reflect a self-preservation and nutritional competence tradeoff allowing survival under the starvation conditions imposed by storage. From a clinical point of view, dealing with such mutator strains can lead microbiologists to draw false conclusions about isolate relatedness and may impact therapeutic effectiveness. IMPORTANCE Mutator phenotypes have been described in laboratory-evolved bacteria, as well as in natural isolates. Several genes can be impacted, each of them being associated with a typical mutational spectrum. By studying one of the oldest strains available, the ancestral Escherich strain, we were able to

  8. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  9. The Effects of the Compasslearning Odyssey Spiral-Up Program on Discovery Education Scores of Sixth-Grade Gifted and High-Performing Language Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Carmen Freeman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) model CompassLearning Odyssey and the performance of middle school language arts students on the Discovery Education Test B and Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) along with examining teacher perceptions of high…

  10. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  11. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  12. Intellectual Property and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Francis Gurry has led WIPO as Director General since 1st October, 2008. He was reappointed in May 2014 for a second six-year term, which runs until September 2020. Under his leadership, WIPO is addressing major challenges. These include managing the stress on the international patent and copyright systems produced by rapid technological change, by globalisation and increased demand; reducing the knowledge gap between developed and developing countries; and ensuring that the intellectual property (IP) system serves its fundamental purpose of encouraging creativity and innovation in all countries. Every year, WIPO publishes the Global Innovation Index (GII), which provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of countries and economies around the world. The 2016 edition highlighted CERN as an example of successful, regional innovation initiatives. In this seminar Mr. Gurry will share his knowledge and views on the role of IP in innovation. You can read a message from Mr. Gurry here : http://...

  13. Linking intellectual capital and intellectual property to company performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the effects of intellectual capital components; namely, human capital, structural capital and relational capital on company performance in Iranian auto industry. The study uses a questionnaire consists of 100 questions to cover intellectual capital and company performance in Likert scale and it is distributed among 180 experts in one of Iranian auto industry. Cronbach alphas for intellectual capital components, i.e. human capital, relational capital and structural capital are 0.82, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. In addition, Cronbach alpha for company performance is 0.82. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and company performance. The study has also determined a positive and meaningful relationship between human capital and structural capital. Among components of performance, efficiency maintained the highest effect while innovation represents the minimum effect.

  14. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  15. Intangible liabilities: beyond models of intellectual assets

    OpenAIRE

    García Parra, Mercedes; Simó Guzmán, Pep; Sallán Leyes, José María; Mundet Hiern, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Most models of intellectual capital measurment equal intellectual capital with intellectual assets. Nevertheless, companies sometimes must incur liabilities to make intellectual assets truly actionable. This fact suggests the existence of intangible liabilities. The aim of this paper is to refine the methods of assessment of intellectual capital by refining and extending the concept of intangible liabilities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper consists of a literature revi...

  16. Corporate governance and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.

  17. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...

  18. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  19. [Scientific publications: a resource for the physician's intellectual development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The physician's professional life involves reading and analysis of scientific journals, regardless of the specialization field. The hospital and academic areas lead to the scientific-literary activity development. The aim of this editorial is to make some reflections about the way a physician reaches intellectual development, through the creation of a culture of writing and reading scientific publications.

  20. Creating a Culture of Intellectual Feedom through Leadership and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Barbara K.

    2015-01-01

    Culture involves behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and invisible norms and expectations. The question for school librarians is: How is a culture of intellectual freedom built, and what is the role of the librarian? School librarians are expected to be instructional leaders from "the middle." They are not in positions of authority over other…

  1. Literature in Focus - A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    By Gian Francesco Giudice (CERN) Oxford University Press, 2009 At this very moment the most ambitious scientific experiment of all time is beginning, and yet its precise aims are little understood by the general public. This book aims to provide an everyman’s guide for understanding and following the discoveries that will take place within the next few years at the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN. The reader is invited to share an insider’s view of the theory of particle physics, and is equipped to appreciate the scale of the intellectual revolution that is about to take place. The technological innovations required to build the LHC are among the most astonishing aspects of this scientific adventure, and they too are described here as part of the LHC story. The book culminates with an outline of the scientific aims and expectations at the LHC. Does the mysterious Higgs boson exist? Does space hide supersymmetry or extend into extra dimensions? How can colliding protons at the LHC...

  2. La odisea de la modernización en el Ecuador: dos momentos de su desarrollo Ecuador's modernization odyssey: Two moments of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paladines

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de los siglos, el proceso de modernización del Ecuador ha estado bajo la mira de políticos, gobernantes, maestros, pensadores e historiadores. El primer paso de esta odisea se dio a mediados del S. XVIII y se presentó como ruptura y enfrentamiento con el pasado, en diversas áreas y tuvo como trasfondos la muerte del sistema colonial y el anuncio de nuevos referentes, fuerzas, actores y formas de organizar la realidad. De dimensiones de cambio tan colosales como la 'ilustrada' terminó por constituirse la propuesta implantada por la Revolución liberal, a inicios del siglo XX. Este proyecto por construir un mundo moderno requirió desplegar actividades al menos en cinco frentes: el de integración o consolidación de un estado nacional; el de creación de un estado secular o laico; el de constitu­ción de un estado liberal; el de edificación de una sociedad y una educación laica y el de fortalecimiento de un estado burgués. Hoy como en otras ocasiones diversas áreas se presentan en aguda crisis y necesitadas de profundas transformaciones. Es posible que la modernización no sea más que una modernización de fachada, una 'modernización tradicionalista'. ¿Cuáles son los problemas que tuvieron los procesos de modernización? ¿Cuáles son los factores que permitirían superar las limitaciones de siempre? Una vez más, ¿el nuevo proceso de modernización excluirá de sus beneficios a muchos y alcanzará para muy pocos?Abstract Along the centuries the modernization process of Ecuador has been under scrutiny by politicians, rulers, teachers, intellectuals, and historians. The first step of this odyssey took place about the middle of the XVIII century under the shape of rupture and confrontation with the past in several areas, and with the background of a dying colonial system and the announcement of different patterns, forces, actors, and ways of organizing reality. The liberal Revolution at the beginning of the XX century

  3. LEARNING PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskinova Angelka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.

  4. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  5. Intellectual property and information controversy(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.

  6. The bioethicist as public intellectual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Kayhan P; Geraghty, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    Public intellectuals have long played a role in American culture, filling the gap between the academic elite and the educated public. According to some commentators, the role of the public intellectual has undergone a steady decline for the past several decades, being replaced by the academic expert. The most notable cause of this decline has been both the growth of the academy in the twentieth century,which has served to concentrate intellectual activity within its confines, and the changing nature of the media, which has framed the way in which information is conveyed to the public. We argue that although bioethics has developed primarily within the academic tradition and utilized the role of expert when dealing with the public, bioethicists are well suited to don the mantle of the public intellectual. Indeed, because they address issues in medicine and science of great relevance for the general public, bioethicists have a duty to revitalize the tradition of public intellectuals as a necessary complement to the important, but narrower role of the expert.

  7. Mars: Detaching of the Free Water Signature (FWS) Presence Regions on the Base of HEND/ODYSSEY Data and Their Correlation with Some Permafrost Features from MOC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Boynton, M. V.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first results from global mapping of the neutron albedo from Mars by HEND instrument have shown the noticeable deficit of both the epithermal (EN) and the fast (FN) neutrons counts rate in the high latitudes regions of both hemispheres of the planet. The deficit is indicative for high enriching of the surface regolith by hydrogen, which may correspond to amount of any water phases and forms. The objectives of our study are the spatial and temporal variations of the free water (ice) signature in the Martian surface layer on the base of HEND/ODYSSEY data and their correlation with spatial spreading of some permafrost features, mapped on the base of MOC images. For the study we used the results of the global mapping (pixel 5 x5 ) of EN and FN albedo, realized by HEND/ODYSSEY in the period from 17 February to 10 December 2002 year.

  8. 'It's our everyday life' - The perspectives of persons with intellectual disabilities in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Aud Elisabeth; Hauger, Brit

    2018-01-01

    This study illuminates how adults with intellectual disabilities understand and describe their everyday life and its shortcomings when it comes to equal rights in the context of Norwegian community living. An inclusive research design, including nine persons with mild intellectual disability, two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses from the municipality, was undertaken. An inductive thematic analysis of data identified three key themes: everyday life - context, rhythm and structure, social participation and staff - an ambiguous part of everyday life. Results show that service provision had institutional qualities; participants experienced lack of information and reduced possibilities for social inclusion and community participation like everyone else. More attention on the role of policy development, support staff and leadership, in relation to facilitating an everyday life with more user involvement, social inclusion and community participation of people needing support, is essential. Participatory, appreciative, action and reflection in workshops for persons with intellectual disabilities and support staff represent a promising approach to promote the voices and interests of persons with intellectual disabilities. Accessible abstract This article tells you about the everyday life of people with intellectual disabilities living in Norway. Nine people with intellectual disabilities worked together with two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses in the community, in workshops. The people with intellectual disabilities liked to have their own apartment and going to work every day. They said that they wanted more social participation with friends and more participation in activities in the community, just like everyone else. They wanted to be treated with more respect by their staff. All participants in the project saw great value in working together and some of them are working together in a new project about

  9. Mapping Intellectual Resources: Insights from Critical Modernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Philip; O'Donnell, David

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual capital and the management and use of an organization's intellectual resources can be understood from the perspective of Habermas' theory of communicative action. The systematic and reciprocal relations of communicative action create value through the mechanisms of exchange. (SK)

  10. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Znakovaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Intellectual property rights in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastani, Behfar; Fernandez, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Intellectual property (IP) rights are essential in today's technology-driven age. Building a strategic IP portfolio is economically important from both an offensive and defensive standpoint. After an introduction to intellectual property rights and acquisitions, we provide an overview of current efforts in nanotechnology. Research into nano-scale materials and devices and requirements for their efficient mass production are outlined, with focus on the applicable IP rights and strategies. We present current and future applications of nanotechnology to such fields as electronics, sensors, aerospace, medicine, environment and sanitation, together with the IP rights that can be brought to bear in each. Finally, some challenging issues surrounding the acquisition of intellectual property rights in nanotechnology are presented

  12. Measuring intellectual capital of national economies

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović, Tamara; Krstić, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of intellectual capital for creating and sustaining competitive advantage of firms has been well established and confirmed in theory and practice. Intellectual resources proved to be the most valuable resources in the process of value creation for various stakeholders. Starting from 1980s onwards, both researchers and practitioners have focused on finding the best solution for measuring intellectual capital in order to enable efficient management and reporting on intellectual c...

  13. Development of international regulation of intellectual property

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz Vaccaro, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have seen a true internationalization of intellectual property laws. So today one can easily familiarize with foreign laws on intellectual property, due to their increasing uniformity and homogeneity. This is the result of numerous international treaties and two international organizations. At the multilateral level, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) administers 24 treaties on intellectual property, and for its part, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is i...

  14. Adolescents with intellectual disability and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  15. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  16. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  17. College Environment, Student Involvement, and Intellectual Development: Evidence in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xianglan; Liu, Jinlan; Bai, Yin

    2017-01-01

    China's higher education system has been marked by dramatic growth since 1999. In response to calls for quality assurance, substantial efforts have been made to improve collegiate environments and enhance student learning. However, only limited empirical research has been conducted to investigate the effects of the college environment on student…

  18. Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Laurie J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes intellectual capital--employees' brainpower, know-how, knowledge, and processes--and knowledge management--the processes by which a company creates and leverages intellectual capital--as the primary sources of competitive advantage in many industries. Offers ways to measure intellectual capital, a glossary, and additional resources. (JOW)

  19. Conceptual problems of the intellectual labor economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the detailed analysis of the intellectual labor and takes into account theoretical and practical aspects of the intellectual labor economics in the transition to the information society. The author describes the nature, specific features, content, structure and the bases for classification of the intellectual labor.

  20. A philosophical approach to intellectual property rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the legitimacy of intellectual property by focusing on three topical issues, viz., the question of indigenous cultural rights, of computer software intellectual rights, and of intellectual property rights to essential drugs. A scheme of different arguments for the legitimacy...... of private property rights is applied to these issues, and each of the arguments assessed....

  1. Evaluation and Future Direction of Intellectual Property Strategy - Setting out a new intellectual property policy - (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KUGAI Takashi

    2010-01-01

    1. An intellectual property strategy is a policy aimed at improving the international competitiveness of industry and reinvigorating the economy through the creation, protection, and greater use of intellectual property. 2. The realization of IP policies conventionally considered difficult to implement and greater awareness of intellectual property at all levels of society, as demonstrated the establishment of Intellectual Property High Courts that exclusively and solely handle intellectual p...

  2. Can We Empathize with the Narrative of Our Enemy? A Personal Odyssey in Studying Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Shifra

    2017-01-01

    The reader is taken on a journey spanning some 30 years devoted to the author's involvement in practicing, teaching and studying peace education. The core concept in this journey is active "bystandership," which implies the capacity to disengage from our ethnocentric narratives and perceptions and to face the emotional challenges of…

  3. Intellectualization through Terminology Development | Khumalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article will propose an improved model to cater for AnyTime Access, which is convenient for student needs between lec-tures, and improve the harvesting mechanism in the existing model. Keywords: Intellectualization, Terminology Development, Harvesting, Crowdsourcing, Consultation, Verification, Authentication, ...

  4. Business model and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...

  5. Using Intellectual Property Rights Strategically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus

    2003-01-01

    With the share of intellectual property among corporate value constantly rising,management's understanding of the strategic use of patents, trademarks, andcopyrights becomes ever more crucial. The vast majority of articles on patent ortrademark strategies, however, is written by and for lawyers d...... observations in the deployment of patents andtrademarks and inspires them to think more creatively about IPRs than they didbefore....

  6. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  7. Cognitive and Interpersonal Features of Intellectual Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Diebels, Kate J; Davisson, Erin K; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Raimi, Kaitlin T; Deffler, Samantha A; Hoyle, Rick H

    2017-06-01

    Four studies examined intellectual humility-the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs might be wrong. Using a new Intellectual Humility (IH) Scale, Study 1 showed that intellectual humility was associated with variables related to openness, curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity, and low dogmatism. Study 2 revealed that participants high in intellectual humility were less certain that their beliefs about religion were correct and judged people less on the basis of their religious opinions. In Study 3, participants high in intellectual humility were less inclined to think that politicians who changed their attitudes were "flip-flopping," and Study 4 showed that people high in intellectual humility were more attuned to the strength of persuasive arguments than those who were low. In addition to extending our understanding of intellectual humility, this research demonstrates that the IH Scale is a valid measure of the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs are fallible.

  8. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  9. Intellectual capital management: An approach to organizational practices in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Claver-Cortés

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study has as its aim to identify the organizational management practices that involve intellectual capital as facilitators of innovation in its diverse formats, in Ecuador-based shrimp exporting companies. Design/methodology: The research of a qualitative nature was based on the Grounded Theory as a support for data analysis and collection. The personal interview was used in order to obtain the text corpus. The five resulting clusters served as the basis to apply inductive processes: open coding; axial coding; and selective coding, as a methodological activity meant to help interpret concepts and relationships. Findings: The organizational practices associated with intellectual capital in shrimp exporting companies are focused on structural and human capital management, where innovation has developed from the demands for the implementation of quality management systems in accordance with international regulations. Research limitations/implications:  The main contribution made by the present study lies in establishing a primary reference framework for the design of strategic alternatives that involve strengthening intellectual capital as a way to generate sustainable competitive advantages in the companies belonging to this sector. Social implications: Shrimp exports, which stand out for being one of the most significant sources of income in Ecuador, contribute to local development by means of employment generation, mainly in rural communities. The exposure to organizational routines linked to intellectual capital provides a chance to come closer to the reality of this sector. This can prove useful for executives and public policy managers to prioritize an approach which influences the generation and maintenance of competitiveness at a firm level, and also impacts on the development of the regions where such business are located. Originality/value: Faced with the absence of works applied to this sector, the present work

  10. Intellectual capital and relational capital: The role of sustainability in developing corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Martínez García de Leaniz; Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intellectual capital offers a potential source of sustainable competitive advantage and is believed to be the source from which economic growth may sprout. However, not many papers analyze the effect of sustainability in the elements involving intellectual capital. This paper seeks to highlight the key role played by corporate sustainability on corporate reputation as one of the key components of relational capital based on the knowledge-based theory.Design/methodology/approach: Auth...

  11. Co-researching with people who have intellectual disabilities: insights from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; García-Iriarte, Edurne

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive research with people with intellectual disabilities is growing internationally but with few studies examining its feasibility. In undertaking a national study exploring what life was like in Ireland for people with intellectual disabilities, a community of practice was developed involving a core group of co-researchers: five people with intellectual disabilities, four university researchers and three service support staff. An additional cadre of 15 co-researchers with intellectual disabilities was recruited to undertake data gathering and analysis with 23 focus groups involving 168 participants. The research experience was documented through oral feedback, progress reports, minutes and a project review. The key learning is documented arising from the setting up of an inclusive advisory group and implementation of each of six research steps. The study demonstrates feasibility and the added value of university co-researchers recruiting and developing skills together with co-researchers with intellectual disabilities. Topics for further research and development are identified. This paper tells you about how people with intellectual disabilities worked with a group of university researchers. Both groups were called co-researchers and together they ran 23 focus groups across Ireland. People with intellectual disabilities talked about their lives and what could make them better. They said they needed to have a good place to live; a job; enough money; relationships; and acceptance as respected citizens. The university co-researchers wrote about what it was like doing research together and how people with intellectual disabilities joined the advisory group; decided on the questions; ran focus groups; and presented findings. Together they grew into a community of researchers where the university co-researchers shared their research skills and people with intellectual disabilities shared what it was like living with a disability. They both saw great value in

  12. Genetics of intellectual disability in consanguineous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Kahrizi, Kimia; Musante, Luciana; Fattahi, Zohreh; Herwig, Ralf; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Oppitz, Cornelia; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Suckow, Vanessa; Larti, Farzaneh; Beheshtian, Maryam; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Akhtarkhavari, Tara; Mehvari, Sepideh; Otto, Sabine; Mohseni, Marzieh; Arzhangi, Sanaz; Jamali, Payman; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Taghdiri, Maryam; Papari, Elaheh; Soltani Banavandi, Mohammad Javad; Akbari, Saeide; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Dehghani, Hossein; Ebrahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Bader, Ingrid; Davarnia, Behzad; Cohen, Monika; Khodaei, Hossein; Albrecht, Beate; Azimi, Sarah; Zirn, Birgit; Bastami, Milad; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bahrami, Gholamreza; Keleman, Krystyna; Vahid, Leila Nouri; Tzschach, Andreas; Gärtner, Jutta; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Varaghchi, Jamileh Rezazadeh; Timmermann, Bernd; Pourfatemi, Fatemeh; Jankhah, Aria; Chen, Wei; Nikuei, Pooneh; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Oladnabi, Morteza; Wienker, Thomas F; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2018-01-04

    Autosomal recessive (AR) gene defects are the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID) in countries with frequent parental consanguinity, which account for about 1/7th of the world population. Yet, compared to autosomal dominant de novo mutations, which are the predominant cause of ID in Western countries, the identification of AR-ID genes has lagged behind. Here, we report on whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 404 consanguineous predominantly Iranian families with two or more affected offspring. In 219 of these, we found likely causative variants, involving 77 known and 77 novel AR-ID (candidate) genes, 21 X-linked genes, as well as 9 genes previously implicated in diseases other than ID. This study, the largest of its kind published to date, illustrates that high-throughput DNA sequencing in consanguineous families is a superior strategy for elucidating the thousands of hitherto unknown gene defects underlying AR-ID, and it sheds light on their prevalence.

  13. The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kerim M

    2016-03-01

    The study summarizes supportive epidemiological data regarding the true co-occurrence (comorbidity) and course of mental disorders in children with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorders (ID/IDD) across the lifespan. Published studies involving representative populations of children and adolescents with ID/IDD have demonstrated a three to four-fold increase in prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders. The effect of age, sex, and severity (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) and socioeconomic status on prevalence is currently not clearly understood. To date there are no prevalence estimates of co-occurring mental disorders in youth identified using the new DSM-5 (and proposed ICD-11) definition of ID/IDD using measures of intellectual functions and deficits in adaptive functioning with various severity levels defined on the basis of adaptive functioning, and not intellectual quotient scores. The true relationship between two forms of morbidity remains complex and causal relationships that may be true for one disorder may not apply to another. The new conceptualization of ID/IDD offers a developmentally better informed psychobiological approach that can help distinguish co-occurrence of mental disorders within the neurodevelopmental section with onset during the developmental period as well as the later onset of other mental disorders.

  14. Intelligence and specific cognitive functions in intellectual disability: implications for assessment and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Marco O; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability. Data support a model of intelligence consisting of distinct but related processes. Persons with intellectual disability with the same IQ level have different cognitive profiles, based on varying factors involved in aetiopathogenesis. Limitations of functioning and many biopsychological factors associated with intellectual disability are more highly correlated with impairments of specific cognitive functions than with overall IQ. The current model of intelligence, based on IQ, is of limited utility for intellectual disability, given the wide range and variability of cognitive functions and adaptive capacities. Assessing level of individual impairment in executive and specific cognitive functions may be a more useful alternative. This has considerable implications for the revision of the International Classification of Diseases and for the cultural attitude towards intellectual disability in general.

  15. The effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest J. Sechoaro

    2014-08-01

    Objective: To synthesise critically and summarise the best available evidence of the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people. Method: Literature searches of different electronic databases and manual searches were conducted using selected keywords. Studies on the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people were selected systematically, appraised critically for methodological quality and summarised. Results: Rehabilitation interventions indicated good outcomes with regard to intellectually-disabled people. Findings showed that people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities improved in terms of activities of daily living (ADL after rehabilitation. Improvement was noted in ADL, self-care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated positive rehabilitation effects on intellectually-disabled people. This study contributes to the comprehensive nursing care of intellectually-disabled people by endorsement of the effectiveness of rehabilitation in terms of ADL, self-care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. The collected evidence of this study may contribute to the education of more effective nurse practitioners involved in the daily care and rehabilitation of intellectually-disabled people.

  16. Self-efficacy perception in high school students with mild intellectual disability in practical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Dobrota Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine how students with mild intellectual disability perceive self-efficacy in practical training, with regard to the intellectual level, gender, work field and professional level for which they are being trained. The sample consists of 120 students with mild intellectual disability, of both genders, undergoing vocational training in five work fields for the second and third level professions. Adapted Self-Efficacy to Regulate Training Scale (Bandura, 2006 was used to assess the influence of negative internal and external factors on the students' efficacy at performing tasks in practical training. It was determined that there is a statistically significant difference among the examinees of the same disability category, but different level of intellectual functioning. Girls with lower and higher levels of intellectual functioning were found to perceive self-efficacy in practical training with lower level of confidence than boys with the same levels of intellectual functioning. The examinees undergoing the third level vocational training are more confident in their abilities to coordinate knowledge and skills in training regardless of different distracting factors. There we no statistically significant differences determined with regard to the work field. Assessing self-efficacy in training can direct the development of self-efficacy, help individuals gain a sense of control over their career development, and for professionals involved in finding jobs for persons with intellectual disability provide a predictive success/failure role at work.

  17. Intellectual property as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, S. M.; Mesyats, M. A.; Rozhkova, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    This article is devoted to research the characteristics associated with pledge of intellectual property in foreign and domestic practice. Holding intellectual property objects’ pledge transactions accelerates the pace of creating innovative systems in the economy. In present paper the modern scheme for bank loan, financing secured with patented intellectual property is researched. The authors give the brief description of features of pledge security registration for loans in some Europe countries. The Europe Union experience shows that as collateral for monetary loans can be used trademarks, patents on the intellectual property, as well as their registration requests. Russian experience of the pledge operations of the intellectual property is too small. This way of bank lending is at an early stage of development. The main constraint is the difficulty of assessing the value of the pledged intellectual property as intangible assets. However, taking into account world and domestic practice this direction for Russian market is estimated by the authors as promising one. Pledge transactions take place within the framework of the Quadruple-Helix Model concept that involves four participants: “science”, “business”, “government” and “society”. Intellectual property are estimates by the authors as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society.

  18. Mood disorders in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Anne D

    2006-09-01

    This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

  19. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Injury among adolescents with intellectual disability: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intellectualism and Spirituality in Miguel de Unamuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Villar Ezcurra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Miguel de Unamuno, one of the most prominent intellectuals of Spain towards the end of the 19th century and first third of the 20th century, since his crisis in 1987 strived to warn of the limits to intellectualism. In his paper Intellectualism and Spirituality (March 1904, he reflected on the bodily, intellectual and spiritual dimensions of the human being, mindful of the First Letter of St. Paul to the Corinthians. He defined three types of people: the carnal (the downright uneducated, the intellectual (those who show logic and common sense and the spiritual (dreamers and poets. Without undermining intellectualism and facing the reductionism of any sign, as Pascal Unamuno highlighted the importance and significance of spirituality by being aware that it focuses on creating meaning and conquering the ideal, paving the way for a more fruitful life.

  2. The Sexuality of Adults with Intellectual Disability in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Remigiusz

    2013-06-01

    Sexuality is one of the most important aspects of human life that relates to sex, one's identification, sexual role, sexual preferences, eroticism, pleasure and intimacy. It fulfils such functions as procreative, hedonistic and relationship-building as well as constitutes an integral part of human's personality. The sexuality of people with intellectual disability is a special case - both from medical, pedagogical, psychological and ethical point of view. Little available research shows that it may become a significant factor that modifies their psychological and sexual functioning. The basic poll involved altogether 133 people with mild intellectual disability. The work was carried out in 11 schools and special institutions of three provinces in Poland: kujawsko - pomorskie, wielkopolskie and dolnośląskie (provinces of Kujavy and Pomerania, Great Poland and Lower Silesia) The respondents qualified to take part in the poll constituted a very uniform group - homogenous as regards their age of 18-25 as well as IQ level that was average for the people with higher degree of intellectual disability (HDID). Their age was of importance as in that life period one can observe the formation of first partner relationships with the clear aim of establishing a family. It is accompanied by a quick development of sexual desire and taking up various forms of sexual activity. People with intellectual disability don't form a homogenous group as regards their psychological and sexual development. In this group, one can observe both different forms of clinical mental handicap which definitely affects the whole process of sexual development. The sexual development is delayed by an average period of 3 years. The people with intellectual disability take up mostly autoerotic behaviour whereas partner relationships wthin that group are more seldom. The phenomenon of sexuality of people with higher degree of intellectual disability is an issue that needs further constant analysis. The

  3. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders.

  4. Intellectual disability health content within nursing curriculum: An audit of what our future nurses are taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Eagleson, Claire; Turner, Beth; Salomon, Carmela; Cashin, Andrew; Iacono, Teresa; Goddard, Linda; Lennox, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability experience chronic and complex health issues, but face considerable barriers to healthcare. One such barrier is inadequate education of healthcare professionals. To establish the quantity and nature of intellectual disability content offered within Australian nursing degree curricula. A two-phase national audit of nursing curriculum content was conducted using an interview and online survey. Australian nursing schools offering pre-registration courses. Pre-registration course coordinators from 31 universities completed the Phase 1 interview on course structure. Unit coordinators and teaching staff from 15 universities in which intellectual disability content was identified completed the Phase 2 online survey. Quantity of compulsory and elective intellectual disability content offered (units and teaching time) and the nature of the content (broad categories, specific topics, and inclusive teaching) were audited using an online survey. Over half (52%) of the schools offered no intellectual disability content. For units of study that contained some auditable intellectual disability content, the area was taught on average for 3.6h per unit of study. Units were evenly distributed across the three years of study. Just three participating schools offered 50% of all units audited. Clinical assessment skills, and ethics and legal issues were most frequently taught, while human rights issues and preventative health were poorly represented. Only one nursing school involved a person with intellectual disability in content development or delivery. Despite significant unmet health needs of people with intellectual disability, there is considerable variability in the teaching of key intellectual disability content, with many gaps evident. Equipping nursing students with skills in this area is vital to building workforce capacity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...

  6. Intellectual disability health content within medical curriculum: an audit of what our future doctors are taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Ruffell, Beth; Tracy, Jane; Torr, Jennifer J; Durvasula, Seeta; Iacono, Teresa; Eagleson, Claire; Lennox, Nicolas

    2016-04-11

    There is a high burden of unmet health needs for people with intellectual disability. Despite experiencing significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population, this group faces greater barriers to accessing healthcare. While increasing workplace capacity is one way to reduce this inequitable access, previous research indicates a scarcity of undergraduate teaching in intellectual disability. The aim of the study was to determine the extent and nature of intellectual disability content currently offered within medical degree curricula. All Australian universities (n = 20) providing accredited medical training were invited to participate in a two-phase audit via an email invitation to the Dean of each medical school. The Dean's delegate from 14 medical schools completed Phase 1, which involved a questionnaire or telephone interview about the overall medical course structure. Unit coordinators and/or teaching staff from 12 medical schools completed Phase 2, which involved an online survey about intellectual disability content within the curriculum. In Australia, medical school curricula contain a median of 2.55 h of compulsory intellectual disability content. The majority of universities only offer a small amount of compulsory content. Of compulsory units, intellectual disability teaching is minimal in sexual health and emergency medicine (only one unit offered in one school for each). Topics of key relevance in intellectual disability health such as human rights issues, interdisciplinary team work and preventative health are poorly represented in intellectual disability teaching. Elective content varies markedly across universities (1 to 122 h), but emergency medicine, women's health, men's health and many other specialist medicine areas are not represented. Inclusive practice is inconsistent in degree and nature, but a majority of universities (nine) involve people with intellectual disability in the development or delivery

  7. Considerations on Intellectual and Academic Leadership of a Scholar in Higher Education: The Descriptive Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The search for solutions to the issue of leadership leads to hundreds of leadership studies, most of which are contradictory and inconclusive. The scientific literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on educational, academic, managerial or thought leadership. This literature provides the opinion that the intellectual leadership in higher education is directed towards building social and intellectual capital through a scholar’s involvement in decision-making and performance of leadership roles in ways that support the scholar’s collaborative decision-making and empowerment. Scholars see intellectual leadership as the scope of challenging processes, which incorporate ideas, values, understandings, solutions, beliefs, visions, knowledge, approaches, purpose and actions. These aspects must be accepted through collectively-shared understanding and generated contextually for organizational development in higher education. With growth in administrative demands, it becomes difficult for intellectual leaders to achieve an appropriate balance of leadership, teaching and research in higher education.

  8. Friendships and Intimate Relationships among People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Thematic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Casey; Cobigo, Virginie

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this thematic synthesis was to review qualitative studies on perspectives of persons with intellectual disabilities regarding friendships and intimate relationships. A literature search was conducted, including studies published between 2004 and 2014, involving participants 14 years of age or older, who had intellectual disabilities, and participated in focus groups or interviews. Eighteen studies were included. Three master themes were identified: (i) How do I know someone is my friend? (ii) How do I know someone is my boyfriend or girlfriend? and (iii) What helps and hinders relationships? Understanding how people with intellectual disabilities describe relationships, and being aware of factors that support and impede relationships, will aid stakeholders in developing training, policies, programmes and services. Knowledge translation of research that focuses on strategies aimed at supporting relationships is crucial to affect change in applied settings and improve quality of life for persons with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Researches on the Intellectual Property Right of Electronic Commerce%电子商务的知识产权研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢乃鹏

    2000-01-01

    As a revolutionary new situation of international trade,the rise of global Electronic Commerce makes a strong impact on the current intellectual property right system,and also poses some new problems.Whether we can successfully solve these problems shall directly influence the development of Electronic Commerce.This paper,from the angle of intellectual property right,inquires into some hot topics about intellectual property right involved with Electronic Commerce.

  10. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  11. Betraying the Intellectual Tradition: Public Intellectuals and the Crisis of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2003-01-01

    Building upon the late Pierre Bourdieu's belief that intellectuals had a major responsibility in bridging intellectual work and the operation of politics, this paper argues that intellectuals, especially those in higher education, need to recognise that youth is an important moral referent and political starting point for addressing a number of…

  12. Family Voices: Life for Family Carers of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Mannan, Hasheem; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne; McConkey, Roy; O'Brien, Patricia; Finlay, Frieda; Lawlor, Anne; Harrington, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Families in Ireland remain the main providers of support for people with Intellectual disabilities, and the aim of this study was to map their life experiences whilst involving their family members as co-researchers. Materials and Method: This qualitative, participatory study involved 10 focus groups attended by 70 parents and siblings…

  13. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...

  14. Participatory research, people with intellectual disabilities and ethical approval: making reasonable adjustments to enable participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, Ruth; Howarth, Joyce; Evans, Lynne

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how making reasonable adjustments to the process of securing ethical approval for research can facilitate the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities as members of a research team. This is achieved through critical reflection upon the approach taken within one participatory research study whose objective was to explore how people with intellectual disabilities understand abuse. Internationally participatory research studies (in which active involvement of community members in all stages of the research process is sought) are becoming increasingly common in the context of health care and, more specifically, within research involving people with intellectual disabilities. However, whilst it is acknowledged that participatory research gives rise to specific ethical challenges, how (or if) involvement in securing ethical approval is facilitated, is not discussed in most research reports. The significance of this paper is that it seeks to address this gap by exploring how meaningful participation can be promoted by making reasonable adjustments. Within the study, the research team worked in collaboration with the ethics committee to identify potential barriers that could prevent the participation of members of the research team who had intellectual disabilities. Reasonable adjustments (such as redesigning forms) were made to the processes involved in securing ethical approval. This study demonstrated that it is possible to ensure that ethical standards are upheld and the requirements of ethics committees met whilst also facilitating the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities. The reasonable adjustments approach explored within this paper can be translated into the context of clinical practice: making changes to the way that services are delivered can promote greater involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in their own health care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intellectual property protection for brand Jamaica’s creative industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisha LaRaine Ingram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the last decade, strategies employed by governments to manage their country brands have evolved beyond tourism marketing techniques. It is quite commonplace now for most governments to hire marketing specialists to design and implement county brand campaigns and policies to promote country brands globally to attract foreign direct investment into that country. Whether it is the arts-based “creative industry” or an “enterprise culture”, these features have evolved to become the drivers of profit in global markets, and give each nation a “competitive edge” over other nations in regards to their national brand. Country brand management is integral for the successful development of industry sectors and is also dependent on good country image. For Brand Jamaica one such industry is the creative industries sector. Brand Jamaica’s creative industries are mostly comprised of the branded tourism accommodations, atmosphere, heritage and culture as well as the indigenous music and recordings of local artistes and singers. For the development of this sector which currently contributes to Jamaica GDP it is interpreted that enforced intellectual property will play a key role especially in the promoting of the brand online. Good management of country brands creative industries involves good business acumen on protecting and developing that sector as it is vital towards translating the intangible wealth of developing countries into economic growth. Enforced intellectual property protection for Brand Jamaica’s music, arts, theatrical productions and creative expressions ultimately lessen the occurrence of infringements of the brand’s assets, piracy and production of counterfeit goods and services produces, while creating future possibilities in cyberspace.Purpose – as a source of unlimited supply of intellectual property, Brand Jamaica requires formal management of those assets especially in the creative industries sector that the brand

  16. Intellectual wellness in medical university teachers: Gender based comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sadiqa; Rehman, Rehana; Hussain, Mehwish; Shaikh, Saifullah

    2017-05-01

    A cross section, questionnaire based study was carried out from January 2012 till December 2014 to compare intellectual wellness (IW) awareness on the basis of gender in teachers of basic sciences at medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected from 3 public and 5 private medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaire was tailored from "Wellness Wheel" and responses were aggregated for eight questions in the dimension of IW to obtain aggregate IW score. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured using Cronbach's alpha. The average intellectual score was 24.99 ± 3.93 with a minimum score of 8 and maximum 32.The frequency of keeping informed about research updates was significantly higher in males (p = 0.043) that emphasized significantly better IW awareness of male medical teachers involved in teaching of medical sciences in both public and private medical universities of Pakistan.

  17. The Death of the Concerned Intellectual?

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    Chongyi Feng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a definition of the intellectual covering both professional and moral dimensions: An intellectual is a specialist who creates and communicates symbolised knowledge as means of living, and hopefully intervenes in social and political affairs in the name of universal values, truth and justice. "Symbolised knowledge" is used in the definition to avoid the confusion with other forms of knowledge derived from direct personal experience in production and life. The purpose of using "specialist" as the subject term is to exclude those categories such politicians, soldiers and business people who exercise political, military, financial and other forms of power instead of intellectual power in their social function. This paper argues that there are many roles played by intellectuals, and the social location and function of intellectuals can be fundamentally different in different societies. When production and communication of knowledge are taken as the primary concern of intellectuals, ‘the death of the concerned intellectual’ becomes an unwarranted anxiety, because there is no reason to believe that knowledge and truth will no longer be pursued and valued by humankind. Political marginalisation of critical intellectuals, where it is a reality, seems to be caused not so much by the lack of power of intellectuals as by the lack of solidarity among intellectuals to fight for a common cause. The problem lies as much in the lack of enthusiasm among intellectuals to transcend the boundaries of their professional relevance and intervene in broad social and political issues, as in institutional structures consuming too much energy and time of the intellectuals and seducing them to give up their social responsibilities for personal career.

  18. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions.

  19. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  20. PENGARUH KINERJA INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL TERHADAP KINERJA INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL PADA PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR YANG TERDAFTAR DI BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windri Windri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to analyze the effect of intellectual capital performance on intellectualcapital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange(IDX period 2004-2006 and to analyze the level of intellectual capital disclosure in annualreport period 2004-2006. 50 companies was taken as samples in the research.This paper usescontent analysis to compile a measure of disclosure on each annual report of manufacturingcompany and statistical analysis to test whether intellectual capital performance has a positiveeffect to intellectual capital disclosure. Based on statistical analysis, it is concluded that theintellectual capital performance and firm size have a positive effect to intellectual capitaldisclosure. Leverage has no effect to intellectual capital disclosure. The result of content analysisshows that the intellectual capital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company period2004-2006 are less than 50%.

  1. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  2. Management Consulting Practice on Intellectual Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2005-01-01

    Today, Intellectual Capital plays a principal role in the delivery of corporate performance. This importance is reflected in the fact that companies, without the force of any regulations, start to produce intellectual capital statements to communicate their performance; accounting guidelines are

  3. Expanding Opportunities for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…

  4. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  5. 228 THE INTELLECTUAL DISABLED (MENTALLY IMPAIRED) IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    The Intellectual disabled child is characterized by significantly sub average general intellectual ... by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problem in social ... softened and classifications redefined some what to mild (IQ of 55 –70) moderate .... parents do not like the isolation of their children from normal children.

  6. Intellectual Property Policies at Canadian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Hen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the Intellectual Property policies at schools selected from Research Infosource’s Canada’s Top 50 research universities 2009 (http://www.researchinfosource.com/). This work is a continuation and extension of Dr. Bruce P. Clayman’s original idea and piece University intellectual property policies.

  7. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  8. Intellectual Honesty in the Era of Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Frank W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the need for intellectual honesty in using technology. Topics include intellectual property laws; ethics; indirect results of copying software and images; the need for institutional policy; and the provision of facilities and resources that encourage respect for policy. A sidebar provides "A Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for…

  9. 2050: A Pricing Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, Ahmad

    2006-10-15

    The author uses the Rip Van Winkle approach favored by marketers to gaze, clear-eyed, into the future - say, the year 2050 - to visualize alternative demand-response possibilities. Dare we go California Dreamin' of a distant utopia - or is it inevitable that pricing myopia will keep us from attaining the fulfillment of many of our career goals? (author)

  10. A learning space Odyssey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the alignment of learning space with higher education learning and teaching. Significant changes in higher education the past decades, such as increased information and communication technology (ICT) and new learning theories have resulted in the dilemma whether higher

  11. The effects of social capital and organizational commitment on the staff’s intellectual contribution in the central building of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Malek Makan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays human capital is the main asset in organizations. Thus, the employees’ intellectual involvement is a key factor in the success of organizations. Hence organizations should seek for factors that affect and boost the employees’ intellectual involvement. Therefore, the present research aimed at discovering the relationship between organizational commitment and social capital with intellectual involvement among employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method: The study population consisted of staff employees at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A sample of 224 employees was selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using three questionnaires including social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: It was found that the level of social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement was at an average level. There was a significant relationship between intellectual involvement and degree (p<0.01 and marital status (p<0.05. Other demographic variables had no significant relationship with research variables. Moreover, all research variables and their dimensions had a significant relationship with each other (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that with improvement in each of the research variables, other variables will improve. For example, as a result of improvement in social capital or organization commitment, intellectual involvement will increase and the organization could use its competitive advantage

  12. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  13. Healthy living: A health promotion program for adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Andrea; McPherson, Lyn; Urbanowicz, Anna

    2018-04-04

    Adults with intellectual disability are more likely to experience a range of physical and mental health problems in comparison to the general population. However with access to appropriate health care and promotion, many of these health problems can be prevented. To explore the perspectives of stakeholders of a health promotion program established for adults with intellectual disability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders of a health promotion program. Stakeholders included adults with intellectual disability (n = 6), their support persons (n = 4) and program presenters (n = 2). Adults with intellectual disability included three males and three females with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 37-51 years). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes emerged from the data. The first theme highlights the positive feedback all stakeholders, especially adults with intellectual disability, had for the program and the second focuses on suggestions for changes to improve it. The third and final themes explore how having input from adults with intellectual disability and their support persons, who have a unique understanding of their needs, could be better incorporated into the development of the program. This health promotion program has been well received by people with intellectual disability when incorporated into their weekly social club meetings With encouragement and training, people with intellectual disability and their support workers could be more involved in the development of the program to ensure it is relevant to their needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN KNOWLEDGE - BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Elena Parpandel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a knowledge - based society, organizations undergo permanent changes and transformations, and the key factor of such changes is intellectual capital regarded as one of the most critical, yet most strategic values an organization might own. Analyzing intelectual capital and knowledge society over the last decades has primarily emerged in private companies, whereas at present there is an increasing concern in all the fields of activity. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance of intellectual capital as a source of innovation and novelty used to create competitive advantages for organizations in the era of knowledge where man must rely on intellect, intuition and creativity. The present paper is an exploratory endeavour based on the qualitative method as various information sources are resorted to in order to conceptualize the terms of intellectual capital and knowledge society: specialty literature, case studies, mass-media articles, reports of in-field organizations etc. Organizations should use all the tangible or non-tangible resources they have in order to secure their success and also to build a knowledge society which involves going a long way, based on an ample, complex process where innovation has a major role and a global nature.

  15. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.

  16. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  17. Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, John; Larkan, Fiona; Kayabu, Bonnix; Fitzgerald, Geraldine; Sheaf, Greg; Dinsmore, John; McConkey, Roy; Clarke, Mike; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2018-02-10

    The aim of this review is to answer the following question: Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? Previous research on assistive technology has focused on socioeconomic impacts such as education, employment and access to healthcare by people with intellectual disability. There is a need to consolidate evidence on the interaction between intellectual disability, assistive technology, community living and social inclusion. The review will consider studies from all settings: geographical, socioeconomic and care (institutional and community care), published in English. Studies reported in other languages with abstracts in English will be included if they can be translated using Google Translate, otherwise such studies will be included in the appendix. The review will include both qualitative and quantitative studies. The intervention in this review refers to the use of assistive technology to promote community participation or interpersonal relationships (social inclusion) for people with intellectual disability. The outcomes will be behavioural and social benefits of using assistive technology by people with intellectual disability. Enhanced interpersonal relationships and community participation by people with intellectual disability. Data analysis will be in two phases. The first phase will involve analysis of individual study designs separately. The second phase will be narrative/thematic synthesis of all study groups. The review will not create any ethical or safety concerns. At least one peer-reviewed article in a leading journal such as the BMJ is planned. The findings will also be disseminated through a seminar session involving internal audience at Trinity College Dublin and within the Assistive Technologies for people with Intellectual Disability and Autism research programme. CRD42017065447; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  18. Intellectually Gifted Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; He, Yunfeng; Tao, Ting; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The term "intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children" refers to intellectually gifted children who are in migration from rural to urban areas. We compared performances on seven attention tasks among intellectually gifted (n = 26) and average (n = 30) rural-to-urban migrant and intellectually gifted urban children (n = 31). Our…

  19. Is Intellectual Character Growth a Realistic Educational Aim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Responsibilist approaches to virtue epistemology examine the epistemic significance of intellectual virtues like curiosity, attentiveness, intellectual humility, open-mindedness, intellectual courage, and intellectual tenacity. On one way of thinking about these traits, they are the deep personal qualities or character traits of a good thinker or…

  20. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  1. Stuart Hall: An Organic Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fernández Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stuart Hall (3 February 1932 – 10 February 2014 is acknowledged as one of the founding figures of British Cultural Studies. His extensive academic work on topics such as race, ethnicity and identity reflects his own position as a diasporic intellectual. His contribution to the study of popular culture is determined by the importance of his political character in every social act, his non-deterministic view of Marxism, and is especially determined by his insistence on playing an active role beyond academia in order to contribute to the transformation of hegemonic structures. The following biography aims to give a focused view of his personal history and its direct influence on his key theoretical reflections.

  2. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  3. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct.

  4. Extracurricular activities and the development of social skills in children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y

    2015-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A survey on awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 真二; 今野, 和夫; SHIBUYA, Shinji; KONNO, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability is an important factor for their children to make friends without a disability. A questionnare survey was used to parents of upper secondary department of special schools for students with an intellectual disability. They thought that their children had fewer opportunities to get involved with children without a disability. Many of them wished that their children ...

  6. ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT AT THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kornilova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical issues of organizational support of intellectual property management at the enterprise. It is defined the nature, goals, objectives organization of intellectual property. It is selected the features, factors of influence on the choice of organizational structure and organizational form of intellectual property management on an enterprise. It is proposed systematization forms of organizational maintenance of intellectual property management at different classification criteria. Attention is paid to consider outsourcing forms of operations with intellectual property.

  7. The Relation Between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.

  8. THE PLOT OF HUSBAND’S RETURN TO HIS WIFE’S WEDDING IN "THE ODYSSEY" BY HOMER AND IN THE SLAVIC AND RUSSIAN EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Malchukova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the plot of husband’s return to his wife’s wedding embodied both in the millenary Ancient epic literature represented by the "Odyssey" of Homer, and in the Russian and Slavic epic. The study of Homer’s epic heritage, conducted over the years, includes a huge number of works of scientists around the world. Comparative-historical, comparative-genetic and comparative-typological studies found a link between oral folk tradition and epic poetry written by an author. The current international science is developing the hypothesis that professionally individual Homeric poems, which are at least 850 years old, were created in the ancient, oral poetry improvisation in a precise format of hexameter. The study of the Russian epic has less history, but the researches in this field have revealed the presence of Late Antiquity elements in the Slavic environment. These elements along with paganism and Christianity became the source of the people’s spiritual culture. The plot "the return of her husband", which is analyzed in the article, is widely-spread in folklore of many nations, and appeared rudimentarily in "The Odyssey". The western and eastern variants of this theme are diverse in genre structure and stylistic features. In Russian tradition the plot is presented in a large thematic variety "Dobrynya and Alyosha", which evolves into the epic genre due to contamination, small inserts in the epic genre. As a result, the great volume brings together the olden time and the ancient epic, creating intermediate forms comparable with the author’s imitations.

  9. Contemporary intellectual property law and policy

    CERN Document Server

    MacQueen, Hector; Laurie, Graeme; Brown, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law, unrivalled amongst IP textbooks available today. Beyond providing an up-to-date account of intellectual property law, the text examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern IP law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.

  10. Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts on an Appropriate ... This will be achieved through the creation of an IP system that provides ... the good being protected and the manner in which the creative process unfolds.

  11. SPECIFIC MODELS OF REPRESENTING THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various scientists in the modern age of management have launched different models for evaluating intellectual capital, and some of these models are analysed critically in this study, too. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. In a spectral dynamic analysis, organisational intellectual capital is structured in: organisational knowledge, organisational intelligence, organisational values, and their value is built on certain mechanisms entitled integrators, whose chief constitutive elements are: individual knowledge, individual intelligence and individual cultural values. The organizations, as employers, must especially reconsider those employees’ work who value knowledge because they are free to choose how, and especially where they are inclined to invest their own energy, skills and time, and they can be treated as freelancers or as some little entrepreneurs .

  12. Intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policies of biotechnology firms listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. The firms’ intellectual capital disclosures were computed from the annual...... financial reports, while data on dividend policies was retrieved from Worldscope. This paper defines dividend policies by three variables: (1) Dividend payout ratio, (2) Decision to pay dividend, and (3) Increase in dividend payout. The results show that firms with higher intellectual capital disclosures...... not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition...

  13. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  14. Intellectual capital: Measurement, recognition and reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Johannes Cronje

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, the economy has moved from an industrial to a knowledge economy. Consequently, basic factors of production now no longer comprise only natural resources, capital and labour, but also intellectual capital. Despite the shift from an industrial to a knowledge economy, the accounting framework and financial reporting have not changed sufficiently to include intellectual capital. The research problem attempts to explore whether the theory of accounting should be modified for a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital. To solve the research problem, a literature review and content analysis on corporate annual reports were used. The results of this study indicate that the theory of accounting should be modified to ensure a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital in corporate annual reports.

  15. Identification of Intellectually Able Disadvantaged Filipino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval-Severino, Teresita

    1992-01-01

    Preschool Filipino children from disadvantaged urban communities were assessed for giftedness. This article describes the identification procedures and tools used and presents a profile of the children in terms of socioeconomic, intellectual, and personality variables. (Author/JDD)

  16. Posterior Fossa Tumors and Intellectual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cerebellar damage on intellectual function in 76 children treated surgically for malignant posterior fossa tumor was investigated at the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

  17. Contemporary intellectual property law and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Waelde, Charlotte; Kheria, Smita; Cornwell, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law. It goes beyond an up-to-date account of the law and examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern intellectual property law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.

  18. Post hoc analysis of plasma amino acid profiles: towards a specific pattern in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaye, Jean-Baptiste; Patin, Franck; Lagrue, Emmanuelle; Le Tilly, Olivier; Bruno, Clement; Vuillaume, Marie-Laure; Raynaud, Martine; Benz-De Bretagne, Isabelle; Laumonnier, Frederic; Vourc'h, Patrick; Andres, Christian; Blasco, Helene

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability present a challenge for therapeutic and dietary management. We performed a re-analysis of plasma amino acid chromatography of children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 22) or intellectual disability ( n = 29) to search for a metabolic signature that can distinguish individuals with these disorders from controls ( n = 30). Methods We performed univariate and multivariate analyses using different machine learning strategies, from the raw data of the amino acid chromatography. Finally, we analysed the metabolic pathways associated with discriminant biomarkers. Results Multivariate analysis revealed models to discriminate patients with autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability and controls from plasma amino acid profiles ( P intellectual disability patients shared similar differences relative to controls, including lower glutamate ( P intellectual disability revealed the involvement of urea, 3-methyl-histidine and histidine metabolism. Biosigner analysis and univariate analysis confirmed the role of 3-methylhistidine ( P = 0.004), histidine ( P = 0.003), urea ( P = 0.0006) and lysine ( P = 0.002). Conclusions We revealed discriminant metabolic patterns between autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and controls. Amino acids known to play a role in neurotransmission were discriminant in the models comparing autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability to controls, and histidine and b-alanine metabolism was specifically highlighted in the model.

  19. Managing Intellectual Capital in Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier-Laurent, Eunika

    2014-01-01

    Part 4: Components of Knowledge Flow; International audience; Strategic Knowledge Management considers Intellectual Capital (IC) as roots of all organizations activities. The success of organizations strongly depends on the way they manage all facets of knowledge and skills. Artificial Intelligence brought some methods and techniques for handling intellectual assets of companies, expertise management, knowledge transfer and training. This paper presents an overview of experiences and research...

  20. Intellectual Property Law in Indonesia After 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Valerie Selvie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such change...

  1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IN INDONESIA AFTER 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie Selvie Sinaga

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such change...

  2. Identification of pathogenic gene variants in small families with intellectually disabled siblings by exome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J.H.M.; Silfhout, A.T. van; Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Vondervoort, I.I.G.M. van de; Bon, B.W.M. van; Ligt, J. de; Gilissen, C.F.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Neveling, K.; Rosario, M. del; Hira, G.; Reitano, S.; Vitello, A.; Failla, P.; Greco, D.; Fichera, M.; Galesi, O.; Kleefstra, T.; Greally, M.T.; Ockeloen, C.W.; Willemsen, M.H.; Bongers, E.M.; Janssen, I.M.; Pfundt, R.P.; Veltman, J.A.; Romano, C; Willemsen, M.A.; Bokhoven, H. van; Brunner, H.G.; Vries, L.B.A. de; Brouwer, A.P. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intellectual disability (ID) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1-3% of the general population. Mutations in more than 10% of all human genes are considered to be involved in this disorder, although the majority of these genes are still unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated

  3. Injury Incidence and Patterns in Workers with Intellectual Disability: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Sparring, Cynthia; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Marshall, Carrie Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Workplace safety is a concern in the employment of persons with intellectual disability, due to both real concerns for employee well-being, and the effect that negative perceptions of safety risk can have on hiring. Method: This study involved a retrospective analysis of workplace insurance claim records for workers with and without…

  4. Mastery Motivation in Children with Intellectual Disability: Is There Evidence for a Down Syndrome Behavioural Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Browning, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to provide empirical evidence to support or refute assumptions of phenotypic deficits in motivation for children with Down syndrome (DS). Children with moderate intellectual disability (MID) associated with etiologies other than DS were recruited in an extension of a previous study that involved children…

  5. Innovation and Competition: Conflicts over Intellectual Property Rights in New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Addresses conditions and concerns involved in accommodating the interests of both innovators of new technologies and the general public. Discusses the tension that exists in intellectual property law between innovators and competitors. Focuses on cases dealing with computer software and semiconductor chip designs, genetically-engineered life…

  6. Relationships among Emotional and Intellectual Overexcitability, Emotional IQ, and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduna, Kerry; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on intellectual and emotional overexcitabilities and their relationship to emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Dabrowski's (1964) theory of positive disintegration (TPD), which proposes that optimum personality development involves the breaking down of current psychological structures, in which individuals…

  7. Employers' Attitudes on Hiring Workers with Intellectual Disabilities in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Italian Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappella, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Employers play a significant role in the process of hiring workers with intellectual disability. Through an in-depth interview, this research aims to investigate the attitudes of 30 representatives of small and medium-sized Italian companies involved in a process of recruitment. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The results…

  8. Do Interracial Interactions Matter? An Examination of Student-Faculty Contact and Intellectual Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Darnell

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal, multi-institution study was to examine through multilevel analyses the influence of: (1) interracial interactions on student-faculty interactions; and (2) interracial interactions and student-faculty interactions on intellectual self-concept. Social participation and involvement theory, as they are constructed…

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…

  10. Internet-Based commons of intellectual resources : An exploration of their variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de laat, Paul B.; J. Berleur,; M.I. Nurminen,; J. Impaglizzo,

    2006-01-01

    During the two last decades, speeded up by the development of the Internet, several types of commons have been opened up for intellectual resources. In this article their variety is being explored as to the kind of resources and the type of regulation involved. The open source software movement

  11. Characteristics of People Providing Family Placements to Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; McConaghie, Jayne; Roberts, Paul; King, Diana

    2005-01-01

    The success of family placement schemes depends largely on the recruitment of suitable people who are willing to offer placements in their own home yet little research has been undertaken of their characteristics and the reasons for their involvement. Thirty providers of family based placements to adult persons with intellectual disabilities were…

  12. A Holistic Theoretical Approach to Intellectual Disability: Going beyond the Four Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth; Tassé, Marc J.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a holistic theoretical framework that can be used to explain intellectual disability (ID) and organize relevant information into a usable roadmap to guide understanding and application. Developing the framework involved analyzing the four current perspectives on ID and synthesizing this information into a holistic…

  13. Analogical Reasoning in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Effects of External Memories and Time Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaes, Caroline; Berger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning involves the comparison of pictures as well as the memorisation of relations. Young children (4-7 years old) and students with moderate intellectual disability have a short memory span, which hampers them in succeeding traditional analogical tests. In the present study, we investigated if, by providing external memory hints,…

  14. Using Progressive Video Prompting to Teach Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability to Shoot a Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…

  15. Child Maltreatment among Children with Intellectual Disability in the Canadian Incidence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Paquette, Geneviève; Tremblay, Karine-N.; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Chabot, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to compare, among a representative sample of substantiated child maltreatment cases, the characteristics of those with intellectual disability (ID) from those without ID. Using the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, 5,797 cases of substantiated maltreatment that involved children aged between 0 and…

  16. Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John Michael

    This work presents two research efforts, one involving planetary science education research and a second involving the surface composition of Mars. In the former, student beliefs and reasoning difficulties associated with the greenhouse effect were elicited through student interviews and written survey responses from >900 US undergraduate non-science majors. This guided the development of the Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory (GECI), an educational research tool designed to assess pre- and post-instruction conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect. Three versions of this multiple-choice instrument were administered to >2,500 undergraduates as part of the development and validation process. In contrast to previous research efforts regarding causes, consequences, and solutions to the enhanced greenhouse effect, the GECI focuses primarily on the physics of energy flow through Earth's atmosphere. The GECI is offered to the science education community as a research tool for assessing instructional strategies on this topic. It was confirmed that the study population subscribes to several previously identified beliefs. These include correct understandings that carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas and the greenhouse effect increases planetary surface temperatures. Students also commonly associate the greenhouse effect with increased penetration of sunlight into and trapping of solar energy in the atmosphere. Students intermix concepts associated with the greenhouse effect, global warming, and ozone depletion. Reinforcing the latter concept, a majority believe that the Sun radiates most of its energy as ultraviolet light. Students also describe inaccurate and incomplete trapping models, which include permanent trapping, trapping through reflection, and trapping of gases and pollution. Another reasoning difficulty involves the idea that Earth's surface radiates energy primarily during the nighttime. The second research effort describes the distribution of

  17. The Exploration Ethic: Its Historical-Intellectual Basis. Outlook for Space (1980 - 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priscoli, J. D.; Marney, M.

    1975-01-01

    Principle components of the exploration ethic are discussed. Attempts were made to justify both the historical and intellectual aspects of the concept. It was noted that intellectual justification is strongly grounded on: (1) the complementarity of objective and normative inquiry as to method, and (2) interdisciplinary alliance of ethics of adaptive systems with contemporary decision sciences, as a theoretical basis. Historical exploration justification was associated with: (1) periods of civilization transition, (2) changes in the process of exploration which cause change in types of rationals used, sponsors involved, and explorers interest, and (3) the incorrectness of proven prior cost/benefit calculations.

  18. Epigenetic Etiology of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Shigeki; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Zhou, Zhaolan; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Battaglioli, Elena; Scandaglia, Marilyn; Barco, Angel

    2017-11-08

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired cognitive and adaptive behaviors. Many chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators have been genetically associated with ID disorders (IDDs). Here we review how alterations in the function of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers, and methyl-DNA binding proteins contribute to neurodevelopmental defects and altered brain plasticity. We also discuss how progress in human genetics has led to the generation of mouse models that unveil the molecular etiology of ID, and outline the direction in which this field is moving to identify therapeutic strategies for IDDs. Importantly, because the chromatin regulators linked to IDDs often target common downstream genes and cellular processes, the impact of research in individual syndromes goes well beyond each syndrome and can also contribute to the understanding and therapy of other IDDs. Furthermore, the investigation of these disorders helps us to understand the role of chromatin regulators in brain development, plasticity, and gene expression, thereby answering fundamental questions in neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710773-10$15.00/0.

  19. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of

  20. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  1. Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and

  2. Subnormality under debate: discourses and policies on intellectual disability during the late Franco regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cura, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades of the Franco dictatorship, intellectually disabled people became an object of concern on the part of Spanish society and the center of a debate involving the state, the church, certain professional groups and families of those affected. This debate was stoked by ideas circulating in the international setting about the right of the intellectually disabled to integrate into society and enjoy the same opportunities as other individuals. This article seeks to identify the circumstances that led to the emergence of this concern and to note the elements that helped construct the discourses and govern the practices on intellectual disability that developed during the later years of the Franco regime.

  3. The figure of the helper advisor in cases of sexual abuse against people with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena MARTORELL CAFRANGA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the main barriers that people with intellectual disabilities who have suffered sexual abuse have to face when they access the Justice system. Regarding these barriers, the Victim Support Unit for People with Intellectual Disabilities of the Fundación Carmen Pardo-Valcarce proposes the inclusion in the judicial process of a helper advisor. The entry into force in 2015 of the Law 4/2015, in 27 April, the Statute of the crime victim represents an exemplary opportunity to ensure the incorporation of support proposals involving the insertion of the helper advisor in the judicial process in cases where the victim is a person with intellectual disabilities. In this paper we analyse the impact of the helper advisor, with particular emphasis on cases that have been dismissed under instruction.

  4. Crime and victimisation in people with intellectual disability: a case linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogden, Billy C; Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P

    2016-05-28

    Studies have suggested that people with intellectual disability are disproportionately involved in crime both as perpetrators and victims. A case linkage design used three Australian contact-level databases, from disability services, public mental health services and police records. Rates of contact, and official records of victimisation and criminal charges were compared to those in a community sample without intellectual disability. Although people with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have an official record of victimisation and offending overall, their rates of violent and sexual victimisation and offending were significantly higher. The presence of comorbid mental illness considerably increased the likelihood of victimisation and offending; several sex differences were also noted. People with intellectual disability are at increased risk for both violent and sexual victimisation and offending. The presence of comorbid mental illness aggravates the risk of offending and victimisation. Future research should focus on a more nuanced exploration of the risks associated with intellectual disability and specific mental disorders and related indices of complexity.

  5. The Role of Intellectual Capital and Entrepreneurial Characteristics as Innovation Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ugalde-Binda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are essential organizational strategies to find a way out of the world crisis affecting today’s firms. Thus, the study of how organizational factors, like intellectual capital or entrepreneur characteristics, affects the success of an innovative entrepreneurial project is of utmost importance in helping current organizations find a solution to this problem. Intellectual capital involves investment in human, structural and relational capital. Consequently, our research goal centres on analyzing the influence of intellectual capital as well as the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs on the innovation results. This phenomenon remains unexplored in the case of micro and small firms. Our paper focuses on a particular context where small firms represent a key role in the industry: the case of Costa Rica. We used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in order to develop the analysis. Our first results show a positive and significant relationship between structural and relational capital and innovation results; also, we can observe a positive relationship between a general measure of intellectual capital and innovation results. The case study illustrates how human capital and, specifically, the characteristics of the entrepreneur have an important influence on firm results. Our work contributes to show the relevance of intellectual capital on innovation success, and results encourage practitioners to invest in structural and relational capital and also improve the degree of planning of activities to obtain better results in the long term.

  6. Internet and people with intellectual disability: an approach to caregivers’ concerns, prevention strategies and training needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Chiner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore caregivers’ views about the risks of the Internet for people with intellectual disabilities and their preparation and ability to use prevention strategies to address them. The participants (20 family members and 24 staff members belonged to a non-profit association working with people with developmental and intellectual disabilities and were asked to respond to a questionnaire about Internet safety and risks. Findings show some concerns from caregivers with regard to the use of the Internet by people with intellectual disabilities and suggest that this group is more vulnerable to online risks. Participants use different kinds of strategies to prevent the risks but they have not received any formal training. They think that this training should come from the Administration and other organisations. Some differences were found between family and staff members’ responses. Training programmes for all the groups involved in this process (i.e. people with intellectual disabilities, staff and family members should be designed, implemented and assessed to promote the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in the digital arena.

  7. Invisible victims. Analysis of a case of abuse from the perspective of the victim with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén GUTIÉRREZ-BERMEJO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the experience of abuse by a person with intellectual disability. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the existing scientific literature. The results show the emotional impact of the abuse experience on the victim. It also identifies false myths in relation to the emotional experience of people with intellectual disabilities and provides psychological explanations for the actions of the different people involved in the aggressions. The plurality of abuse situations which the victim may face, as well as the permanence of abuse over the years, define a common characteristic in the maltreatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Understanding all the dynamics that can lead to abuse in people with intellectual disabilities provides a new perspective in the assessment and intervention with these victims.

  8. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  9. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  10. An Overview of Human Rights and Intellectual Property Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Said Bydoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the legal framework of human rights and intellectual property in terms of state obligations to afford a protection for both human rights and intellectual property. The relationship between intellectual property and human rights, under bilateral, regional and multilateral treaties, is a matter of concern. In focusing on the relationship between intellectual property and human rights, this article argues that there are many challenges on the wide use of Intellectual property rights that given possible conflict between intellectual property and human rights.

  11. The Effect of Classical Music on Painting Quality and Classroom Behaviour for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities in Special Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Russell F.; Riddoch, Jane V.

    2007-01-01

    There are few studies measuring the effects on painting quality of playing background classical music at special schools. Primary students with severe intellectual disabilities (N=24) were taught abstract painting in a two-part method. The first part involved a Pictorial Only method and the second, immediately following it, involved a Pictorial…

  12. Intellectual Liabilities: Lessons from The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaan Stam

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Intellectual capital theory and practice predominantly focus on measuring and managing intangible assets. However, if we want to balance the intellectual capital books (Harvey and Lusch, 1999), we should recognize both intellectual assets and intellectual liabilities (Caddy, 2000).

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY

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    Nataliia Shust

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is dedicated to the analysis of legal nature and peculiarities of optimal correlation between the notions of intellectual property and scientific activity. Nowadays intellectual property as institution goes through the period of establishment in Ukraine. As the Soviet system of civil law was based on recognition and regulation of authors’ rights for the authors of scientific works, discoveries, inventions and innovation proposals as the ones having mainly relative, i.e. legally mandatory, but not absolute character.  Getting started to define the notion of intellectual property and intellectual property right in the system of interaction with scientific activity, it is important to say that such notion as “intellectual property” still needs enhancement. Its imperfection is due to the fact that this kind of property implies being formed by intellectual efforts of the author of scientific work, but legally it is processed with the help of documents that guarantee property right. Methods. General scientific method, philosophical method, specially-legal method of scientific research, system analysis method. Results: It is important to emphasize that not every result of scientific or creative work can become the object of intellectual property right, but the one that corresponds with law. Any scientific work falls within the purview of law if it corresponds with law demands. Scientific and technical results obtain legal protection only in case of appropriate qualification established by specific agency of State administration and issuement of law-enforcement document being limited by the territory of Ukraine. Protection of rights on the territory of other countries is realized only on the basis of correspondent international conventions and treaties. Discussion: Advanced modern countries realized the meaning and importance of usage and proper protection of creative and scientific work results known as “intellectual

  14. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

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    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  15. Conceptualization of an intellectual maintenance management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Kazunori; Yonekawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1997-04-01

    It is studied in many research institute to enhance availability and safety of nuclear power plants operation and maintenance. On this account, development of autonomous plants has been carried out to replace the role of operators with artificial intelligence and autonomous robots. We have been developing an intellectual maintenance management system since 1994. As the first step, concept of an intellectual maintenance management system was constructed. The intellectual maintenance managerial system is in charge of maintenance function of an autonomous plant. The intellectual maintenance managerial system has three functions which is monitoring state and judging abnormal machine and deciding maintenance plan by autonomy. This system has an important role of indication and communication of the result to an autonomous operation system and autonomous robot. In this examination, we adopted the distributed and cooperative system technique by multi-agent of AI technology and examined a method to enforce problem solving by cooperation of sensor and actuator. In this report, we examined trouble detection and troubleshooting evaluation and maintenance plan decision function by the distributed and cooperative system technology, the distributed and cooperative system communication-function that these information releases functions was taken on. In conceptualization of the intellectual maintenance managerial system, we clarified of major functions to constitute this system and relation between autonomous operation system and autonomous robots. We clarified the information exchange scheme between this system and an outside system furthermore. In future, we will prototype each function and inspect the total system. (author)

  16. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  17. The assessment of intellectual capital in Polish regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy intangible assets are indispensable to achieve competitive advantages. Resources like intellectual capital are perceived as crucial factors especially for regional growth. Intellectual capital is comprehended as a multidimensional concept, defined and explained in many

  18. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.; Mathijssen, I.M.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Okkerse, J.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. METHODS: A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual,

  19. PENGARUH INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Andriana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of intellectual capital and its components, represented by physical capital (capital employed, human capital, and structural capital,on financial performance of mining and manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia – BEI period of 2010 – 2012. Total population observed during this research shows 169 mining and manufacturing companies.The sample was determined by purposive sampling method and found a total of 70 samples as the research subjects. The analytical technique for the quantitaive data uses a statistical tool, i.e. multiple regression. Intellectual capital and its components were measured by Pulic Model, while financial performance uses Return on Equty (ROE ratio. The results show that intellectual capital and human capital have negative influence, yet insignificant, impacton companies financial performance. While physical capital (capital employed and structural capital do have positive influence but not significanton companies financial performance.

  20. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IN INDONESIA AFTER 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Selvie Sinaga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such changes in Indonesia. Tulisan ini melihat kembali perubahan-perubahan besar dalam bidang hak kekayaan intelektual di Indonesia setelah tahun 2001. Pada tahun tersebut, Indonesia, yang telah menjadi anggota Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS sejak 1994, siap untuk memenuhi komitmennya dalam TRIPS. Untuk memenuhi komitmen tersebut, Indonesia telah membuat perubahan-perubahan dalam bidang legislatif, administratif, tata cara pengadilan dan penegakan hukum. Tulisan ini juga membahas permasalahan di seputar pelaksanaan perubahan-perubahan tersebut.

  1. Suicide behavior in persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Lunsky, Yona; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  2. Suicide Behavior in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  3. Intellectual capital in the theory of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović, Tamara; Krstić, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual capital has an inevitable role in the value creation process and represents significant determinant of the firms' market success. In the contemporary circumstances, firms achieve and sustain their competitive advantages by mobilising and profitably exploiting intellectual resources. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to overview the evolutionary process of intellectual capital through theoretical examinations of different theories. The first notion of intellectual capital is con...

  4. Managing intellectual capital in libraries beyond the balance sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Kostagiolas, Petros

    2012-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, professionals have to make decisions about non-tangible, non-monetary, and largely invisible resources. Information professionals need to understand the potential uses, contributions, value, structure, and creation of broadly intangible intellectual capital in libraries. In order to fully realize intellectual capital in libraries, new practices and skills are required for library management practitioners and researchers.Managing Intellectual Capital in Libraries provides research advances, guidelines, methods and techniques for managing intellectual capital in a libra

  5. Children with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the necessary skills, many professionals might be involved. General medical tests as well as tests in areas such as neurology (the nervous system), psychology, psychiatry, special education, hearing, speech and vision, and ...

  6. Psychopathology in Young People With Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from

  7. MITIGATING INNOVATION RISKS CONCERNING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As protection of innovation is possible using a variety of intellectual property instruments, the current paper aims at emphasizing the vulnerabilities of these instruments in order to facilitate the right choice in terms of protection, exploitation and dissemination of innovation. Based on a review of the intellectual property instruments and their related risk factors, the study identifies and formulates specific proactive strategies which arise from the fact that an instrument alone does not allow for effective protection, exploitation and dissemination and oftentimes the owners of innovation should combine traditional and alternative instruments. Therefore, the results of this analysis represent a helpful tool for managers in the decisional process.

  8. De novo mutations in the genome organizer CTCF cause intellectual disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregor, Anne; Oti, Martin; Kouwenhoven, Evelyn N

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of genes involved in chromatin structure and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, often including intellectual disability. By trio exome sequencing and subsequent mutational screening we now identified two de novo frameshift...... mutations and one de novo missense mutation in CTCF in individuals with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and growth retardation. Furthermore, an individual with a larger deletion including CTCF was identified. CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is one of the most important chromatin organizers in vertebrates...... and is involved in various chromatin regulation processes such as higher order of chromatin organization, enhancer function, and maintenance of three-dimensional chromatin structure. Transcriptome analyses in all three individuals with point mutations revealed deregulation of genes involved in signal transduction...

  9. Intellectual Capital Import for the Benefit of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenca, Airita; Gravite, Aija

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the role of intellectual capital in the development of higher education system. The description of economic and marketing values of intellectual capital demonstrates its importance for an institution's establishing in education market. Import and export of intellectual capital is a reality of globalisation processes, and it is…

  10. Intellectual Freedom in Academic Libraries: Surveying Deans about Its Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, deans and directors of academic libraries were surveyed about intellectual freedom. The survey found that most respondents said they rarely think about intellectual freedom yet said it was "somewhat" or "very" important in their libraries. Most did not have formal intellectual freedom policies; they often relied…

  11. Intellectual Property Rights and The Classroom: What Teachers Can Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Intellectual property rights restrict teachers' and students' ability to freely explore the intellectual realms of the classroom. Copyright laws protect the author and their work but disable other intellectuals from investigating probable learning environments. This paper will look at key issues where educational institutions are conflicting with…

  12. Phenotypic heterogeneity of intellectual disability in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenlei; Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Gang; Cao, Wenjian; Liu, Sen; Chen, Yixin; Zuo, Yuzhi; Chen, Weisheng; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Shishu; Qiu, Guixing; Giampietro, Philip F; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Zhihong; Wu, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare autosomal recessive heterogeneous disorder mainly caused by mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 gene ( NTRK1) and characterized by insensitivity to noxious stimuli, anhidrosis, and intellectual disability. We herein report the first north Han Chinese patient with CIPA who exhibited classic phenotypic features and severe intellectual disability caused by a homozygous c.851-33T>A mutation of NTRK1, resulting in aberrant splicing and an open reading frame shift. We reviewed the literature and performed in silico analysis to determine the association between mutations and intellectual disability in patients with CIPA. We found that intellectual disability was correlated with the specific Ntrk1 protein domain that a mutation jeopardized. Mutations located peripheral to the Ntrk1 protein do not influence important functional domains and tend to cause milder symptoms without intellectual disability. Mutations that involve critical amino acids in the protein are prone to cause severe symptoms, including intellectual disability.

  13. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  14. Factors Affecting Placement of a Child with Intellectual Disability

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    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  15. The plasticity of intellectual development: insights from preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J

    1984-10-01

    Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.

  16. Modifying the 'Positive Parenting Program' for parents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D

    2013-07-01

    Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  17. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  18. Asian and western Intellectual Capital in encounter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien van den Boom; Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept

  19. Intellectual property disclosure in standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Catalini, C.; Martinelli, A.; Simcoe, T.

    2012-01-01

    Firms often collaborate to produce inter-operability standards so that independently designed products can work together. When this process takes place in a Standard Setting Organization (SSO), participants are typically required to disclose any intellectual property rights (IP) that would be

  20. Best Practices in Intellectual Disability Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Catherine A.; Jenkins, Tiffany K.

    2018-01-01

    This article is an overview of identification of intellectual disabilities (ID), with a focus on meeting legal and ethical requirements when assessing children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and those living in poverty. Specific procedures and recommended instruments will be reviewed.

  1. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  2. New Trends on Intellectual Assessment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2016-01-01

    The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…

  3. Perceptions of the Judiciary and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockram, Judith; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen Supreme Court Judges, District Court Judges, and Magistrates in Western Australia were surveyed to examine perceptions concerning overrepresentation of individuals with intellectual disability in the criminal justice system. The judiciary felt these individuals had several characteristics that would disadvantage them in contacts with the…

  4. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the

  5. Legal Rights & Intellectual Disability: A Short Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia, Ed.; And Others

    The book examines actions that may be taken to redress wrongs illegally perpetrated against people with intellectual disabilities in New South Wales, Australia. Ten topic areas are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): protecting rights (complaints to government departments, use of the ombudsman); discrimination (legal aid); personal…

  6. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  7. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the

  8. Intellectual Capital Performance Sektor Perbankan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihyaul Ulum MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to estimate and analyze the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM for measuring the value-based performance of the Indonesian banking sector for three years, 2004 to 2006. Annual reports, especially the profit/loss account and balance-sheet of the banks concerned for the relevant years, were used to obtain the data. A review is conducted of the international literature on intellectual capital with specific reference to literature that reviews measurement techniques and tools, and the VAICTM method is applied in order to analyze the data of Indonesian banks for the three years period. The study confirms the improvement in the overall performance over three years. In 2004 and 2006, the overall performance of Indonesian banking sector is “good performers” (the VAICTM score is 2.07. While in 2005, the performance is “common performers” (the VAICTM score is 1.95. Abstract in Bahasa Indoensia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengestimasi dan menganalisis Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC dalam pengukuran kinerja yang berbasis pada nilai atas perusahaan perbankan di Indonesia selama tiga tahun, 2004-2006. Data yang digunakan adalah laporan tahunan, khususnya laporan laba/rugi dan neraca, diperoleh baik melalui website resmi masing-masing bank maupun dari website BEI. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun 2004 dan 2006, secara umum kinerja perusahaan perbankan di Indonesia masuk dalam kategori good performers dengan skor VAIC 2.07. Sedangkan pada tahun 2005, kinerjanya turun menjadi common performers (dengan skor VAIC 1.95. Keterbatasan penelitian ini adalah data yang digunakan hanyalah perusahaan perbankan yang terdaftar di BEI (24 bank, sementara jumlah keseluruhan bank per Desember 2006 adalah 130. Dengan demikian hasil penelitian ini tidak dapat digunakan untuk mengeneralisir populasi. Kata kunci: intellectual capital, sektor perbankan, aset tidak berwujud, Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM

  9. Intellectual disability and the prison setting

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    V. Tort

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  10. Knowledge strategies aiming to improve the intellectual capital of universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejinaru Ruxandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new construct of the intellectual capital structure, based on the multifield theory of knowledge and the concept of nonlinear integrators and to identify the knowledge strategies to enhance the intellectual capital of universities. The paper presents a new approach, based on metaphorical thinking and thermodynamics logic in structuring the intellectual capital, based on the multifield theory of knowledge into its basic building blocks. Considering the two levels of intellectual capital, the paper presents the main knowledge strategies to enhance the university intellectual capital. The basic building blocks of the intellectual capital are: rational, emotional, and spiritual intellectual capital. Each building block is based on the corresponding field of knowledge. There are two significant levels of intellectual capital: potential and operational. Analyzing the university intellectual capital by using this new approach is much more realistic than in the previous approaches. The new approach is based on a thermodynamics paradigm, which means we need to develop new ways of thinking, evaluating, and enhancing the intellectual capital. The paper presents an original approach, based on metaphorical thinking, by considering basic ideas from the energy realm and thermodynamics theory. Also, the paper presents a matrix of possible knowledge strategies to increase the intellectual capital of universities.

  11. Intellectual poverty of high aspirations

    OpenAIRE

    Isak Froumin

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzes problems and prospects of moral and civic education in Russian schools and considers two different approaches with regard to "value-unfree" or moral education: propaganda, on the one hand, and "open" education - on the other. The first approach involves a simple solution: mass education, integration of verbalized values in school curricula, imposition of unified standards, "spiritual" patterns and imperatives. This paradigm reduces the cultural diversity of society and the...

  12. Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital: Establishing a Field of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and techniques involving many different management areas have been introduced. Taking a variety of angles and perspectives this book shows how knowledge management is actually practised in many different European firms. By focusing on knowledge, new dimensions of well-known management principles and concepts......Evidence in recent years of increasing interest in knowledge and how to manage it can be observed not only in the management literature but also in companies. The introduction of new views has taken place under headings such as "knowledge management" and intellectual capital. Several new methods...... emerge. Leading researchers and experts from European business schools offer new insight into the range of practical problems that can be addressed and methods that can be applied when knowledge is put on the management agenda....

  13. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques

  14. Autosomal recessive mutations in THOC6 cause intellectual disability: syndrome delineation requiring forward and reverse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, J S; Huang, L; Thevenon, J; Kariminedjad, A; Beaulieu, C L; Masurel-Paulet, A; Najmabadi, H; Fattahi, Z; Beheshtian, M; Tonekaboni, S H; Tang, S; Helbig, K L; Alcaraz, W; Rivière, J-B; Faivre, L; Innes, A M; Lebel, R R; Boycott, K M

    2017-01-01

    THOC6 is a part of the THO complex, which is involved in coordinating mRNA processing with export. The THO complex interacts with additional components to form the larger TREX complex (transcription export complex). Previously, a homozygous missense mutation in THOC6 in the Hutterite population was reported in association with syndromic intellectual disability. Using exome sequencing, we identified three unrelated patients with bi-allelic mutations in THOC6 associated with intellectual disability and additional clinical features. Two of the patients were compound heterozygous for a stop and a missense mutation, and the third was homozygous for a missense mutation; the missense mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by in silico analysis and modeling. Clinical features of the three newly identified patients and those previously reported are reviewed; intellectual disability is moderate to severe, and malformations are variable including renal and heart defects, cleft palate, microcephaly, and corpus callosum dysgenesis. Facial features are variable and include tall forehead, short upslanting palpebral fissures +/- deep set eyes, and a long nose with overhanging columella. These subtle facial features render the diagnosis difficult to make in isolation with certainty. Our results expand the mutational and clinical spectrum of this rare disease, confirm that THOC6 is an intellectual disability causing gene, while providing insight into the importance of the THO complex in neurodevelopment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Systematic review of restraint interventions for challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities: focus on experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. Heyvaert et al. focused on the effectiveness of restraint interventions (RIs) for reducing challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities) in the first article. In this second article, Heyvaert et al. focus on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. A mixed methods research synthesis involving statistical meta-analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis techniques was applied to synthesize 76 retrieved articles. This second article reports on the qualitative meta-synthesis of 17 articles on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. The 17 included articles report on important variables relating to the persons receiving RIs, to the persons giving RIs and to their interactions and relationship, as well as variables situated at the meso- and macro-level. The developed model can assist in reflecting on and improving of current RI practices among people with intellectual disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Foster Care Involvement among Medicaid-Enrolled Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidav, Zuleyha; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence and risk of foster care involvement among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to children with intellectual disability (ID), children with ASD and ID, and typically developing children were examined using 2001-2007 Medicaid data. Children were followed up to the first foster care placement or until the end of 2007;…

  17. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance. © 2016 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  18. Intellectual Disabilities and Neglectful Parenting: Preliminary Findings on the Role of Cognition in Parenting Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Sandra T.; Stevenson, Michael T.; Johnson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Parents with intellectual disabilities (PID) are over-represented in the child protective services (CPS) system. This study examined a more nuanced view of the role of cognition in parenting risk. Its goal was to validate a social information processing (SIP) model of child neglect that draws on social cognition research and advances in neuroscience. Mothers who had CPS child neglect cases were compared with mothers with no CPS involvement on a set of SIP factors. Mothers with low IQs were ov...

  19. Writing to Learn Law and Writing in Law: An Intellectual Property Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This essay, prepared as part of a Symposium on teaching intellectual property law, describes a method of combining substantive law teaching with a species of what is commonly called "skills" training. The method involves assessing students not via traditional final exams but instead via research memos patterned after assignments that junior lawyers might encounter in actual legal practice. The essay grounds the method in the theoretical disposition known generally as "writing to learn." It ar...

  20. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  1. Personality Disorders in Offenders with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison of Clinical, Forensic and Outcome Variables and Implications for Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. T.; Green, F. N.; O'Mahony, B.; Gunaratna, I. J.; Gangadharan, S. K.; Hoare, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To establish any differences between patients with and without a diagnosis of personality disorders, being treated in a secure inpatient service for offenders with intellectual disability (ID) in the UK. Method: A cohort study involving a selected population of people with ID and offending behaviours. Results: The study included a total of…

  2. Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

  3. Impulse control and aggressive response generation as predictors of aggressive behaviour in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. Orobio; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However,

  4. The Use of WISC-R Subtest Scatter in the Identification of Intellectually Gifted Handicapped Children: An Inappropriate Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses issues involved in the identification of gifted handicapped children, reviewing several research studies that attempted to define a specific configuration of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised subtest scores indicative of handicapped children possessing intellectual gifts. The author concludes that profiles and…

  5. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  6. The traditional knowledge and the intellectual property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle Vasquez, Rosangela

    1999-01-01

    This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme

  7. Intellectual Capital: Perceptions of Productivity and Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Isidoro Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the influence intellectual capital has on employees’ perceptions as related to both company investments and productivity levels. The data was obtained from 440 employees at 13 Portuguese companies. Both ANOVA and Regression Analysis were conducted in order to understand the impact three Intellectual Capital Scale components have on perceptions of investment and organizational productivity. Results show that companies with higher scores of Structural Capital have a lower perception of investment in human resources and research, as well as a higher perception of investment in marketing and sales. Moreover, employees of companies with higher Structural Capital scores also have higher perceptions of productivity. On the other hand, organizations with higher investment in Customer Capital tend to be associated with a lower perception of organizational productivity.

  8. Assessing intellectual capital management by fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jannatifar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital is a type of asset measuring ability of economic agency in order tomake wealth. These assets do not have physical and objective nature and are intangible assets being achieved through utilization of relative assets with human resources, organizational operation and foreign relations from economic agency. Measuring this issue is important from intra-organizational and extra-organizational views. In this paper, we present survey based on Fuzzy TOPSIS to find important factors influencing intellectual capital management. The proposed model of this paper considers different factors, which exist in the literature and prioritize them based on different criteria. The results of our survey identified seven items as the most influencing factors.

  9. Dynamic Intellectual Capital Model in a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shatrevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to indicate the relations between company’s value added (VA and intangible assets. Authors declare that Intellectual capital (IC is one of the most relevant intangibles for a company, and the concept with measurement, and the relation with value creation is necessary for modern markets. Since relationship between IC elements and VA are complicated, this paper is aimed to create a usable dynamic model for building company’s value added through intellectual capital. The model is incorporating that outputs from IC elements are not homogeneously received and made some contributions to dynamic nature of IC relation and VA. Variables that will help companies to evaluate contribution of each element of IC are added to the model. This paper emphasizes the importance of a company’s IC and the positive interaction between them in generating profits for company.

  10. Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Balakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111

  11. Intellectual Capital During the Worldwide Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Candidate Anca Domnica Lupu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reality revealed a very important resource that can act for or against a business, its administration having a crucial influence.It is the intellectual capital we are talking about, mainly based on knowledge. Under the current economic situation we have to find that ideal solution that is able to get the economy out of the crysis, to find the blue ocean. The main question here is that if a correct evaluation of intellectual capital will help economies get their goals. The main idea we can withdraw out of these theories is that values have changed the ierarchy, that is the psyhical resources ceased their place to intangible assets that tend to become more and more important for the companies.

  12. International Geneva: intellectual property under the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 17 July, the Director-General of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Francis Gurry, will present his organisation to CERN people. You are invited to take part and discover the UN’s specialised agency for services, policy, information and cooperation relating to intellectual property.   This is the third in the “International Geneva comes to CERN” series of seminars, which presents other Geneva-based international organisations to CERN’s internal audience. In his seminar, Gurry will discuss how WIPO finds the right balance between the interests of innovators and the wider public and how the IP system aims to foster an environment in which creativity and innovation can flourish. In 2010, CERN and WIPO signed a collaboration agreement designed to strengthen the partnership between the two organisations. The agreement focused on four main areas for cooperation, namely: capacity building, awareness raising and knowledge sharing; tra...

  13. FINANCING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ASSESTS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    USHA SWAMINATHAN

    2016-01-01

    Amplifying any property needs assessment to be marketable. This paper reads on the prospects of intangible property especially the Intellectual Property (IP) being evaluated in terms of financing by institutions to progressively grow more by widening their business and to make available advances based on IP. Arrangements engaging in the safety measures of intangible property encompassed and facilitated title-holders of IP privileges to comprise a loan of money as more undemanding and protecte...

  14. FINANCIAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL REPORTING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELENESI (BUMBA MARIOARA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive economy, driven by globalization, the abundance of digital information and communication facilities, the investor directs its capital to those companies that promise added value of the invested capital. Even so, companies seek to obtain favorable terms of financing by rendering sensitive the investors. To achieve their goal, they must provide information about their financial and non financial performance with sufficient regularity to meet the information needs of actual or potential capital bidders in decision making. Financial communication through standardized annual statements of financial reporting in the context of corporate governance is no longer sufficient. The organization has more resources than those included in its balance sheet, capable of attracting huge benefits, but which do not meet the criteria for recognition in the financial statements. It requires, therefore, a voluntary disclosure of information on intangible resources, which are key factors in creating future value for both the organization itself and the industry it is part of. The reports of intellectual capital can effectively complement the shortcomings of the traditional model of accounting and financial reporting. In our paper we wanted to analyze financial communication in the context of corporate governance, presented through financial statements, reaching the intellectual capital reporting practices, as a means to improve communication of the organization with the outside. In this sense we presented two examples of good practice of two service companies (consultancy and design that publish annually intellectual capital reports. To alleviate the negative consequences of non-recognition of intangible assets in the financial statements, we are for the voluntary disclosure of information on intangible assets in the intellectual capital reports, annual reports, those regarding corporate responsibility, or at least in the explanatory notes of

  15. Intellectual Property on Advertising Works (1)

    OpenAIRE

    梁瀬, 和男; Kazuo, YANASE

    1999-01-01

    In the deep depression of Japanese Economy, "advertising directly effective for selling" is now desired eagerly in many companies. Moreover, the drastic retrenchment in advertising budget strictly asks its efficiency and effective advertisng. As a result, the efficient accomplishment of advertising purpose may force intellectual property which comes into advertising works belong to advertisers. It is ideal for advertisers, ad agencies and prouction companies to make an agreement in document w...

  16. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    OpenAIRE

    Anna van Dijk; Klára Daďová; Irena Martínková

    2017-01-01

    Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID). However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athl...

  17. Asset evaluation methods for intellectual property

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. With the introduction of "International Financial Reporting Standards" (IFRS) through out Europe in April 2001, there is a requirement to accurately report the value of all company assets. This will include by implication all intangible assets and Intellectual Property, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and know-how. Items that have not been recorded before are much more visible under IFRS and will need to be carefully interpreted by investors and analysts. In order to meet t...

  18. Asian and western Intellectual Capital in encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Boom, van den, Marien; Andriessen, Daan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept of knowledge and IC is used to identify common Western conceptualizations of knowledge in IC literature. A review of philosophical and religious literature was done to identify knowledge conceptuali...

  19. Developing research priorities for palliative care of people with intellectual disabilities in Europe: a consultation process using nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, I; Wicki, M; Heslop, P; McCarron, M; Todd, S; Oliver, D; de Veer, A; Ahlström, G; Schäper, S; Hynes, G; O'Farrell, J; Adler, J; Riese, F; Curfs, L

    2016-03-24

    Empirical knowledge around palliative care provision and needs of people with intellectual disabilities is extremely limited, as is the availability of research resources, including expertise and funding. This paper describes a consultation process that sought to develop an agenda for research priorities for palliative care of people with intellectual disabilities in Europe. A two-day workshop was convened, attended by 16 academics and clinicians in the field of palliative care and intellectual disability from six European countries. The first day consisted of round-table presentations and discussions about the current state of the art, research challenges and knowledge gaps. The second day was focused on developing consensus research priorities with 12 of the workshop participants using nominal group technique, a structured method which involved generating a list of research priorities and ranking them in order of importance. A total of 40 research priorities were proposed and collapsed into eleven research themes. The four most important research themes were: investigating issues around end of life decision making; mapping the scale and scope of the issue; investigating the quality of palliative care for people with intellectual disabilities, including the challenges in achieving best practice; and developing outcome measures and instruments for palliative care of people with intellectual disabilities. The proposal of four major priority areas and a range of minor themes for future research in intellectual disability, death, dying and palliative care will help researchers to focus limited resources and research expertise on areas where it is most needed and support the building of collaborations. The next steps are to cross-validate these research priorities with people with intellectual disabilities, carers, clinicians, researchers and other stakeholders across Europe; to validate them with local and national policy makers to determine how they could best be

  20. Nature of intellectual property insurance and its role in modern economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bazylevych, V.; Virchenko, V.

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to theoretical analysis of nature and mechanism of intellectual property insurance. Types of intellectual property relations and its role in public reproduction are investigated. Peculiarities of intellectual property relations are considered. Classification of intellectual property objects depending on their most essential features is analyzed. Different approaches to classification of intellectual property subjects are considered. Nature and preconditions of origin of int...

  1. Bereavement process of people with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MUÑIZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is focused on detecting the support needs of people with intellectual disabilities during the bereavement process in order to guide about professional interventions and practices aimed to provide more adequate individualized support to their real needs. The sample consists of 93 adults with ID, with ages ranging from 21 to 72 years old (M = 49.9; SD = 11.79, who have suffered the loss of a significant person. The professionals who worked with them and knew them well completed two questionnaires: Staff Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ and Bereavement Needs Assessment (BNAT. Beside descriptive analyses, results were analyzed according to several variables (i.e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, and level of dependency. Level of intellectual disability and level of dependency were the ones that resulted significant. In order to provide the best answer to their needs, good practices are suggested such as facilitating the understanding of loss, helping them express feelings and emotions, dealing with each case individually, and encouraging to continue education about death.

  2. Attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities among nursing, social work and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, George; Galanis, Petros; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Meidani, Flora; Philalithis, Anastas E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Sourtzi, Panayota

    2017-12-01

    To examine and compare undergraduate healthcare students' attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities in Greece. The experience that people with disabilities have with health care is a complex interaction between their medical condition and the social and physical environment. Attitudes of the nursing and healthcare staff affect the quality of care and people's adaptation to their disability, self-image and rehabilitation outcomes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Nursing, Social Work and Medicine students (N = 1007, 79.4% female) attending three universities (Athens, Crete) completed during 2014-2016 two standardised scales regarding physical (ATDP-B) and intellectual disability (CLAS-ID). Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in Greece (ATDP-B scores) were poor with scores just above the mid-point. Medical studies and higher knowledge and work with individuals with physical disabilities signified marginally more positive attitudes. Gender and age displayed no associations with attitudes. Regarding intellectual disability (CLAS-ID scores), nursing students had slightly less positive attitudes in "Similarity" but more positive attitudes in "Sheltering" subscales. Previous work and contact was related to more favourable and higher age to less favourable "Similarity" and "Sheltering" attitudes. Males had higher "Exclusion" scores. Those who knew people with intellectual disabilities had less favourable "Empowerment" attitudes. Knowledge was related to more positive attitudes in all four CLAS-ID subscales. Greek health and social care students showed poor attitudes towards people with physical and intellectual disability. When holding unfavourable attitudes, healthcare professionals become less involved with the people they care for and they do not provide nursing care to the best of their abilities. Undergraduate and continuing education, along with

  3. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: A CRITICAL APPROACH ON DEFINITIONS AND CATEGORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GIOACASI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has become the leading resource for creating economic value and there are an important number of publications focused on this area of research. In spite of the interest for this area of research, the existence of different terms regarding intellectual capital makes the process of definition and classification difficult. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concepts related to intellectual capital by establishing the connections and correlations between the terms in order to make the term of intellectual capital fully understandable and also to explain how the components of intellectual capital can be structured. The analysis of intellectual capital definitions is significant because it is a first step in intangible factors understanding, having implications on the company pattern of knowledge evaluation. Of all the terms analyzed, intangible assets allows a clear definition of its meaning, its components and thus provides insight into ways of assessing the knowledge of an entity.

  4. INDICATORS SYSTEM FOR MONITORING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STRATAN,

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations and companies with a high level of competitiveness had developed intellectualproperty management systems that aim at assuring information and indicators for decision-making.Furthermore, the systematization and monitoring of information on intellectual property managementcontributes to the improvement, reliability, quality and efficiency of managerial efficiency, offering, in theend, to the company an image of its competitive advantages, generated by the intellectual property. The purpose of this work is to identify a system of indicators (benchmarks that can be used formonitoring through self-evaluation of the intellectual property management as part of a methodic approachon researching the intellectual property management system in companies. The main results achieved following the investigations were the development of a set of indicators(benchmarks for monitoring the management of intellectual property in companies. Also, being based onthis group of indicators, an integrated indicator for assessing the effectiveness of the management systemof intellectual property in companies had been developed.

  5. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44 children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7% of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63. Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate

  6. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44) children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7%) of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63). Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate screening measure in this

  7. KEMANDIRIAN ANAK INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY TERKAIT DENGAN TINGKAT KEMATANGAN SOSIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Muh Khoironi Fadli; Dewi Retno Pamungkas; Retno Sumiyarini

    2014-01-01

    Background:Intellectual disability is disorder of intellectual function that is significantly below averagewith various deficits in adaptive function, such as taking care of oneself or occupational activities thatemerge before the age of 18 years old. One characteristic of intellectuallydisabled children in adaptivefunction is social maturity disorder. Children with intellectual disability haveproblem in social maturityandlimitation in fulfilling needs in daily activities.Objective:To identif...

  8. The Impact of Intellectual Capital on the Performance of Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Umer Shehzad; Zeeshan Fareed; Bushra Zulfiqar; Farrukh Shahzad; Hafiz Shahid Latif

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual capital is a concept that is achieving researcher’s attention day by day. The main purpose of this research study is to explore the role and relationship of intellectual capital and its three components on the performance and efficient working of universities in Pakistan. Education sector especially universities were selected because it plays a critical role for the development and growth of knowledge intensive sector. So in this research study 3 components of intellectual capita...

  9. Customer relationship management captures intellectual capital for increased competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, with regards to tangible assets, the corporate playing field has become more or less level with competing organisations producing very similar products and services. The key differentiator for an organisation's offerings now depends upon an organisation's ability to capture and leverage intellectual capital (IC, and especially customer IC. Customers are an invaluable source of two kinds of IC: transactional and innovative. An organisation must implement customer relationship management (CRM initiatives in order to develop and maintain good relationships with customers and in so doing, be able to capture IC. This IC will enable an organisation to be more responsive to new and changing customer needs and preferences and to be better able to customize products and services according to more specific customer profiles: ultimately leading to increased market share, profitability and overall strategic competitiveness. The purpose of this article is to determine how good customer relationships allow for the capture and subsequent leveraging of customer IC for increased competitiveness. In order to fulfill this purpose, the concept of CRM is explored as well as how CRM allows for the capture of both transactional and innovative capital. The strategic benefits of the application of customer IC are then explored, together with an exposition of the CRM implementation challenges facing those organisations that wish to implement a CRM program to capture and leverage customer IC for increased competitiveness. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that CRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater market efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the carefully managed unlocking, sharing and leveraging of both transactional and innovative customer intellectual capital.

  10. Intellectual Capital dan Ukuran Fundamental Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josepha C. Shanti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of intellectual capital and the fundamental measurements of company financial performance. This study also used several control variables, namely size and type of industry. Samples used in this study is the type of company that intensively used the intellectual capital, that is the service industry. The hypothesis are tested using multiple regression. Intellectual capital in the service industry showed the influence to the company's financial performance. External size of the companies used to measure the intellectual capital is market-to-book value. Market responds to the company's profitability and company’s productivity.

  11. FEATURES THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES EFFECT ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Vasylyshyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The whole history of humanity is evidence that it sought and continues to seek to optimize the efficiency of the phenomenon of business through rationalization of engagement and use of intellectual, psychological and physical potential of each individual or group of individuals to work to achieve the goals set by the determined community of people depending on prevailing in this community needs and motives, which are the driving force behind its development. The development of effective, adapted to modern conditions of management mechanisms of power companies by using an integrated and systematic management of intellectual resources. Key words: intellectual capital, power company, intellectual product, knowledge, business. JEL: M 20

  12. Theoretical backgrounds of investigating of intellectual and human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the theoretical aspects of a company's intellectual capital. This capital consists of stock and movement of knowledge which is useful for organizing. There are three components of intellectual capital - human, social and organizational capital. The differences of intellectual and human capital are established. In particular, if human capital is characterized by mundane knowledge, the intellectual one - by the new, and if the products of human capital are the usual goods and services, the products of intellectual capital are the result of translating and implementing new knowledge. The coincidence of research subjects of the theory of intellectual capital and the theory of innovative enterprise development is shown. The concept of "intellectual potential of the enterprise" is introduced and the building structure is discussed. This potential consists of intellectual capital, patents and licenses unrealized by the enterprises, formalized ideas and hypotheses and undiscovered creative potential of the staff. Finally, a realization model of the intellectual potential of the company is proposed.

  13. 75 FR 17412 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator AGENCY: National Cancer Institute (NCI), National... Evaluation Program (CTEP) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OPTION. The proposed policy, if finalized, would establish... recommended Intellectual Property Option and Institution Notification if they wish to be considered for...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Printable PDF Open ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited ...

  15. People with Intellectual Disabilities Talk About Sexuality: Implications for the Development of Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, D; Kok, G; Stoffelen, J M T; Curfs, L M G

    2017-01-01

    Existing sex education programmes have failed in involving people with intellectual disabilities in the development of these programmes. Not involving the target population decreases the likelihood that the sex education programme will be effective. This study was conducted to assess the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on several sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 people with intellectual disabilities covering topics such as: sex education, relationships, sex, social media, parenthood and support. The reported frequency of sex education the participants receive is low. Their knowledge regarding sex education is mainly limited to topics such as safe sex, contraception and STI's and tends to be superficial. Additionally, knowledge on safe sex does not always translate to safe sex behaviour. Finally, relationships are important for most participants; mainly because they don't want to be alone. Findings from both this study and literature shows that there seems to be a need for high quality sex education. Topics to consider to include are: online relationships, social media and parenthood. It would also be beneficial to focus on sexuality-related skills. Finally, to increase the effectiveness of a sex education programme, it is advisable that a theory-and evidence-based framework, such as Intervention Mapping, is used for its development.

  16. Family-Peer Linkages for Children with Intellectual Disability and Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L

    2017-09-01

    Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.

  17. Patient satisfaction with a hepatitis B vaccination programme among persons with an intellectual disability.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Fionnuala

    2009-09-01

    This article demonstrates that a patient satisfaction survey can be carried out to evaluate the acceptability of a hepatitis B vaccination programme among persons with an intellectual disability. In this exploratory study, involving six clients, 41 care staff and three managers of intellectual disability services, core themes were identified on the acceptability of the programme. The following recommendations are made: a respectful attitude should be shown to all clients by the healthcare providers; appropriate information about the programme should be provided that is tailored to the needs and receptive capability of all recipients and their carers; the intervention should be delivered in an environment, and by healthcare personnel, familiar to clients; carers should be attentive to the possibility of adverse effects; and explicit, ethically stringent policies should be in place on the use of physical restraint. The article makes suggestions regarding future work in assessing patient satisfaction among this client group.

  18. In the public interest: intellectual disability, the Supreme Court, and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Norman

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with a case that recently came before the U.S. Supreme Court. The issues involved whether attorneys provided effective assistance to a person convicted of murder when no mitigating evidence was presented (either strategically or by neglect) to the jury concerning the intellectual disabilities of their client during the death penalty phase of the trial. The Supreme Court had previously ruled that the death penalty for intellectually disabled individuals (mentally retarded) constituted cruel and unusual punishment. In this case the attorneys made a strategic decision not to present possibly mitigating evidence for the death penalty phase. The Supreme Court considered whether the appeals court abdicated its judicial review responsibilities. The results of psychological evaluations are presented, and the decisions of the Supreme Court are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. A Closer Look: Examining Teachers' Language Around UDL, Inclusive Classrooms, and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, K Alisa; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Howery, Kathy

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the language teachers used to discuss inclusion, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and learners with intellectual disability (ID) in an effort to better understand how teachers describe the relationship between those three. Utilizing a secondary analysis procedure, interview transcripts from seven general education teachers were reanalyzed to identify language used by teachers to refer to inclusive educational settings, the implementation of UDL, and learners with intellectual disability. The identified themes were then juxtaposed against the UDL framework (principles, guidelines, and checkpoints) and the current literature related to UDL and inclusive education. We end with recommendations for future practice and research involving inclusive classrooms, UDL, and learners with ID.

  20. Who’s who in Business Portfolio Restructuring Research: The intellectual structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Sánchez-Riofrío

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies applying extensive qualitative and quantitative methods for addressing the research into Business Portfolio Restructuring (BPR. The aim of this paper is to identify the main authors, journals and studies that have informed the intellectual platform underpinning BPR as well as identifying the topics that have had the greatest impact. In this study, bibliographic references cited between 1959 and 2012, are analyzed using different bibliometric techniques. Three main results are found: first, the intellectual basis for this field involves a multidisciplinary and multifaceted literature, although the disciplines of finance and management are the principal contributors to research into BPR. Second, authors, journals and papers are identified to track the main framework of portfolio restructuring. Finally, the main forerunners of this study area are corporate strategy, divestitures, diversification and corporate governance. This is a study that contributes not only to the field of strategic management but also to information management.

  1. Making work fit care: reconciliation strategies used by working mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2013-03-01

    This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. All included mothers prioritized their caregiving role over paid work. The strategies used by these mothers to make paid work fit with caregiving included having strong social networks and informal support for their care work, use of formal services, personal religious beliefs and positive attitudes towards care, as well as having flexible working hours due to self-employment, good relations with employers, working positions and work locations. Formal systems, which include both welfare and labour policies, need to be responsive to and involved in supporting these working mothers, especially those who lack good personal networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. TOOLS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT OF A HOLDING COMPANY AND ITS SUB-SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai N. Samoilenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and essence of intellectual property management are considered in the article, as well as the models, the methods and the tools of intellectual property management of holding structures. In particular, the life cycle of object of intellectual property is described, the concept "intellectual property management" is created, the most effective models of intellectual property management are revealed, and also the instruments of intellectual property management of a holding company and its sub-systems are defined.

  3. Collaborative Infrastructures for Mobilizing Intellectual Resources: assessing intellectual bandwidth in a knowledge intensive organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Verhoef; S. Qureshi (Sadja)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe use of intellectual assets of key professionals to provide customized goods and services is seen to be a key characteristic of knowledge intensive organizations. While knowledge management efforts have become popular in organizations that depend on the knowledge and skills of their

  4. Genetic Testing in Intellectual Disability Psychiatry: Opinions and Practices of UK Child and Intellectual Disability Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kate; Stueber, Kerstin; McQuillin, Andrew; Jichi, Fatima; Patch, Christine; Flinter, Frances; Strydom, André; Bass, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of genetic causes of intellectual disabilities (ID) are identifiable by clinical genetic testing, offering the prospect of bespoke patient management. However, little is known about the practices of psychiatrists and their views on genetic testing. Method: We undertook an online survey of 215 psychiatrists, who…

  5. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Annemieke M A; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Proot, Ireen M; Metsemakers, Job; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2013-09-01

    Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory procedures. We interviewed 16 patient representatives after the deaths of 10 people with intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands. The core category 'Deciding for someone else' describes the context in which patient representatives took end-of-life decisions. The patient representatives felt highly responsible for the outcomes. They had not involved the patients in the end-of-life decision-making process, nor any professionals other than the doctor. The categories of 'Motives' and 'Support' were connected to the core category of 'Deciding for someone else'. 'Motives' refers to the patient representatives' ideas about quality of life, prevention from suffering, patients who cannot understand the burden of interventions and emotional reasons reported by patient representatives. 'Support' refers to the support that patient representatives wanted the doctors to give to them in the decision-making process. From the perspective of the patient representatives, the process of end-of-life decision-making can be improved by ensuring clear roles and an explicit description of the tasks and responsibilities of all participants. Regular discussion between everyone involved including people with intellectual disabilities themselves can improve knowledge about each other's motives for end-of-decisions and can clarify expectations towards each other.

  6. National Disability Insurance Scheme, health, hospitals and adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A

    2018-03-01

    Preventable poor health outcomes for adults with intellectual disability in health settings have been known about for years. Subsequent analysis and the sorts of reasonable adjustments required in health and disability support settings to address these health gaps are well described, but have not really been embedded in practice in any significant way in either setting. As far as health is concerned, implementation of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS, the Scheme) affords an opportunity to recognise individual needs of people with intellectual disability to provide reasonable and necessary functional support for access to mainstream health services, to build capacity of mainstream health providers to supply services and to increase individual capacity to access services. Together these strands have potential to transform health outcomes. Success of the Scheme, however, rests on as yet incompletely defined operational interaction between NDIS and mainstream health services and inherently involves the disability sector. This interaction is especially relevant for adults with intellectual disability, known high users of hospitals and for whom hospital outcomes are particularly poor and preventable. Keys to better hospital outcomes are first, the receiving of quality person-centred healthcare from physicians and hospitals taking into account significance of intellectual disability and second, formulation of organised quality functional supports during hospitalisation. Achieving these require sophisticated engagement between consumers, the National Disability Insurance Agency, Commonwealth, State and Territory government leaders, senior hospital and disability administrators, NDIS service providers and clinicians and involves cross fertilisation of values, sharing of operational policies and procedures, determination of boundaries of fiscal responsibility for functional supports in hospital. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. "Knowledge Must Become Capability": Institutional Intellectualism as an Agent for Military Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knott, Steven

    2004-01-01

    .... Institutional intellectualism is system-sponsored critical thinking that focuses synergistic intellectual capital to effect transformational change and continual renewal within an organization...

  8. David Galula: His Life and Intellectual Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    publication of a novel, and his untimely death . 1 DAVID GALULA: HIS LIFE AND INTELLECTUAL CONTEXT INTRODUCTION It is a safe bet that if the United States had...and translated for the first time into French, nearly 40 years after his death —he remains almost unknown to the nation whose uniform he wore for most...lycées. 23 Galula was a bad student who preferred to play hooky, going horseback riding or swimming. (Galula would be a passionate horseman

  9. Vision, spatial cognition and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Fabienne; Schenk, Françoise

    2015-02-01

    Vision is the most synthetic sensory channel and it provides specific information about the relative position of distant landmarks during visual exploration. In this paper we propose that visual exploration, as assessed by the recording of eye movements, offers an original method to analyze spatial cognition and to reveal alternative adaptation strategies in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Our general assumption is that eye movement exploration may simultaneously reveal whether, why, and how, compensatory strategies point to specific difficulties related to neurological symptoms. An understanding of these strategies will also help in the development of optimal rehabilitation procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aerobic capacity of adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    1. A large sample of the study population (30% female, 46,3% male showed very low levels of aerobic capacity. 2. Our investigations did not demonstrate a relationship between physical fitness and age or the degree of intellectual disability. Gender turned out to be a differentiating factor but only for the absolute PWC170 and VO2max. 3. The level of physical fitness was significantly related to somatic parameters including body mass, waist and hips circumference, percentage of body fat, BMI and WHR.

  11. Insafing: New Promising Form of Intellectual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury P. Dus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores a new form of intellectual communication built in accordance with an in-advance-prepared sense scheme. This type of communication utilizes the elements of Activity Organizing Games called Insafing. The article suggests a retrospective review of the scientific researches, particularly, the researches of the Russian scientific schools that served as the basis for Insafing technology development. Furthermore, the scientific and methodological fundamentals of Insafing based on the Theory of Dynamic Information Systems (TDIS and the methods of cognitive engineering are discussed. The article also provides an example of Insafing application to tourism industry development in an urban area.

  12. Social Empowerment of Intellectually Impaired through a Cloud Mobile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Freina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is not a unique definition of “empowerment”, nevertheless the idea that it involves, on the one hand, people having control over their own lives and, on the other, some social aspects seems to be a common characteristic. Most authors recognize three levels of empowerment: individual, group, and community level, which are interconnected and changes at one level influence the others. Enhancing individual competence and self-esteem has a direct effect on the control of one’s own life and, in turn, on the social components of empowerment. In this paper we present Smart Angel, a project that aims at creating a network involving families, caregivers, experts, and tutors, as well as the final users and their friends, based on a mobile cloud system in support of both everyday living and urban mobility for people with medium-mild intellectual disabilities, with particular attention to the Down syndrome. The system can be seen as a tool to empower its users to be more independent and therefore increasing their possibility to have an active role in their life and an active participation to the community.

  13. Teaching Reading for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature related to instructional strategies to improve reading skills for students with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Studies reviewed were within three categories; early reading approaches, comprehensive approaches, and one method approach. It was concluded that students with intellectual disabilities are…

  14. Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meera; Rose, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes held by a British student population towards individuals with an intellectual disability. Students participated in focus groups addressing their attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability. Thematic analysis was the method used to identify emergent themes.…

  15. Intellectual Capital and New Public Management: Reintroducing Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Jan; Thorbjornsen, Stefan; Bukh, Per N.; Johansen, Mette R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on public sector organisations'/institutions' work to develop knowledge management and intellectual capital statements. Building on experiences collected during 2001-2002 where 26 public sector institutions in Denmark sought to develop intellectual capital statements, this paper discusses their experiences and in particular, it…

  16. Business modelling of strategic management by the enterprise intellectual capital

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuravleva, I.

    2009-01-01

    The article is devoted to the resource and process approach to formation of the strategic management concept by the enterprise intellectual capital. The business model of strategic management by the intellectual capital in the environment of system business-modelling Business Studio 3 is developed.

  17. Intellectual Disability and Space: Critical Narratives of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Susan L.; Cohen, Carie J.; Kotel, Kathleen; Pearson, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The language of intellectual disability is rife with spatial terms. Students labeled with intellectual disability are "placed in" special education where they may be "self-contained," "segregated," "excluded," or "included." Conversations ensue about where to seat them, "next" to whom, and at what distance "from" the teacher and other students. In…

  18. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  19. Maori intellectual property rights and the formation of ethnic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This article questions and contextualizes the emergence of a discourse of intellectual property rights in Māori society. It is argued that Māori claims regarding intellectual property function primarily to demarcate ethnic boundaries between Māori and non-Māori. Māori consider the reinforcement of

  20. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  1. Physical Fitness and Fatness in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated health-related fitness in adolescents with intellectual disabilities and analysed the various performances in physical fitness tests according to degrees of obesity. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven French intellectual disabilities adolescents (14.24 [plus or minus] 1.48 years) performed the EUROFIT physical…

  2. Measurement of Mood in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Geoffrey R.; Terry, Peter C.; Bramston, Paul; Dinsdale, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    To date, there has been limited research into mood responses among adolescents with intellectual disability. One reason for this is the absence of a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of mood among this population. The present study evaluated such a measure among a sample of 135 adolescents with mild intellectual disability. Results…

  3. Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

  4. 10 CFR 603.550 - Acceptability of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contributions of cash or tangible assets. The purpose of cost share is to ensure that the recipient incurs real... AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 603.550 Acceptability of intellectual property. (a) In most instances, the contracting officer should not count costs of patents and other intellectual...

  5. Text Recall in Adulthood: The Role of Intellectual Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines age-related predictive relationships among an array of psychometric intellectual ability markers and text recall performance. Women from three age groups (ranging from 21 to 78 years) read and recalled four narratives at three delay intervals and completed a battery of intellectual ability tests. (Author/CB)

  6. Model Pencatatan Intellectual Capital dalam Menghadapi Perubahan Paradigma Akuntansi Baru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Hendarti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The more competitive of competition in business world has made the company having competitive advantage continuously through the management of human resource. Competitive advantage can be created with intellectual capital, by human capital, structural capital, customer capital, commitment, and competence. The article discuss intellectual capital record model in facing the changes of new accounting paradigm.

  7. Qualitative Study of Malnutrition in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Janine J. L.; Maaskant, Marian A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of underweight status is relatively high in persons with intellectual disabilities. However, it is not clear whether this is due to malnourishment. The authors sought to examine the awareness and knowledge of physicians, dieticians, and direct care staff regarding malnutrition in people with intellectual disabilities. They also…

  8. An Audit of the Irish National Intellectual Disability Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Philip; Craig, Sarah; Kelly, Fionnola; Guerin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a national data audit of the National Intellectual Disability Database (NIDD). The NIDD is a national information system for intellectual disability (ID) for Ireland. The purpose of this audit was to assess the overall accuracy of information contained on the NIDD, as well as collecting qualitative information to support the…

  9. Intellectual Skills and Competitive Strength: Is a Radical Change Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Data from a study of Toyota production workshops show the most important worker intellectual skills are problem-solving know-how and ability to handle change. Introduction of information technology elevates the need for intellectual skills because of uncertainty. Development of skills for dealing with uncertainty and change in both blue- and…

  10. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  11. Intellectual Assessment of Children from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    1992-01-01

    Examines assumptions and premises of standardized tests of mental ability and reviews extant theories and research on intellectual functioning of children from culturally different backgrounds. Discusses implications of these issues and perspectives for new directions for intellectual assessment for children from culturally different backgrounds.…

  12. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  13. People, Plants, and Patents: The Impact of Intellectual Property on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Decisions about intellectual property, particularly for plant life,have major implications for food security, agriculture, rural development,and the environment for every country in the South and the North. For the South, in particular, the impact of intellectual property on farmers, rural societies, and biological diversity will be ...

  14. Age at Death in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvio, Maria; Salokivi, Tommi; Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to ascertain the average age at death (AD) in the intellectual disability population for each gender and compare them to those of the general population during 1970-2012. By analysing medical records, we calculated the ADs of all deceased clients (N = 1236) of two district organizations responsible for intellectual disability services. Statistics Finland's database generated data regarding ADs of all inhabitants who had died after having resided in same district. During the follow-up, average ADs for the intellectual disability population and general population increased, and simultaneously the AD difference between these populations decreased. In the 2000s, the AD difference between the intellectual disability population and the whole population was 22 years for men (95% CI: -24 to -20) and 30 years for women (95% CI: -33 to -27). In 2000s, the mean AD of those with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) for women and men was 56 (SD17) and 54 (SD18), and those with severe to profound intellectual disability (IQ<50), 44 (SD23) and 43 (SD21). Intellectual disability is still a considerable risk factor for early death. Among the intellectual disability population, unlike in general population, the lifespans of women and men are equal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Constructivism or Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Faris

    2017-01-01

    Many teaching strategies have been postulated over the past years by various scholars in an effort to enhance the education system among students with intellectual disabilities. There is much debate on the application of constructivist and behaviorist perspectives for teaching students with intellectual disabilities as addressed in this paper.…

  16. Effectiveness of Speech Therapy in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, Hayo; Coppens-Hofman, Marjolein C.; Reffeltrath, Maaike; Maassen, Ben A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effect of speech therapy in a heterogeneous group of adults with intellectual disability. Method: Thirty-six adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (IQs 40-70; age 18-40 years) with reported poor speech intelligibility received tailored training in articulation and listening skills delivered…

  17. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  18. What Is Right? Ethics in Intellectual Disabilities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    There are important benefits to including adults with intellectual disabilities in research. Calls for their increased participation in research co-occur with notable discussion about how to conduct ethically strong research with adults with intellectual disabilities, a population widely considered vulnerable in the context of research. The…

  19. The Siblings Relationship of Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…

  20. 'Justice Be Our Shield and Defender': An Intellectual Property Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protecting intellectual property rights has become essential in encouraging cutting-edge scholarship that advances the frontiers of knowledge. For a long time, the majority of Africa's intelligentsia has worked in local and international environments that have exploited the continent's intellectual capital. Even in contexts where ...

  1. On the metaphorical nature of intellectual capital: a textual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To analyse common metaphors used in the intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge management literatures to conceptualise knowledge, in order to study the nature of the intellectual capital concept. Design/methodology/approach – A textual analysis methodology is used to analyse texts

  2. Assessment of Intellectual Capital in Joint-Stock Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Tamošiūnienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of intellectual capital factors is an essential part for the management of joint-stock companies. Many authors indicate that successful intellectual capital management increases value added in joint-stock companies. Nevertheless, intellectual capital is a complex and challenging concept as there is still no clear guidance, what the intellectual capital features and its structural parts are. Theoretical research revealed that scientists accentuate various intellectual capital parts depending basically on the type of their research, on the level of the research (micro, mezzo, macro, variables they selected to investigate and similar. This research paper gives an insight what drivers can be increasing value added in joint-stock companies.

  3. Knowledge Dynamics Impact on Intellectual Capital in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra BEJINARU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of knowledge dynamics processes upon the intellectual capital in organizations. In the literature, the authors focus on knowledge dynamics and knowledge management or intellectual capital but very few papers discuss the influence of knowledge dynamics upon the structure and functionality of intellectual capital in organizations. We use a conceptual approach based on the theory of multifield organizational knowledge and the theory of organizational integrators to demonstrate that intellectual capital structure results from the organizational knowledge dynamics. The well-known model of intellectual capital based on human capital, structural capital and relational capital appears as a meta-model that can be decomposed into rational capital, emotional capital and spiritual capital in organizations.

  4. Challenges for the University Intellectual Capital in the Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities have always been fundamental institutions in any society due to their enduring mission of creating new knowledge through research, of training generations of professionals, and providing service for community. They have a long life cycle and need to adapt continuously to their changing environments. In the last decades, the emergence and development of knowledge society put forward new challenges to universities and to managing their intellectual capital. The purpose of this paper is to present three main challenges for the university intellectual capital in the knowledge economy, and to discuss how these challenges can be achieved. These challenges are the following: 1 to unfold the Gordian knot of the canonical model of intellectual capital; 2 to go beyond the Newtonian logic in intellectual capital evaluation and reporting; and 3 to integrate intellectual capital in the strategic thinking of the university. All of these challenges are strongly related to the university performance.

  5. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  6. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliepaard, Marianne; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Okkerse, Jolanda M E

    2014-06-01

    To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional outcomes were assessed by using standardized measures: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/6-18, Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale (DBD), and the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. We included 82 children (39 boys) aged 6 to 13 years who have syndromic craniosynostosis. Mean Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) was in the normal range (M = 96.6; SD = 21.6). However, children who have syndromic craniosynostosis had a 1.9 times higher risk for developing intellectual disability (FSIQ intellectual disability, internalizing, social, and attention problems. Higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems were related to lower levels of intellectual functioning.

  7. 2001, the ATLAS Cryostat Odyssey

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    After a journey of several thousand kilometres, over sea and land, by canal and highway, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter finally arrived at CERN last week. Installed in Hall 180, the cryogenics barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter will be fitted out to take the central superconducting solenoid and the electromagnetic calorimeter. On Monday 2 July, different French police units and EDF officials were once again keeping careful watch around the hairpin bends of the road twisting down from the Col de la Faucille: a special load weighing 100 tonnes, 7 metres high, 5.8 metres wide and 7.2 metres long was being brought down into the Pays de Gex to the Meyrin site of CERN. This time the destination was the ATLAS experiment. A huge blue tarpaulin cover concealed the cryogenics barrel of the experiment's liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter. The cryostat consists of a vacuum chamber, a cylinder that is 5.5 metres in diameter, 7 metres long, and a concentric cold chamber ...

  8. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  9. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  10. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  11. Nursing intellectual capital theory: testing selected propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-11-01

    To test the selected propositions of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. The nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes nursing knowledge's influence on patient and organizational outcomes. The theory proposes nursing human capital, nurses' knowledge, skills and experience, is related to the quality of patient care and nurse recruitment and retention of an inpatient care unit. Two factors in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nurse continuing professional development, are proposed to influence nursing human capital's association with patient and organizational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design. The study took place in 2008 in six Canadian acute care hospitals. Financial, human resource and risk data were collected from hospital departments and unit managers. Clearly specified empirical indicators quantified the study variables. The propositions of the theory were tested with data from 91 inpatient care units using structural equation modelling. The propositions associated with the nursing human capital concept were supported. The propositions associated with the employer support for nurse continuing professional development concept were not. The proposition that nurse staffing's influences on patient outcomes was mediated by the nursing human capital of an inpatient unit, was partially supported. Some of the theory's propositions were empirically validated. Additional theoretical work is needed to refine the operationalization and measurement of some of the theory's concepts. Further research with larger samples of data from different geographical settings and types of hospitals is required to determine if the theory can withstand empirical scrutiny. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T.; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E.; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M.; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M.; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A.; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T.; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  13. New innovations: therapeutic opportunities for intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Jonathan D; Walsh, Christopher A

    2013-09-01

    Intellectual disability is common and is associated with significant morbidity. Until the latter half of the 20th century, there were no efficacious treatments. Following initial breakthroughs associated with newborn screening and metabolic corrections, little progress was made until recently. With improved understanding of genetic and cellular mechanisms, novel treatment options are beginning to appear for a number of specific conditions. Fragile X and tuberous sclerosis offer paradigms for the development of targeted therapeutics, but advances in understanding of other disorders such as Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, for example, are also resulting in promising treatment directions. In addition, better understanding of the underlying neurobiology is leading to novel developments in enzyme replacement for storage disorders and adjunctive therapies for metabolic disorders, as well as potentially more generalizable approaches that target dysfunctional cell regulation via RNA and chromatin. Physiologic therapies, including deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, offer yet another direction to enhance cognitive functioning. Current options and evolving opportunities for the intellectually disabled are reviewed and exemplified. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  14. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials - approaches and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The ‘open access’ approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The ‘restricted access’ approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who ‘needs to know’ about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes

  15. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials--approaches and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sue; Magee, Laura; Walker, Mark; Wood, Stephen

    2012-12-27

    Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The 'open access' approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The 'restricted access' approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who 'needs to know' about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage sites from

  16. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  17. A feasibility study of behavioural activation for depressive symptoms in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, A; Melville, C A; Pert, C; Cooper, S-A; Lynn, H; Williams, C; Davidson, C

    2015-11-01

    Important work has been carried out adapting cognitive behavioural therapy for people with intellectual disabilities. However, there is a lack of alternative psychological therapies available for people with intellectual disabilities and emotional difficulties. Behavioural activation for depression is less reliant on verbal communication and focuses on increasing purposeful activity and reducing avoidance. This feasibility study involved the development and piloting of an adapted manual of behavioural activation for people with intellectual disabilities. The intervention consisted of 10-12 sessions and a key adaptation was that the therapist worked with the clients alongside a significant other in their life, either a paid carer or family member. Baseline, post-intervention (3 months after entering the study) and 6-month quantitative follow-up data were obtained. Primary outcome data were gathered, concerning depressive symptoms, participants' levels of activity and general well-being. Twenty-three adults with intellectual disabilities with symptoms of depression were recruited from specialist health services. In terms of acceptability, the behavioural activation intervention was well received and only two individuals dropped out, with a further two lost to follow-up. The main measures of depression appeared to be sensitive to change. Pre- to post-intervention data showed a significant reduction in self-report of depressive symptoms with a strong effect size (r = 0.78), that was maintained at follow-up (r = 0.86). Positive change was also obtained for informant reports of depressive symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with a strong effect size (r = 0.7). Once again, this positive change was maintained at follow-up (r = 0.72). The study suggested that behavioural activation may be a feasible and worthwhile approach to tackling depression in people with intellectual disabilities. However, a randomised controlled trial would be required to establish its

  18. Some Thoughts on the Role of the Critical Intellectual in Contemporary Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Steiner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by relating the notion of the "critical intellectual" to the notion of "agent of social change" on the one hand, and to other potential types of agents of change on the other: women in revolt, artists, exiles and queer agencies. Proceeding to a brief characterisation of the socio-cultural and political context "Germany", we shall explore some meanings of attributes such as post-modern and consumer for contemporary German society and culture, arguing that these are cultural and economic terms, which denote current forms of expression for what continues to be a capitalist economy and a bourgeois democracy. One recurrent question will be what the contours might be of the figure of the "critical intellectual" under present day conditions. This is followed by a brief sketch of the meanings of "kritische(r Intellektuelle(r" in a historical ("geistesgeschichtlicher" perspective, mainly from the enlightenment onwards. We shall move on to a methodologically very different, but complementary, perspective, which is the consideration of current usage of the term with the help of large-scale electronic corpora of spoken language and an on-line search on the web. As we shall see, an important share and quality of the relevant meanings of a term lies in current usage, which may or may not be directly related to what we know from the history of ideas and/ or etymology. I shall then use examples from my own professional field of work for an exploration of what the role of a critical intellectual in a German context might be, discussing the field of natural language technologies. These examples will illustrate the fact that such a role has to involve participation in, rather than exclusively detached contemplation of, the sphere of production. They will also show that the role of the critical intellectual is, indeed, a locus of contestation in several respects. We finally broaden our perspective into a wider set of questions relating to the role

  19. Individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning in a forensic addiction treatment centre: Prevalence and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding substance-related problems and offending behavior in individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MBID; IQ 50-85) has increased over the last years, but is still limited. The present study examined differences in prevalence and clinical

  20. Autonomy Support in People with Mild-to-Borderline Intellectual Disability: Testing the Health Care Climate Questionnaire-Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, Noud; Schuengel, Carlo; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability perceive their support staff as autonomy supportive.…

  1. Epilepsy in Children with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Effects of Sex, Level and Etiology of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of epilepsy in children with intellectual disability. An additional goal was to determine if there were statistical differences in the occurrence of epilepsy related to the sex, level and etiology of intellectual disability of children. The sample consisted of 167 children with intellectual…

  2. Meeting the support needs of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : Still a long way to go

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P J G; Smulders, N B M; Embregts, P J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, C

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the

  3. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  4. Music as the Means to Stimulate Novelty and Challenge Seeking in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chong Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine whether challenge seeking behaviour could be increased by stimulating persons with intellectual disability with music. The intention was also to evaluate whether the participants would attempt to seek challenges when they felt bored with a music experience. Method: Thirty adolescents and young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability were randomly selected to take part in a repeated-measure experimental design, under three different conditions. In the first condition, the participants were provided adequate challenges through teaching fundamental musical skills. In the second condition, no optimal challenge was provided, and in the third condition, using special strategies, the participants were stimulated to look for novelty and challenge through involvement in creative musical tasks. Level of innovation, as an index of challenge seeking, was measured during the 8 minutes of free choice interval at the end of each condition. Results: Using Friedman’s ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the findings showed that the low and statistically similar levels of challenge seeking behaviour in conditions 1 and 2 significantly increased to a high level in condition 3. It confirmed that participants with intellectual disability are capable of demonstrating challenge seeking behaviour if they are stimulated to do so. The results also confirmed that the tendency to demonstrate challenge seeking behaviour during a boring musical situation was low.

  5. The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement, intellectual property and medicines: Differential outcomes for developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Deborah; Lexchin, Joel; Lopert, Ruth; Kilic, Burcu

    2018-04-01

    The final text of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), agreed between the 12 negotiating countries in 2016, included a suite of intellectual property provisions intended to expand and extend pharmaceutical company exclusivities on medicines. It drew wide criticism for including such provisions in an agreement that involved developing countries (Vietnam, Peru, Malaysia, Mexico, Chile and Brunei Darussalam) because of the effect on delaying the introduction of low-cost generics. While developing nations negotiated transition periods for implementing some obligations, all parties would have eventually been expected to meet the same standards had the TPP come into force. While the TPP has stalled following US withdrawal, there are moves by some of the remaining countries to reinvigorate the agreement without the United States. The proponents may seek to retain as much as possible of the original text in the hope that the United States will re-join the accord in future. This article presents a comparative analysis of the impact the final 2016 TPP intellectual property chapter could be expected to have (if implemented in its current form) on the intellectual property laws and regulatory regimes for medicines in the TPP countries. Drawing on the published literature, it traces the likely impact on access to medicines. It focuses particularly on the differential impact on regulatory frameworks for developed and developing nations (in terms of whether or not legislative action would have been required to implement the agreement). The article also explores the political and economic dynamics that contributed to these differential outcomes.

  6. Behavioral problems in people with intellectual disability: Basic facts, incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In people with intellectual disabilities, behavioral problems result from the interaction of multiple risk factors of different origin, which undoubtedly indicates the importance of knowing their individual characteristics and life circumstances. Incidence, specific forms and topography of behavioral problems depend on different factors, both socio-demographic and inherent ones. Behavioral problems significantly impede acquiring new adaptive skills and have a negative influence on the interaction with the environment. Emotional and behavioral problems are a significant source of stress in children with intellectual disability, as well as their parents and professional staff. These difficulties, especially aggression and disruptiveness, have a big influence on the selection of education model, i.e. on how much the child will be involved in the educational process and the decision whether or not a person will be institutionalized. Better understanding of behavioral problems in people with intellectual disability is the basis of eliminating or reducing risk factors, as well as creating a comprehensive treatment model.

  7. Cognitive performance and engagement in physical, social and intellectual activities in older adults: The FIBRA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Sposito

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging can negatively impact quality of life in the elderly. However, studies have shown that elderly engaged in advanced activities of daily living (AADLs can maintain or enhance global cognitive function or specific domains.Objective:To investigate the relationship between engagement in AADLs and domains of cognition in elderly from seven different locations in Brazil.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving 2,549 elderly without cognitive deficits suggestive of dementia was conducted. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE by subdomain (orientation, memory, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis, and engagement in AADL grouped under physical, social and intellectual activities.Results:Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed an association, albeit modest, between intellectual AADLs and the domains orientation, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis (R2=0.005, 0.008, 0.021, and 0.021 respectively. Social AADLs were correlated with memory (R2=0.002 and language (R2=0.004 domains. No association was found between physical AADLs and MMSE domains. Schooling and family income were the sociodemographic variables exhibiting the strongest relationship with cognitive domains.Conclusion:The study found associations between intellectual and social AADLs with higher cognitive performance, suggesting that active aging can provide opportunities to attenuate cognitive decline in aging.

  8. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  9. The Perceptions of Professionals Toward Siblings of Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Lee, Chung Eun; Arnold, Catherine K; Owen, Aleksa

    2017-04-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) report struggling to navigate the adult disability service delivery system and collaborate with professionals. To date, though, it is unclear how professionals encourage sibling involvement and, accordingly, the facilitators and challenges in working with siblings. For this study, 290 professionals participated in a national web-based survey; participants answered three open-ended questions about ways to involve siblings, positive experiences with siblings, and challenges in working with siblings. Professionals reported person-level and systems-level supports to encourage sibling involvement. Also, professionals reported enjoying working with cohesive families of individuals with IDD and witnessing the benefits that siblings bring to their brothers and sisters with IDD. Challenges in working with siblings included: lack of sibling involvement, systemic barriers, and caregiving burden. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  10. Exploring intellectual capital through social network analysis: a conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tichá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to assess intellectual capital. Intellectual capital is a key element in an organization’s future earning potential. Theoretical and empirical studies show that it is the unique combination of the different elements of intellectual capital and tangible investments that determines an enterprise´s competitive advantage. Intellectual capital has been defined as the combination of an organization´s human, organizational and relational resources and activities. It includes the knowledge, skills, experience and abilities of the employees, its R&D activities, organizational, routines, procedures, systems, databases and its Intellectual Property Rights, as well as all the resources linked to its external relationships, such as with its customers, suppliers, R&D partners, etc. This paper focuses on the relational capital and attempts to suggest a conceptual framework to assess this part of intellectual capital applying social network analysis approach. The SNA approach allows for mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between, people, groups, organizations, computers, URLs, and other connected information/knowledge entities. The conceptual framework is developed for the assessment of collaborative networks in the Czech higher education sector as the representation of its relational capital. It also builds on the previous work aiming at proposal of methodology guiding efforts to report intellectual capital at the Czech public universities.

  11. Intellectual capital management as the integral part of enterprise’s management

    OpenAIRE

    Аліна Олександрівна Осаул

    2016-01-01

    The main levels of the enterprise’s intellectual capital management are analyzed in the article. The distinctive peculiarities of the enterprise’s intellectual capital management are mentioned. Goals and benefits of the intellectual management system are determined. The ways of their improvement are pointed out. Implicit and explicit knowledge as an important integral intellectual capital resources are divided and characterized

  12. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna van Dijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID. However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athletes with ID. In this paper, we discuss the following: the problem of inclusion, some concerns that arise in the classification of paralympic athletes such as self-declaration and eligibility, the open nature of ID sports competition, and the sport offer available for these athletes.

  13. Inventing order catholic intellectuals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Pinheiro Filho

    Full Text Available The work investigates the social genesis and characteristics of the emergence of an intellectual experience directly linked to the propagation of Catholic doctrine, which took shape in Brazil between the 1920s and 1940s. The analysis centres on the activity of the Dom Vital Centre and the magazine A Ordem, entities which expressed the political and cultural militancy of Jackson de Figueiredo, the movement's main lay leader. The text then looks to comprehend the approximation of artists and literary figures who incorporated Catholicism as both the theme and form of their productions within modernist circles, basing its analysis of the trajectory of the triad formed by Ismael Nery, Jorge de Lima and Murilo Mendes, who succeeded in including their production in the period's most dynamic pole of artistic activity.

  14. A Short Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Trina; Paranjpe, Arvin S; Cook, Travis G; Garrison, Nicole D W

    2017-06-01

    Intellectual property (IP) is a term that describes a number of distinct types of intangible assets. IP protection allows a rightsholder to exclude others from interfering with or using the property right in specified ways. The main forms of IP are patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets. Each type of IP protection is different, varying in the subject matter that can be covered, timeframe of protection, and total expense. Although some inventions may be covered by multiple types of IP protection, it is important to consider a number of business and legal factors before selecting the best protection strategy. Some technologies require strong IP protection to commercialize, but unnecessary costs can derail bringing a product to market. IP departments of organizations weigh these various considerations and perform essential IP protection functions. This primer introduces researchers to the main forms of IP and its legal aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Management, marketing concept and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work describes the strong influence the development of the management theory to the complex nature of modern marketing concept and intellectual capital. Often, in the contemporary conversation we hear the word organizational behavior that is closely related to the concept of modern business philosophy and importance of human capital. Sudden development of human thought in the beginning of the twentieth century has a great impact on all areas of social life, and specially on the promotion of all areas of business and the impact of the application of marketing, its development and implementation as a basis for achieving global competitiveness. Changes caused by the development of management in the business have led to the interactive relationship between organizations and consumers, but also to the development of relations within the organization between employees. .

  16. Surrogate decision making and intellectual virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by a religiously motivated surrogate decision maker whose decisions are contrary to the standard of care; therefore, surrogate decision making should be held to a high standard. Stewart Eskew and Christopher Meyers proposed a two-part rule for deciding which religiously based decisions to honor: (1) a secular reason condition and (2) a rationality condition. The second condition is based on a coherence theory of rationality, which they claim is accessible, generous, and culturally sensitive. In this article, I will propose strengthening the rationality condition by grounding it in a theory of intellectual virtue, which is both rigorous and culturally sensitive. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  17. Values, standpoints, and scientific/intellectual movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Feminist standpoint empiricism contributes to the criticism of the value-free ideal by offering a unique analysis of how non-epistemic values can play not only a legitimate but also an epistemically productive role in science. While the inductive risk argument focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the acceptance of hypotheses, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the production of evidence. And while many other analyses of values in science focus on the role of non-epistemic values either in an individual scientist's decision making or in the distribution of research efforts in scientific communities, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the building of scientific/intellectual movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Open innovation and intellectual property rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Nylund, Petra A.; Hitchen, Emma L.

    2017-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach: The relationships between open innovation, IPRs, and profitability are tested with random-effects panel regressions on data from the Spanish Community Innovation Survey for 2,873 firms spanning the years 2008-2013. Findings: A key result is that SMEs do not benefit from open......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between open innovation and the use of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authors consider patents, industrial designs (i.e. design patents in the USA), trademarks, and copyrights...... innovation or from patenting in the same way as larger firms. Furthermore, the results show that SMEs profit in different ways from IPR, depending on their size and the corresponding IPR. Research limitations/implications: The different impact of IPRs on the efficiency of open innovation in firms of varying...

  19. Austrian Economics - The Ultimate Achievement of an Intellectual Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Salin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture delivered November 2008 on the occasion of the presentation of the Mises Institute’s Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for lifetime achievement in the cause of liberty, Professor Salin discusses his discovery of Austrian economics and his involvement in “the world of individual liberty,” and draws various lessons from his intellectual journey. The coherence of Austrian economics appealed to Salin—it is not a patchwork of partial theories, but a logical process of thought founded on realistic assumptions about individual action. Salin also discusses differences between the Chicago and Austrian approaches, and his views about monetary systems.The financial crisis beginning in late 2008 is not a crisis of capitalism, but of state intervention, caused by the expansionary monetary policy of the Fed. Capitalism is the solution, not the cause. There is no need to create money. There is never any balance of payments problem. What is required is tax systems more friendly to capital accumulation, a decrease in the role of the state, the end of monetary policy and, if possible, the disappearing of central banks and the IMF.

  20. Cloud Computing Services: Benefits, Risks and Intellectual Property Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BĂLŢĂTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Major software players of the global market, such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft are developing cloud computing solutions, providing cloud services on demand: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS and Software as a service (SaaS. In software industry and also in ICT services market, cloud computing is playing an increasingly important role. Moreover, the expansion of cloud services indirectly contributed to the development and improvement of other types of services on the market – financial and accounting services, human resources services, educational services etc. – in terms of quality and affordability. Given the fact that cloud computing applications proved to be more affordable for small and medium enterprises (SME, an increasing number of companies in almost all the fields of activity have chosen cloud based solutions, such as Enterprise Resource Management (ERP software and Customer Relationship Management (CRM software. However, cloud computing services involve also some risks concerning privacy, security of data and lack of interoperability between cloud platforms. Patent strategy of certain proprietary software companies leaded to a veritable “patent war” and “patent arm race” endangering the process of standardization in software industry, especially in cloud computing. Intellectual property (IP legislation and court ruling in patent litigations is likely to have a significant impact on the development of cloud computing industry and cloud services.

  1. Measuring quality in services for children with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Erik

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the application of one particular quality measurement tool, the SERVQUAL instrument, as a potential mechanism to measure quality in services for children with disabilities Staff and family of children with an intellectual disability in two organisations providing specialist therapy and day completed an adapted SERVQUAL questionnaire. A total of 81 SERVQUAL questionnaires were distributed and 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 73 per cent). The SERVQUAL instrument can be considered as a useful diagnostic tool to identify particular strengths and areas for improvement in services for people with disabilities as the instrument lends itself for the monitoring of the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives over time. The findings also showed relatively high customer expectations and the organisations involved in this research are currently not meeting all of these high expectations as significant quality gaps were found in the areas of reliability and responsiveness. The sample size was relatively small and the measurement of quality using the SERVQUAL instrument remains a challenge, due to the conceptual and empirical difficulties. The SERVQUAL instrument is probably most be attractive to service managers and funding organisations because of its ability to identify gaps in the quality of the service. The tool had been used to measure quality in services for people with disabilities and the research has shown that this tool might be an important additional quality measurement tool for services.

  2. 50 Years of Independence: Reflections on the Role of Publishing and Progressive African Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bgoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the role of progressive African intellectuals fifty years after independence in the context of African postcolonial, political and socio-economic conditions is examined. African intellectuals have been marginalized by the African state, and progressive intellectuals have been disunited in their struggle for relevance. The possibilities for African intellectual autonomy and international solidarity are shown through a recollection of the flourishing intellectual environment and local publishing output of post-independence Tanzania. The end of that era and the demise of publishing, including in African languages, has negatively impacted African economic and intellectual emancipation and can only be addressed by international solidarity among progressive intellectuals.

  3. An introduction to intellectual property licensing for technology companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Lawrence H.

    2001-05-01

    Intellectual property licensing is an important issue facing all technology companies. Before entering into license agreements a number of issues need to be addressed, including invention ownership, obtaining and identifying licensable subject matter, and developing a licensing strategy. There are a number of important provisions that are included in most intellectual property license agreements. These provisions include definitions, the license grant, consideration, audit rights confidentiality, warranties, indemnification, and limitation of liability. Special licensing considerations exist relative to each type of intellectual property, and when the other party is a foreign company or a university.

  4. Absent CNKSR2 causes seizures and intellectual, attention, and language deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaags, Andrea K; Bowdin, Sarah; Smith, Mary-Lou; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Brocke-Holmefjord, Katja S; Sinopoli, Katia; Gilles, Cindy; Haaland, Tove B; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Lagrue, Emmanuelle; Harbuz, Radu; Walker, Susan; Marshall, Christian R; Houge, Gunnar; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Scherer, Stephen W; Minassian, Berge A

    2014-11-01

    Synaptic function is central to brain function. Understanding the synapse is aided by studies of patients lacking individual synaptic proteins. Common neurological diseases are genetically complex. Their understanding is likewise simplified by studies of less common monogenic forms. We detail the disease caused by absence of the synaptic protein CNKSR2 in 8 patients ranging from 6 to 62 years old. The disease is characterized by intellectual disability, attention problems, and abrupt lifelong language loss following a brief early childhood epilepsy with continuous spike-waves in sleep. This study describes the phenotype of CNKSR2 deficiency and its involvement in systems underlying common neurological disorders. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  5. Pokémon Go and the Law: Privacy, Intellectual Property, and Other Legal Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Before the first lawsuits arrive, this article provides a brief analysis of some of the legal issues involved with the new hit mobile game, including: personal injury liability; privacy; intellectual property; trespass; augmented reality; and virtual currency. This is not an exhaustive list of every legal possibility inherent in the Pokémon Go world. These are just some of the legal issues at play when users, well, play. While this may seem like a long list of potential legal problems, the re...

  6. Portable electronic assistive technology to improve vocational task completion in young adults with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James C; Collet-Klingenberg, Lana

    2017-01-01

    This article summarizes a review of empirical literature from 2000 to 2015 that involved the use of specific portable technology to support persons with an intellectual disability in completing work-related tasks. Nineteen studies were identified for review, with an emphasis on the identification of (a) the characteristics of participants and settings, (b) the types of portable technology and prompting formats used, (c) the research designs utilized, (d) the independent and dependent variables, (e) the measures of reliability and validity, and (f) the overall effectiveness of the interventions. The authors provide an interpretation of the findings as well as the implications of the results and recommended areas for future research.

  7. Social support and intellectual disabilities: a comparison between social networks of adults with intellectual disability and those with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, T; Burns, J

    2009-05-01

    Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and integration. However, previous studies have shown that this does not always lead to the formation of social relationships. To date few studies have looked at how having an ID leads to impoverished social networks. This study aimed to do this by contrasting the social relationships of people with physical disabilities (PD) and people with ID. Two groups of participants were recruited; 30 people with mild ID and 17 people with PD. Social and functional support networks were assessed, in addition to life experiences. Between and within group differences were then explored statistically. Adults with ID had more restricted social networks than PD, despite being involved in more activities. Social support for adults with ID was mainly provided by family and carers and few relationships with non-disabled people were identified. In contrast adults with PD had larger social networks than had been reported in the mainstream literature and had a balance of relationships with disabled and non-disabled people. The results suggest that there are additional processes attached to having an ID, which lead to continued impoverished lifestyles. The findings also endorse other work that suggests being physically integrated and engaged in a wide range of activities does not guarantee good social and emotional support.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intellectual disability develops epilepsy, and about half have autism spectrum disorder . Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? ...

  9. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children

  10. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State...... Intellectual Property Office of China comprising data of about 620.000 patents. Referring to the study of Keupp et al. (2012), we extend previous qualitative studies on patenting strategy archetypes by adding quantitative evidence from a data set of the world’s largest intellectual property owners. Model based...

  11. MEASURING, ASSESSING AND REPORTING THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN A SME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca CRUCERU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the XXI-st century (the knowledge based economy, society, organization and management promote, on a large scale, the capitalization of the intellectual capital. Therefore, the field specialists have tried to define the concept of intellectual capital, to determine its characteristics and also its components. Also, in order for this capitalization to be used in adopting and implementing some management decisions, specialists determined the models for measuring, assessing and reporting the intellectual capital. Consequently, this article presents a few theoretical concepts regarding the intellectual capital, but also a case study regarding the methodology for applying, drawing and using the model of Patricia Pablos within S.C. ”BAF Consultancy” S.R.L.

  12. Importance of intellectual capital disclosure in Spanish universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Ramírez Córcoles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The increasing social concern about establishing procedures of accountability and ensuring information transparency in public universities prompted us to raise the need to disclose information on their intellectual capital.Design/methodology/approach: In this study we developed a questionnaire which was sent to members of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities, in order to identify which intangible elements university stakeholders demand most.Findings: The results of this research demonstrate how important it is for Spanish public universities to provide information on their intellectual capital in order to satisfy their stakedolders’ information needs.Practical implications: The results of this research lead us to recommend that universities include in their accounting statements the information on intellectual capital demanded by the different stakeholders.Originality/value: No previous research was conducted for Spanish universities. Our results represent a starting point for public universities to identify which is the most requested information about intellectual capital. 

  13. Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic development. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... there are still patents and other IP related rights infringement and enforcement issues.

  14. African Innovation Research on Intellectual Property's Role in Open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Innovation Research on Intellectual Property's Role in Open Development ... thereby promoting globally competitive African industries and services. ... Furthermore, the measurement of innovation and knowledge production is based on ...

  15. The Development and Validation of the Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J; Rouse, Steven V

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to create the 22-item Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale on the basis of theoretical descriptions of intellectual humility, expert reviews, pilot studies, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The scale measures 4 distinct but intercorrelated aspects of intellectual humility, including independence of intellect and ego, openness to revising one's viewpoint, respect for others' viewpoints, and lack of intellectual overconfidence. Internal consistency and test-retest analyses provided reliable scale and subscale scores within numerous independent samples. Validation data were obtained from multiple, independent samples, supporting appropriate levels of convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The analyses suggest that the scale has utility as a self-report measure for future research.

  16. Genomic imbalance in subjects with idiopathic intellectual disability ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai 600 116, India. [Mohan S., Venkatesan ... Intellectual disability (ID) is a complex disorder with hetero- geneous aetiology. .... The ratios are tabulated on the right. Table 2.

  17. Intellectual Property and Copyright Issues in Online Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Edit

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of intellectual property and copyright issues as they relate to online learning environments. Includes a historical perspective; laws and regulations; liability; Web-related issues; higher education; distance learning; compliance strategies; and policy recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  18. The importance of intellectual capital in the company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Lavrič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: This article explores the importance of intellectual capital in the company. Purpose: To determine what is the importance of intellectual capital in businesses in the current economic climate. Method: As a research method I used descriptive method, and review of the literature in the form of articles and books. Below I summarize important observations and insights. Results: Intellectual capital has a significant and positive impact on the business performance of the company, but it is underestimated. Organization: The research contributes to a better achievement of business performance. Society: Better business contributes to the wider environment, as this will also ensure stability of the organization. Originality: A different perspective on the importance of intellectual capital. There are not a lot of transparent articles on this topic. Limitations/Future Research: Limitation of the study is that we have discussed only a certain number of resources.

  19. Intellectually disabled students’ conceptions concerning the earth and heavenly bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Baysen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning scientific concepts are crucial for both normally achieving and intellectually disabled students attending inclusion classes. This research study aimed to reveal intellectually disabled students’ conceptions and thinkings utilizing data of interviews and drawings concerning the earth and heavenly bodies and comparing them with the findings belonging to those showing normal mental achievement. Thirty intellectually disabled students (19 boys and 11 girls participated to this research. They were questioned individually using clinical interview technique. Intellectually disabled students have main similarities to those of normally achieving concerning the phenomenon. All the students participating in the present research study do have misconceptions concerning the phenomenon. Their thinking approaches (tendencies and the way they are affected by certain context while constructing their conceptions is similar to those of normally achieving. They used their concepts consistently and showed theory-like mental constructions.

  20. Disclosure of information on intellectual capital in Danish IPO prospectuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Nielsen, Christian; Gormsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether information on intellectual capital (non-financial information on knowledge based resources) is disclosed in Danish IPO prospectuses. Further, to analyse whether this voluntary disclosure has changed in the period from 1999 to 2001 and to analyse what...... do not affect disclosure. The results are interpreted in the light of the increasing importance of disclosing information on value drivers, strategy and intellectual capital to the capital market and constitute a contribution to the ongoing debate on corporate reporting practices. Practical...... implications - Since information on intellectual capital is already disclosed in IPO prospectuses this reporting form can be used as inspiration when an intellectual capital report is developed. The results also indicate that companies and their advisers believe that this type of information is important...

  1. Implementation of Intellectual Property Law on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the importance of intellectual property rights to the private sector, NASA has developed a reference guide to assist business leaders in understanding how the Intellectual Property Articles of the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station will be implemented. This reference guide discusses the statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and ownership of intellectual property within the Space Station program. This guide presents an analysis of the intellectual property law aspects of the international agreements and documents pertaining to the International Space Station, and then relates them to NASA's authorities for entering into research and development agreements with private entities. This paper will discuss the reference guide and should aid potential agreement participants in understanding the legal environment for entering into agreements with NASA to fly research and development payloads on the International Space Station.

  2. Flexible intellectual property rights lead to greater innovation in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... The network is unique in offering a distinctly African perspective on the global intellectual property and innovation agenda. ... Case studies illustrate this balance: ... Unlocking the potential of Africa's young entrepreneurs.

  3. Autonomy support in people with mild to borderline intellectual disability : Testing the Health Care Climate Questionnaire-Intellectual Disability (HCCQ-ID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability

  4. Interrogated with Intellectual Disabilities: The Risks of False Confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Samson J

    2018-02-01

    False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing. Moreover, the principal judicial safeguards against false confessions--assessing a suspect's Miranda waiver and determining whether a confession was voluntarily given within the bounds of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause--provide little protection for the innocent with intellectual disabilities. Few pieces of scholarship focus specifically on the heightened risks faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the process of police interrogation. This Note describes the various ways these individuals are disadvantaged. And it offers an additional data point illustrating the vulnerability of people with intellectual disabilities. This Note analyzes the 245 individuals (as of June 2, 2017) on the National Registry of Exonerations who have falsely confessed. Over one-quarter of them display indicia of intellectual disability. This percentage dwarfs the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities in the general population and even exceeds most estimates of the proportion of the prison population suffering from intellectual disabilities. This Note concludes with several policy and doctrinal suggestions to better protect individuals with intellectual disabilities from the risks of false confession.

  5. Conceptualising Intellectual Capital (IC) as Language Game and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual Capital (IC) can be viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes might be leveraged into value. Developing a critical understanding of IC requires a historical and contextual understanding of how IC has emerged and how IC is used. This paper, drawing...... this process of social construction. The paper concludes by proposing some methodological guidelines for conducting critical genealogical research on intellectual capital....

  6. Mapping Knowledge and Intellectual Capital in Academic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Tomas; Husted, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capital management in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some research has been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector, the university has so far not been directly considered for this type of management. The paper initially reviews the functions and techniques of knowledge mapping and assesses these in the light ...

  7. Patenting Nanomedicines Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Eliana B

    2012-01-01

    "Patenting Nanomedicines: Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities" focuses on the fundamental aspects of Patenting Nanomedicines applied in different "Drug Delivery and Targeting Systems". The promoters of new findings in this field of research are numerous and spread worldwide; therefore, managing intellectual property portfolios, and the acquisition and exploitation of new knowledge face several contingency factors. Today, the scientific community is discussing issues of economic outcomes in the field of Nanomedicines. Major concerns include questions

  8. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, L.; Conners, F.

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these gr...

  9. A survey of clinical nursing skills in intellectual disability nursing

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study the question asked is: what clinical nursing skills are predominantly used in intellectual disability nursing? A survey of the nursing needs of people with moderate to severe intellectual disability in both residential and community units was undertaken with a questionnaire.The measure was a Likert design scale ranging across: skills used more than once a day, skills used daily, skills used weekly, skills used monthly, skills very rarely used, and skills never used.The results o...

  10. Therapy of depression in persons with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Katarina; Mihajlović, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high frequency of depression among people with intellectual disability, the question of an appropriate therapeutic approach seems to be very important. The propper choice of therapy depends of the right diagnosis, which could present a problem, because of the atipical presentation of simptoms. Still, the efforts made to overcome onesidedness in treating depression among people with intellectual disability, which was seen mostly through insisting on psychopharmacotherapy, have ...

  11. Intellectual potential of population: theoretical and methodological framework for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical and methodological framework for the research into the population’s intellectual potential. The presented materials show that this category is the subject of interdisciplinary studies, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogics, economics. One of the important conclusions drawn from the analysis of the essence of intellectual potential is the conclusion that the actual level of intelligence is the result of its development. It means that certain efforts on the part of such social institutions like family, education, government, promote not only the formation of smart people, but also the implementation of their potential intellectual capabilities in the production, creation of cultural values, society management, education, etc. when using this approach, the intellect ceases to be just a research object of related disciplines, but it acquires social dimension and becomes a socio-economic category. The basic theories, concepts and approaches, used in its study, were analyzed. The theory of human capital was given a most thorough consideration, because, according to this theory, the income of a person is earned by knowledge, abilities and skills, i.e. the essence of intellectual properties of an individual. The article provides the author’s definition of the intellectual potential of the population, which brings to the fore the following elements necessary for the understanding of this category: relation to socioeconomic development, factors in the formation of the characteristic, including the need for training (reproduction of intelligent people, the psychological aspect (abilities, the carriers of intellectual potential are not ignored, because it is an attribute of the population. The article identifies methodological approaches to the estimation of the population’s intellectual potential, describes the applied procedures and research methods. The authors propose methodological

  12. An Investigation of Contingency Factors Influencing Intellectual Capital Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Soheily; Shahnaznayebzadeh; Ramin Abghari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contingency factors influencing the companies' intellectual capital information operating in Yazd industrial city. The study model was formed using intellectual capital as dependent variable and environmental uncertainty, technology advancement and business strategy as independent variables. For purpose of the present study, the applied and correlational methods were used. Data collection was conducted using questionnaires and survey methods. The...

  13. Continuities in the use of the intellectual capital statement approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin; Schaper, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Guideline Project and its principal output, the intellectual capital statement, have attracted only a very limited extent of empirical attention since the conclusion of the initiative in December 2002. The paper reports the findings of a series of semi-structured interviews with indivi...... of the implementation and evolution of these practices. The paper utilises a number of elements of institutional theory to organise the findings and to discuss the continuities in intellectual capital reporting practice documented therein....

  14. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.

  15. Occupational burdens in special educators working with intellectually disabled students

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Plichta

    2014-01-01

    Background: The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy) with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. Material and Methods: The resu...

  16. What's at Stake in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disability? Part I: The Power of Naming, Defining, Diagnosing, Classifying, and Planning Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the power of naming, defining, diagnosing, classifying, and planning supports for people with intellectual disability. The article summarizes current thinking regarding these five functions, states the essential question addressed by the respective function, and provides an overview of the high stakes involved for people…

  17. Assessment of Physical Self-Concept in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Content and Factor Validity of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiano, Christophe; Begarie, Jerome; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Ninot, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory- (PSI-VSF) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total of 362 ID adolescents were involved in two studies. In Study 1, the content and format scale response of the PSI-VSF…

  18. Paediatric palliative care and intellectual disability-A unique context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Jacqueline K; Herbert, Anthony Robert; Heussler, Helen S

    2017-11-01

    Paediatric palliative care is a nuanced area of practice with additional complexities in the context of intellectual disability. There is currently minimal research to guide clinicians working in this challenging area of care. This study describes the complex care of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability by means of a literature synthesis and commentary with "best-practice" guide. As few articles concerning children with intellectual disability and palliative care needs were identified by formal systematic review, our expert consensus group has drawn from the paediatric palliative, oncology and adult intellectual disability literature to highlight common clinical challenges encountered in the day-to-day care of children with intellectual disability and life-limiting conditions. A longitudinal child- and family-centred approach is key to ensuring best-practice care for families of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability. As highlighted by the great absence of literature addressing this important patient population, further research in this area is urgently required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Asthma in intellectual disability: are we managing our patients appropriately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    People with intellectual disability are a vulnerable group of people with asthma that has, to date, largely been ignored in the medical literature. Although guidelines for medication management for people with intellectual disability suggest asthma is treated as for other populations, there are special considerations that should be taken into account when managing asthma in this group. Due to their cognitive impairment as well as comorbidities, they are likely to require support with asthma self-management, including inhaler use. Their varying degrees of autonomy mean that there is often a need to provide education and information to both the person and their caregivers. Educational aims To understand general principles of health of people with intellectual disability and how this affects the healthcare professional’s approach to asthma management. To understand how intellectual disability affects cognition, autonomy and communication, and therefore the ability of a person to self-manage asthma. To recognise ways of mitigating respiratory disease risk in people with intellectual disability. To describe ways for healthcare professionals to support people with intellectual disability and their caregivers in asthma management. PMID:28210318

  20. Pragmatic skills of children and youth with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.

  1. Cerebral Palsy and Intellectual Disability in the Children of Women With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Fumika; Makino, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Nagata, Satoru; Matsui, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, especially cerebral palsy and intellectual disability, in pregnant women with and without chronic kidney disease and their children. In total, 156 pregnancies involving 139 women with chronic kidney disease who were treated at our center between 2001 and 2010 were identified. We also selected 3067 women without chronic kidney disease who delivered their infants without suffering any medical complications during the same period as control groups. Long-term neonatal prognosis was assessed based on the frequencies of cerebral palsy and/or intellectual disability. The pregnant women had the following types of chronic kidney disease: immunoglobulin A nephropathy (n = 54), glomerulonephritis (n = 17), chronic renal failure (n = 16), nephrotic syndrome (n = 12), nephritis (n = 11), diabetic nephropathy (n = 10), congenital malformations and deformations (n = 10), purpura nephritis (n = 7), and others (n = 19). Of the children who were born to mothers with chronic kidney disease, one developed cerebral palsy, and another developed cerebral palsy with intellectual disability. Seven of the children who were born to mothers without chronic kidney disease developed cerebral palsy. The posterior probability of these conditions was 0.01900 and 0.002610 in the children born to mothers with and without chronic kidney disease, respectively. A primiparous mother (odds ratio [OR]: 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]): 2.78 to 5.95), preeclampsia (OR: 6.44, 95% CI: 3.92 to 10.59), grade 1 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhaging (OR: 7.71, 95% CI: 2.05 to 28.92), and an Apgar score of less than 7 at five minutes (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.96) were found to influence the risk of cerebral palsy and/or intellectual disability in children born to women with chronic kidney disease. We found that the incidence of cerebral palsy and/or intellectual disability is 7.2-fold higher in children born to women

  2. Psychosocial impact of involvement in the Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Clare; Burns, Jan; Fernie, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that people with intellectual disabilities are vulnerable to low self-esteem leading to additional psychosocial issues such as social exclusion and stress. Previous research into the involvement of Special Olympics (SO) of people with intellectual disabilities has indicted positive psychosocial outcomes. Involvement in sport is known generally to have psychological and social benefits. This study aimed to compare the psychosocial impact of involvement in sport through the SO to no or limited sports involvement, for a sample of people with intellectual disabilities. A cross sectional design was employed comparing three groups, SO, Mencap Sports, and Mencap No Sports on the variables: Self-esteem, quality of life, stress levels and social networks. One hundred and one participants were recruited either through the SO or Mencap. Data were collected through the completion of validated questionnaires by one to one interviews with the participants. Analysis revealed that self-esteem, quality of life, and stress were all significantly associated with SO involvement. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether scores on these variables were able to predict group membership. Self-esteem was found to be a significant predictor of group membership, those in the SO having the highest self-esteem. The findings provide further evidence of a positive association between sport involvement and increased psychological wellbeing, especially for those involved in the SO. The implications of these findings for practice and future research into the relationship between sport and psychological wellbeing within the learning disabled population are considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in a Resource-Poor Setting in India--Part 1: Association with Age, Sex, Severity of Intellectual Disabilities and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Kishore, M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems are most common in people with intellectual disabilities. Nature of behaviour problems can vary depending upon the age, sex and intellectual level (IQ). Objectives: This study examined the distribution of behaviour problems across intellectual disability categories and their association with IQ age and sex in…

  4. Complexities in the Provision of Respite Care to Family Carers of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieda Finlay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PurposeRespite care is generally thought to benefit family carers of persons with intellectual disabilities and is regarded as an important component of family-centred services.  However, the complexities associated with the provision of such services, from the carer’s perspective, have been rarely investigated.MethodThis qualitative research study was carried out through a participatory action research process that involved collaboration among researchers and family members as co-researchers.  Seven focus groups, involving seventy family carers (fifty mothers, fifteen fathers and five sisters, were held in seven locations across the Republic of Ireland. ResultsThree main themes dominated the discussions.  The first theme related to the ambivalence of carers towards using respite services, as expressed in their reluctance to relinquish care-giving for even a short period; the feelings of guilt they experienced; and the greater needs of other carers.  The second theme related to the benefits of respite breaks, but these were solely with respect to the carer and other family members, rather than to the person with an intellectual disability.  The third theme regarding the quality of provision was dominated by concerns for the care the person received in using the services. ConclusionsRespite care has the potential to make a difference, and these findings call for building much- needed alliances between all members of the family and professionals.  This is in order to support one another through the difficulties associated with the redesign of existing respite provision, and the extension of these services to the growing number of carers who require respite breaks.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.22Key wordsIntellectual disability, respite, family members, Ireland 

  5. [Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability: a new instrument for the neuropsychological assessment of adults with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteba-Castillo, S; Pena-Casanova, J; Garcia-Alba, J; Castellanos, M A; Torrents-Rodas, D; Rodriguez, E; Deus-Yela, J; Caixas, A; Novell-Alsina, R

    2017-05-16

    Neuropsychological assessment in individuals with intellectual disability is of utmost importance in order to determine the cognitive deficits underlying brain dysfunction and limiting intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. However, no neuropsychological batteries in Spanish language have been created and validated for this population. To adapt the 'programa integrado de exploracion neuropsicologica-test Barcelona' and to validate the new version, the Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (TB-DI). To create normative data for its clinical use. The original test was modified based on data from a pilot sample of 65 individuals with intellectual disability. In order to study the psychometric properties of the TB-DI, it was administered to a sample of 170 individuals with intellectual disability and to a group of 60 individuals without it. The relevant variables for stratification of normative data were determined by means of regression models. The TB-DI was finally composed by 67 subtests grouped in eight cognitive domains and it showed good psychometric properties. Normative data were created for five groups taking into account intellectual disability level, age and acquired curricular competence. These data were organized in percentiles in a way that allows the creation of cognitive profiles in the clinical and experimental fields. The TB-DI constitutes a tool of high applicability in the population with intellectual disability. It shows adequate validity and reliability, and it has good psychometric properties. The cognitive profiles obtained by the TB-DI will provide valuable information for the treatment of adult adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability.

  6. Perspectives on family caregiving of people aging with intellectual disability affected by dementia: Commentary from the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Nancy; Gomiero, Tiziano; Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Hogan, Mary; Larsen, Frode; Beránková, Anna; Heloísa Santos, Flávia; Service, Kathy; Crowe, Jim

    2018-01-01

    This article, an output of the 2016 International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia, examines familial caregiving situations within the context of a support-staging model for adults with intellectual disability (ID) affected by dementia. Seven narratives offer context to this support-staging model to interpret situations experienced by caregivers. The multidimensional model has two fundamental aspects: identifying the role and nature of caregiving as either primary (direct) or secondary (supportive); and defining how caregiving is influenced by stage of dementia. We propose staging can affect caregiving via different expressions: (1) the "diagnostic phase," (2) the "explorative phase," (3) the "adaptive phase," and (4) the "closure phase." The international narratives illustrate direct and indirect caregiving with commonality being extent of caregiver involvement and attention to the needs of an adult with ID. We conclude that the model is the first to empirically formalize the variability of caregiving within families of people with ID that is distinct from other caregiving groups, and that many of these caregivers have idiosyncratic needs. A support-staging model that recognizes the changing roles and demands of carers of people with ID and dementia can be useful in constructing research, defining family-based support services, and setting public policy.

  7. Relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Hamid; Dehghan, Leila; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Feizy, Awat; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2012-03-01

    To explore the relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional study. Occupational therapy clinic. Children with CP (N=662; 281 girls, 381 boys; age range, 3-14y). Not applicable. Intelligence testing was carried out by means of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Gross motor function level was determined by the Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised (GMFCS E&R). Of the children, 10.4% were at level I of the GMFCS E&R, 38% at levels II and III, and 51.5% at levels IV and V. The lowest level of intelligence or profound intellectual disability was found in children with spastic quadriplegia (n=28, 62.2%). Children at the lowest levels (I-IV, GMFCS E&R) obtained higher ratings in terms of intelligence in comparison with children at level V. Based on the present results, the diagnosis was statistically related to the intellectual level as dependent variable (Pintelligence, respectively. Sex and age were not statistically related to the dependent variable. The study results demonstrated a significant association between GMFCS E&R and intellectual function. Therefore, we suggest that particular attention should be paid to the intellectual level in terms of evaluations of gross motor function. These results, in respect, might be interested for occupational and physical therapists who are involved in rehabilitation programs for these children. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intellectual developmental disorders: towards a new name, definition and framework for "mental retardation/intellectual disability" in ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Reed, Geoffrey M; Vaez-Azizi, Leila M; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Bertelli, Marco; Adnams, Colleen; Cooray, Sherva; Deb, Shoumitro; Akoury-Dirani, Leyla; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Katz, Gregorio; Kwok, Henry; Luckasson, Ruth; Simeonsson, Rune; Walsh, Carolyn; Munir, Kemir; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-10-01

    Although "intellectual disability" has widely replaced the term "mental retardation", the debate as to whether this entity should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s International Classification of Diseases (ICD) advances. Defining intellectual disability as a health condition is central to retaining it in ICD, with significant implications for health policy and access to health services. This paper presents the consensus reached to date by the WHO ICD Working Group on the Classification of Intellectual Disabilities. Literature reviews were conducted and a mixed qualitative approach was followed in a series of meetings to produce consensus-based recommendations combining prior expert knowledge and available evidence. The Working Group proposes replacing mental retardation with intellectual developmental disorders, defined as "a group of developmental conditions characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, which are associated with limitations of learning, adaptive behaviour and skills". The Working Group further advises that intellectual developmental disorders be incorporated in the larger grouping (parent category) of neurodevelopmental disorders, that current subcategories based on clinical severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe, profound) be continued, and that problem behaviours be removed from the core classification structure of intellectual developmental disorders and instead described as associated features.

  9. Towards Identifying and Disclosing Intellectual Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital (IC is one of the most valuable assets of firms, which has a significant role in success and wealth creation of the entities. Although these assets do not meet recognition criteria of accounting standards and are not reflected in financial statements, but they exist and the evidence indicates that they can affect managers, investors and other stakeholders’ decisions. It is expected that companies have incentives voluntarily report information about IC, due to the benefits thereof. Moreover because of the latest changes in the conceptual framework, we can expect acceleration in the movement towards recognition, measurement and disclosure of IC. In this article first we present the definition and the most important elements of IC, and then different ways of measuring this asset in accounting will be discussed. In rest of the paper incentives for disclosing IC will be presented, in order that the attention of the standard setters is attracted to the latest developments in this field and also the attention of investors becomes focused on this important asset of companies.

  10. Corporate governance as an intellectual property management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rstić Milan J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of more complex forms of organization of the company is to create the conditions of a small number of complex economic, but also organizationally complex and komlikovanijih corporate organizations whose successful conduct of the owners often did not have enough resources, so they hired a professional and competent teams of experts who are trusted with the management of such organizations. In exercising the power of new ideas and concepts based on knowledge, managers in corporations are becoming an indispensable element of every company will be able to change, adapt and create new opportunities to compete successfully in a changing business environment. However, the transfer of responsibility for the management of the corporation managers has resulted in the emergence of abuse of senior management positions in order to realize their own interests. The main objective of this paper is to show how unlike traditional enterprise, today we have a situation in which such property owners corporation is a conceptual and thoughtful decision managers, which should represent the members of their intellectual property.

  11. Suicidality among adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Raina, Poonam; Burge, Philip

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study is to arrive at a better understanding of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) who threaten or attempt suicide. From a sample of 751 adults with ID who experienced a crisis, demographic and clinical profiles of 39 adults who threatened to commit suicide were compared to 28 adults who attempted suicide. These individuals were then compared to 337 adults who behaved aggressively toward others. Individuals who attempted suicide appeared similar to those who voiced suicide with the exception that suicide attempters were younger and more likely to visit the emergency department. Females, higher functioning individuals, and persons with a history of self-harm had higher odds of attempting or threatening suicide Research findings based on informant reported data, so diagnoses and delivery of services in hospital cannot be validated. Suicidality does occur in adults with ID, and can result in emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Recognition of variables associated with suicidality among those with ID by clinicians may allow for enhanced assessment, treatment services and ultimately more positive mental health outcomes for this group. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of intellectual reactor design system IRDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, T.; Tsuchihashi, K.; Nakagawa, M.; Mori, T.

    1993-01-01

    An intellectual reactor design system IRDS has been developed to support feasibility study and conceptual design of new type reactors in the fields of reactor core design including neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and fuel design. IRDS is an integrated software system in which a variety of computer codes in the different fields are installed. An integration of simulation modules are performed by the information transfer between modules through design model in which the design information of the current design work is stored. An object oriented architecture is realized in frame representation of core configuration in a design data base. The knowledge relating to design tasks to be performed are encapsulated, to support the conceptual design work. The system is constructed on an engineering workstation, and supports efficiently design work through man-machine interface adopting the advanced information processing technologies. Optimization methods for design parameters with use of the artificial intelligence technique are now under study, to reduce the parametric study work. A function to search design window in which design is feasible is realized in the fuel pin design. (orig.)

  13. Reading skills among students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning environments, implement educational policies or funding models and specify future fields of research. However, there has been little research into the prevalence and variation of their reading skills. The present study assessed the reading stages of 1629 school-aged students with ID regardless of aetiology (age 6-21) in Bavaria, one of the largest regions in Germany within a randomly chosen and representative sample. Teachers described the reading and writing stages of their students in a questionnaire following the developmental model of Frith. Results indicate that 29.3% do not read at all, 6.8% read at a logographic stage, 31.9% at an alphabetic and 32% at an orthographic level. Writing achievements are lower on average. We analyze and discuss the determinants of literacy in this sample with regard to the sociocultural background of students with ID and draw conclusions for teaching and school policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The challenges in monitoring and preventing patient safety incidents for people with intellectual disabilities in NHS acute hospitals: evidence from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Goulding, Lucy; Gordon, Vanessa; Abraham, Elisabeth; Giatras, Nikoletta; Edwards, Christine; Gillard, Steve; Hollins, Sheila

    2014-09-24

    There has been evidence in recent years that people with intellectual disabilities in acute hospitals are at risk of preventable deterioration due to failures of the healthcare services to implement the reasonable adjustments they need. The aim of this paper is to explore the challenges in monitoring and preventing patient safety incidents involving people with intellectual disabilities, to describe patient safety issues faced by patients with intellectual disabilities in NHS acute hospitals, and investigate underlying contributory factors. This was a 21-month mixed-method study involving interviews, questionnaires, observation and monitoring of incident reports to assess the implementation of recommendations designed to improve care provided for patients with intellectual disabilities and explore the factors that compromise or promote patient safety. Six acute NHS Trusts in England took part. Data collection included: questionnaires to clinical hospital staff (n = 990); questionnaires to carers (n = 88); interviews with: hospital staff including senior managers, nurses and doctors (n = 68) and carers (n = 37); observation of in-patients with intellectual disabilities (n = 8); monitoring of incident reports (n = 272) and complaints involving people with intellectual disabilities. Staff did not always readily identify patient safety issues or report them. Incident reports focused mostly around events causing immediate or potential physical harm, such as falls. Hospitals lacked effective systems for identifying patients with intellectual disabilities within their service, making monitoring safety incidents for this group difficult.The safety issues described by the participants were mostly related to delays and omissions of care, in particular: inadequate provision of basic nursing care, misdiagnosis, delayed investigations and treatment, and non-treatment decisions and Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders. The events leading to avoidable harm

  15. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Parent Involvement in Meaningful Post-School Experiences for Young Adults with IDD and Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi; Lederer, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Despite initiatives supporting young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to engage in post-secondary education and integrated employment, those with more intensive support needs are not as easily involved in these post-school experiences. In an effort to learn from positive examples, we examined parent involvement in…

  17. Intellectual property right in genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are necessary in food production and biodiversity conservation. These are the most important natural resources, in addition to air, water and soil. Unfortunately, during the evolution large number of plant genetic resources has been lost. The biggest negative impact on loss of plant genetic resources had been made by humans through the modernization of agriculture and the creation of varieties of high genetic uniformity. FAO and its operation through international mechanisms, such as the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first legal act which regulates all levels of biodiversity: ecosystems, species and genetic resources, biotechnology, including the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (regulates the transfer of genetic material across the border, contributed to the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. In addition to the Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO has been defined by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in more specific and detailed way, the preservation of genetic resources. The objectives of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use. There are four basic pillars which form the substance of the Contract, Sustainable use of plant genetic resources, Farmers' Rights, the Multilateral System and the Global Information System. Two organizations, the International Biodiversity and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants trying to solve the issues of protection of the population and old varieties as intellectual property.

  18. Involvement of nurses in end-of-life discussions for severely disabled children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal-Schuller, I. H.; Willems, D. I.; Ewals, F.; van Goudoever, J. B.; de Vos, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), discussions about end-of-life decisions (EoLDs) are comparatively common. Nurses play a crucial role in the care for these children, yet their involvement in EoLD discussions is largely unknown. The objective of this research

  19. Hypomorphic mutations in PGAP2, encoding a GPI-anchor-remodeling protein, cause autosomal-recessive intellectual disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Tawamie, Hasan; Murakami, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    PGAP2 encodes a protein involved in remodeling the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor in the Golgi apparatus. After synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), GPI anchors are transferred to the proteins and are remodeled while transported through the Golgi to the cell membrane. Germline...... mutations in six genes (PIGA, PIGL, PIGM, PIGV, PIGN, and PIGO) in the ER-located part of the GPI-anchor-biosynthesis pathway have been reported, and all are associated with phenotypes extending from malformation and lethality to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, minor dysmorphisms, and elevated...... alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We performed autozygosity mapping and ultra-deep sequencing followed by stringent filtering and identified two homozygous PGAP2 alterations, p.Tyr99Cys and p.Arg177Pro, in seven offspring with nonspecific autosomal-recessive intellectual disability from two consanguineous...

  20. Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-03-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the Stanford-Binet. Additional comparisons with other measures suggested that the WAIS might systematically underestimate severity of intellectual impairment. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding determination of disability status, estimating prevalence of ID, assessing dementia and aging-related cognitive declines, and diagnosis of ID in forensic cases involving a possible death penalty.

  1. Probable incidence of brain radiotherapy on intellectual efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.P.; Coudin, B.; Demeaux, H.; Celerier, D.; Caudry, M.; Guerin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty adult patients treated for brain tumors by radiation therapy were tested by the Weschler intelligence scale (WAIS). All patients were in complete clinical and scanographic remission. Intellectual quotient (IQ) and deterioration coefficient were evaluated. This coefficient was determined by separate study of intellectual faculties according to their relationship to external agressions. During the first months, IQ and deterioration coefficient are similar to those observed in the normal population. From 7 to 30 months, there is a significant diminution of the intellectual faculties (p = 0,01) noted on the deterioration coefficient but without global IQ alteration. After 30 months appears a decrease in the global IQ, testifying of further alteration of intellectual faculties. Radiation therapy seems to be the predominant factor in the induction of this deterioration and the importance of the irradiation volume appears to be essential. On the other hand, neurosurgery, chemotherapy and emotional status seem to be less important. Intellectual deterioration makes professionnal reinsertion difficult but not impossible. Further studies are necessary to define what place take other factors like age, vascular status, tumor site, type and number of chemotherapy cycles, acute radiation tolerance, in the induction of this deterioration [fr

  2. Value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Paknezhad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that conventional accounting does not provide actual value of a firm since they only take into account the tangible assets. Intellectual capital provides a new concept for considering actual value of the assets, which helps calculate intangible values of the firm. In this paper, we use value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC to measure the performance of a firm. The study investigates the relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets and value added for three consecutive years between 2008 and 2010. The results indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets for fiscal years of 2008 and 2009 but there is a meaningful relationship between these two items for the fiscal year of 2010 when . Our findings also indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and value added for the years of 2008 and 2010 but there is a meaningful relationship between the items for the fiscal year of 2009. The results somewhat confirm the recently published results in the literature, which argues the use of VAIC for assessing the direct impact of IC on other financial factors.

  3. The role of intellectual capital in promoting knowledge management initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Esmaeil Zaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of intellectual capital in promotion of successful knowledge management (KM initiatives. The conclusions are based on the results of field studies conducted in the subsidiary companies of Ministry of Energy of Islamic Republic of Iran (Sistan & Baluchestan Province. Before designing the conceptual framework, relevant literature pertaining to the history of the work at hand, was reviewed by the researcher. Based on the opinions of external experts, university professors and organization’s experienced executives, a research model was developed. Tools such as textual analysis and interviews were employed to explore relationships between intellectual capital and knowledge management. A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire which measured research variables like intellectual capital indexes and KM processes. The output of structural equations models (SEM and LISREL statistical software showed that intellectual capital and its components have direct effects in promoting KM processes in the subsidiary companies of Ministry of Energy of Islamic Republic of Iran (Sistan & Baluchestan Province. By improving intellectual capital and its indexes, knowledge management can be improved.

  4. On the Intellectual Movement in Turkey through Gramsci and Luxemburg

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    Sevgi Doğan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A petition signed by Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals denouncing the attacks in South East of Turkey and demanding a return to peace opens up to question how this intellectual movement can be evaluated as a political action and/or a form of resistance. Here I will try to analyze it from two different aspects: 1 the role of intellectuals leading social change; 2 the form of this movement. The first aspect is associated with the relation of theory to praxis that matters most. The questions are: Is the role of intellectuals in society only educative or pedagogical? Or can they also play the role of directors, organizers, and illuminators of larger groups? Regarding the second aspect, we should ask whether or not the movement led by this petition is spontaneous or organizational, which addresses us to the form of resistance. For this purpose, firstly, I will use Antonio Gramsci's theory of intellectuals. In the Prison Notebooks, Gramsci considers the problem not only as a cultural problem but as a problem directly linked to the concept of hegemony, praxis, and ideology. I will concentrate on some paragraphs in his fourth (§ 33, § 49, § 51, twelfth (§ 1, § 3, and eleventh (§ 12 Notebooks. Secondly, I will try to analyze this movement through Luxemburg’s concept of spontaneity and her understanding of consciousness especially by use of Mass Strike and Stagnation and Progress of Marxism.

  5. Knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability

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    Jasielska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability. The premises relating to mental functioning of these children suggest that this knowledge is poorer and less complex than the knowledge of their peers in the intellectual norm. The study used the authoring tool to measure children’s knowledge of emotions including the joy. This tool takes into account the cognitive representation of the basic emotions available in three codes: image, verbal, semantic and interconnection between the codes - perception, symbolization and conceptualization which perform the functions of perception, expression and understanding. The study included children with the intellectual norm (N = 30 and children with mild intellectual disability (N = 30. The obtained results mainly indicate the differences in how the happiness is understood by particular groups, to the detriment of children with disability. The character of the results is largely determined by the level of organization of knowledge about the joy and accompanying mental operations. The results will be discussed, among others, in the context of the adjustment of the programs of lasting increase of happiness for people with intellectual disability.

  6. Leveraging Old Intellectual Property to Accelerate Technology Entrepreneurship

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    Derek Smith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring or licensing assets to older technologies, including surviving intellectual property rights, is an often-overlooked viable strategy for accelerating technology entrepreneurship. This strategy can help entrepreneurs short-cut the growth of a customer base, reduce development effort, and shorten the time to market with a minimum viable product. However, this strategy is not without risk; entrepreneurs need to be careful that the acquired intellectual property rights are not fraught with issues that could severely outweigh any perceived value. Proper investigation is required to ensure success because the current literature fails to provide tools that an entrepreneur can apply when considering the acquisition of intellectual property. This article includes a case study of a technology company – Piranha Games – that indirectly acquired sole and exclusive access to a substantial historical customer base by acquiring and licensing older technology and surviving intellectual property assets. The founders then leveraged the existing product brand and its historical customers to acquire significant funding and went global with a minimum viable product in three years. The copyright and trademark assets provided value on day one to Piranha Games by making it difficult and risky for others to exploit the technology. Based on this case study, this article offers recommendations to entrepreneurs who may benefit from acquiring old intellectual property to accelerate the growth of their startups.

  7. Person-centred planning: an example of best practices in the field of intellectual disability

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    Araceli Arellano Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the focus of supports in the field of intellectual disability is the individual, with special emphasis on decision-making by users of different services and, therefore, on the need of consultation. In that sense, Person Centered Planning (PCP becomes an example of best practice that leads the individuals as a central reference, in order to know what is desirable for them and make it possible. This practices requires the professional’s participation and involvement, to carry out all the changes that it implies. The purpose of this paper is to present a questionnaire, which is used to assess the perception of professionals on PCP methodology. The results of a pilot study (N = 18 are described, showing the importance of professional’s training. An organization that is really committed to this approach, will be more effective if it involves those who have to implement it, providing them training related to this best practice.

  8. Model of Intellectual Disability and the Relationship of Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Persons with an Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchomiuk, Monika

    2013-06-01

    The following article discusses the relationship between the model of intellectual disability and the attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities. This correlation has been verified during the author's own research conducted on students of several medical faculties such as nursing, public health, emergency medical services and physiotherapy. Tools of the author's design have been used in the research. Likert-type scale "Perspective of intellectual disability" has been used to determine the model of disability seen from the medical (individual) or social perspective. To examine the attitudes towards sexuality two tools of the author's own design have been used: a Likert-type scale "The essence of sexuality in persons with an intellectual disability" which has been used to analyze the cognitive aspect of the attitudes, and a semantic differential with notions concerning physical and psychosocial aspects of sexuality including the affective-evaluative aspect. As expected, significant correlations have been found between the model and the attitudes both in the cognitive and the affective-evaluative aspect. Higher scores for the individual model correlated with: (a) lover scores for most aspects of sexuality of people with intellectual disability, (b) perceiving them as asexual, (c) biological determinism in the sexual sphere. The social model concurred with positive values given to sexuality of people with intellectual disability and its normalization in the sphere of its determinants and symptoms.

  9. 76 FR 13404 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Option to Collaborator AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National... Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program's Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator. [[Page 13405... Evaluation Program (CTEP)'s Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator. The proposed revision represents a...

  10. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  11. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  12. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  13. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.B.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. Methods: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12–19 years of age

  14. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, R.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. METHODS: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12-19 years of age

  15. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, R.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. METHODS: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12-19 years of age

  16. READING-WRITING AND LITERACY IN CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

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    Marilene Bortolotti Boraschi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role and learning of reading and wrinting to human development as a social practice, considering the necessary condition to reading and writing as an exercise in citizenship. Aims to reflect on the occurrence of reading-writing processes and literacy in children with intellectual disabilities. The study was conducted by means of literature, and are based on a qualitative research. The reflections made throughout the investigation brought some considerations on intellectual disability, charactering it. Allowed some notes on the processes of reading-writing and literacy. As the survey results, some thoughts were about the possible occurrence of the processes of reading-writing and literacy in intellectually disabled children, discussing how these processes can take place through pedagogical practices in classrooms common regular education, contributing to the appropriation of the world literate and active participation by such child in society.

  17. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  18. Mapping Knowledge and Intellectual Capital in Academic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Tomas; Husted, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capitalmanagement in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some researchhas been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector...... reflect of the uses of knowledge mapping at their departments and institutes. Finally a number ofsuggestions are made as to the rationale and conduct of knowledge mapping in academe.Keywords: Knowledge mapping, academic, intellectual capital management, focus group, researchmanagement......,the university has so far not been directly considered for this type of management. The paper initiallyreviews the functions and techniques of knowledge mapping and assesses these in the light of academicdemands. Secondly, the result of a focus group study is presented, where academic leaders were askedto...

  19. Short-term memory coding in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-05-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these groups with MAs above 6 years showed significant visual similarity and word length effects, broadly consistent with an intermediate stage of dual visual and verbal coding. These results suggest that developmental progressions in memory coding strategies are independent of intellectual disabilities status and consistent with MA.

  20. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL REPORTING: NEW ACCOUNTING FOR THE NEW ECONOMY

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    Peter Demediuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 'new economy', ideas, practices and innovations that arise from the creation of intellectual capital have become a pre-eminent economic resource and the basis for competitive advantage. Attempts to develop cogent accounting praxis that makes intellectual capital discussable and therefore actionable, are constrained by the granular nature of existing definitions and taxonomies of intellectual capital. As a response to this lack of clarity, a model has been proposed that maps how a group of knowledge workers characterise the drivers and outcomes of their human creativity. The model indicates that accounting must break away from the traditional frame of reference that is 'the artifact', 'the entity', 'management control' and 'uniform reporting models'. At issue is whether the same set of measurement tools can provide descriptions of reality that have meaning for the decision making of individuals, and yet provide appropriate resourcing signals, evaluative information, and signs of legitimacy that are required by institutional management and other stakeholders.