WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrity assessment procedure

  1. Advanced structural integrity assessment procedures. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for discussion on recent results in research and utility practice in the field of methodology for the structural integrity assessment of components including relevant non-codified procedures. The scope of the meeting included deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The papers covered the following topics: Leak-before-break concepts; non-destructive examination (NDE) and surveillance results; statistical evaluation of non-destructive examination data; pressurized thermal shock evaluation; fatigue effects (including vibration); and verification qualification. The meeting was attended by 32 specialists from 8 countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Probabilistic assessment of flaw evaluation procedures for pressure vessel integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, D.H.; Bamford, W.H.; Jouris, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Prudent design procedures, in order to err in the direction of conservative over-strength rather than risky under-strength, have taken bounding values rather than best estimates for material parameters, and wherever possible, used conservative input for the calculations. The growing data base for this work is now beginning to allow an assessment of the conservatism that has been incorporated into the design procedure. Quantitative estimates of the variability associated with crack growth rates and fracture toughness have been generated in connection with other studies, and it would be useful to incorporate such information into an overall assessment of the design margins that are prescribed. In addition to getting an estimate of the conservatism in the current procedure, this study should provide a useful insight into the relative degree of margin that is introduced at each stage of the flaw evaluation process. Identification of the step by step margins should lead to more effective data collection programs from which information for adequately controlling the design conservatism can be obtained. The study will also provide valuable guidance in fixing revised design reference curves and safety factors so that adequate overall margins can be maintained without excess conservatism. This study is limited to vessel rupture in a brittle mode, and examples for illustration are particularly related to the beltline region of a reactor pressure vessel. The methodology, however, is applicable to all regions for which the required stress analyses, operating history, and material parameters are available. The work being carried out here is in consonance with ASME Section XI on Flaw Evaluation Procedures. It is concerned both with flaws under normal operating conditions and flaws under faulted conditions. (author)

  3. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  4. A review on the conservatism embodied in the integrity assessment procedure of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Han Sub; Kim, Hong Duk

    2009-01-01

    Excessive conservatism may be embodied in the integrity assessment procedure for PTs of CANDUs, as guided in the CSA N285.8-05 code. Four sources of conservatism are suggested as (1) the effect of thermal history on DHC, (2) the effect of manufacturing variables on properties of PTs, (3) poor definition or limited availability of databases regarding the aging degradation trends and probability density functions of important material properties, and (4) the simplified equations defining threshold condition for the initiation of DHC at the volumetric flaws. It is suggested that both extensive review of databases available and extensive calculation case studies are required to remove the potential excessive conservatism.

  5. Toward a procedure for integrating moral issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    Although ethics has been on the agenda in health technology assessment (HTA) since its inception, the integration of moral issues is still not standard and is performed in a vast variety of ways. Therefore, there is a need for a procedure for integrating moral issues in HTA. Literature review of existing approaches together with application of various theories in moral philosophy and axiology. The article develops a set of questions that addresses a wide range of moral issues related to the assessment and implementation of health technology. The issues include general moral issues and moral issues related to stakeholders, methodology, characteristics of technology, and to the HTA process itself. The questions form a kind of checklist for use in HTAs. The presented approach for integrating moral issues in HTA has a broad theoretical foundation and has shown to be useful in practice. Integrating ethical issues in HTAs can be of great importance with respect to the dissemination of HTA results and in efficient health policy making.

  6. A Multimode Adaptive Pushover Procedure for Seismic Assessment of Integral Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohtashami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new adaptive pushover procedure to account for the effect of higher modes in order to accurately estimate the seismic response of bridges. The effect of higher modes is considered by introducing a minimum value for the total effective modal mass. The proposed method employs enough number of modes to ensure that the defined total effective modal mass participates in all increments of the pushover loading. An adaptive demand curve is also developed for assessment of the seismic demand. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by conducting a parametric study. The analysis includes 18 four-span integral bridges with various heights of piers. The inelastic response history analysis is employed as reference solution in this study. Numerical results indicate excellent accuracy of the proposed method in assessment of the seismic response. For most bridges investigated in this study, the difference between the estimated response of the proposed method and the inelastic response history analysis is less than 25% for displacements and 10% for internal forces. This indicates a very good accuracy compared to available pushover procedures in the literature. The proposed method is therefore recommended to be applied to the seismic performance evaluation of integral bridges for engineering applications.

  7. A Spatial Allocation Procedure to Downscale Regional Crop Production Estimates from an Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Djordjevic, S.; Savic, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model, provides insight into the interactions and feedbacks between physical and human systems. The land system component of GCAM, which simulates land use activities and the production of major crops, produces output at the subregional level which must be spatially downscaled in order to use with gridded impact assessment models. However, existing downscaling routines typically consider cropland as a homogeneous class and do not provide information about land use intensity or specific management practices such as irrigation and multiple cropping. This paper presents a spatial allocation procedure to downscale crop production data from GCAM to a spatial grid, producing a time series of maps which show the spatial distribution of specific crops (e.g. rice, wheat, maize) at four input levels (subsistence, low input rainfed, high input rainfed and high input irrigated). The model algorithm is constrained by available cropland at each time point and therefore implicitly balances extensification and intensification processes in order to meet global food demand. It utilises a stochastic approach such that an increase in production of a particular crop is more likely to occur in grid cells with a high biophysical suitability and neighbourhood influence, while a fall in production will occur more often in cells with lower suitability. User-supplied rules define the order in which specific crops are downscaled as well as allowable transitions. A regional case study demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce historical trends in India by comparing the model output with district-level agricultural inventory data. Lastly, the model is used to predict the spatial distribution of crops globally under various GCAM scenarios.

  8. Guide for Regional Integrated Assessments: Handbook of Methods and Procedures, Version 5.1. Appendix 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, James W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Antle, John; Ruane, Alex; Boote, Ken; Thorburn, Peter; Valdivia, Roberto; Porter, Cheryl; Janssen, Sander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to describe recommended methods for a trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach for regional-scale (local to national scale) integrated assessment of agricultural systems under future climate, bio-physical and socio-economic conditions. An earlier version of this Handbook was developed and used by several AgMIP Regional Research Teams (RRTs) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA)(AgMIP handbook version 4.2, www.agmip.org/regional-integrated-assessments-handbook/). In contrast to the earlier version, which was written specifically to guide a consistent set of integrated assessments across SSA and SA, this version is intended to be more generic such that the methods can be applied to any region globally. These assessments are the regional manifestation of research activities described by AgMIP in its online protocols document (available at www.agmip.org). AgMIP Protocols were created to guide climate, crop modeling, economics, and information technology components of its projects.

  9. Application of the standard options of the FITNET procedure to the structural integrity assessment of welded specimens containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzioba, Ihor; Neimitz, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the structural integrity of welded specimens is assessed. The specimens were welded using a conventional technique, MAG, and an unconventional one, laser technology. Welded specimens were of the central crack under tension (CCT) type. The elements were loaded, the maximum load was recorded, and the second and the third options of the FITNET procedure were utilized to estimate the critical loading. Estimated and recorded loads were compared to verify the conservatism of the estimated results. For comparison, the results obtained using Option 1 of the FITNET procedure (not recommended in the case analysed) are also presented. Results of the mechanical properties, hardness, fracture toughness for the base and the weld material and residual stress distributions are reported for both MAG and laser welding techniques. The results obtained confirm that the FITNET procedures were properly deigned. The higher the level of analysis, the smaller the conservatism of predictions observed. The overconservative conclusions, following from the lower level of analysis, suggest that the structural element is endangered, do not have to exclude it from exploitation. The higher level of analysis can, in some cases, confirm that the structural element containing a crack can still be exploited

  10. The development and application of an integrated radiological risk assessment procedure using time-dependent probabilistic risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurens, J.M.; Thompson, B.G.J.; Sumerling, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the past decade, the UKDoE has funded the development of an integrated assessment procedure centred around probabilistic risk analysis (p.r.a.) using Monte Carlo simulation techniques to account for the effects of parameter value uncertainty, including those associated with temporal changes in the environment over a postclosure period of about one million years. The influence of these changes can now be incorporated explicitly into the p.r.a. simulator VANDAL (Variability ANalysis of Disposal ALternatives) briefly described here. Although a full statistically converged time-dependent p.r.a. will not be demonstrated until the current Dry Run 3 trial is complete, illustrative examples are given showing the ability of VANDAL to represent spatially complex groundwater and repository systems evolving under the influence of climatic change. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  11. Integrating environment into land-use planning through strategic environmental assessment in China: Towards legal frameworks and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Tang; Tan Zhu; He Xu

    2007-01-01

    China currently put forwards 'striving to build an environmentally friendly society' as one of the most important development goals. The land administration authorities are facing the challenge of effectively incorporating environment considerations into their planning system. This paper aims to investigate why and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is enacted as an effective tool to integrate the environment into land-use planning during the construction process of an environmentally friendly society in China, and identify factors that influence the integration. It presents characteristics of the land-use planning system, and reviews the progress and current state of SEA in China. Results show that SEA provides many benefits in promoting environmental considerations into the land-use planning process. The legal frameworks and operational procedures, in the context of land-use master planning SEA, are summarized and an assessment made of their effectiveness. Some barriers are highlighted through examination of the latest case studies, and several recommendations are presented to overcome these obstacles

  12. Waste minimization assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellythorne, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative

  13. IAEA-NULIFE VERLIFE - Procedure for integrity and lifetime assessment of components and piping in WWER NPPs during operation - Tool for LTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    2012-01-01

    VERLIFE - 'Unified Procedure for Lifetime Assessment of Components and Piping in WWER NPPs during Operation' was developed within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Union in 2003 and later upgraded within the 6th Framework Programme 'COVERS - Safety of WWER NPPs' of the European Union in 2008. This Procedure had to fill the gap in original Soviet/Russian Codes and Rules for WWER type NPPs, as these codes were developed only for design and manufacture and were not changed since their second edition in 1989. VERLIFE Procedure is based on these Russian codes but incorporates also new developments in research, mainly in fracture mechanics, and also some principal approaches used in PWR codes. To assure that VERLIFE Procedure will remain a living document, new 3-years IAEA project (in close cooperation with another project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union 'NULIFE - Plant Life Management of NPPs') has started in 2009. Final document, was approved by expert groups of the IAEA and NULIFE in June 28-30, 2011, and will be issued as 'IAEA/NULIFE Guidelines for Integrity and Lifetime Assessment of Components and Piping in WWER NPPs during Operation'. This document represents a necessary part for any integrity and lifetime assessment during operation that is a bases for further decision about safe and potential long term operation. To prepare documents like TLAA, it is necessary to have a tool that is able to evaluate lifetime of the main NPP components taking into account existing past operation as well as proposal for the future. (author)

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  15. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment.
    This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability

  16. Integrated assessment briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  17. Effect of biological and chemical oxidation on the removal of estrogenic compounds (NP and BPA) from wastewater: an integrated assessment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Dal Grande, Mario; Papa, Matteo; Zambarda, Valerio; Montani, Claudia; Steimberg, Nathalie; Mazzoleni, Giovanna; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2011-04-01

    A major source of the wide presence of EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Compounds) in water bodies is represented by direct/indirect discharge of sewage. Recent scientific literature reports data about their trace concentration in water, sediments and aquatic organisms, as well as removal efficiencies of different wastewater treatment schemes. Despite the availability of a huge amount of data, some doubts still persist due to the difficulty in evaluating synergistic effects of trace pollutants in complex matrices. In this paper, an integrated assessment procedure was used, based on chemical and biological analyses, in order to compare the performance of two full scale biological wastewater treatment plants (either equipped with conventional settling tanks or with an ultrafiltration membrane unit) and tertiary ozonation (pilot scale). Nonylphenol and bisphenol A were chosen as model EDCs, together with the parent compounds mono- and di-ethoxylated nonylphenol (quantified by means of GC-MS). Water estrogenic activity was evaluated by applying the human breast cancer MCF-7 based reporter gene assay. Process parameters (e.g., sludge age, temperature) and conventional pollutants (e.g., COD, suspended solids) were also measured during monitoring campaigns. Conventional activated sludge achieved satisfactory removal of both analytes and estrogenicity. A further reduction of biological activity was exerted by MBR (Membrane Biological Reactor) as well as ozonation; the latter contributed also to decrease EDC concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollutant Assessments Group procedures manual: Volume 2, Technical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This is volume 2 of the manuals that describes the technical procedures currently in use by the Pollution Assessments Group. This manual incorporates new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and administrative policy. Descriptions of the equipment, procedures and operations of such things as radiation detection, soil sampling, radionuclide monitoring, and equipment decontamination are included in this manual. (MB)

  19. FRAPCON-3: Integral assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Berna, G.A.; Berna, G.A.

    1997-12-01

    An integral assessment has been performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the predictive capabilities of FRAPCON-3, a steady-state fuel behavior code designed to analyze fuel behavior from beginning-of-life to burnup levels of 65 GWd/MTU. FRAPCON-3 code calculations are shown to compare satisfactorily to a pre-selected set of experimental data with steady-state operating conditions. 30 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Computerized Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to operating procedures, both computer and paper-based, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed, the models used by the nuclear industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed, and scientist advances are also explored. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for computerized and paper-based procedures are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMLAB.

  1. Assessment in Counseling: A Guide to the Use of Psychological Assessment Procedures. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Albert B.; Johnson, Richard W.

    This book presents information about various psychological assessment procedures that are specifically relevant for practicing counselors. It deals with the use of assessment procedures in the counseling process and emphasizes the selection, interpretation, and communication of psychological test results. The importance of integrating test results…

  2. Procedure Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA captures and distributes operational knowledge in the form of procedures. These procedures are created and accessed by a range of people performing many...

  3. Procedures for health risk assessment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeley, M.R.; Tonner-Navarro, L.E.; Beck, B.D.; Deskin, R.; Feron, V.J.; Johanson, G.; Bolt, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report compares cancer classification systems, health risk assessment approaches, and procedures used for establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs), in various European countries and scientific organizations. The objectives were to highlight and compare key aspects of these processes and

  4. SPECAL ISSUE Assessing the Assessment Procedures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Education/CBE Courses at Jimma. University .... Develop policies and strategies for the CBE courses with high levels of ... practices to enhance successful performance and sustainability of the philosophy in ... Thus, descriptive method was used in this study to assess and describe the existing condition of ...

  5. Procedure for the assessment of material control and accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parziale, A.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1979-01-01

    For the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a procedure was developed and tested for the evaluation of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems at nuclear fuel facilities. This procedure, called the Structured Assessment Approach, SAA, subjects the MC and A system at a facility to a series of increasingly sophisticated adversaries and strategies. A fully integrated version of the computer codes which assist the analyst in this assessment will become available in October 1979. The concepts of the SAA and the results of the assessment of a hypothetical but typical facility are presented

  6. Integrated Assessment Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J. A.; Weyant, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment models of climate change (IAMs) are widely used to provide insights into the dynamics of the coupled human and socio-economic system, including emission mitigation analysis and the generation of future emission scenarios. Similar to the climate modeling community, the integrated assessment community has a two decade history of model inter-comparison, which has served as one of the primary venues for model evaluation and confirmation. While analysis of historical trends in the socio-economic system has long played a key role in diagnostics of future scenarios from IAMs, formal hindcast experiments are just now being contemplated as evaluation exercises. Some initial thoughts on setting up such IAM evaluation experiments are discussed. Socio-economic systems do not follow strict physical laws, which means that evaluation needs to take place in a context, unlike that of physical system models, in which there are few fixed, unchanging relationships. Of course strict validation of even earth system models is not possible (Oreskes etal 2004), a fact borne out by the inability of models to constrain the climate sensitivity. Energy-system models have also been grappling with some of the same questions over the last quarter century. For example, one of "the many questions in the energy field that are waiting for answers in the next 20 years" identified by Hans Landsberg in 1985 was "Will the price of oil resume its upward movement?" Of course we are still asking this question today. While, arguably, even fewer constraints apply to socio-economic systems, numerous historical trends and patterns have been identified, although often only in broad terms, that are used to guide the development of model components, parameter ranges, and scenario assumptions. IAM evaluation exercises are expected to provide useful information for interpreting model results and improving model behavior. A key step is the recognition of model boundaries, that is, what is inside

  7. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). METHODS: A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200...... suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable......, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. CONCLUSION: The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE...

  8. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.) [de

  9. Defect assessment procedures at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment procedure for the high-temperature response of structures is being produced. The procedure is referred to as R5 and is written as a series of step-by-step instructions in a number of volumes. This paper considers in detail those parts of R5 which address the behaviour of defects. The defect assessment procedures may be applied to defects found in service, postulated defects, or defects formed during operation as a result of creep-fatigue loading. In the last case, a method is described for deducing from endurance data the number of cycles to initiate a crack of a specified size. Under steady loading, the creep crack tip parameter C * is used to assess crack growth. Under cyclic loading, the creep crack growth during dwell periods is stiell governed by C * but crack growth due to cyclic excursions must also be included. This cyclic crack growth is described by an effective stress intensity factor range. A feature of the R5 defect assessment procedures in that they are based on simplified methods and approximate reference stress methods are described which enable C * in a component to be evaluated. It is shown by comparison with theoretical calculations and experimental data that reliable estimates of C * and the associated crack growth are obtained provided realistic creep strain rate date are used in the reference stress approximation. (orig./HP)

  10. Integrating environmental and socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Cluett, C.; Page, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, considerable scientific and regulatory attention has been given to the preparation of environmental impact assessments. Part of this attention has been directed to definition of the proper scope of an environmental assessment and to debate about how the ''human environment'' should be addressed. This debate continues, and is reflected in the ongoing evolution of the definition of and relationship between the ''environmental'' and ''socioeconomic'' components of an integrated environmental impact assessment. This paper discusses the need for close integration between the environmental and socioeconomic assessment efforts and examines some of the benefits and difficulties of achieving this integration

  11. Procedure for the assessment of material control and accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoni, A.; Sacks, I.; Cleland, L.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the LLL program for MC and A system assessment is reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the assessment procedure and results. The integrated approach we have taken includes many of the functions normally assigned to physical security. Deceit and tampering are explicitly considered. The results of such a detailed assessment include a systematic identification of adversary targets; the most vulnerable portions of the safeguards system; the number and type of adversaries required, in collusion, to fail the system; and the conditional probabilities of safeguard system failure for a variety of assumptions. The assessment procedure was demonstrated by analyzing a prototype fuel cycle facility, the Test Bed. We believe our methodology will be useful to the NRC as a means of performing detailed, objective assessments. The nuclear industry also should find it valuable as a design tool

  12. Technical Assessment: Integrated Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and resources we routinely demand are predicated on the delivery of high-bandwidth services. At the same time, new computing paradigms such as cloud ...state of the art IPCs onshore. Recommendation 11: Continue to implement policies designed to ensure production integrity of IPC technology. This...operators include both content providers such as Netflix, and Amazon , and neutral providers such as Digital Realty, Equinix, and Rackspace. Cloud operators

  13. State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA) is the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) first national data collection on state Medicaid program...

  14. Pressure vessel integrity and weld inspection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, K.A.; Okrent, D.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to develop a simple methodology which, when coupled with existing observations on pressure vessel behavior, provides an inter-relation between pressure vessel integrity, and the parameters of the in-service inspection program, including inspection sample size, frequency and efficiency. A modified Markov process is employed and a computer code was written to obtain numerical results. The Markov process mathematically describes the following physical events. In a nuclear reactor pressure vessel weld, some defects may exist prior to the zeroth inspection (i.e., prior to vessel operation). During the zeroth inspection and repair processes, some of these defects are removed. During the first cycle of vessel operation, the existing defects may grow and some new defects may be generated. Those defects that are found at the first (and succeeding) inspection interval and warrant repair, are repaired. The above process continues through several operating cycles to the end of vessel life. During any inspection, only a portion of the welds may be inspected, and with less than perfect efficiency

  15. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardanz, R; Gimeno, B S; Bermejo, V; Elvira, S; Martin, F; Palacios, M; Rodriguez, E; Donaire, I [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effect emission reduction strategies based on critical threshold. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/FIN/336). The subproject has focused on three tasks. Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain. Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystem and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alternative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs.

  16. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  17. Contextualized personality: traditional and new assessment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Watson, David; Komar, Jennifer; Min, Ji-A; Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine

    2007-12-01

    We describe our ongoing program of research related to the assessment of contextualized personality, focusing on social roles and cultural cues as contextual factors. First, we present our research employing the traditional assessment approach, wherein participants are asked to rate explicitly their personality across several different roles. We argue that this hypothetical approach is potentially susceptible to the influence of stereotypes, social desirability, and demand characteristics. We therefore describe the development of three novel and subtle assessment procedures that are based on obtaining online self-representations that are activated while occupying a specific context. Finally, the strengths and limitations of all four approaches, as well as directions for future research in the study of contextualized personality, are discussed.

  18. Developing Integrated Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Sciences Procedures to Assess Impacts of Climate Variations on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Maha

    2016-07-01

    Pakistan's periled treasures of mangroves require protection from devastating anthropogenic activities, which can only be achieved through the identification and management of this habitat. The primary objective of this study is to identify the potential habitat of mangroves along the coastline of Pakistan with the help of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Once the mangroves were identified, species of mangroves need to be separated through Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) which gave the area of mangroves and non mangroves sites. Later other parameters of Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Salinity, chlorophyll-a along with altimetry data were used to assess the climatic variations on the spatio-temporal distribution of mangroves. Since mangroves provide economical, ecological, biological indication of Coastal Change or Sea Level Rise. Therefore, this provides a strong platform to assess the climatic variations which are posing negative impacts on the mangroves ecosystem. The results indicate that mangroves are present throughout along the coastline, proving that Pakistan is rich in these diverse ecosystems. Pakistan being at important geo strategic position can also benefit from its vast mangroves and other coastal resources such as coral reefs and fish varieties. Moreover, coastal zone management through involvement of the local community and establishment of Marine Protected Area (MPA) is the need of the hour to avoid deforestation of mangroves, which can prove to be deadly damaging for the fish populace since it provides habitats to various marine animals. However, the established relationship among SST, SSS, chlorophyll-a and altimetry data assisted to know the suitable sites for mangroves. But due to enhanced climatic impacts these relationships are distorted which has posed devastating effects on the growth and distribution of mangroves. Study area was Karachi Coast, Pakistan. The total area of Karachi is about 70

  19. Structured Assessment Approach: a procedure for the assessment of fuel cycle safeguard systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parziale, A.A.; Patenaude, C.J.; Renard, P.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed and tested for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission a procedure for the evaluation of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems at Nuclear Fuel Facilities. This procedure, called the Structured Assessment Approach, SAA, subjects the MC and A system at a facility to a series of increasingly sophisticated adversaries and strategies. A fully integrated version of the computer codes which assist the analyst in this assessment was made available in October, 1979. The concepts of the SAA and the results of the assessment of a hypothetical but typical facility are presented

  20. Integrated assessment of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers are working on all the separate parts of the climate problem. The objective of integrated assessment is to put the results from this work together in order to look carefully at the big picture so as to: (1) keep a proper sense of perspective about the problem, since climate change will occur in the presence of many other natural and human changes; (2) develop the understanding necessary to support informed decision making by many different key public and private actors around the world; and (3) assure that the type and mix of climate-related research that is undertaken will be as useful as possible to decisions makers in both the near and long term. This paper outlines a set of design guidelines for formulating integrated assessment programs and projects and then outlines some of the current problems and opportunities. Selected points are illustrated by drawing on results from the integrated assessment research now in progress at Carnegie Mellon University

  1. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to mea...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts.......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  2. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Described is the background work performed jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom with the purpose of developing a high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for reactor components. Existing creep-fatigue crack-growth models are reviewed, and the most promising methods are identified. Sources of material data are outlined, and results of the fundamental deformation and crack-growth tests are discussed. Results of subcritical crack-growth exploratory tests, creep-fatigue crack-growth tests under repeated thermal transient conditions, and exploratory failure tests are presented and contrasted with the analytical modeling. Crack-growth assessment methods are presented and applied to a typical liquid-metal reactor component. The research activities presented herein served as a foundation for the Flaw Assessment Guide for High-Temperature Reactor Components Subjected to Creep-Fatigue Loading published separately. 30 refs., 108 figs., 13 tabs

  3. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    1989-08-01

    The current program represents a joint effort between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in Japan, and the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in the UK. The goal is to develop an interim high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for high-temperature reactor components. This is to be accomplished through exploratory experimental and analytical studies of high-temperature crack growth. The state-of-the-art assessment and the fracture mechanics database for both types 304 and 316 stainless steels, completed in 1988, serve as a foundation for the present work. Work in the three participating organizations is progressing roughly on schedule. Results to-date are presented in this document. Fundamental tests results are discussed in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on results of exploratory subcritical crack growth tests. Progress in subcritical crack growth modeling is reported in Section 4. Exploratory failure tests are outlined in Section 5. 21 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Aiming for a fully integrated computerized procedure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    A fully integrated Computerized Procedure System must provide, at a minimum, a) Specification: access to design basis procedures, b) Monitoring: incorporation of real-time plant status, c) Advise: highlighting likely decision paths, and d) Reporting: logging conditions and actions taken. The CPS plays a critical role in overcoming the human factors that lead to accidents. At the same time it can be an essential tool in providing the information and automation to augment what humans do best, identify patterns and make associative leaps in the presence of ambiguous data. Timeliner and TaskGuide are examples of CPS that have evolved from projects in the aerospace industry. They illustrate certain common characteristics of a CPS, namely the knowledge base, user interface, and traceability features. The complexity and number of procedures for a current nuclear project has led to the development of two tools, the Power Generation Control System (PGCS) and the Online Procedure System (OLPS). Together, these systems address the knowledge-base and user interface aspects of a CPS and go a long way in addressing other areas. PGCS and OLPS contain full configuration management capabilities for procedures and the operating recipe. They include administrative functions for online and offline management of documents and data. Some lessons learned from this pair of programs developed by Invensys is the need for more integrated recording mechanisms. The future of CPS is likely to see higher integration of the document access, system status, decision support and logging capabilities. The CPS may evolve into the standard operational interface. Internet technologies that are common-place today have made the possibility of the Active Document a reality. The OPC Foundation is pursuing standards that may accelerate such developments. (authors)

  5. A new approach of optimization procedure for superconducting integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, K.; Soutome, Y.; Tarutani, Y.; Takagi, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed and tested a new circuit simulation procedure for superconducting integrated circuits which can be used to optimize circuit parameters. This method reveals a stable operation region in the circuit parameter space in connection with the global bias margin by means of a contour plot of the global bias margin versus the circuit parameters. An optimal set of parameters with margins larger than these of the initial values has been found in the stable region. (author)

  6. Structural integrity investigations of feeder pipe ice plugging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaman, M.T.; Shah, N.N.

    1985-03-01

    A procedure involving the use of a liquid nitrogen cooled heat exchanger to form internal ice plugs in feeder pipes is routinely used in nuclear generating stations. The use of this procedure has caused concerns with regard to the safety of station maintenance personnel, and in regard to the integrity of the feeder pipes. This report describes the results of laboratory stress and pressure measurements which were performed on a feeder pipe section during ice plugging operations to investigate these concerns. From the results of this study, and from the results of previous studies of material behaviour at low temperatures, it has been determined that the ice plugging procedure can be performed on feeder pipes in a safe and effective manner

  7. Assessment procedures results of training in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Galkina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the procedures for evaluating the results of training in biology. The mechanisms for monitoring the learning outcomes of a biology teacher are presented. Examples of algorithms for procedures for evaluating learning outcomes in biology are demonstrated.

  8. Conference on authorisation procedures and territorial integration of methanation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Katharina; Furois, Timothee; Molinie, Lea; Fuseliez, Sabrina; Stolpp, Sebastian; Lavoue, Fannie; Grosse, Andreas; Charbeaux, Veronique; Chapelat, Nicolas; Merigout, Patricia; Stinner, Walter; Trommler, Marcus; Jacobi, H. Fabian; Mauky, E.; Weinrich, S.

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the authorisation procedures and the territorial integration of methanation projects. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the situation of methanation industry in both countries, on the legal framework of authorization procedures, and on the different local strategies for the integration of methanation facilities. A series of presentations deal with the use of digestates and put forward the differences between France and Germany in the use and valorization of methanation digestates. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Bioenergy in the energy system of the future - Policy framework, new biogas regulations in the EEG 2014 German law (Katharina Boettcher); 2 - The energy Transition for Green Growth law and its role for the French biogas (Timothee Furois); 3 - The 'EMAA' (Energy Methanation Autonomy Nitrogen) plan - Progress status (Lea Molinie); 4 - Biogas in France: current status and outlooks, structuration of a developing industry and its role in the energy transition (Sabrina Fuseliez); 5 - Biogas market in Germany and potentials for development (Sebastian Stolpp); 6 - Authorization procedures in France, and the new unique authorization (Fannie Lavoue); 7 - Approval procedures for biogas plants and the protection of neighbours' rights in Germany (Andreas Grosse); 8 - Regional strategy of methanation development in Ile-de-France (Veronique Charbeaux) 9 - Renewable region and biogas integration: the Brittany biogas plan (Nicolas Chapelat); 10 - Bioenergy regions and the role of biogas - Good examples for sustainable bio-energy use (Birger Kerckow); 11 - Evaluation for registration in france of digestates produced by anaerobic digestion (Patricia Merigout); 12 - Treatment and Conditioning of Fermentation Residues from Biogas Plants (Marcus Trommler); 13

  9. 15 CFR 990.27 - Use of assessment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.27 Use of assessment procedures. (a) Standards for... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of assessment procedures. 990.27...

  10. Flaw assessment procedure for high temperature reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.; Takahashi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    An interim high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the USA, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the UK. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack growth laws may be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. Some of these limitations are to be addressed in an extension of the current collaborative program. 20 refs

  11. Integrated Assessment for an Integrated Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockrish, Rob

    1989-01-01

    In a sixth grade science classroom for able students, major grades are broken down into four categories: lab reports, projects, creative writing, and written tests. These four components of assessment structure how the curriculum content is presented. (JDD)

  12. Integral image rendering procedure for aberration correction and size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Holger; Ihrig, Andreas; Ebenau, Melanie; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2014-05-20

    The challenge in rendering integral images is to use as much information preserved by the light field as possible to reconstruct a captured scene in a three-dimensional way. We propose a rendering algorithm based on the projection of rays through a detailed simulation of the optical path, considering all the physical properties and locations of the optical elements. The rendered images contain information about the correct size of imaged objects without the need to calibrate the imaging device. Additionally, aberrations of the optical system may be corrected, depending on the setup of the integral imaging device. We show simulation data that illustrates the aberration correction ability and experimental data from our plenoptic camera, which illustrates the capability of our proposed algorithm to measure size and distance. We believe this rendering procedure will be useful in the future for three-dimensional ophthalmic imaging of the human retina.

  13. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  14. developing and implementing assessment moderation procedures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    Written laboratory reports are among the different types of assessment tasks. ... Carefully designed assessment tasks allow students to demonstrate achievement of clearly .... efficient and have a better understanding of how the lab connects to theory ... the mean values of the various marks students received in this study.

  15. Setting technical standards for visual assessment procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth H. Craik; Nickolaus R. Feimer

    1979-01-01

    Under the impetus of recent legislative and administrative mandates concerning analysis and management of the landscape, governmental agencies are being called upon to adopt or develop visual resource and impact assessment (VRIA) systems. A variety of techniques that combine methods of psychological assessment and landscape analysis to serve these purposes is being...

  16. Developing and implementing assessment moderation procedures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In evaluating laboratory reports, assessment criteria must be clearly established and made explicit to students before the lab activities so students can focus their efforts and the instructors will concentrate on major learning outcomes during marking the laboratory reports. This paper is intended to help draw assessment ...

  17. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (FJC; Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) defines the health-care elements that are to be reimbursed by sickness funds. To define a directive, the FJC can commission benefit assessments, which provide an overview of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and benefits of an intervention. This paper describes the operational implementation of the legal requirements with regard to the benefit assessments of medicines. Such benefit assessments are sometimes referred to as "isolated benefit assessments," to distinguish them from benefit assessments as part of a full economic evaluation.The FJC has the freedom to commission these assessments from any agency; however, to date the majority have commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Nevertheless, the content of this paper applies integrally to any institute commissioned for such assessments. In this report, 'the institute' is used when the text refers to any of these institutes.The legal framework for benefit assessments is laid out in the German Social Code Book version V ( http://www.sozialgesetzbuch.de ), Sects. 35b ( section 1), 139a ( section 4-6) and Sect. 139b ( section 3). It is specified that: The institute must guarantee high transparency. The institute must provide appropriate participation of relevant parties for the commission-related development of assessments, and opportunity for comment on all important segments of the assessment procedure. The institute has to report on the progress and results of the work at regular intervals. The institute is held to giving the commission to external experts. Based on the legal framework, the institute must guarantee a high procedural transparency. Transparency of the whole process should be achieved, which is evidenced by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. The most important means of enhancing transparency are: 1. To implement a scoping

  18. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (FJC; Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) defines the health-care elements that are to be reimbursed by sickness funds. To define a directive, the FJC can commission benefit assessments, which provide an overview of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and benefits of an intervention. This paper describes the operational implementation of the legal requirements with regard to the benefit assessments of medicines. Such benefit assessments are sometimes referred to as "isolated benefit assessments," to distinguish them from benefit assessments as part of a full economic evaluation. The FJC has the freedom to commission these assessments from any agency; however, to date the majority have commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Nevertheless, the content of this paper applies integrally to any institute commissioned for such assessments. In this report, "the institute"' is used when the text refers to any of these institutes. The legal framework for benefit assessments is laid out in the German Social Code Book version V (http://www. sozialgesetzbuch.de), Sects. 35b ( section sign 1), 139a ( section sign 4-6) and Sect. 139b ( section sign 3). It is specified that: The institute must guarantee high transparency. The institute must provide appropriate participation of relevant parties for the commission-related development of assessments, and opportunity for comment on all important segments of the assessment procedure. The institute has to report on the progress and results of the work at regular intervals. The institute is held to giving the commission to external experts. Based on the legal framework, the institute must guarantee a high procedural transparency. Transparency of the whole process should be achieved, which is evidenced by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. The most important means of enhancing transparency are: 1. To

  19. A procedure for the assessment of low frequency noise complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Andy T; Waddington, David C; Adams, Mags D

    2009-09-01

    The development and application of a procedure for the assessment of low frequency noise (LFN) complaints are described. The development of the assessment method included laboratory tests addressing low frequency hearing threshold and the effect on acceptability of fluctuation, and field measurements complemented with interview-based questionnaires. Environmental health departments then conducted a series of six trials with genuine "live" LFN complaints to test the workability and usefulness of the procedure. The procedure includes guidance notes and a pro-forma report with step-by-step instructions. It does not provide a prescriptive indicator of nuisance but rather gives a systematic procedure to help environmental health practitioners to form their own opinion. Examples of field measurements and application of the procedure are presented. The procedure and examples are likely to be of particular interest to environmental health practitioners involved in the assessment of LFN complaints.

  20. Integrity assessment of a storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Osorio Correa; Santos, Jose Henrique Gomes dos; Carvalho, Alexis Fernandes [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the last internal inspection of a 5000 bbl freshwater storage tank located in a shipping terminal, widespread pitting corrosion was detected on the shell courses. In some of these pits, its depth was such that the remaining thickness was bellow the minimum thickness required according to the design code. Nevertheless, this approach is overly conservative since it does not consider the pits size, depth and spacing. Thanks to advances in stress analysis, new tools are available for the evaluation of damaged equipment widely employed in the oil industry such as pressure vessels, piping and storage tanks. In the present work, the authors present the integrity assessment performed on this tank using the Fitness for Service approach using the methods and procedures contained in the document API RP 579 (Fitness-for-service). (author)

  1. Improving L2 Reading Comprehension through Emotionalized Dynamic Assessment Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrezapour, Parisa

    2017-06-01

    The paper reports a study on an emotionally-loaded dynamic assessment procedure used with Iranian EFL learners. It focuses on the effect of using emotional intelligence characteristics (based on Goleman's framework) as a tool for motivating learners while performing reading tasks. The study with 50 intermediate learners aged 12-15 used three modalities: a control group, which was taught under institute's normal procedures; a comparison group, which received dynamic assessment (DA); and an experimental group, which received emotionalized dynamic assessment (EDA) procedures, in the form of an intervention focusing on characteristics of Goleman's emotional intelligence framework with the express purpose of inducing them to work with their emotions. Results showed that applying EDA procedures to reading assessment tasks made a difference in learners' level of performance in comparison to those who went through pure DA procedures who in turn performed significantly better than those who did not received DA in any form.

  2. Patients exposure assessment for radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Stankovic, K.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.)

    2007-01-01

    In this work the results of dose assessment for the most frequent radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology are shown. Entrance surface doses were assessed for 7 radiographic procedures. Three hospitals, six x-ray units in total, were enrolled in investigation. Patient doses were estimated based on results of x-ray tube output measurements. Finally, doses were compared with Diagnostic reference level. Higher dose values were observed for chest examinations. In comparison with results from other countries, doses from this procedure in Serbia are significantly higher. Estimated doses for other procedures were well below Diagnostic reference levels [sr

  3. TADS Needs Assessment Procedures Manual, Summer 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Talbot; And Others

    The TADS (Technical Assistance Development System) Needs Assessment Manual is designed to guide the comprehensive review of Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) demonstration projects in identifying technical assistance needs. An introduction reviews the TADS technical assistance model which includes program planning, needs…

  4. Self-assessment procedure using fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimi, Fotini

    2000-10-01

    Self-Assessment processes, initiated by a company itself and carried out by its own people, are considered to be the starting point for a regular strategic or operative planning process to ensure a continuous quality improvement. Their importance has increased by the growing relevance and acceptance of international quality awards such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the European Quality Award and the Deming Prize. Especially award winners use the instrument of a systematic and regular Self-Assessment and not only because they have to verify their quality and business results for at least three years. The Total Quality Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), used for the European Quality Award, is the basis for Self-Assessment in Europe. This paper presents a self-assessment supporting method based on a methodology of fuzzy control systems providing an effective means of converting the linguistic approximation into an automatic control strategy. In particular, the elements of the Quality Model mentioned above are interpreted as linguistic variables. The LR-type of a fuzzy interval is used for their representation. The input data has a qualitative character based on empirical investigation and expert knowledge and therefore the base- variables are ordinal scaled. The aggregation process takes place on the basis of a hierarchical structure. Finally, in order to render the use of the method more practical a software system on PC basis is developed and implemented.

  5. Using a staircase procedure for the objective measurement of auditory stream integration and segregation thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Isabel Spielmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis describes the ability to segregate relevant sounds out from the environment and to integrate them into a single sound stream using the characteristics of the sounds to determine whether or not they are related. This study aims to contrast task performances in objective threshold measurements of segregation and integration using identical stimuli, manipulating two variables known to influence streaming, inter-stimulus-interval (ISI and frequency difference (Δf. For each measurement, one parameter (either ISI or Δf was held constant while the other was altered in a staircase procedure. By using this paradigm, it is possible to test within-subject across multiple conditions, covering a wide Δf and ISI range in one testing session. The objective tasks were based on across-stream temporal judgments (facilitated by integration and within-stream deviance detection (facilitated by segregation. Results show the objective integration task is well suited for combination with the staircase procedure, as it yields consistent threshold measurements for separate variations of ISI and Δf, as well as being significantly related to the subjective thresholds. The objective segregation task appears less suited to the staircase procedure. With the integration-based staircase paradigm, a comprehensive assessment of streaming thresholds can be obtained in a relatively short space of time. This permits efficient threshold measurements particularly in groups for which there is little prior knowledge on the relevant parameter space for streaming perception.

  6. Assessment of LANL transportation policies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    In order to determine whether activities related to the transportation of waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were being conducted in accordance with DOE policy, requirements stated in applicable DOE Orders were reviewed and compared with LANL policies and procedures described in the Administrative Requirements and the On-Site Transportation Manual. The following DOE Orders were determined to pertain to waste transportation and thus reviewed to identify requirements for which LANL is responsible for satisfying: Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management; Order 1540.1 Materials Transportation and Traffic Management; and Order 5480.3 Safety Requirements for the Packaging and Transportation of Hazardous Materials, Hazardous Substances, and Hazardous Wastes. The LANL On-Site Transportation Manual and the Administrative Requirements contained in the LANL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual were reviewed to verify that each of the requirements identified through the review of the Orders and 10 CFR Part 71 were being satisfied. The following Administrative Requirements were considered in this task: Shipment of Radioactive Materials; Radioactive Liquid Waste; Low-Level Radioactive Solid Waste; Chemical, Hazardous, and Mixed Waste; Polychlorinated Biphenyls; and Transuranic (TRU) Solid Waste

  7. WWER 440 integrity assessment with respect to PTS events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrazsky, M.; Mikua, M.; Hermansky, P.

    1997-01-01

    The present state of art in WWER 440 RPV integrity assessment with respect to PTS events utilized in Slovakia is reviewed briefly in this paper. Recent results of some PTS's (very severe) analyses, shortly described in our paper, have confirmed the necessity of elaboration of new more sophisticated procedures again. Such methodology should be based on prepared IAEA Guidance. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  8. Integrated site investigation procedure for environment protection toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, R C; Roslan, R; Baharuddin, I N Z

    2013-01-01

    The spatial configuration of cities and their relationship to the urban environment has recently been the subject of empirical, theoretical and policy research. An awareness of environmental issues can assist policy makers, planners, developers and others to recognize the constraints imposed upon development due the physical environment especially in areas, which are susceptible to erosion, flooding and landslide. This paper highlights the key requirements for considering an assessment to protect our urban environment by incorporating three main factor i.e. policy practice, planning process and engineering investigation. Base on this three main factor the framework of the assessment is carried out. The assessment can be divided into three different categories, namely as investigation for planning, investigation for urban development and specialized investigation and mitigation. The minimum requirements for the planning and urban development investigation are listed. These guidelines suggest the level at which the various types of investigation should be carried out as well as the range of application, the scope and methodology to be used for different investigation. It is hoped that this procedure will provide guidance in the establishment and protection of urban ecosystem toward sustainable development.

  9. Software quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste risk assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, I.; Mayer, J.

    1990-01-01

    This support study for the evaluation of the safety of geological disposal systems is aimed at identifying the requirements for software quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste risk assessment codes, and to recommend appropriate procedures. The research covers: (i) the analysis of existing procedures and definition of requirements; (ii) a case study of the use of some existing procedures; (iii) the definition and the implementation of procedures. The report is supported by appendices that give more detail on the procedures recommended. It is intended to provide ideas on the steps that should be taken to ensure the quality of the programs used for assessment of the safety case for radioactive waste repositories, and does not represent the introduction of wholly new ideas or techniques. The emphasis throughout is on procedures that will be easily implemented, rather than on the fully rigorous procedures that are required for some application areas. The study has concentrated on measures that will increase the confidence in repository performance assessments among the wider scientific/engineering community, and the lay public

  10. Public Participation Procedure in Integrated Transport and Green Infrastructure Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finka, Maroš; Ondrejička, Vladimír; Jamečný, Ľubomír; Husár, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The dialogue among the decision makers and stakeholders is a crucial part of any decision-making processes, particularly in case of integrated transportation planning and planning of green infrastructure where a multitude of actors is present. Although the theory of public participation is well-developed after several decades of research, there is still a lack of practical guidelines due to the specificity of public participation challenges. The paper presents a model of public participation for integrated transport and green infrastructure planning for international project TRANSGREEN covering the area of five European countries - Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary and Romania. The challenge of the project is to coordinate the efforts of public actors and NGOs in international environment in oftentimes precarious projects of transport infrastructure building and developing of green infrastructure. The project aims at developing and environmentally-friendly and safe international transport network. The proposed public participation procedure consists of five main steps - spread of information (passive), collection of information (consultation), intermediate discussion, engagement and partnership (empowerment). The initial spread of information is a process of communicating with the stakeholders, informing and educating them and it is based on their willingness to be informed. The methods used in this stage are public displays, newsletters or press releases. The second step of consultation is based on transacting the opinions of stakeholders to the decision makers. Pools, surveys, public hearings or written responses are examples of the multitude of ways to achieve this objective and the main principle of openness of stakeholders. The third step is intermediate discussion where all sides of are invited to a dialogue using the tools such as public meetings, workshops or urban walks. The fourth step is an engagement based on humble negotiation, arbitration and

  11. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K.; Nevasmaa, P. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A. [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  12. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K; Nevasmaa, P [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. TMACS Test Procedure TP010: Integration summary. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurling, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Soft Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes

  14. A procedure for safety assessment of components with cracks - Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Bergman, M.; Brickstad, B.; Dahlberg, L.; Nilsson, F.; Sattari-Far, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this handbook a procedure is described which can be used both for assessment of detected cracks or crack like defects or for defect tolerance analysis. The procedure can be used to calculate possible crack growth due to fatigue or stress corrosion and to calculate the reserve margin for failure due to fracture and plastic collapse. For ductile materials, the procedure gives the reserve margin for initiation of stable crack growth. Thus, an extra reserve margin, unknown to size, exists for failure in components made of ductile materials. The procedure was developed for operative use with the following objectives in mind: The procedure should be able to handle both linear and non-linear problems without any a priori division; The procedure shall ensure uniqueness of the safety assessment; The procedure should be well defined and easy to use; The conservatism of the procedure should be well validated; The handbook that documents the procedure should be so complete that for most assessments access to any other fracture mechanics literature should not be necessary. The method utilized is based on the R6-method developed at Nuclear Electric plc. This method can in principle be used for all metallic materials. It is, however, more extensively verified for steel alloys only. The method is not intended for use in temperatures where creep deformation is of importance. The first edition of the handbook was released in 1990 and the second in 1991. This third edition has been extensively revised. A Windows-based program (SACC) has been developed which can perform the assessments described in the book including calculation of crack growth due to stress corrosion and fatigue. 52 refs., 27 figs., 35 tabs

  15. TMACS test procedure TP010: Integration summary. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurling, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure verifies that Test Procedures 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9 (WHC-SD-WM-TRP-105, 106, 107, 109 and 113) of TMACS Software Release 4.1 have been successfully completed

  16. DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnfield, Steve; Hautamäki, Airi; Nørbech, Peder; Sahhar, Nicola

    2010-07-01

    This article gives a brief over view of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008) together with the various DMM assessments of attachment that have been developed for specific stages of development. Each assessment is discussed in terms of procedure, outcomes, validity, advantages and limitations, comparable procedures and areas for further research and validation. The aims are twofold: to provide an introduction to DMM theory and its application that underlie the articles in this issue of CCPP; and to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to DMM assessments.

  17. Integrated climate change risk assessment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models...... to address the complex linkages between the different kinds of data required in assessing climate adaptation. It emphasizes that the availability of spatially explicit data can reduce the overall uncertainty of the risk assessment and assist in identifying key vulnerable assets. The usefulness...... of such a framework is demonstrated by means of a risk assessment of flooding from extreme precipitation for the city of Odense, Denmark. A sensitivity analysis shows how the presence of particularly important assets, such as cultural and historical heritage, may be addressed in assessing such risks. The output...

  18. Philosophy of integrity assessment of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of engineering components in power plants and process industries has attracted global attention from the viewpoint of safety and economy for their optimum utilization. This paper describes some aspects of philosophy of component integrity such as life assessment technology, materials used and the factors limiting the serviceability of the components operating at high temperatures and pressures. Numerous investigations have been carried out all over the world to study changes in microstructure and material property due to prolonged service of the components to decide their further serviceability. This paper includes case studies on integrity assessment of service-exposed components carried out in our laboratory as well

  19. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-01-01

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness

  20. Crowd-sourced assessment of surgical skills in cricothyrotomy procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Nava; Bly, Randall; White, Lee W; Hannaford, Blake; Moe, Kris; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-06-15

    Objective assessment of surgical skills is resource intensive and requires valuable time of expert surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a large group of laypersons using a crowd-sourcing tool to grade a surgical procedure (cricothyrotomy) performed on a simulator. The grading included an assessment of the entire procedure by completing an objective assessment of technical skills survey. Two groups of graders were recruited as follows: (1) Amazon Mechanical Turk users and (2) three expert surgeons from University of Washington Department of Otolaryngology. Graders were presented with a video of participants performing the procedure on the simulator and were asked to grade the video using the objective assessment of technical skills questions. Mechanical Turk users were paid $0.50 for each completed survey. It took 10 h to obtain all responses from 30 Mechanical Turk users for 26 training participants (26 videos/tasks), whereas it took 60 d for three expert surgeons to complete the same 26 tasks. The assessment of surgical performance by a group (n = 30) of laypersons matched the assessment by a group (n = 3) of expert surgeons with a good level of agreement determined by Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.83. We found crowd sourcing was an efficient, accurate, and inexpensive method for skills assessment with a good level of agreement to experts' grading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A National Needs Assessment to Identify Technical Procedures in Vascular Surgery for Simulation Based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayahangan, L J; Konge, L; Schroeder, T V; Paltved, C; Lindorff-Larsen, K G; Nielsen, B U; Eiberg, J P

    2017-04-01

    Practical skills training in vascular surgery is facing challenges because of an increased number of endovascular procedures and fewer open procedures, as well as a move away from the traditional principle of "learning by doing." This change has established simulation as a cornerstone in providing trainees with the necessary skills and competences. However, the development of simulation based programs often evolves based on available resources and equipment, reflecting convenience rather than a systematic educational plan. The objective of the present study was to perform a national needs assessment to identify the technical procedures that should be integrated in a simulation based curriculum. A national needs assessment using a Delphi process was initiated by engaging 33 predefined key persons in vascular surgery. Round 1 was a brainstorming phase to identify technical procedures that vascular surgeons should learn. Round 2 was a survey that used a needs assessment formula to explore the frequency of procedures, the number of surgeons performing each procedure, risk and/or discomfort, and feasibility for simulation based training. Round 3 involved elimination and ranking of procedures. The response rate for round 1 was 70%, with 36 procedures identified. Round 2 had a 76% response rate and resulted in a preliminary prioritised list after exploring the need for simulation based training. Round 3 had an 85% response rate; 17 procedures were eliminated, resulting in a final prioritised list of 19 technical procedures. A national needs assessment using a standardised Delphi method identified a list of procedures that are highly suitable and may provide the basis for future simulation based training programs for vascular surgeons in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of corrosion defects on the structural integrity of X52 gas pipelines using the SINTAP procedure and notch theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, H.; Jallouf, S.; Schmitt, C.; Carmasol, A.; Pluvinage, G.

    2007-01-01

    The notch stress intensity factor concept and the structural integrity assessment procedure for European industry (SINTAP) structural integrity procedure are used to assess gas pipeline integrity using deterministic and probabilistic methods. These pipes have external longitudinal semi-elliptical corrosion defects. Stress concentration at a defect tip is investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method analysis. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into the SINTAP procedure and a notch-based failure assessment diagram is proposed. The safety factor and security factor are calculated through the SINTAP basic level

  3. Evaluation of the effect of corrosion defects on the structural integrity of X52 gas pipelines using the SINTAP procedure and notch theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, H. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Jallouf, S. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Schmitt, C. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France)]. E-mail: schmitt@enim.fr; Carmasol, A. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Pluvinage, G. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France)

    2007-03-15

    The notch stress intensity factor concept and the structural integrity assessment procedure for European industry (SINTAP) structural integrity procedure are used to assess gas pipeline integrity using deterministic and probabilistic methods. These pipes have external longitudinal semi-elliptical corrosion defects. Stress concentration at a defect tip is investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method analysis. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into the SINTAP procedure and a notch-based failure assessment diagram is proposed. The safety factor and security factor are calculated through the SINTAP basic level.

  4. Assessment of radiological properties of wastes from urban decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, D.N.G.; Guimarães, J.R.D.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Rochedo, P.R.R.; De Luca, C.

    2015-01-01

    One important activity associated to urban areas contaminated from accidental releases to the atmosphere of nuclear power plants is the management of radioactive wastes generated from decontamination procedures. This include the collection, conditioning, packing, transport and temporary/final disposition. The final destination is defined usually through a political decision. Thus, transport of packed radioactive wastes shall depend on decisions not just under the scope of radiological protection issues. However, the simulations performed to assess doses for the public and decontamination workers allows the estimate of radiological aspects related to the waste generated and these characteristics may be included in a multi-criteria decision tool aiming to support, under the radiological protection point of view, the decision-making process on post-emergency procedures. Important information to decision makers are the type, amount and activity concentration of wastes. This work describes the procedures to be included in the urban area model to account for the assessment of qualitative and quantitative description of wastes. The results will allow the classification of different procedures according to predefined criteria that shall then feed the multi-criteria assessment tool, currently under development, considering basic radiological protection aspects of wastes generated by the different available cleanup procedures on typical tropical urban environments. (authors)

  5. Assessment of the MPACT Resonance Data Generation Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-26

    Currently, heterogeneous models are being used to generate resonance self-shielded cross-section tables as a function of background cross sections for important nuclides such as 235U and 238U by performing the CENTRM (Continuous Energy Transport Model) slowing down calculation with the MOC (Method of Characteristics) spatial discretization and ESSM (Embedded Self-Shielding Method) calculations to obtain background cross sections. And then the resonance self-shielded cross section tables are converted into subgroup data which are to be used in estimating problem-dependent self-shielded cross sections in MPACT (Michigan Parallel Characteristics Transport Code). Although this procedure has been developed and thus resonance data have been generated and validated by benchmark calculations, assessment has never been performed to review if the resonance data are properly generated by the procedure and utilized in MPACT. This study focuses on assessing the procedure and a proper use in MPACT.

  6. Assessment of Conventional Teaching Procedures: Implications for Gifted Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenizi, Mogbel Aid K.

    2016-01-01

    The present research aims to assess the conventional teaching procedures in the development of mathematical skills of the students with learning difficulties. The study group was made up of all the children with academic learning disorders in KSA. The research questions have been scrutinized from the averages and the standard deviation of the…

  7. Youth Reactions to Participation in Psychological Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Lisa; DuBois, David L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates self-reported positive and negative reactions of youth to psychological assessment procedures. A community sample (COM) reported reactions to completing a self-report questionnaire of negative emotional states. A clinical sample (CL) reported reactions both to completion of the questionnaire and to a clinical intake.…

  8. Innovative Approaches to Increasing the Student Assessment Procedures Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Chelyshkova, Marina B.; Malygin, Alexey A.; Toymentseva, Irina A.; Anopchenko, Tatiana Y.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is determined by the need to improving the evaluation procedures in education and the student assessment in the age of the context of education widening, new modes of study developing (such as blending learning, e-learning, massive open online courses), immediate feedback necessity, reliable and valid…

  9. WWER 440 integrity assessment with respect to PTS events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrazsky, M; Mikua, M; Hermansky, P [Nuclear Power Plant Research Inst. Trnava Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-09-01

    The present state of art in WWER 440 RPV integrity assessment with respect to PTS events utilized in Slovakia is reviewed briefly in this paper. Recent results of some PTS`s (very severe) analyses, shortly described in our paper, have confirmed the necessity of elaboration of new more sophisticated procedures again. Such methodology should be based on prepared IAEA Guidance. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig.

  10. Integrated Plan-Procedures-Telemetry Ops Concept and Prototype

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project scope includes developing the ops concept and prototype for a near-seamless interface between mission plans, electronic procedures and live telemetry...

  11. Application of a faith-based integration tool to assess mental and physical health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Donna M; Leak, Jean; Carver, Monique E; Smith, Selina A

    2017-01-01

    To build on current research involving faith-based interventions (FBIs) for addressing mental and physical health, this study a) reviewed the extent to which relevant publications integrate faith concepts with health and b) initiated analysis of the degree of FBI integration with intervention outcomes. Derived from a systematic search of articles published between 2007 and 2017, 36 studies were assessed with a Faith-Based Integration Assessment Tool (FIAT) to quantify faith-health integration. Basic statistical procedures were employed to determine the association of faith-based integration with intervention outcomes. The assessed studies possessed (on average) moderate, inconsistent integration because of poor use of faith measures, and moderate, inconsistent use of faith practices. Analysis procedures for determining the effect of FBI integration on intervention outcomes were inadequate for formulating practical conclusions. Regardless of integration, interventions were associated with beneficial outcomes. To determine the link between FBI integration and intervention outcomes, additional analyses are needed.

  12. Integrating Ecohealth Assessment in the Americas | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, very few impact assessment laws are adequately implemented in Latin ... Integrated eco-health assessment law in the Americas : a hemispheric research ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management. International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  13. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  14. Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.

  15. Romanian network for structural integrity assessment of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Brad, Sebastian; Ducu, Catalin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Based of the Romanian option to develop and operate nuclear facilities, using as model the networks created at European level and taking into account the international importance of the structural integrity assessments for lifetime extension of the nuclear components, a national Project started since 2005 in the framework of the National Program 'Research of Excellence', Modulus I 2006-2008, managed by the Ministry of Education and Research. Entitled 'Integrated Network for Structural Integrity Monitoring of Critical Components in Nuclear Facilities', with the acronym RIMIS, the Project had two main objectives: - to elaborate a procedure applicable to the structural integrity assessment of the critical components used in Romanian nuclear facilities; - to integrate the national networking in a similar one, at European level, to enhance the scientific significance of Romanian R and D organizations as well as to increase the contribution to solving one of the major issue of the nuclear field. The paper aimed to present the activities performed in the Romanian institutes, involved in the Project, the final results obtained as part of the R and D activities, including experimental, theoretical and modeling ones regarding structural integrity assessment of nuclear components employed in CANDU type reactors. Also the activity carried out in the framework of the NULIFE network, created at European level of the FP6 Program and sustained by the RIMIS network will be described. (authors)

  16. Generating consistent buildings: A semantic approach for integrating procedural techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutenel, T.; Smelik, R.M.; Lopes, R.; Kraker, K.J. de; Bidarra, R.

    2011-01-01

    Computer games often take place in extensive virtual worlds, attractive for roaming and exploring. Unfortunately, current virtual cities can strongly hinder this kind of gameplay, since the buildings they feature typically have replicated interiors, or no interiors at all. Procedural content

  17. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  18. Generic procedures for assessment and response during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    One of the most important aspects of managing a radiological emergency is the ability to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of the public and emergency workers. Radiological accident assessment must take account of all critical information available at any time and must be an iterative and dynamic process aimed at reviewing the response as more detailed and complete information becomes available. This manual provides the tools, generic procedures and data needed for an initial response to a non-reactor radiological accident. This manual is one out of a set of IAEA publications on emergency preparedness and response, including Method for the Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents (IAEA-TECDOC-953), Generic Assessment Procedures for Determining Protective Actions During a Reactor Accident (IAEA-TECDOC-955) and Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency (Safety Series No. 109)

  19. Continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines using complemented FEA results – Part II: Procedure application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, László; Fekete, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    The general objective of this paper is to execute the continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines with the developed procedure has been presented in the Part I. This aim was performed with a large dataset of complemented finite element analysis (FEA) results and burst test values can be found in the References. The numerical investigations have been done with an assumed sample-case taking spherical and spheroid shaped characteristic and mobile defects into account. The most important achievements are the supplemented ductile failure analysis, the continuous suitability of the weak link, the strain-based design criteria and the continuous integrity assessment diagrams. - Highlights: • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) examinations are performed for selection of a sample-case to investigate corrosion defects. • Serial calculations are carried out to determine the continuous suitability of the corroded pipeline sections. • We investigate the shape and size effects of corrosion defects on load carrying capacities (LCCs) of defective pipelines. • Continuous integrity assessment diagram (CIAD) showing the decreasing competent LCCs in the operation time is introduced. • Verification of the proposed method is performed by comparing the FEA results with burst pressure values measured.

  20. Tree Simulation Techniques for Integrated Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez Asensio, E.; Izquierdo Rocha, J.M.; Sanchez Perez, M.; Hortal Reymundo, J.; Perez Mulas, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the development of a PSA a central role is played by the construction of the event trees that, stemming from each initiating event considered, will finally lead to the calculation of the core damage frequency (CDF). This construction is extensively done by means of expert judgement, performing simulation of the sequences only when some doubt arises (typically for small break LOCAs) using integrated codes. Transient analysis done within the framework of the PSA has important simplifications that affect the transient simulation, specially in relation with the control and protection systems, and may not identify complicated sequences. Specialised simulation tools such as RELAP5 have been used only at very specific points of the PSAs due to time and model complexity constraints. On the other hand, a large amount of work and expertise has been laid in the development of simulation tools, independently of the PSA effort. Tools simplified in the phenomena they consider, but complete in the treatment of automatic and manual control and protection systems are now available for automatic generation and testing of the sequences appearing in the Event Trees. Additionally, an increasing effort and interest has been spent in the development of efficient means for the representation of the Emergency Operating Procedures, which, incorporated into the simulating tool would make a more realistic picture of the real plant performance. At present; both types of analyses - transient and probabilistic - can converge to be able to dynamically generate an Event Tree while taking into account the actual performance of the control and protection systems of the plant and the operator actions. Such a tool would allow for an assessment of the Event Trees, and, if fed with probabilistic data, can provide results of the same nature. Key aspects of this approach that imply new theoretical as well as practical developments in addition to those traditionally covered by classical simulation

  1. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  2. Structural integrity evaluation of X52 gas pipes subjected to external corrosion defects using the SINTAP procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib-Ramezani, H.; Jeong, J.; Pluvinage, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the SINTAP procedure has been proposed as a general structural integrity tool for semi-spherical, semi-elliptical and long blunt notch defects. The notch stress intensity factor concept and SINTAP structural integrity procedure are employed to assess gas pipelines integrity. The external longitudinal defects have been investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method results. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into SINTAP procedure. The safety factor is calculated via SINTAP procedure levels 0B and 1B. The extracted evaluations are compared with the limit load analysis based on ASME B31G, modified ASME B31G, DNV RP-F101 and recent proposed formulation [Choi JB, Goo BK, Kim JC, Kim YJ, Kim WS. Development of limit load solutions for corroded gas pipelines. Int J Pressure Vessel Piping 2003;80(2):121-128]. The comparison among extracted safety factors exhibits that SINTAP predictions are located between lower and upper safety factor bounds. The SINTAP procedure including notch-based assessment diagram or so-called 'NFAD' involves wide range of defect geometries with low, moderate and high stress concentrations and relative stress gradients. Finally, some inspired and advanced viewpoints have been investigated

  3. Structural integrity evaluation of X52 gas pipes subjected to external corrosion defects using the SINTAP procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib-Ramezani, H. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite d' Orleans, CNRS-CRMD, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: hradib_2000@yahoo.com; Jeong, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite d' Orleans, CNRS-CRMD, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Pluvinage, G. [Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM), Universite de Metz-ENIM, 57045 Metz (France)

    2006-06-15

    In the present study, the SINTAP procedure has been proposed as a general structural integrity tool for semi-spherical, semi-elliptical and long blunt notch defects. The notch stress intensity factor concept and SINTAP structural integrity procedure are employed to assess gas pipelines integrity. The external longitudinal defects have been investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method results. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into SINTAP procedure. The safety factor is calculated via SINTAP procedure levels 0B and 1B. The extracted evaluations are compared with the limit load analysis based on ASME B31G, modified ASME B31G, DNV RP-F101 and recent proposed formulation [Choi JB, Goo BK, Kim JC, Kim YJ, Kim WS. Development of limit load solutions for corroded gas pipelines. Int J Pressure Vessel Piping 2003;80(2):121-128]. The comparison among extracted safety factors exhibits that SINTAP predictions are located between lower and upper safety factor bounds. The SINTAP procedure including notch-based assessment diagram or so-called 'NFAD' involves wide range of defect geometries with low, moderate and high stress concentrations and relative stress gradients. Finally, some inspired and advanced viewpoints have been investigated.

  4. Assessment of integrity of structures containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the investigations is to provide a method of assessing the safety and integrity of structures containing cracklike defects. Estimated load at which the cracked structure will fail is compared with the highest load likely to be applied in service

  5. Integrated assessment models of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.; Fisher-Vanden, K.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review recent work in the integrated assessment modeling of global climate change. This field has grown rapidly since 1990. Integrated assessment models seek to combine knowledge from multiple disciplines in formal integrated representations; inform policy-making, structure knowledge, and prioritize key uncertainties; and advance knowledge of broad system linkages and feedbacks, particularly between socio-economic and bio-physical processes. They may combine simplified representations of the socio-economic determinants of greenhouse gas emissions, the atmosphere and oceans, impacts on human activities and ecosystems, and potential policies and responses. The authors summarize current projects, grouping them according to whether they emphasize the dynamics of emissions control and optimal policy-making, uncertainty, or spatial detail. They review the few significant insights that have been claimed from work to date and identify important challenges for integrated assessment modeling in its relationships to disciplinary knowledge and to broader assessment seeking to inform policy- and decision-making. 192 refs., 2 figs

  6. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program: 1990 Integrated Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The document, the 'Integrated Assessment,' is a summary of the causes and effects of acidic deposition and a comparison of the costs and effectiveness of alternative emission control scenarios. In developing the 'Integrated Assessment,' it was NAPAP's goal to produce a structured compilation of policy-relevant technical information. The Integrated Assessment is based on findings and data from a series of twenty-seven State-of-Science/Technology Reports (SOS/T) on acidic deposition published by NAPAP in 1990. The scope of the documents includes: (1) emissions, atmospheric processes and deposition; (2) effects on surface waters, forests, agricultural crops, exposed materials, human health, and visibility; and (3) control technologies, future emissions, and effects valuation

  7. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  8. Assessment of Conventional Teaching Procedures: Implications for Gifted Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogbel Aid K Alenizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to assess the conventional teaching procedures in the development of mathematical skills of the students with learning difficulties. The study group was made up of all the children with academic learning disorders in KSA. The research questions have been scrutinized from the averages and the standard deviation of the marks scored by the participants in the test and control group. The outcomes of the study show that the conventional teaching procedures have effects on mathematical skill development of the female pupils with learning disorders. The results of the study show that the test group outperformed the control group. Based on the data and the evidences, various recommendations have been proposed for the stakeholders in the area of teaching the gifted children so as to ascertain better training for them. Keywords: Maths skills, Learning difficulties, Saudi Arabia

  9. Integrating analytical procedures into the continuous audit environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Koskivaara

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show how to embed analytical procedures (AP into the continuous audit environment. The audit environment is discussed in terms of audit phases, where the role of APs is to obtain evidence for auditors. The article addresses different characteristics of AP techniques. Furthermore, the article compares four different AP techniques to form expectations for the monthly sales values. Two of these techniques are simple quantitative ones, such as the previous year’s value and the mean of the previous years’ values. The advanced quantitative techniques are regression analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN-based model. In a comparison of the prediction results, the regression analysis and ANN model turn out to be equally good. The development of these kinds of tools is crucial to the continuous audit environment, especially when most data transmission between companies and their stakeholders are moved into the electronic form.

  10. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Quantitative assessment of integrated phrenic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2016-06-01

    Integrated electrical activity in the phrenic nerve is commonly used to assess within-animal changes in phrenic motor output. Because of concerns regarding the consistency of nerve recordings, activity is most often expressed as a percent change from baseline values. However, absolute values of nerve activity are necessary to assess the impact of neural injury or disease on phrenic motor output. To date, no systematic evaluations of the repeatability/reliability have been made among animals when phrenic recordings are performed by an experienced investigator using standardized methods. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting integrated phrenic nerve activity in many rat groups by the same experienced investigator; comparisons were made during baseline and maximal chemoreceptor stimulation in 14 wild-type Harlan and 14 Taconic Sprague Dawley groups, and in 3 pre-symptomatic and 11 end-stage SOD1(G93A) Taconic rat groups (an ALS model). Meta-analysis results indicate: (1) consistent measurements of integrated phrenic activity in each sub-strain of wild-type rats; (2) with bilateral nerve recordings, left-to-right integrated phrenic activity ratios are ∼1.0; and (3) consistently reduced activity in end-stage SOD1(G93A) rats. Thus, with appropriate precautions, integrated phrenic nerve activity enables robust, quantitative comparisons among nerves or experimental groups, including differences caused by neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural integrity assessment of piping components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of piping components is very essential for safe and reliable operation of power plants. Over the last several decades, considerable work has been done throughout the world to develop a methodology for integrity assessment of pipes and elbows, appropriate for the material involved. However, there is scope of further development/improvement of issues, particularly for pipe bends, that are important for accurate integrity assessment of piping. Considering this aspect, a comprehensive Component Integrity Test Program was initiated in 1998 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. In this program, both theoretical and experimental investigations were undertaken to address various issues related to the integrity assessment of pipes and elbows. Under the experimental investigations, fracture mechanics tests have been conducted on pipes and elbows of 200-400 mm nominal bore (NB) diameter with various crack configurations and sizes under different loading conditions. Tests on small tensile and three point bend specimens, machined from the tested pipes, have also been done to evaluate the actual stress-strain and fracture resistance properties of pipe/elbow material. The load-deflection curve and crack initiation loads predicted by non-linear finite element analysis matched well with the experimental results. The theoretical collapse moments of throughwall circumferentially cracked elbows, predicted by the recently developed equations, are found to be closer to the test data compared to the other existing equations. The role of stress triaxialities ahead of crack tip is also shown in the transferability of J-Resistance curve from specimen to component. The cyclic loading and system compliance effect on the load carrying capacity of piping components are investigated and new recommendations are made. (author)

  13. IkusaSA. Integrated Assessment for Sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , have intended and unintended consequences across a range of important issues. The IkusaSA model system comprises: ? A South African national IAM nested within one or more ?state-of-the-art? global IAMs that predict trade, climate change and human... the country and internationally. The IkusaSA mission is to establish Integrated Assessment Modeling (IAM) in South Africa. The goal is to put in place the tools for an integrated planning approach and provide effective information sharing mechanisms...

  14. Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures An Analysis of Outcome Studies of Youth Interventions Targeting Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, Pauline; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom; Stams, Geert-Jan; van Laar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates the implementation of treatment integrity procedures in outcome studies of youth interventions targeting behavioral problems. The Implementation of Treatment Integrity Procedures Scale (ITIPS), developed by Perepletchikova, Treat, and Kazdin (2007), was adapted

  15. Concrete containment integrity software: Procedure manual and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report is an executive summary describing the concrete containment analysis methodology and software that was developed in the EPRI-sponsored research to predict the overpressure behavior and leakage of concrete containments. A set of guidelines has been developed for performing reliable 2D axisymmetric concrete containment analysis with a cracking concrete constitutive model developed by ANATECH. The software package developed during this research phase is designed for use in conjunction with ABAQUS-EPGEN; it provides the concrete model and automates axisymmetric grid preparation, and rebar generation for 2D and 3D grids. The software offers the option of generating pre-programmed axisymmetric grids that can be tailored to a specific containment by input of a few geometry parameters. The goal of simplified axisymmetric analysis within the framework of the containment leakage prediction methodology is to compute global liner strain histories at various locations within the containment. A simplified approach for generating peak liner strains at structural discontinuities as function of the global liner strains has been presented in a separate leakage criteria document; the curves for strain magnification factors and liner stress triaxiality factors found in that document are intended to be applied to the global liner strain histories developed through global 2D analysis. This report summarizes the procedures for global 2D analysis and gives an overview of the constitutive model and the special purpose concrete containment analysis software developed in this research phase. 8 refs., 10 figs

  16. Nonspecialist Raters Can Provide Reliable Assessments of Procedural Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Oria; Dagnæs, Julia; Bube, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    was significant (p Pearson's correlation of 0.77 for the nonspecialists and 0.75 for the specialists. The test-retest reliability showed the biggest difference between the 2 groups, 0.59 and 0.38 for the nonspecialist raters and the specialist raters, respectively (p ... was chosen as it is a simple procedural skill that is crucial to master in a resident urology program. RESULTS: The internal consistency of assessments was high, Cronbach's α = 0.93 and 0.95 for nonspecialist and specialist raters, respectively (p correlations). The interrater reliability...

  17. Research on advanced system safety assessment procedures (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-03-01

    The past research reports in the area of safety engineering proposed the Computer-aided HAZOP system to be applied to Nuclear Reprocessing Facilities. Automated HAZOP system has great advantage compared with human analysts in terms of accuracy of the results, and time required to conduct HAZOP studies. This report surveys the literature on risk assessment and safety design based on the concept of independent protection layers (IPLs). Furthermore, to improve HAZOP System, tool is proposed to construct the basic model and the internal state model. Such HAZOP system is applied to analyze two kinds of processes, where the ability of the proposed system is verified. In addition, risk assessment support system is proposed to integrate safety design environment and assessment result to be used by other plants as well as to enable the underline plant to use other plants' information. This technique can be implemented using web-based safety information systems. (author)

  18. Temporal integration of loudness measured using categorical loudness scaling and matching procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2011-01-01

    integration of loudness and previously reported nonmonotonic behavior observed at mid-sound pressure level levels is replicated with this procedure. Stimuli that are assigned to the same category are effectively matched in loudness, allowing the measurement of temporal integration with CLS without curve...

  19. GIS based procedure of cumulative environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna Reddy, M; Blah, Baiantimon

    2009-07-01

    Scale and spatial limits of impact assessment study in a GIS platform are two very important factors that could have a bearing on the genuineness and quality of impact assessment. While effect of scale has been documented and well understood, no significant study has been carried out on spatial considerations in an impact assessment study employing GIS technique. A novel technique of impact assessment demonstrable through GIS approach termed hereby as 'spatial data integrated GIS impact assessment method (SGIAM)' is narrated in this paper. The technique makes a fundamental presumption that the importance of environmental impacts is dependent, among other things, on spatial distribution of the effects of the proposed action and of the affected receptors in a study area. For each environmental component considered (e.g., air quality), impact indices are calculated through aggregation of impact indicators which are measures of the severity of the impact. The presence and spread of environmental descriptors are suitably quantified through modeling techniques and depicted. The environmental impact index is calculated from data exported from ArcINFO, thus giving significant importance to spatial data in the impact assessment exercise.

  20. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  1. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenhuener, Bernd; Barth, Volker

    2005-01-01

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  2. Integrated safety assessment report, Haddam Neck Plant (Docket No. 50-213): Integrated Safety Assessment Program: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The integrated assessment is conducted on a plant-specific basis to evaluate all licensing actions, licensee initiated plant improvements and selected unresolved generic/safety issues to establish implementation schedules for each item. Procedures allow for a periodic updating of the schedules to account for licensing issues that arise in the future. The Haddam Neck Plant is one of two plants being reviewed under the pilot program. This report indicates how 82 topics selected for review were addressed, and presents the staff's recommendations regarding the corrective actions to resolve the 82 topics and other actions to enhance plant safety. 135 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Assessing Extinction Risk: Integrating Genetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Dunham

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Risks of population extinction have been estimated using a variety of methods incorporating information from different spatial and temporal scales. We briefly consider how several broad classes of extinction risk assessments, including population viability analysis, incidence functions, and ranking methods integrate information on different temporal and spatial scales. In many circumstances, data from surveys of neutral genetic variability within, and among, populations can provide information useful for assessing extinction risk. Patterns of genetic variability resulting from past and present ecological and demographic events, can indicate risks of extinction that are otherwise difficult to infer from ecological and demographic analyses alone. We provide examples of how patterns of neutral genetic variability, both within, and among populations, can be used to corroborate and complement extinction risk assessments.

  4. Integrated assessment indicator for watercourses. Perspectives and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voksoe, A.; Homstvedt, S.; Aalbu, Oe.; Valland, N.; Yndesdal, N.; Pettersen, S.; Eikenes, O.; Hoeifoedt, H.; Taugboel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This publication presents the result of a project aiming at developing a GIS (Geographical Information System) -based procedure to assess the integrated effect of various encroachments in and along watercourses. Four major catchments in Norway have been investigated. The GIS-method has been developed using existing data and data from detailed field registrations of encroachments in two catchments. Using existing data only, two other catchments have been analysed to test the validity of the proposed procedure. The various types of encroachments were assigned different weights and areal influences according to their estimated deteriorating effect on the natural situation. Applying the GIS-procedure the integrated effect is determined, giving a representative picture of the total situation. The results of the project are an interactive Windows-based application to operate the GIS-tool and produce maps as well as recommendations as to which categories of encroachments are to be considered. The method is proposed as a tool to obtain a consistent national management of preserved watersheds. 16 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Towards an integrated quality control procedure for eddy-covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Domenico; Papale, Dario

    2017-04-01

    The eddy-covariance technique is nowadays the most reliable and direct way, allowing to calculate the main fluxes of Sensible and Latent Heat and of Net Ecosystem Exchange, this last being the result of the difference between the CO2 assimilated by photosynthetic activities and those released to the atmosphere through the ecosystem respiration processes. Despite the improvements in accuracy of measurement instruments and software development, the eddy-covariance technique is not suitable under non-ideal conditions respect to the instruments characteristics and the physical assumption behind the technique mainly related to the well-developed and stationary turbulence conditions. Under these conditions the calculated fluxes are not reliable and need to be flagged and discarded. In order to discover these unavoidable "bad" fluxes and build dataset with the highest quality, several tests applied both on high-frequency (10-20 Hz) raw data and on half-hourly times series have been developed in the past years. Nevertheless, there is an increasing need to develop a standardized quality control procedure suitable not only for the analysis of long-term data, but also for the near-real time data processing. In this paper, we review established quality assessment procedures and present an innovative quality control strategy with the purpose of integrating the existing consolidated procedures with robust and advanced statistical tests more suitable for the analysis of time series data. The performance of the proposed quality control strategy is evaluated both on simulated and EC data distributed by the ICOS research infrastructure. It is concluded that the proposed strategy is able to flag and exclude unrealistic fluxes while being reproducible and retaining the largest possible amount of high quality data.

  6. Integrity Assessment of GOH Heater Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Oh, J. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    An assessment of structural integrity of ASTM A312-TP347 GOH heater tube was performed. The surface notches which had been produced during tube manufacturing process were analyzed microscopically. Chemical analysis, hardness tests, tensile tests, and J-Integral fracture resistance tests were carried out to compare the mechanical properties with those of the material specification and also with the other material of the same type. The test results showed the mechanical properties of the GOH tube material are within the specification range. An elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis based on the DPFAD method reveals the tube an appropriate safety margin for the normal operation. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  7. A study of reactor vessel integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV.

  8. Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Vorobyev, Y.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Queral, C.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Rebollo, M. J.; Mena, L.; Gomez-Magin, J.

    2014-02-01

    IDPSA (Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is a family of methods which use tightly coupled probabilistic and deterministic approaches to address respective sources of uncertainties, enabling Risk informed decision making in a consistent manner. The starting point of the IDPSA framework is that safety justification must be based on the coupling of deterministic (consequences) and probabilistic (frequency) considerations to address the mutual interactions between stochastic disturbances (e.g. failures of the equipment, human actions, stochastic physical phenomena) and deterministic response of the plant (i.e. transients). This paper gives a general overview of some IDPSA methods as well as some possible applications to PWR safety analyses. (Author)

  9. The Integrated Assessment of Land Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent findings on the complex field of land degradation (LD with focus on the Mediterranean Basin and Italy, in particular. The LD definition and assessment methods are examined in the light of the most important natural and human driving forces of the phenomenon, such as land use and climate changes.Various methodological issues are dealt with from multidisciplinary perspective with the aim of providing the ground for the development of integrated approaches: monitoring needs, assessment of costs, development of mitigation strategies, etc. Factors affecting land vulnerability to degradation are classified into bio-physical and socio-economic drivers with some examples of applications in Italy. The role of determinants such as agricultural development, population growth, and urban sprawl is recognised as important but still ambiguous and thus needs further studies. Based on these findings, policy responses aimed at mitigating LD and thus reducing desertification risk are discussed and methodological proposal are presented.

  10. An integrated computer-based procedure for teamwork in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Yu, Wenzhu; Jiang, Xiang; Song, Fei; Pan, Jiajie; Li, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Computer-based procedures (CBPs) are expected to improve operator performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs), but they may reduce the openness of interaction between team members and harm teamwork consequently. To support teamwork in the main control room of an NPP, this study proposed a team-level integrated CBP that presents team members' operation status and execution histories to one another. Through a laboratory experiment, we compared the new integrated design and the existing individual CBP design. Sixty participants, randomly divided into twenty teams of three people each, were assigned to the two conditions to perform simulated emergency operating procedures. The results showed that compared with the existing CBP design, the integrated CBP reduced the effort of team communication and improved team transparency. The results suggest that this novel design is effective to optim team process, but its impact on the behavioural outcomes may be moderated by more factors, such as task duration. The study proposed and evaluated a team-level integrated computer-based procedure, which present team members' operation status and execution history to one another. The experimental results show that compared with the traditional procedure design, the integrated design reduces the effort of team communication and improves team transparency.

  11. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-01-01

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R and D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  12. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest...... Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive......The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose...

  13. Framework and operational procedure for implementing Strategic Environmental Assessment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Cunkuan; Lu Yongsen; Shang Jincheng

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been implemented and become an important instrument for decision-making in development projects in China. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the P.R. China was promulgated on 28 October 2002 and will be put into effect on 1 September of 2003. The law provides that Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is required in regional and sector plans and programs. This paper introduces the research achievements and practice of SEA in China, discusses the relationship of SEA and 'integrating of environment and development in decision-making (IEDD)', and relevant political and legal basis of SEA. The framework and operational procedures of SEA administration and enforcement are presented. Nine cases are analyzed and some proposals are given

  14. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes...... integration shows the need for an additional pH controller in the fermenten A PI controller is implemented and tested. The complete control structure for the integrated system consists of this PI controller in the fermenter plus a previously developed (Prado-Rubio et al., 2010) input resetting control...

  15. Computational integration of the phases and procedures of calibration processes for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gleice R. dos; Thiago, Bibiana dos S.; Rocha, Felicia D.G.; Santos, Gelson P. dos; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    This work proceed the computational integration of the processes phases by using only a single computational software, from the entrance of the instrument at the Instrument Calibration Laboratory (LCI-IPEN) to the conclusion of calibration procedures. So, the initial information such as trade mark, model, manufacturer, owner, and the calibration records are digitized once until the calibration certificate emission

  16. Procedure and information displays in advanced nuclear control rooms: experimental evaluation of an integrated design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Gao, Qin; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Wang, Yufan

    2017-08-01

    In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants, operators frequently have to switch between procedure displays and system information displays. In this study, we proposed an operation-unit-based integrated design, which combines the two displays to facilitate the synthesis of information. We grouped actions that complete a single goal into operation units and showed these operation units on the displays of system states. In addition, we used different levels of visual salience to highlight the current unit and provided a list of execution history records. A laboratory experiment, with 42 students performing a simulated procedure to deal with unexpected high pressuriser level, was conducted to compare this design against an action-based integrated design and the existing separated-displays design. The results indicate that our operation-unit-based integrated design yields the best performance in terms of time and completion rate and helped more participants to detect unexpected system failures. Practitioner Summary: In current nuclear control rooms, operators frequently have to switch between procedure and system information displays. We developed an integrated design that incorporates procedure information into system displays. A laboratory study showed that the proposed design significantly improved participants' performance and increased the probability of detecting unexpected system failures.

  17. 78 FR 72878 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for Order No. 764...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM10-11-000] Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for Order No. 764 Electronic Compliance Filings Take... Variable Energy Resources, Order No. 764, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,331, order on reh'g, Order No. 764-A...

  18. Comparison and improvements of different Bayesian procedures to integrate external information into genetic evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, J.; Gengler, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare different Bayesian procedures to integrate information from outside a given evaluation system, hereafter called external information, and in this context estimated breeding values (EBV), into this genetic evaluation, hereafter called internal evaluation, and

  19. Two for the Price of One: Integration of NEPA and NHPA Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Environmental Protection Agency EPF Environmental Planning Function ERDC Engineer Research and Development Center ESA Endangered Species Act FHWA...procedural provisions of NEPA. Part 989.11 Combining EIAP with other documentation (a) The Environmental Planning Function ( EPF ) combines...this part. (b) The EPF must integrate comprehensive planning (AFI 32-7062, Air Force Comprehensive Planning) with the requirements of the EIAP. Prior

  20. Development of an Assessment Procedure for Seawater Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi Ting, F.; Yih Chi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Pingtung Plain is one of the areas with extremely plentiful groundwater resources in Taiwan. Due to that the application of the water resource is restricted by significant variation of precipitation between wet and dry seasons, groundwater must be used as a recharge source to implement the insufficient surface water resource during dry seasons. In recent years, the coastal aquaculture rises, and the over withdrawn of groundwater by private well results in fast drop of groundwater level. Then it causes imbalance of groundwater supply and leads to serious seawater intrusion in the coastal areas. The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated numerical model of groundwater resources and seawater intrusion. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), MODFLOW and MT3D models were applied to analyze the variation of the groundwater levels and salinity concentration to investigate the correlation of parameters, which are used to the model applications in order to disposal saltwater intrusion. The data of groundwater levels, pumping capacity and hydrogeological data to were collected to build an integrated numerical model. Firstly, we will collect the information of layered aquifer and the data of hydrological parameters to build the groundwater numerical model at Pingtung Plain, and identify the amount of the groundwater which flow into the sea. In order to deal with the future climate change conditions or extreme weather conditions, we will consider the recharge with groundwater model to improve the seawater intrusion problem. The integrated numerical model which describes that seawater intrusion to deep confined aquifers and shallow unsaturated aquifers. Secondly, we will use the above model to investigate the weights influenced by different factors to the amount area of seawater intrusion, and predict the salinity concentration distribution of evaluation at coastal area of Pingtung Plain. Finally, we will simulate groundwater recharge/ injection at the coastal

  1. HANFORD Pu-238 DRUM INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Hanford is presently retrieving contact-handled, transuranic (CH-TRU) waste drums from the site's Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) for processing and disposition. A subgroup of these drums (12 total), referred to as Pu-238 drums, has some unique characteristics that may impact the current drum handling and processing activities. These characteristics include content, shielding, thermal, pressurization and criticality issues. An effort to evaluate these characteristics, for the purpose of developing a specific plan for safe retrieval of the Pu-238 drums, is underway. In addition to the above evaluation, the following integrity assessment of the inner container material and/or confinement properties, with primary emphasis on the Source Capsule (primary confinement barrier) and Shipping Container has been performed. Assessment included review of the inner container materials and the potential impact the service history may have had on material and/or confinement properties. Several environmental degradation mechanisms were considered with the objective of answering the following question: Is it likely the container material and/or confinement properties have been significantly altered as a result of service history?

  2. Validity, reliability and support for implementation of independence-scaled procedural assessment in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Veeger, Nic J G M; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    2016-06-01

    There is no widely used method to evaluate procedure-specific laparoscopic skills. The first aim of this study was to develop a procedure-based assessment method. The second aim was to compare its validity, reliability and feasibility with currently available global rating scales (GRSs). An independence-scaled procedural assessment was created by linking the procedural key steps of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy to an independence scale. Subtitled and blinded videos of a novice, an intermediate and an almost competent trainee, were evaluated with GRSs (OSATS and GOALS) and the independence-scaled procedural assessment by seven surgeons, three senior trainees and six scrub nurses. Participants received a short introduction to the GRSs and independence-scaled procedural assessment before assessment. The validity was estimated with the Friedman and Wilcoxon test and the reliability with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). A questionnaire was used to evaluate user opinion. Independence-scaled procedural assessment and GRS scores improved significantly with surgical experience (OSATS p = 0.001, GOALS p < 0.001, independence-scaled procedural assessment p < 0.001). The ICCs of the OSATS, GOALS and independence-scaled procedural assessment were 0.78, 0.74 and 0.84, respectively, among surgeons. The ICCs increased when the ratings of scrub nurses were added to those of the surgeons. The independence-scaled procedural assessment was not considered more of an administrative burden than the GRSs (p = 0.692). A procedural assessment created by combining procedural key steps to an independence scale is a valid, reliable and acceptable assessment instrument in surgery. In contrast to the GRSs, the reliability of the independence-scaled procedural assessment exceeded the threshold of 0.8, indicating that it can also be used for summative assessment. It furthermore seems that scrub nurses can assess the operative competence of surgical trainees.

  3. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  4. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  5. Weld Design, Testing, and Assessment Procedures for High Strength Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    Long-distance high-strength pipelines are increasingly being constructed for the efficient transportation of energy products. While the high-strength linepipe steels and high productivity welding processes are being applied, the procedures employed f...

  6. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  7. A Web-Based Integration Procedure for the Development of Reconfigurable Robotic Work-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ferreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Concepts related to the development of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS and methodologies to provide the best practices in the processing industry and factory automation, such as system integration and web-based technology, are major issues in designing next-generation manufacturing systems (NGMS. Adaptable and integrable devices are crucial for the success of NGMS. In robotic cells the integration of manufacturing components is essential to accelerate system adaptability. Sensors, control architectures and communication technologies have contributed to achieving further agility in reconfigurable factories. In this work a web-based robotic cell integration procedure is proposed to aid the identification of reconfigurable issues and requirements. This methodology is applied to an industrial robot manipulator to enhance system flexibility towards the development of a reconfigurable robotic platform.

  8. Scientific Integrity and Consensus in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific integrity is the hallmark of any assessment and is a paramount consideration in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment process. Procedures are in place for rigorous scientific review and to quantify confidence levels and uncertainty in the communication of key findings. However, the IPCC is unique in that its reports are formally accepted by governments through consensus agreement. This presentation will present the unique requirements of the IPCC intergovernmental assessment and discuss the advantages and challenges of its approach.

  9. SINTAP: draft of a unified European failure assessment procedure. An introduction; SINTAP: Entwurf einer vereinheitlichten europaeischen Fehlerbewertungsprozedur. Eine Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbst, U.; Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Wiesner, C. [The Welding Institute (TWI), Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Hodulak, L. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Fracture mechanics based flaw assessment concepts are increasingly used in industrial regulations and standards. A considerable number of different guidelines and procedures are available which are partly based on each other but also exhibit significant differences. At this background, the EU sponsored SINTAP, an interdisciplinary Brite Euram project. SINTAP stands for 'Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry'. From 1996 to 1999 seventeen organisations from nine European countries participated in the project the aim of which was to unify the available procedures. The present report is an introduction into the content, the structure and the scientific background of the procedure which was generated within SINTAP. (orig.) [German] Bruchmechanische Bewertungskonzepte werden international in zunehmendem Masse Bestandteil industrieller Regelwerke und Fachbereichsstandards. Bereits heute existiert eine Vielzahl derartiger Vorschriften und Rechnerprogramme, die teilweise aufeinander aufbauen, teilweise aber auch signifikante Unterschiede aufweisen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde durch die EU von 1996 bis 1999 SINTAP, ein interdisziplinaeres Brite-Euram-Projekt gefoerdert, dessen Ziel in einer Vereinheitlichung der vorhandenen Ansaetze bestand, und an dem siebzehn Institutionen aus neun europaeischen Laendern beteiligt waren. SINTAP steht fuer 'Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry'. Der vorliegende Bericht ist eine Einfuehrung in Inhalt, Struktur und wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund der im Ergebnis des Projektes entstandenen SINTAP-Prozedur. (orig.)

  10. Integrated Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, W.; Reith, F.; Keller, D.; Oschlies, A.; Quaas, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    To maintain the chance of keeping the average global temperature increase below 2°C and to limit long-term climate change, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (carbon dioxide removal, CDR) is becoming increasingly necessary. We analyze optimal and cost-effective climate policies in the dynamic integrated assessment model (IAM) of climate and the economy (DICE2016R) and investigate (1) the utilization of (ocean) CDR under different climate objectives, (2) the sensitivity of policies with respect to carbon cycle feedbacks, and (3) how well carbon cycle feedbacks are captured in the carbon cycle models used in state-of-the-art IAMs. Overall, the carbon cycle model in DICE2016R shows clear improvements compared to its predecessor, DICE2013R, capturing much better long-term dynamics and also oceanic carbon outgassing due to excess oceanic storage of carbon from CDR. However, this comes at the cost of a (too) tight short-term remaining emission budget, limiting the model suitability to analyze low-emission scenarios accurately. With DICE2016R, the compliance with the 2°C goal is no longer feasible without negative emissions via CDR. Overall, the optimal amount of CDR has to take into account (1) the emission substitution effect and (2) compensation for carbon cycle feedbacks.

  11. Assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. E-mail: sehgal@ne.kth.se; Theerthan, A.; Giri, A.; Karbojian, A.; Willschuetz, H.G.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Vandroux, S.; Bonnet, J.M.; Seiler, J.M.; Ikkonen, K.; Sairanen, R.; Bhandari, S.; Buerger, M.; Buck, M.; Widmann, W.; Dienstbier, J.; Techy, Z.; Kostka, P.; Taubner, R.; Theofanous, T.; Dinh, T.N

    2003-04-01

    The cost-shared project ARVI (assessment of reactor vessel integrity) involves a total of nine organisations from Europe and USA. The objective of the ARVI Project is to resolve the safety issues that remain unresolved for the melt vessel interaction phase of the in-vessel progression of a severe accident. The work consists of experiments and analysis development. Four tests were performed in the EC-FOREVER Programme, in which failure was achieved in-vessels employing the French pressure vessel steel. The tests were analysed with the commercial code ANSYS-Multiphysics, and the codes SYSTUS+ and PASULA, and quite good agreement was achieved for the failure location. Natural convection experiments in stratified pools have been performed in the SIMECO and the COPO facilities, which showed that much greater heat is transferred downwards for immiscible layers or before layers mix. A model for gap cooling and a set of simplified models for the system codes have been developed. MVITA code calculations have been performed for the Czech and Hungarian VVERs, towards evaluation of the in-vessel melt retention accident management scheme. Tests have been performed at the ULPU facility with organised flow for vessel external cooling. Considerable enhancement of the critical heat flux (CHF) was obtained. The ARVI Project has reached the halfway stage. This paper presents the results obtained thus far from the project.

  12. Assessment of patients' skin dose during interventional cardiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Vardalaki, E.; Kottou, S.; Molfetas, M.; Neofotistou, V.

    2002-01-01

    During the last 30 years the use of Interventional Cardiology (IC) procedures has increased significantly, mainly due to the benefits and advantages of the method that offers more accurate diagnosis and treatment along with less complications and hospitalization. However, IC procedures are based on the use of x-ray radiation, mostly localized at certain areas of patient's body and for extended periods of time. Consequently, patient may receive high radiation dose and deterministic effects, such as erythema, epilation or even dermal necrosis may be observed. Therefore, the need for reducing radiation dose is highly important. In order to achieve this, good knowledge of the dose levels delivered to the patient during IC procedures is essential since radiation effects are known to increase with dose. It is of great interest to know the point where the maximum skin dose (MSD) is noted since individual sensitivity may vary. MSDs greater than 1 Gy should be recorded. Patient dosimetry during IC procedures is a complex task since these type of procedures depend on various factors, such as complexity and severity of case, different specifications of x-ray equipment and patient's physical characteristics. Moreover, cardiologist's experience plays an important role. For these reasons, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), have published documents on radiation safety and ways to reduce skin injuries during IC procedures. Various methods have been proposed for measuring MSD such as the use of slow radiotherapy films, thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), scintillation detectors, Dose-Area Product (DAP) meter, as well as a combination of DAP and air kerma. A literature review on MSDs measured during IC procedures showed that doses ranged from 300 to 43000 mGy

  13. Integration of emergency action levels with Combustion Engineering Emergency Operating Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faletti, D.W.; Jamison, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the development of a method for integrating Emergency Action Levels (EALs) with plant-specific Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Emergency Operating Procedure Technical Guidelines (CEOG EOPTFs). EALs are discrete conditions or values of plant operating parameters which, if exceeded, require declaration of an appropriate level of emergency. At most operating plants, the EALs and event classification procedures are totally separate from the Emergency Operating Procedures used by the plant staff to control the plant during abnormal conditions. Control room personnel using the EOPs to deal with abnormal plant conditions must recognize when plant safety is sufficiently degraded that an emergency declaration may be warranted, and then enter a separate classification procedure containing EALs for a number of plant conditions and parameters. The operator then compares the existing plant conditions to the EALs and makes an emergency declaration accordingly. Using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Technical Guidelines document, a set of emergency class definitions and criteria were developed based on the status of the three main fission product barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system and containment). The EOPTGs were then annotated with suggested guidance to a procedure writer. The proposed method was tested by applying it to the reactor accident sequences that were shown in the reactor safety study to dominate accident risk. The object of the test was to determine if an EAL set linked to the EOP annotations would produce timely and accurate classification of the risk-dominant sequences. 6 refs., 13 figs., 31 tabs

  14. Strategy for integrated CERCLA/NEPA risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Blunt, D.A.; Fingleton, D.J.; Picel, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a policy whereby, for remedial actions, the procedural and documentational requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) are integrated with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. However, the objectives of risk assessment under NEPA and CERCLA differ somewhat. Until its recent application at contaminated sites, NEPA analysis has typically been applied to impacts from taking actions at clean sites (e.g., for construction activities), and a somewhat loosely structured process has historically been used to estimate relative risks for NEPA analyses. Decisions such as cleanup levels were not made on the basis of the risk estimates, and they therefore tended to be conservative and were not discussed in detail. In contrast, risks estimated for Superfund (CERCLA) sites are used to focus the decision-making process for those sites and support national prioritization for cleanup, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a detailed framework for preparing baseline health risk assessments for these sites. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to intergrating the CERCLA and NEPA approaches into the risk assessments that have been prepared for a DOE remedial action project at the Weldon Spring site near St. Charles, Missouri. These issues are grouped into three basic categories: general assumptions for the impact evaluation, data management, and presentation of the methodology and results. This paper is not intended to represent DOE policy and guidance, nor does it represent the only approach that can be used for integrated risk assessments. It merely discusses the process that was used for the Weldon Spring project, articulating the issues that were encountered and how they were addressed

  15. Integrated assessment models of climate change. An incomplete overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated assessment is a trendy phrase that has recently entered the vocabulary of folks in Washington, DC and elsewhere. The novelty of the term in policy analysis and policy making circles belies the longevity of this approach in the sciences and past attempts at their application to policy issues. This paper is an attempt at providing an overview of integrated assessment with a special focus on policy motivated integrated assessments of climate change. The first section provides an introduction to integrated assessments in general, followed by a discussion of the bounds to the climate change issue. The next section is devoted to a taxonomy of the policy motivated models. Then the integrated assessment effort at Carnegie Mellon is described briefly. A perspective on the challenges ahead in successful representation of natural and social dynamics in integrated assessments of global climate change is presented in the final section. (Author)

  16. Integration technique of digital I and C replacement and its Critical Digital Review procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Yang, Wen-Long

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A digital I and C replacement integration technique have been developed. ► Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline. ► Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization. ► Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization. ► Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. -- Abstract: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin–Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo–Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (1) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR-1011710 (2005) “Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems” which was published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SV and V), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of

  17. Methodological procedures and analytical instruments to evaluate an indicators integrated archive for urban management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Ciello, R.; Napoleoni, S.

    1998-01-01

    This guide provides the results of a research developed at ENEA (National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment) Casaccia center (Rome, Italy) aimed to define methodological procedures and analytical instruments needed to carry out an indicators integrated archive for urban management. The guide also defines the scheme of a negotiation process aimed to reach and exchange data and information among governmental and local administrations, non-governmental organizations and scientific bodies [it

  18. DEEPENING SERVICES MARKET INTEGRATION - A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest asset of the European Union is undoubtedly its internal market. However, the internal market is not completed: it suffers from a giant hole with respect to many services. The present contribution addresses the status of services in the internal market and, in particular, the horizontal liberalisation (or, the lack of it of services outside the two large sectors which greatly deepened market integration (6 modes of transport and 3 financial services markets. Because a horizontal perspective on services in the EU is still little understood, it is briefly summarized what services really are and how their regulatory logic in the internal market can help to classify them. The (strong economic case for deepening services market integration is built on recent empirical economic analysis as well as simulation. This is followed by a discussion, with flowchart, of the Bolkestein draft directive, against the backdrop of the frustrating lack of, or at best, selective progress on services for decades. A survey of economic impact studies of the draft directive is provided, too, underpinning its importance even when the infamous origin principle is taken out. Some light is subsequently shed on the tumultuous politicisation of the services debate. Emphasis is laid on the socio-economic context (which, it is submitted, sharpened the discussion at times into polarisation and a series of other factors such as the diversity of the national regulatory frameworks of services and the labour employed, the complexity of the draft directive, the potentially radical nature of the origin principle (especially for those not aware of the case law of the ECJ, the dominant role of the EP and the opportunism of leading national politicians. Finally, directive 2006/123 –meanwhile in force – is explained and briefly assessed. Apart from the conspicuous manifestation of 'Angst' in drafting the directive, the (de merits are set out. The conclusion is that a badly

  19. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  20. Tight integration of computerized procedures with plant information at the South Texas Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Green, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a unique undertaking that is underway at Houston Lighting and Power's South Texas Project (STP). The paper presents an information upgrade project that uses expert system technologies to computerize design change procedures and to tightly integrate the resulting on-line, interactive procedures with the on-line information that design change activities use and generate. This effort will show how procedure computerization can leverage the large investments in plant data. The expected benefits include reduced costs and improved quality of design change work, plus a significant reduction in the burden of configuration management that comes from design changes. Both process computerization and the integration of process with data are being implemented at STP. This work is part of a major migration of information from a mainframe to a LAN platform. This paper will be of greatest interest to those involved in: (1) configuration management, (2) coordinating information to support design change procedures, (3) plant information management, and (4) business process reengineering

  1. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  2. Assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: sehgal@ne.kth.se; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Giri, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Kymaelaeinen, O. [FortumEngNP (Finland); Bonnet, J.M. [CEA (France); Ikkonen, K. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Sairanen, R. [VTT (Finland); Bhandari, S. [FRAMATOME (France); Buerger, M. [USTUTT (Germany); Dienstbier, J. [NRI Rez (Czech Republic); Techy, Z. [VEIKI (Hungary); Theofanous, T. [UCSB (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI) project involved a total of nine organizations from Europe and USA. The work consisted of experiments and analysis development. The modeling activities in the area of structural analyses were focused on the support of EC-FOREVER experiments as well as on the exploitation of the data obtained from those experiments for modeling of creep deformation and the validation of the industry structural codes. Work was also performed for extension of melt natural convection analyses to consideration of stratification, and mixing (in the CFD codes). Other modeling activities were for (1) gap cooling CHF and (2) developing simple models for system code. Finally, the methodology and data was applied for the design of IVMR severe accident management scheme for VVER-440/213 plants. The work was broken up into five packages. They were divided into tasks, which were performed by different partners. The major experimental project continued was EC-FOREVER in which data was obtained on in-vessel melt pool coolability. In previous EC-FOREVER experiments data was obtained on melt pool natural convection and lower head creep failure and rupture. Those results obtained were related to the following issues: (1) multiaxial creep laws for different vessel steels (2) effects of penetrations, and (3) mode and location of lower head failure. The two EC-FOREVER tests reported here are related to (a) the effectiveness of gap cooling and (b) water ingression for in vessel melt coolability. Two other experimental projects were also conducted. One was the COPO experiments, which was concerned with the effects of stratification and metal layer on the thermal loads on the lower head wall during melt pool convection. The second experimental project was conducted at ULPU facility, which provided data and correlations of CHF due to the external cooling of the lower head.

  3. Identifying Technical Procedures in Pulmonary Medicine That Should Be Integrated in a Simulation-Based Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Paltved, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    of visible lymph node/tumor of the skin, focused ultrasound scanning of the heart, and thoracoscopy. Conclusion: We performed a Delphi study using a needs assessment formula, which identified 11 technical procedures that are highly suitable for simulation-based training. Medical educators can use this list...

  4. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: alessandro.delnevo@enea.it [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  5. Construct validation of teacher portfolio assessment : Procedures for improving teacher competence assessment illustrated by teaching students research skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to design and test procedures for teacher portfolio assessments. What are suitable procedures to assess teachers' competencies in developing students' research skills? We first searched into the tasks teachers have in teaching students research skills and the competencies needed to

  6. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, E de; Bejar, M J; Berenguer, R [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Salamanca (Spain); Ruano, R; Tamayo, P [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  7. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, E. de; Bejar, M.J.; Berenguer, R.; Ruano, R.; Tamayo, P.

    2001-01-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  8. Evaluating strategic environmental assessment in the Netherlands: Content, process and procedure as indissoluble criteria for effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); S.G. Nooteboom (Sibout)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) we distinguish between its contribution to the quality of the ultimate policy choice (usefulness, applicability), the procedural quality of the planning process (transparency, timeliness) and the quality of

  9. Assessment of different concentrations of ketofol in procedural operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daabiss, Mohamed; Elsherbiny, Medhat; Al Otaibi, Rashed

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic that is often used as an adjuvant during monitored anesthesia care, the addition of ketamine to propofol may counteract the cardiorespiratory depression seen with propofol used alone. Ketofol (ketamine/propofol combination) was used for procedural sedation and analgesia. However, evaluation of the effectiveness of different concentrations of Ketofol in procedural operation regarding changes in haemodynamics, emergence phenomena, recovery time, the doses, and adverse effects was not yet studied, so this randomized, double blinded study was designed to compare the quality of analgesia and side effects of intravenous different concentrations of ketofol. One hundred children of both sex undergoing procedural operation, e.g. esophgoscopy, rectoscopy, bone marrow aspiration and liver biopsy participated in this. Patients received an infusion of a solution containing either combination of propofol: ketamine (1:1) (Group I) or propofol: ketamine (4:1) (Group II). Subsequent infusion rates to a predetermined sedation level using Ramsay Sedation Scale. Heart rate, noninvasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), end tidal carbon dioxide (Etco 2 ) and incidence of any side effects were recorded. There were no significant hemodynamic changes in both groups after induction. However, there was an increase in postoperative nausea, psychomimetic side effects, and delay in discharge times in group I compared to group II. The adjunctive use of smaller dose of ketamine in ketofol combination minimizes the psychomimetic side effects and shortens the time of hospital discharge. (author)

  10. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow

  11. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, G; Schrader, G; Baker, R H A; Ceglarska, E; Kertész, V K; Lövei, G; Navajas, M; Rossi, V; Tramontini, S; van Lenteren, J C

    2014-01-15

    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis. © 2013.

  12. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program) has been applying a farmer participatory IPM strategy at on-farm research sites in eastern Uganda since 1995. Following five years of project implementation an evaluation ...

  13. Critical Emergency Medicine Procedural Skills: A Comparative Study of Methods for Teaching and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dane M.; And Others

    Three critical procedural skills in emergency medicine were evaluated using three assessment modalities--written, computer, and animal model. The effects of computer practice and previous procedure experience on skill competence were also examined in an experimental sequential assessment design. Subjects were six medical students, six residents,…

  14. Procedures for self-assessment of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Self-assessment processes have been continuously developed by nuclear organizations, including nuclear power plants. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way for improving safety performance. Self-assessment involves the use of different types of tools and mechanisms to assist the organizations in assessing their own safety performance against given standards. This helps to enhance the understanding of the need for improvements, the feeling of ownership in achieving them and and the safety culture as a whole. The concepts developed in this report present the basic approach to self-assessment taking into consideration experience gained during Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions, from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented parts of a self-assessment programme and from meetings organized to discuss the subject

  15. 78 FR 38318 - Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9827-4] Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY... availability of a final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075F). The... lead (Pb). DATES: The document will be available on or around June 26, 2013. ADDRESSES: The...

  16. Assessing Online Patient Education Readability for Spine Surgery Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William W; Modi, Krishna D; Haws, Brittany E; Khechen, Benjamin; Massel, Dustin H; Mayo, Benjamin C; Singh, Kern

    2018-03-01

    Increased patient reliance on Internet-based health information has amplified the need for comprehensible online patient education articles. As suggested by the American Medical Association and National Institute of Health, spine fusion articles should be written for a 4th-6th-grade reading level to increase patient comprehension, which may improve postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine the readability of online health care education information relating to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and lumbar fusion procedures. Online health-education resource qualitative analysis. Three search engines were utilized to access patient education articles for common cervical and lumbar spine procedures. Relevant articles were analyzed for readability using Readability Studio Professional Edition software (Oleander Software Ltd). Articles were stratified by organization type as follows: General Medical Websites (GMW), Healthcare Network/Academic Institutions (HNAI), and Private Practices (PP). Thirteen common readability tests were performed with the mean readability of each compared between subgroups using analysis of variance. ACDF and lumbar fusion articles were determined to have a mean readability of 10.7±1.5 and 11.3±1.6, respectively. GMW, HNAI, and PP subgroups had a mean readability of 10.9±2.9, 10.7±2.8, and 10.7±2.5 for ACDF and 10.9±3.0, 10.8±2.9, and 11.6±2.7 for lumbar fusion articles. Of 310 total articles, only 6 (3 ACDF and 3 lumbar fusion) were written for comprehension below a 7th-grade reading level. Current online literature from medical websites containing information regarding ACDF and lumbar fusion procedures are written at a grade level higher than the suggested guidelines. Therefore, current patient education articles should be revised to accommodate the average reading level in the United States and may result in improved patient comprehension and postoperative outcomes.

  17. An analytical procedure to evaluate electronic integrals for molecular quantum mechanical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim, Kleber C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We propose an alternative methodology for the calculation of electronic integrals, through an analytical function based on the generalized Gaussian function (q Gaussian), where a single q Gaussian replaces the usual linear combination of Gaussian functions for different basis set. Moreover, the integrals become analytical functions of the interatomic distances. Therefore, when estimating certain quantities such as molecular energy, g Gaussian avoid new calculations of the integrals: they are simply another value of the corresponding function. The procedure proposed here is particularly advantageous, when compared with the usual one, because it reduces drastically the number of two-electronic integrals used in the construction of the Fock matrix, enabling the use of the quantum mechanics in the description of macro-molecular systems. This advantage increases when the size of the molecular systems become larger and more complex. While in the usual approach CPU time increases with n4, in the one proposed here the CPU time scales linearly with n. This catastrophic dependence of the rank the Hamiltonian or Fock matrix with n4 two-electron integrals is a severe bottleneck for petaFLOPS computing time. Its is important to emphasize that this methodology is equally applicable to systems of any sizes, including biomolecules, solid materials and solutions, within the HF, post-HF and DFT theories. (author)

  18. A National Needs Assessment to Identify Technical Procedures in Vascular Surgery for Simulation Based Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, L J; Konge, L; Schroeder, T V

    2017-01-01

    to identify technical procedures that vascular surgeons should learn. Round 2 was a survey that used a needs assessment formula to explore the frequency of procedures, the number of surgeons performing each procedure, risk and/or discomfort, and feasibility for simulation based training. Round 3 involved...... eliminated, resulting in a final prioritised list of 19 technical procedures. Conclusion A national needs assessment using a standardised Delphi method identified a list of procedures that are highly suitable and may provide the basis for future simulation based training programs for vascular surgeons......Objectives and background Practical skills training in vascular surgery is facing challenges because of an increased number of endovascular procedures and fewer open procedures, as well as a move away from the traditional principle of “learning by doing.” This change has established simulation...

  19. Development of assessment procedures at the CEGB's nuclear power training centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.R.; Harris, N.D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The work of a power station engineer can be considered under four aspects: technology, diagnosis action and communication. The development, validation and use of assessment procedures can successfully incorporate the same aspects. The purposes of assessment are reporting training achievement and giving feedback to course members and tutorial staff. The development of standardized procedures to produce, evaluate and mark assessments and to optimize feedback ensures objectivity and uniformity. This has been achieved at the Central Electricity Generating Board's Nuclear Power Training Centre by enlisting an educational consultant to provide guidance and assist in training the resident tutors in assessment procedures. (author)

  20. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  1. Assessment of the application of an ecotoxicological procedure to screen illicit toxic discharges in domestic septic tank sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gastey, J; Choucri, A; Robidoux, P Y; Sunahara, G I

    2000-06-01

    An innovative screening procedure has been developed to detect illicit toxic discharges in domestic septic tank sludge hauled to the Montreal Urban Community waste-water treatment plant. This new means of control is based on an integrative approach, using bioassays and chemical analyses. Conservative criteria are applied to detect abnormal toxicity with great reliability while avoiding false positive results. The complementary data obtained from toxicity tests and chemical analyses support the use of this efficient and easy-to-apply procedure. This study assesses the control procedure in which 231 samples were analyzed over a 30-month period. Data clearly demonstrate the deterrent power of an efficient control procedure combined with a public awareness campaign among the carriers. In the first 15 months of application, between January 1996 and March 1997, approximately 30% of the 123 samples analyzed showed abnormal toxicity. Between April 1997 and June 1998, that is, after a public hearing presentation of this procedure, this proportion dropped significantly to approximately 9% based on 108 analyzed samples. The results of a 30-month application of this new control procedure show the superior efficiency of the ecotoxicological approach compared with the previously used chemical control procedure. To be able to apply it effectively and, if necessary, to apply the appropriate coercive measures, ecotoxicological criteria should be included in regulatory guidelines.

  2. Motor assessment instruments and psychometric procedures: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmella de Medeiros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It was our objective to identify the psychometric elements to an epistemological reflection through a systematic review of cross-cultural validation procedures of TGMD-2 batteries, MABC-2 and KTK. Searches were carried out by two evaluators independently without year and language restrictions in six databases: Web of Science, Science Direct, Lilacs, Scopus, Pubmed and The ScientificElectronic Library Online - SciELO. The key words used were: "MABC", "TGMD" and "KTK" all of them combined with the word "validity". There was a total of 734 articles, of which, after the exclusion criteria, remained only 11 studies. It was found that there are differences between the authors in relation to the psychometric factors taken into account in cross-cultural validation. So that there was a lack of unanimity of the validation criteria of all studies in this field.

  3. An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Glenn W.; Vermeire, Theo; Munns, Wayne R.; Sekizawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species

  4. The configuration-driven table CI method and comparison with integral-driven CI procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenker, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A new configuration-driven CI algorithm is outlined which eliminates the need for explicit comparison of pairs of Slater determinants through the use of a series of compact tables. In this scheme each pair of configurations is either shown to be non-interacting or to fall into one of nine cases, each of which is characterized fully once certain orbital permutations are determined. The program is divided into three parts: a case structure analysis step including integral label generation, a sort of the required electron repulsion integrals, and finally a procedure in which the foregoing information is combined with tabulated directions for the evaluation of the necessary Hamiltonian matrix elements over spin-adapted functions. Timing improvements of up to more than a factor of four have been achieved with the new algorithm

  5. The Verification of ESF-CCS Integration Test procedure by utilizing Lab view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Sangseok; Sohn, Kwangyoung [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junku; Park, Geunok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Since the Fukushima event, especially it is considered to be important to guarantee the safety of plant by mitigating the major accident. ESF-CCS (Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System) is monitoring all the plant variables and generates the ESF-CCS actuation signals when the plant variables violate the setpoint. Taking a look at the classic design, ESF-CCS is composed of the sub-components such as Minimum Inventory (MI), ESCM (ESF-CCS Soft Control Module), CPM, ITP, Group Controller (GC), Loop Controller (LC), CCG (Control Channel Gate), MTP, CIM (Component Interface Module). By help of Lab view simulation in integration test procedure preparation, the following benefits are attained; - Control logic and design evaluation by Lab view - Eliminating the time-consuming test case design, and determining the 'expected result' with design validation - The reliability upgrade of integration test quality.

  6. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  7. On the assessment of extremely low breakdown probabilities by an inverse sampling procedure [gaseous insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Poul; Vibholm, Svend

    1991-01-01

    the flashover probability function and the corresponding distribution of first breakdown voltages under the inverse sampling procedure, and show how this relation may be utilized to assess the single-shot flashover probability corresponding to the observed average first breakdown voltage. Since the procedure......First breakdown voltages obtained under the inverse sampling procedure assuming a double exponential flashover probability function are discussed. An inverse sampling procedure commences the voltage application at a very low level, followed by applications at stepwise increased levels until...... is based on voltage applications in the neighbourhood of the quantile under investigation, the procedure is found to be insensitive to the underlying distributional assumptions...

  8. Are impact assessment procedures actually promoting sustainable development? Institutional perspectives on barriers and opportunities found in the Swedish committee system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykvist, Bjoern; Nilsson, Mans

    2009-01-01

    Impact assessment frameworks are gaining increasing attention as a procedure to integrate sustainability concerns in European and national policy-making. The gap between political visions on sustainable development and the reality of policy-making is, however, still pronounced, and a very limited range and scope of available assessment methods are used in practice. This study examines why this pattern prevails, in this case within the Swedish Committees of Inquiry, with a focus on institutional factors determining the function of Impact Assessments. The findings suggest that assessment procedures have little value when not accompanied by clear specific instructions on priorities. A range of institutional constraints emerge in the interface between policy makers and knowledge providers in committees. Dominant professional, organisational, and disciplinary cultures constrain the assessment, and socio-economic priorities are by tradition most important. Based on our analysis, we conclude that to enhance the potential for integrating sustainability concerns, it seems less fruitful to develop more advanced and complex assessment frameworks and models than strengthening institutional arenas for social learning. Such arenas should be; defined by a broad mandate and instructions, characterised by key personal skills and resources, and build institutional capacity for a range of stakeholders to engage with them

  9. 78 FR 46905 - Tobacco Transition Program; Final Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... communications (Braille, large print, audio tape, etc.) should contact the USDA Target Center at (202)720-2600... is also known as FETRA (7 U.S.C. 518-519a). FETRA repealed the tobacco marketing quota and related... adjusted market share for the 39th and 40th quarterly assessment payments due on September 30, 2014, will...

  10. Flood damage assessment – Literature review and recommended procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lea; Löwe, Roland; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    The assessment of flood risk is an essential tool in evaluating the potential consequences of a flood. The analysis of the risk can be applied as part of the flood plain management, but can also be used in a cost-benefit analysis, when comparing different adaption strategies. This analysis is the...

  11. Assessment of washing procedure for determination some of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was proposed to assess the suitability of washing technique to distinguish between airborne and soil borne several metal contaminants. For this reason, six plant species which grew under Mobarakeh Steel Company emissions were selected. Aluminum, iron, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and lead ...

  12. Seismic isolation - efficient procedure for seismic response assessement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, M. A.; Androne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis is to reduce the dynamic response of a structure. The seismic isolation solution must take into consideration the specific site ground motion. In this paper will be presented results obtained by applying the seismic isolation method. Based on the obtained results, important conclusions can be outlined: the seismic isolation device has the ability to reduce seismic acceleration of the seismic isolated structure to values that no longer present a danger to people and environment; the seismic isolation solution is limiting devices deformations to safety values for ensuring structural integrity and stability of the entire system; the effective seismic energy dissipation and with no side effects both for the seismic isolated building and for the devices used, and the return to the initial position before earthquake occurence are obtained with acceptable permanent displacement. (authors)

  13. New automated procedure to assess context recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, David; Walter, Ondine; Bourgoin, Lucie; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib

    2014-11-01

    Recognition memory is an important aspect of human declarative memory and is one of the routine memory abilities altered in patients with amnestic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. In rodents, recognition memory has been most widely assessed using the novel object preference paradigm, which exploits the spontaneous preference that animals display for novel objects. Here, we used nose-poke units instead of objects to design a simple automated method for assessing context recognition memory in mice. In the acquisition trial, mice are exposed for the first time to an operant chamber with one blinking nose-poke unit. In the choice session, a novel nonblinking nose-poke unit is inserted into an empty spatial location and the number of nose poking dedicated to each set of nose-poke unit is used as an index of recognition memory. We report that recognition performance varies as a function of the length of the acquisition period and the retention delay and is sensitive to conventional amnestic treatments. By manipulating the features of the operant chamber during a brief retrieval episode (3-min long), we further demonstrate that reconsolidation of the original contextual memory depends on the magnitude and the type of environmental changes introduced into the familiar spatial environment. These results show that the nose-poke recognition task provides a rapid and reliable way for assessing context recognition memory in mice and offers new possibilities for the deciphering of the brain mechanisms governing the reconsolidation process.

  14. Knowing the operative game plan: a novel tool for the assessment of surgical procedural knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayla, Jacques; Bergman, Simon; Ghitulescu, Gabriela; Feldman, Liane S; Fraser, Shannon A

    2012-08-01

    What is the source of inadequate performance in the operating room? Is it a lack of technical skills, poor judgment or a lack of procedural knowledge? We created a surgical procedural knowledge (SPK) assessment tool and evaluated its use. We interviewed medical students, residents and training program staff on SPK assessment tools developed for 3 different common general surgery procedures: inguinal hernia repair with mesh in men, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and right hemicolectomy. The tools were developed as a step-wise assessment of specific surgical procedures based on techniques described in a current surgical text. We compared novice (medical student to postgraduate year [PGY]-2) and expert group (PGY-3 to program staff) scores using the Mann-Whitney U test. We calculated the total SPK score and defined a cut-off score using receiver operating characteristic analysis. In all, 5 participants in 7 different training groups (n = 35) underwent an interview. Median scores for each procedure and overall SPK scores increased with experience. The median SPK for novices was 54.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.6-58.8) compared with 98.05 (95% CP 94.1-100.0) for experts (p = 0.012). The SPK cut-off score of 93.1 discriminates between novice and expert surgeons. Surgical procedural knowledge can reliably be assessed using our SPK assessment tool. It can discriminate between novice and expert surgeons for common general surgical procedures. Future studies are planned to evaluate its use for more complex procedures.

  15. Specialization-Specific Course Assessments Integrated for Program Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Qurban A. Memon; Adnan Harb; Shakeel Khoja

    2012-01-01

    The program assessment process combines assessments from individual courses to generate final program assessment to match accreditation benchmarks. In developing countries, industrial environment is not diversified to allow graduating engineers to seek jobs in all disciplines or specializations of an engineering program. Hence, it seems necessary to seek evolution of an engineering program assessment for specialized requirements of the industry. This paper describes how specialization-specifi...

  16. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  17. Recent development in low-constraint fracture toughness testing for structural integrity assessment of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jidong; Gianetto, James A.; Tyson, William R.

    2018-03-01

    Fracture toughness measurement is an integral part of structural integrity assessment of pipelines. Traditionally, a single-edge-notched bend (SE(B)) specimen with a deep crack is recommended in many existing pipeline structural integrity assessment procedures. Such a test provides high constraint and therefore conservative fracture toughness results. However, for girth welds in service, defects are usually subjected to primarily tensile loading where the constraint is usually much lower than in the three-point bend case. Moreover, there is increasing use of strain-based design of pipelines that allows applied strains above yield. Low-constraint toughness tests represent more realistic loading conditions for girth weld defects, and the corresponding increased toughness can minimize unnecessary conservatism in assessments. In this review, we present recent developments in low-constraint fracture toughness testing, specifically using single-edgenotched tension specimens, SENT or SE(T). We focus our review on the test procedure development and automation, round-robin test results and some common concerns such as the effect of crack tip, crack size monitoring techniques, and testing at low temperatures. Examples are also given of the integration of fracture toughness data from SE(T) tests into structural integrity assessment.

  18. Data report for the integrity assessment report HNF-4589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Supporting data for the Integrity Assessment Report of Tanks TK-101 and TK-102. The purpose of this document is to compile supporting documentation for the Integrity Assessment Report (HNF 4589) for Tanks 101 and 102 in the 2194 Facility. This approach minimizes the size of the Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) (HNF-4589) and still provide a path to detailed information. This IAR addresses the evaluation of Tanks 101 and 102 and other existing components located in the 219-5 Waste Handling Facility

  19. Double-shell tank waste transfer facilities integrity assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the integrity assessment plan for the existing double-shell tank waste transfer facilities system in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of Hanford Site. This plan identifies and proposes the integrity assessment elements and techniques to be performed for each facility. The integrity assessments of existing tank systems that stores or treats dangerous waste is required to be performed to be in compliance with the Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303-640 requirements

  20. Evaluation of the ISO standard 11063 DNA extraction procedure for assessing soil microbial abundance and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Plassart

    Full Text Available Soil DNA extraction has become a critical step in describing microbial biodiversity. Historically, ascertaining overarching microbial ecological theories has been hindered as independent studies have used numerous custom and commercial DNA extraction procedures. For that reason, a standardized soil DNA extraction method (ISO-11063 was previously published. However, although this ISO method is suited for molecular tools such as quantitative PCR and community fingerprinting techniques, it has only been optimized for examining soil bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an appropriate soil DNA extraction procedure for examining bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversity in soils of contrasting land-use and physico-chemical properties. Three different procedures were tested: the ISO-11063 standard; a custom procedure (GnS-GII; and a modified ISO procedure (ISOm which includes a different mechanical lysis step (a FastPrep ®-24 lysis step instead of the recommended bead-beating. The efficacy of each method was first assessed by estimating microbial biomass through total DNA quantification. Then, the abundances and community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi were determined using real-time PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approaches. Results showed that DNA yield was improved with the GnS-GII and ISOm procedures, and fungal community patterns were found to be strongly dependent on the extraction method. The main methodological factor responsible for differences between extraction procedure efficiencies was found to be the soil homogenization step. For integrative studies which aim to examine bacteria, archaea and fungi simultaneously, the ISOm procedure results in higher DNA recovery and better represents microbial communities.

  1. The Challenge of Assessing Professional Competence in Work Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of work integrated learning (WIL) is the development of professional competence, the ability of students to perform in the workplace. Alignment theory therefore suggests that the assessment of WIL should include an assessment of students' demonstration of professional competence in the workplace. The assessment of professional…

  2. Using the Entrustable Professional Activities Framework in the Assessment of Procedural Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Debra; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Halman, Samantha; Ma, Irene W Y; Mylopoulos, Maria; Shanks, David; Stroud, Lynfa

    2017-04-01

    The entrustable professional activity (EPA) framework has been identified as a useful approach to assessment in competency-based education. To apply an EPA framework for assessment, essential skills necessary for entrustment to occur must first be identified. Using an EPA framework, our study sought to (1) define the essential skills required for entrustment for 7 bedside procedures expected of graduates of Canadian internal medicine (IM) residency programs, and (2) develop rubrics for the assessment of these procedural skills. An initial list of essential skills was defined for each procedural EPA by focus groups of experts at 4 academic centers using the nominal group technique. These lists were subsequently vetted by representatives from all Canadian IM training programs through a web-based survey. Consensus (more than 80% agreement) about inclusion of each item was sought using a modified Delphi exercise. Qualitative survey data were analyzed using a framework approach to inform final assessment rubrics for each procedure. Initial lists of essential skills for procedural EPAs ranged from 10 to 24 items. A total of 111 experts completed the national survey. After 2 iterations, consensus was reached on all items. Following qualitative analysis, final rubrics were created, which included 6 to 10 items per procedure. These EPA-based assessment rubrics represent a national consensus by Canadian IM clinician educators. They provide a practical guide for the assessment of procedural skills in a competency-based education model, and a robust foundation for future research on their implementation and evaluation.

  3. Intravenous Mistletoe Treatment in Integrative Cancer Care: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Procedures, Concepts, and Observations of Expert Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Gunver S; Mussler, Milena; Fuchs, Dieter; Kiene, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mistletoe therapy (MT) is widely used in patient-centered integrative cancer care. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts, procedures, and observations of expert doctors, with a focus on intravenous MT. Method. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 35 highly experienced doctors specialized in integrative and anthroposophic medicine. Structured qualitative content analysis was applied. For triangulation, the results were compared with external evidence that was systematically collected, reviewed, and presented. Results. Doctors perform individualized patient assessments that lead to multimodal treatment approaches. The underlying goal is to help patients to live with and overcome disease. Mistletoe infusions are a means of accomplishing this goal. They are applied to stabilize disease, achieve responsiveness, induce fever, improve quality of life, and improve the tolerability of conventional cancer treatments. The doctors reported long-term disease stability and improvements in patients' general condition, vitality, strength, thermal comfort, appetite, sleep, pain from bone metastases, dyspnea in pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa, fatigue, and cachexia; chemotherapy was better tolerated. Also patients' emotional and mental condition was reported to have improved. Conclusion. Individualized integrative cancer treatment including MT aims to help cancer patients to live well with their disease. Further research should investigate the reported observations.

  4. Intravenous Mistletoe Treatment in Integrative Cancer Care: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Procedures, Concepts, and Observations of Expert Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunver S. Kienle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mistletoe therapy (MT is widely used in patient-centered integrative cancer care. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts, procedures, and observations of expert doctors, with a focus on intravenous MT. Method. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 35 highly experienced doctors specialized in integrative and anthroposophic medicine. Structured qualitative content analysis was applied. For triangulation, the results were compared with external evidence that was systematically collected, reviewed, and presented. Results. Doctors perform individualized patient assessments that lead to multimodal treatment approaches. The underlying goal is to help patients to live with and overcome disease. Mistletoe infusions are a means of accomplishing this goal. They are applied to stabilize disease, achieve responsiveness, induce fever, improve quality of life, and improve the tolerability of conventional cancer treatments. The doctors reported long-term disease stability and improvements in patients’ general condition, vitality, strength, thermal comfort, appetite, sleep, pain from bone metastases, dyspnea in pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa, fatigue, and cachexia; chemotherapy was better tolerated. Also patients’ emotional and mental condition was reported to have improved. Conclusion. Individualized integrative cancer treatment including MT aims to help cancer patients to live well with their disease. Further research should investigate the reported observations.

  5. Standardization of figures and assessment procedures for DTM verticalaccuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Casella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Terrain Models (DTMs are widely used in many sectors. They play a key role in hydrological risk prevention, risk mitigation and numeric simulations. This paper deals with two questions: (i when it is stated that a DTM has a given vertical accuracy, is this assertion univocal? (ii when DTM vertical accuracy is assessed by means of checkpoints, does their location influence results? First, the paper illustrates that two vertical accuracy definitions are conceivable: Vertical Accuracy at the Nodes (VAN, the average vertical distance between the model and the terrain, evaluated at the DTM's nodes and Vertical Accuracy at the interpolated Points (VAP, in which the vertical distance is evaluated at the generic points. These two quantities are not coincident and, when they are calculated for the same DTM, different numeric values are reached. Unfortunately, the two quantities are often interchanged, but this is misleading. Second, the paper shows a simulated example of a DTM vertical accuracy assessment, highlighting that the checkpoints’ location plays a key role: when checkpoints coincide with the DTM nodes, VAN is estimated; when checkpoints are randomly located, VAP is estimated, instead. Third, an in-depth, theoretical characterization of the two considered quantities is performed, based on symbolic computation, and suitable standardization coefficients are proposed. Finally, our discussion has a well-defined frame: it doesn't deal with all the items of the DTM vertical accuracy budget, which would require a much longer essay, but only with one, usually called fundamental vertical accuracy.

  6. Research on advanced system safety assessment procedures (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2000-03-01

    Though HAZOP is recognized as the useful safety assessment method, it requires a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. So recently computer-aided HAZOP has been proposed. The research report in 1999 (PNC TJ1400 99-003) presented HAZOP system based on the plant component malfunctions basic models. By using this basic model, not only state malfunction of component but also the consequence to external circumstance can be assessed. G2, which is an excellent object-oriented developer tool in GUI (Graphical User Interface), was used as a tool for developing the system. By using the graphical editor in the system, the user can carry out HAZOP easily. The purpose of this research is to improve the ability of the HAZOP system to obtain a more detailed HAZOP results. HAZOP is carried out according to the fault propagation of component level and the one of plant level based on plant component malfunctions basic models. Furthermore, the HAZOP system which can do the cause and effect analysis in detail intended for the component which processes two or more materials is developed. It is possible to carry out HAZOP for various plants by newly adding material information to the knowledge base. We have applied this system to the Nuclear Reprocessing Facilities to demonstrate the utilities of developing system. (author)

  7. Strategic Environmental Assessment: Integrated environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism_2004.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 70155 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism_2004.pdf... and Tourism Other topics in the series of overview information documents on the concepts of, and approaches to, integrated environmental management are listed below. Further titles in this series are being prepared and will be made available periodically...

  8. The development of integrated safety assessment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Keon Joong; Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Yang, Joon Eon; Lim, Tae Jin; Han, Jae Joo; Je, Moo Seong; An, Kwang Il; Kim, Shi Dal; Jeong, Jong Tae; Jeong, Kwang Seop; Jin, Yeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Kil Yoo; Cho, Yeong Kyoon; Jeong, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Cheol; Choi, Yeong; Park, Soo Yong; Seong, Tae Yong; Song, Yong Man; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Jang, Seon Joo; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Choi, Seon Yeong

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of developing the integrated PSA methodology and computer codes, Level-1 and Level-2 PSA methodology and tools were reviewed and improved. The Level-1 PSA computer code package KIRAP was improved and released by the name of KIRAP Release 2.0 Several Human reliability analysis and common cause failure analysis methods was reviewed and compared. For the development of Level-2 PSA computer code, several level-1 and Level-2 interface methods and containment event tree development methods were reviewed and compared. And the new technology such as artificial intelligence was reviewed if the technology can be applied to the development of PSA methodology.(Author)

  9. The Effects of Self-Monitoring on the Procedural Integrity of a Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Ferreri, Summer J.; Maupin, Angela N.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of self-monitoring on procedural integrity of token economy implementation by 3 staff in a special education classroom were evaluated. The subsequent changes in academic readiness behaviors of 2 students with low-incidence disabilities were measured. Multiple baselines across staff and students showed that procedural integrity…

  10. Recovery patterns, histological observations and genetic integrity in Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using droplet vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A droplet-vitrification procedure is described for cryopreservation of Malus shoot tips. Survival patterns, recovery types, histological observations, and genetic integrity were compared for Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using this droplet-vitrification procedure and an encapsulation-dehydration pr...

  11. Integrated assessment and environmental policy making. In pursuit of usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Current integrated assessment projects primarily seek end to end integration through formal models at a national to global scale, and show three significant representational weaknesses: determinants of decadal-scale emissions trends; valuing impacts and adaptive response; and the formation and effects of policies. Meeting the needs of policy audiences may require other forms of integration; may require integration by formal modeling or by other means; and may require representing decisions of other actors through political and negotiating processes. While rational global environmental policy making requires integrated assessment, current practice admits no single vision of how to do it, so understanding will be best advanced by a diverse collection of projects pursuing distinct methods and approaches. Further practice may yield some consensus on best practice, possibly including generic assessment skills generalizable across issues. (Author)

  12. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  13. Fire risk assessment in Germany. Procedure, data, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The recommended approach for a quantitative fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones and is followed by a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. For that purpose, a comprehensive data base is needed which has been developed in particular for active fire protection measures. As an example results of one fire PSA are reported. (author)

  14. Exposure assessment procedures in presence of wideband digital wireless networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchero, D.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the applicability of traditional methods, as well as recently proposed techniques, to the exposure assessment of electromagnetic field generated by wireless transmitters. As is well known, a correct measurement of the electromagnetic field is conditioned by the complexity of the signal, which requires dedicated instruments or specifically developed extrapolation techniques. Nevertheless, it is also influenced by the typology of the deployment of the transmitting and receiving stations, which varies from network to network. These aspects have been intensively analysed in the literature and several cases of study are available for review. The present article collects the most recent analyses and discusses their applicability to different scenarios, typical of the main wireless networking applications: broadcasting services, mobile cellular networks and data access provisioning infrastructures. (authors)

  15. Research on advanced system safety assessment procedures (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    1999-03-01

    HAZOP (Hazard and operability study) is a systematic technique, which requires the involvement of an experienced, interdisciplinary team of engineers, to identify hazards or operability problems throughout an entire facility by brainstorming. Though HAZOP is recognized as the useful safety assessment method, it requires a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. So recently computer-aided HAZOP has been proposed. The research report in 1998 (PNC PJ1612 98-001) presented prototype system, which carries out HAZOP and FT synthesis, by making use of proposed method. Relationships between states of input and output variables, internal and external events of each component are represented using decision tables, and the system is implemented by C++. In this study, the causalities of plant component malfunctions are described as component malfunction basic model and are stored in the computer. Thus, we have developed safety evaluation support system by considering the fault propagation path. Component malfunction basic model is made based on the information on the causalities between the abnormal state and each malfunction in components. This component malfunction basic model provides the common frame to describe abnormal situation in components. By using this basic model, not only state malfunction of component but also the consequence to external circumstance is assessed. G2, which is an excellent object-oriented developer tool in GUI (Graphical User Interface), is used as a tool for developing the system. By using the graphical editor in the system, the user can carry out HAZOP easily. We have applied this system to the Nuclear Reprocessing Facilities to demonstrate the utilities of developing system. (author)

  16. A Procedural Skills OSCE: Assessing Technical and Non-Technical Skills of Internal Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Debra; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Internists are required to perform a number of procedures that require mastery of technical and non-technical skills, however, formal assessment of these skills is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and gather validity evidence for a procedural skills objective structured clinical examination (PS-OSCE) for internal…

  17. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  18. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  19. Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam Solid Waste ... existing municipal solid waste management crisis facing Dar es Salaam City using ... enabling environment of turning rampant solid waste collection a commercial ...

  20. Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization. ... to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the ... since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered.

  1. CCIEA data and model output - California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (CCIEA) is a joint project between staff at the NWFSC, SWFSC, NMML, ONMS, and WCRO to provide managers and...

  2. 241-AY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  3. Data report for the integrity assessment report HNF-4589

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    1999-10-27

    The purpose of this document is to compile supporting documentation for the Integrity Assessment Report (HNF 4589) for Tanks 101 and 102 in the 2194 Facility. This approach minimizes the size of the Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) (HNF-4589) and still provide a path to detailed information. This IAR addresses the evaluation of Tanks 101 and 102 and other existing components located in the 219-5 Waste Handling Facility.

  4. 241-AN Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AN double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  5. Adaptation in integrated assessment modeling: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Patt, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Aaheim, A.; Hof, A.F.; Isaac, M.; Mechler, R.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation is an important element on the climate change policy agenda. Integrated assessment models, which are key tools to assess climate change policies, have begun to address adaptation, either by including it implicitly in damage cost estimates, or by making it an explicit control variable. We analyze how modelers have chosen to describe adaptation within an integrated framework, and suggest many ways they could improve the treatment of adaptation by considering more of its bottom-up cha...

  6. 241-AY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-09-21

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations. are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.

  7. 241-SY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-SY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  8. 241-AZ Double-Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-A2 double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  9. 241-AW Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AW double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  10. Determining procedures for simulation-based training in radiology: a nationwide needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Nielsen, Kristina Rue; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael; Paltved, Charlotte; Lindorff-Larsen, Karen Gilboe; Nielsen, Bjørn Ulrik; Konge, Lars

    2018-01-09

    New training modalities such as simulation are widely accepted in radiology; however, development of effective simulation-based training programs is challenging. They are often unstructured and based on convenience or coincidence. The study objective was to perform a nationwide needs assessment to identify and prioritize technical procedures that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum. A needs assessment using the Delphi method was completed among 91 key leaders in radiology. Round 1 identified technical procedures that radiologists should learn. Round 2 explored frequency of procedure, number of radiologists performing the procedure, risk and/or discomfort for patients, and feasibility for simulation. Round 3 was elimination and prioritization of procedures. Response rates were 67 %, 70 % and 66 %, respectively. In Round 1, 22 technical procedures were included. Round 2 resulted in pre-prioritization of procedures. In round 3, 13 procedures were included in the final prioritized list. The three highly prioritized procedures were ultrasound-guided (US) histological biopsy and fine-needle aspiration, US-guided needle puncture and catheter drainage, and basic abdominal ultrasound. A needs assessment identified and prioritized 13 technical procedures to include in a simulation-based curriculum. The list may be used as guide for development of training programs. • Simulation-based training can supplement training on patients in radiology. • Development of simulation-based training should follow a structured approach. • The CAMES Needs Assessment Formula explores needs for simulation training. • A national Delphi study identified and prioritized procedures suitable for simulation training. • The prioritized list serves as guide for development of courses in radiology.

  11. Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Adel; Koshak, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indicated to accommodate different learning styles. Conventional methods of clinical teaching, like training in ambulatory care settings, are prone to the factor of coincidence in having varieties of patient presentations. Accordingly, alternative methods of instruction are indicated to compensate for the deficiencies of these conventional methods. This paper presents an initiative that can be used to design a checklist as a blueprint to guide appropriate selection and implementation of teaching/learning and assessment methods in each of the educational courses and modules based on educational objectives. Three categories of instructional methods were identified, and within each a variety of methods were included. These categories are classroom-type settings, health services-based settings, and community service-based settings. Such categories have framed our triangular model of clinical teaching and assessment.

  12. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  13. Integrating tidal and nontidal ecological assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Southerland; Roberto Llanso

    2016-01-01

    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) has a long history of conducting rigorous assessments of ecological conditions in both tidal and nontidal waters. The Long-Term Benthic (LTB) Monitoring Program and the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) both use reference-based indicators of benthic invertebrate communities to provide areawide estimates of ...

  14. Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adel Abdelaziz,1,2 Emad Koshak3 1Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt; 3Dean and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indicated to accommodate different learning styles. Conventional methods of clinical teaching, like training in ambulatory care settings, are prone to the factor of coincidence in having varieties of patient presentations. Accordingly, alternative methods of instruction are indicated to compensate for the deficiencies of these conventional methods. This paper presents an initiative that can be used to design a checklist as a blueprint to guide appropriate selection and implementation of teaching/learning and assessment methods in each of the educational courses and modules based on educational objectives. Three categories of instructional methods were identified, and within each a variety of methods were included. These categories are classroom-type settings, health services-based settings, and community service-based settings. Such categories have framed our triangular model of clinical teaching and assessment. Keywords: curriculum development, teaching, learning, assessment, apprenticeship, community-based settings, health service-based settings

  15. Survey Procedures Manual for the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP). Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) conducts radiological survey activities under a contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ORISE and its programs are operated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) through a contract with DOE. The purpose of this Procedures Manual is to provide a standardized set of procedures that document activities of the program in an auditable manner. These procedures are applicable to both DOE and NRC operations. Procedures presented in this manual are limited to those associated with site survey activities

  16. Development of a tool to support holistic generic assessment of clinical procedure skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Robert K; Strand, Janice; Gray, Tracey; Schuwirth, Lambert; Alun-Jones, Tom; Miller, Helen

    2008-06-01

    The challenges of maintaining comprehensive banks of valid checklists make context-specific checklists for assessment of clinical procedural skills problematic. This paper reports the development of a tool which supports generic holistic assessment of clinical procedural skills. We carried out a literature review, focus groups and non-participant observation of assessments with interview of participants, participant evaluation of a pilot objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a national modified Delphi study with prior definitions of consensus and an OSCE. Participants were volunteers from a large acute teaching trust, a teaching primary care trust and a national sample of National Health Service staff. Results In total, 86 students, trainees and staff took part in the focus groups, observation of assessments and pilot OSCE, 252 in the Delphi study and 46 candidates and 50 assessors in the final OSCE. We developed a prototype tool with 5 broad categories amongst which were distributed 38 component competencies. There was > 70% agreement (our prior definition of consensus) at the first round of the Delphi study for inclusion of all categories and themes and no consensus for inclusion of additional categories or themes. Generalisability was 0.76. An OSCE based on the instrument has a predicted reliability of 0.79 with 12 stations and 1 assessor per station or 10 stations and 2 assessors per station. This clinical procedural skills assessment tool enables reliable assessment and has content and face validity for the assessment of clinical procedural skills. We have designated it the Leicester Clinical Procedure Assessment Tool (LCAT).

  17. Integrated reactive self-assessment for programmatic learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized method for using reactive self-assessment. The application is to programmatic learning involving the integration of reactive self-assessment results over a period of time. This paper also presents some of the results of one application of the process. Self-assessment, in general, is the assessment conducted or sponsored by an individual or organization of its own activities for the purpose of detecting improvement opportunities, either of the corrective or the enhancement types. Reactive self-assessment is a self-assessment activity conducted in reaction to a shortfall event. An integrative reactive self-assessment is a self-assessment that integrates a set of reactive self-assessment results. Programmatic learning is increasing the knowledge base in a program area. Self-assessment, in general, and reactive self-assessment, in particular, are required by federal quality requirements. One such program area is nuclear power plant testing, which is also required by federal quality requirements. Any program area could have been selected, but this one was selected because it was involved in the Chernobyl accident, the most consequential nuclear power accident up until the time of this writing. Other consequential accidents involving nuclear power plant testing were the Browns Ferry fire and the Salem overspeed event. (The author, of course, does not conduct nuclear power plant testing but is doing a self-assessment as if he were acting for an organization that did testing.)

  18. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  19. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Developments in UK defect assessment procedures R6 revision 4 and BS7910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, J.K.; Ainsworth, R.A.; Budden, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The R6 defect assessment procedures have been developed over many years by the UK nuclear power generation industry. The procedures are updated on a regular basis, taking into account the information resulting from the R6 development programme and other available information worldwide. A major revision, Revision 4, of the R6 procedures was released in 2000. Just prior to that release, in 1999, the British Standards flaw assessment procedure BS7910 was issued and combined and updated the previous published documents PD6493 and PD6539, for components operating at temperatures where creep was negligible and important, respectively. BS79l0 is also under constant development. This paper provides a brief overview of the BS7910 and R6 Revision 4 procedures and describes updates to the respective documents since they were first issued. Some ongoing developments which will lead to future revisions to the documents are also described. (author)

  1. Computer aided probabilistic assessment of containment integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.C.; Touchton, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant, there are three probability-based techniques which are widely used for event sequence frequency quantification (including nodal probability estimation). These three techniques are the event tree analysis, the fault tree analysis and the Bayesian approach for database development. In the barrier analysis for assessing radionuclide release to the environment in a PRA study, these techniques are employed to a greater extent in estimating conditions which could lead to failure of the fuel cladding and the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary, but to a lesser degree in the containment pressure boundary failure analysis. The main reason is that containment issues are currently still in a state of flux. In this paper, the authors describe briefly the computer programs currently used by the nuclear industry to do event tree analyses, fault tree analyses and the Bayesian update. The authors discuss how these computer aided probabilistic techniques might be adopted for failure analysis of the containment pressure boundary

  2. Effective integrated frameworks for assessing mining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgone, K M; Ramirez-Andreotta, M; Mainhagu, J; Brusseau, M L

    2018-05-28

    The objectives of this research are to review existing methods used for assessing mining sustainability, analyze the limited prior research that has evaluated the methods, and identify key characteristics that would constitute an enhanced sustainability framework that would serve to improve sustainability reporting in the mining industry. Five of the most relevant frameworks were selected for comparison in this analysis, and the results show that there are many commonalities among the five, as well as some disparities. In addition, relevant components are missing from all five. An enhanced evaluation system and framework were created to provide a more holistic, comprehensive method for sustainability assessment and reporting. The proposed framework has five components that build from and encompass the twelve evaluation characteristics used in the analysis. The components include Foundation, Focus, Breadth, Quality Assurance, and Relevance. The enhanced framework promotes a comprehensive, location-specific reporting approach with a concise set of well-defined indicators. Built into the framework is quality assurance, as well as a defined method to use information from sustainability reports to inform decisions. The framework incorporates human health and socioeconomic aspects via initiatives such as community-engaged research, economic valuations, and community-initiated environmental monitoring.

  3. Procedures for measuring and verifying gastric tube placement in newborns: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Flávia de Souza Barbosa; Emidio, Suellen Cristina Dias; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda; Beck, Ana Raquel Medeiros; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2017-07-10

    to investigate evidence in the literature on procedures for measuring gastric tube insertion in newborns and verifying its placement, using alternative procedures to radiological examination. an integrative review of the literature carried out in the Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Scopus databases using the descriptors "Intubation, gastrointestinal" and "newborns" in original articles. seventeen publications were included and categorized as "measuring method" or "technique for verifying placement". Regarding measuring methods, the measurements of two morphological distances and the application of two formulas, one based on weight and another based on height, were found. Regarding the techniques for assessing placement, the following were found: electromagnetic tracing, diaphragm electrical activity, CO2 detection, indigo carmine solution, epigastrium auscultation, gastric secretion aspiration, color inspection, and evaluation of pH, enzymes and bilirubin. the measuring method using nose to earlobe to a point midway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus measurement presents the best evidence. Equations based on weight and height need to be experimentally tested. The return of secretion into the tube aspiration, color assessment and secretion pH are reliable indicators to identify gastric tube placement, and are the currently indicated techniques. investigar, na literatura, evidências sobre procedimentos de mensuração da sonda gástrica em recém-nascidos e de verificação do seu posicionamento, procedimentos alternativos ao exame radiológico. revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases Biblioteca Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE e Scopus, utilizando os descritores "intubação gastrointestinal" e "recém-nascido" em artigos originais. dezessete publicações foram incluídas e categorizadas em "método de mensuração" ou "técnica de verificação do posicionamento". Como métodos de mensuração, foram encontrados os de tomada

  4. Structural assessment procedure of corroding submarine gas pipelines using on-line inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin Yahaya

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents 'the alternative approach of overall procedure in the assessment of corroded pipelines using data gathered by the on-line inspection device. The methodology adopts a generalised approach of analysing pipeline inspection data and a prediction of the structural reliability due to the deteriorating corrosion environment. The whole assessment methodology is divided into four separate stages; 1 to IV. Stages 1 and 11 are the initial procedure prior to the actual analysis of the inspection data. The scope of this paper is concerted into the procedure to be taken in Stage 111 where the stage is sub-divided into 3 major steps; Part A, B and C. These procedures are Part A (statistical and probabilistic analysis of the inspection data) and Part B (the application of extreme value statistics) and C (reliability assessment). Stage IV (risk assessment) is the final step in the procedure where the consequences of failure are evaluated. The proposed risk-based assessment procedure is more systematic and reliable to account for a huge amount of collected data usually obtained in an on-line inspection using the intelligent devices. The outcomes of this risk-based methodology can be very useful in the decision-making process by the operation management. This in turn will produce an efficient inspection, repair and maintenance program and enhanced the optimised return in investment. (author)

  5. Embedding of Authentic Assessment in Work-Integrated Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Anna Maria; Ferns, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives of higher education endorse a work integrated learning (WIL) approach to curriculum content, delivery and assessment. It is agreed that authenticity in learning relates to real-world experience, however, differentiating and strategically linking WIL provision and facilitation to assessment tasks and collation of authentic…

  6. Integration of Probabilistic Exposure Assessment and Probabilistic Hazard Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Slob, W.

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for integrated probabilistic risk assessment where exposure assessment and hazard characterization are both included in a probabilistic way. The aim is to specify the probability that a random individual from a defined (sub)population will have an exposure high enough to cause a

  7. Adaptation in integrated assessment modeling: where do we stand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patt, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Aaheim, A.; Hof, A.F.; Isaac, M.; Mechler, R.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation is an important element on the climate change policy agenda. Integrated assessment models, which are key tools to assess climate change policies, have begun to address adaptation, either by including it implicitly in damage cost estimates, or by making it an explicit control variable. We

  8. Measure and integration an advanced course in basic procedures and applications

    CERN Document Server

    König, Heinz

    1997-01-01

    This book sets out to restructure certain fundamentals in measure and integration theory, and thus to fee the theory from some notorious drawbacks. It centers around the ubiquitous task of producing appropriate contents and measures from more primitive data, in order to extend elementary contents and to represent elementary integrals. This task has not been met with adequate unified means so far. The traditional main tools, the Carathéodory and Daniell-Stone theorems, are too restrictive and had to be supplemented by other ad-hoc procedures. Around 1970 a new approach emerged, based on the notion of regularity, which in traditional measure theory is linked to topology. The present book develops the new approach into a systematic theory. The theory unifies the entire context and is much more powerful than the former means. It has striking implications all over measure theory and beyond. Thus it extends the Riesz representation theorem in terms of Randon measures from locally compact to arbitrary Hausdorff top...

  9. Integrated assessment of bioelectricity technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Huang, Ye; Rezvani, Sina; Brammer, John; Rogers, John

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from biomass is a sustainable energy technology which can contribute to substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, but with greater potential for environmental, economic and social impacts than most other renewable energy technologies. It is important therefore in assessing bioenergy systems to take account of not only technical, but also environmental, economic and social parameters on a common basis. This work addresses the challenge of analysing, quantifying and comparing these factors for bioenergy power generation systems. A life-cycle approach is used to analyse the technical, environmental, economic and social impacts of entire bioelectricity systems, with a number of life-cycle indicators as outputs to facilitate cross-comparison. The results show that similar greenhouse gas savings are achieved with the wide variety of technologies and scales studied, but land-use efficiency of greenhouse gas savings and specific airborne emissions varied substantially. Also, while specific investment costs and electricity costs vary substantially from one system to another the number of jobs created per unit of electricity delivered remains roughly constant. Recorded views of stakeholders illustrate that diverging priorities exist for different stakeholder groups and this will influence appropriate choice of bioenergy systems for different applications

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at https://hero.epa.gov/hero/sulfur-oxides. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  11. A transition from using multi-step procedures to a fully integrated system for performing extracorporeal photopheresis: A comparison of costs and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nabih; Leblond, Veronique; Ouzegdouh, Maya; Button, Paul

    2017-12-01

    The Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital Hemobiotherapy Department, Paris, France, has been providing extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) since November 2011, and started using the Therakos ® CELLEX ® fully integrated system in 2012. This report summarizes our single-center experience of transitioning from the use of multi-step ECP procedures to the fully integrated ECP system, considering the capacity and cost implications. The total number of ECP procedures performed 2011-2015 was derived from department records. The time taken to complete a single ECP treatment using a multi-step technique and the fully integrated system at our department was assessed. Resource costs (2014€) were obtained for materials and calculated for personnel time required. Time-driven activity-based costing methods were applied to provide a cost comparison. The number of ECP treatments per year increased from 225 (2012) to 727 (2015). The single multi-step procedure took 270 min compared to 120 min for the fully integrated system. The total calculated per-session cost of performing ECP using the multi-step procedure was greater than with the CELLEX ® system (€1,429.37 and €1,264.70 per treatment, respectively). For hospitals considering a transition from multi-step procedures to fully integrated methods for ECP where cost may be a barrier, time-driven activity-based costing should be utilized to gain a more comprehensive understanding the full benefit that such a transition offers. The example from our department confirmed that there were not just cost and time savings, but that the time efficiencies gained with CELLEX ® allow for more patient treatments per year. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Clinical Apheresis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure for safety assessment of components with cracks - Handbook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillstroem, Peter; Bergman, Mats; Brickstad, Bjoern; Weilin Zang; Sattari-Far, Iradj; Andersson, Peder; Sund, Goeran; Dahlberg, Lars; Nilsson, Fred (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    SSM has supported research work for the further development of a previously developed procedure/handbook (SKI Report 99:49) for assessment of detected cracks and tolerance for defect analysis. During the operative use of the handbook it was identified needs to update the deterministic part of the procedure and to introduce a new probabilistic flaw evaluation procedure. Another identified need was a better description of the theoretical basis to the computer program. The principal aim of the project has been to update the deterministic part of the recently developed procedure and to introduce a new probabilistic flaw evaluation procedure. Other objectives of the project have been to validate the conservatism of the procedure, make the procedure well defined and easy to use and make the handbook that documents the procedure as complete as possible. The procedure/handbook and computer program ProSACC, Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Components with Cracks, has been extensively revised within this project. The major differences compared to the last revision are within the following areas: It is now possible to deal with a combination of deterministic and probabilistic data. It is possible to include J-controlled stable crack growth. The appendices on material data to be used for nuclear applications and on residual stresses are revised. A new deterministic safety evaluation system is included. The conservatism in the method for evaluation of the secondary stresses for ductile materials is reduced. A new geometry, a circular bar with a circumferential surface crack has been introduced. The results of this project will be of use to SSM in safety assessments of components with cracks and in assessments of the interval between the inspections of components in nuclear power plants

  13. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a Measure of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, C. Alix; England, Erica L.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to pilot the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) in measuring attitudes toward the self: one related to body image specifically and another assessing the broader construct of self-esteem. Study 1 utilized the IRAP with female college students to examine self-referential beliefs regarding body image. Results…

  14. Teachers' Use of a Self-Assessment Procedure: The Role of Criteria, Standards, Feedback and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diggelen, Migchiel; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the way teachers assess their own coaching competencies regarding the development of vocational education students' reflection skills. The participating teachers used a self-assessment procedure in which they had to judge themselves with the help of criteria and standards, received feedback from a colleague based on the…

  15. Teachers' use of a self-assessment procedure : the role of criteria, standards, feedback and reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, van M.R.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the way teachers assess their own coaching competencies regarding the development of vocational education students’ reflection skills. The participating teachers used a self-assessment procedure in which they had to judge themselves with the help of criteria and standards,

  16. Canadian insights: The challenges of an integrated environmental assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaig, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The paper draws results from a review of literature to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the integrated environmental assessment framework in Canada with respect to the inclusion of health impact assessment. Insights include the legislative nature, rigid structure and priority for the natural environment that may restrict progress and the pool of government agencies that need to be convinced of the benefits of health impact assessment that may provide a strong structure for compliance in the long term

  17. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first

  18. Probabilistic procedure to evaluate integrity of degraded pipes under internal pressure and bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Herter, K.-H.; Julisch, P.; Otremba, F.; Schuler, X.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical crack sizes or permissible/allowable loading levels in pipes with degraded pipe sections (circumferential cracks) for the assurance of component integrity is usually based on deterministic approaches. Therefore along with numerical calculational methods (finite element (FE) analyses) limit load calculations, such as e.g. the 'Plastic limit load concept' and the 'Flow stress concept' as well as fracture mechanics approximation methods as e.g. the R-curve method or the 'Ductile fracture handbook' and the R6-Method are currently used for practical application. Numerous experimental tests on both ferritic and austenitic pipes with different pipe dimensions were investigated at MPA Stuttgart. The geometries of the pipes were comparable to actual piping systems in Nuclear Power Plants, both BWR as well as PWR. Through wall cracks and part wall through cracks on the inside surface of the pipes were considered. The results of these tests were used to determine the flow stresses used within the limit load calculations. Therefore the deterministic concepts assessing the integrity of degraded pipes are available A new post-calculation of the above mentioned tests was performed using probabilistic approaches to assure the component integrity of degraded piping systems. As a result the calculated probability of failure was compared to experimental behaviour during the pipe test. Different reliability techniques were used for the verification of the probabilistic approaches. (author)

  19. Towards an interpretive measurement framework to assess the levels of integrated and integrative thinking within organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schörger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study is located within the context of corporate reporting and is relevant for the agenda of sustainability and sustainable development. The specific context for this study is the South African mining industry, within which three units in the form of three companies, were chosen to provide a coherent case for this study. The sample for the analysis is based on the integrated reports of these companies for the years 2012 and 2013. This gives this research a total sample size of six reports. Based on the research findings an initial interpretive measurement framework to assess the levels of capital integration has been theorised which enables the various stakeholders of an organisation to assess the integrated and integrative thinking capabilities. The level of integration is represented as a maturity scale on which integrated thinking is associated with the lower levels, while integrative thinking is attributed to higher levels of maturity. In the elaborated framework, integrated thinking is perceived as being a prerequisite for integrative thinking. The practical implication of this study is that it provides a potential measurement framework for various organisational stakeholders, including investors, to assess the thinking capabilities that are more likely to lead to long term financial stability and sustainability. The value of this research study is that it provides an initial step towards measuring the level of integrated and integrative thinking capabilities within organisations where no such measurement framework currently exists. The limitations and implications of this research study are that the interpretive measurement framework represents merely an initial step and an ongoing working hypothesis which requires further research to develop its maturity and usefulness.

  20. Should different impact assessment instruments be integrated? Evidence from English spatial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Ryo; Fischer, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence to the question as to whether integration of different instruments is achieving its aim in supporting sustainable decision making, focusing on SEA inclusive sustainability appraisal (SA) and other impact assessments (IAs) currently used in English spatial planning. Usage of IAs in addition to SA is established and an analysis of the integration approach (in terms of process, output, and assessor) as well as its effectiveness is conducted. It is found that while integration enhances effectiveness to some extent, too much integration, especially in terms of the procedural element, appears to diminish the overall effectiveness of each IA in influencing decisions as they become captured by the balancing function of SA. -- Highlights: ► The usage of different impact assessments in English spatial planning is clarified. ► The relationship between integration approach and effectiveness is analyzed. ► Results suggest that integration does not necessarily lead to more sustainable decisions. ► Careful consideration is recommended upon process integration

  1. Should different impact assessment instruments be integrated? Evidence from English spatial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Ryo, E-mail: tajima.ryo@nies.go.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G5-9 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokoyama City, Kanagawa, 226-8502 (Japan); Fischer, Thomas B., E-mail: fischer@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, 74 Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence to the question as to whether integration of different instruments is achieving its aim in supporting sustainable decision making, focusing on SEA inclusive sustainability appraisal (SA) and other impact assessments (IAs) currently used in English spatial planning. Usage of IAs in addition to SA is established and an analysis of the integration approach (in terms of process, output, and assessor) as well as its effectiveness is conducted. It is found that while integration enhances effectiveness to some extent, too much integration, especially in terms of the procedural element, appears to diminish the overall effectiveness of each IA in influencing decisions as they become captured by the balancing function of SA. -- Highlights: ► The usage of different impact assessments in English spatial planning is clarified. ► The relationship between integration approach and effectiveness is analyzed. ► Results suggest that integration does not necessarily lead to more sustainable decisions. ► Careful consideration is recommended upon process integration.

  2. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  3. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.br; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dneves@ird.gov.br, e-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  4. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    in the “Optimization approach” the scenarios are the results of an optimization process. • The cost approach describes cost principles and level of LCA integration. Conventional and Environmental LCCs are financial assessments, i.e. include marketed goods/services, but while Environmental LCCs include environmental...... assessment of SWM systems alongside environmental impacts assessment to take budget constrains into account. In light of the need for combined environmental and economic assessment of SWM, this PhD thesis developed a consistent and comprehensive method for integrated environmental and economic assessment...... of SWM technologies and systems. The method resulted from developing further the generic Life Cycle Costing (LCC) framework suggested by Hunkeler et al. (2008) and Swarr et al. (2011) to apply it on the field of SWM. The method developed includes: two modelling approaches (Accounting and Optimization...

  5. A Specified Procedure for Distress Identification and Assessment for Urban Road Surfaces Based on PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loprencipe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified procedure for the assessment of pavement structural integrity and the level of service for urban road surfaces is presented. A sample of 109 Asphalt Concrete (AC urban pavements of an Italian road network was considered to validate the methodology. As part of this research, the most recurrent defects, those never encountered and those not defined with respect to the list collected in the ASTM D6433 have been determined by statistical analysis. The goal of this research is the improvement of the ASTM D6433 Distress Identification Catalogue to be adapted to urban road surfaces. The presented methodology includes the implementation of a Visual Basic for Application (VBA language-based program for the computerization of Pavement Condition Index (PCI calculation with interpolation by the parametric cubic spline of all of the density/deduct value curves of ASTM D6433 distress types. Also, two new distress definitions (for manholes and for tree roots and new density/deduct curve values were proposed to achieve a new distress identification manual for urban road pavements. To validate the presented methodology, for the 109 urban pavements considered, the PCI was calculated using the new distress catalogue and using the ASTM D6433 implemented on PAVERTM. The results of the linear regression between them and their statistical parameters are presented in this paper. The comparison of the results shows that the proposed method is suitable for the identification and assessment of observed distress in urban pavement surfaces at the PCI-based scale.

  6. Health and environmental impacts of electricity generation systems: procedures for comparative assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA technical report involving description of the Manual for procedure of comparison risk assessment (CRA) and external cost (ECA) of environmental and public health effect from nuclear energetics and other power generation is treated. CRA and ECA results depend on national and regional social-economic, geographic, medical and demographic, and other features. When using CRA and ECA procedures developed in concrete countries their adaptation is necessary for conditions of other countries [ru

  7. Integrated Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards in Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated risk assessment includes the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such as baseline study, hazard identification and categorization, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. Vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values. Thus, social vulnerability is a pre-existing condition that affects a society's ability to prepare for and recover from a disruptive event. Risk is the probability of a loss, and this loss depends on three elements: hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Thus, risk is the estimated impact that a hazard event would have on people, services, facilities, structures and assets in a community. In this work we assess the risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37N, 92.25W) with a population of about 20 000 habitants. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed to many different natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods). To determine the level of exposure of the community to natural hazards, we developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic microzonation, landslide and flood susceptibility as well as volcanic impact using standard methodologies. Social vulnerability was quantified from data obtained from local families interviews. Five variables were considered: household structure quality and design, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing family plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception.The number of families surveyed was determined considering a sample statistically significant. The families that were interviewed were selected using the simple random sampling technique with replacement. With these

  8. Practice and progress in integrated assessments of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the state of the art integrated socioeconomic-biophysical assessments of climate change as presented at the IIASA workshop in October 1993. The paper seeks to tally the major improvements facilitated by integrated assessments in understanding the global warming problem and the crucial unresolved problems they currently face. The basic conclusion is that, as a result of a healthy diversity in practice, integrated assessments show significant progress in structuring the economic issues of climate change and providing the first broad insights into policy options. But, as some of the simple and traditional cases seem to be solved, more complex and difficult contingencies come to the fore. This suggests a long way to go to develop skills that will be required to address the numerous open issues. (author)

  9. Integrity assessment report of tanks TK-101 and TK-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    1999-08-25

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc., (WMH), the operations contractor; Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH), the Hanford Site Manager; and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the system owner. This IAR addresses the evaluation of Tanks 101 and 102 and other existing components located in the 219-S Waste Handling Facility. This report will be included in the Part B Permit for the 2226 Laboratory and is a portion of the integrity assessment of the overall 222-5 Laboratory radioactive liquid waste disposal system. This IAR is prepared in accordance with WAC 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations; Section 640(2), ''Assessment of Existing Tank Systems Integrity .''

  10. Integrity assessment report of tanks TK-101 and TK-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc., (WMH), the operations contractor; Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH), the Hanford Site Manager; and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the system owner. This IAR addresses the evaluation of Tanks 101 and 102 and other existing components located in the 219-S Waste Handling Facility. This report will be included in the Part B Permit for the 2226 Laboratory and is a portion of the integrity assessment of the overall 222-5 Laboratory radioactive liquid waste disposal system. This IAR is prepared in accordance with WAC 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations; Section 640(2), ''Assessment of Existing Tank Systems Integrity .''

  11. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  12. Integrated probabilistic assessment for DHC initiation, growth and leak-before-break of PHWR pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young-Jin [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, 188 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-870 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Suk, E-mail: yschang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated approach for probabilistic assessment of PHWR pressure tube. • We examine probabilities of DHC initiation, growth, penetration and LBB failure. • The proposed approach is helpful to calculate rupture probabilities in reactor flaws even in the case of very low rupture probability. - Abstract: A few hundred zirconium alloy pressure tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) serve as the nuclear fuel channel, as well as the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are inspected periodically and a fitness-for-service assessment (FFSA) must be conducted if any flaw is detected in the inspection. A Canadian standard provides FFSA procedures of PHWR pressure tubes, which include probabilistic assessment for flaws considering delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and leak-before-break (LBB). In the present study, an integrated approach with detailed stepwise calculation procedures and integration methodology for probabilistic assessment of pressure tube was developed. In the first step of this approach, a probability of the DHC initiation, growth and penetration for single initial flaw is calculated. In the next step, a probability of LBB failure, which means tube rupture, for single through-wall crack (TWC) is calculated. Finally, a rupture probability for all initial flaws in a reactor can be calculated using the penetration probability for single flaw and the LBB failure probability for single TWC, as well as the predicted total number of initial flaw in the reactor.

  13. Integrated probabilistic assessment for DHC initiation, growth and leak-before-break of PHWR pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated approach for probabilistic assessment of PHWR pressure tube. • We examine probabilities of DHC initiation, growth, penetration and LBB failure. • The proposed approach is helpful to calculate rupture probabilities in reactor flaws even in the case of very low rupture probability. - Abstract: A few hundred zirconium alloy pressure tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) serve as the nuclear fuel channel, as well as the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are inspected periodically and a fitness-for-service assessment (FFSA) must be conducted if any flaw is detected in the inspection. A Canadian standard provides FFSA procedures of PHWR pressure tubes, which include probabilistic assessment for flaws considering delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and leak-before-break (LBB). In the present study, an integrated approach with detailed stepwise calculation procedures and integration methodology for probabilistic assessment of pressure tube was developed. In the first step of this approach, a probability of the DHC initiation, growth and penetration for single initial flaw is calculated. In the next step, a probability of LBB failure, which means tube rupture, for single through-wall crack (TWC) is calculated. Finally, a rupture probability for all initial flaws in a reactor can be calculated using the penetration probability for single flaw and the LBB failure probability for single TWC, as well as the predicted total number of initial flaw in the reactor

  14. Management and presentation of grouped procedures: has the IHE integration profile cracked the toughest radiology workflow nut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Charles R.; Channin, David S.; Avrin, David E.; Lindop, Christopher

    2001-08-01

    In a simple, typical radiology workflow process, an order generates a single procedure, which in turn generates a single data set, from which, one radiology report is generated. There are, however, occasions when a single order consists of more than one procedure each with a separate report, yet the procedures are accomplished by one physical acquisition of data. The prototypical example of this is the request for computed tomographic evaluation of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. The study is accomplished, with modern day scanners, by a single helical acquisition, yet there are typically three codable and billable procedures involved, and these may be reported independently either for administrative or academic reasons. This grouping of procedures remained up to now a challenge to automate across integrated modalities, PACS and RIS. This paper discusses a number of other practical cases where this situation occurs and reviews the capabilities of the Presentation of Grouped Procedures IHE Integration Profile in solving this problem. The DICOM services used are evaluated as well as the strengths and weaknesses of this IHE Integration Profile. The implementation experience gained on both a CT and an MR for the IHE Demonstration at RSNA 2000 and HIMSS 2001 is also reviewed. In conclusion, the resulting clinical and operational benefits are discussed.

  15. General support for integrated assessment research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2001-03-01

    The climate change problem spans an extraordinarily large number of disciplines from earth sciences to social and political sciences. The interaction of processes described by these different fields is why climate change is such a complex issue. Keeping track of these interactions and bringing coherence to the assumptions underlying each disciplinary insight on the climate problem is a massive undertaking. Integrated assessment is an interdisciplinary approach designed to provide systematic evaluations of technically complex problems such as the analysis of environmental change challenges facing humanity. Ph.D. theses stemming from this application are summarized. Then some aspects of Integrated Climate Assessment Models are described.

  16. Bridging the gap between theory and practice in integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Norman

    2006-01-01

    There is growing support for the use of integrated assessments (IAs)/sustainability impact assessments (SIAs), at different government levels and geographic scales of policy-making and planning, both nationally and internationally. However, delivering good quality IAs/SIAs, in the near future, could be challenging. This paper mainly focuses upon one area of concern, differences between research and other technical contributions intended to strengthen assessment methodologies and the types of assessment methods considered usable by practitioners. To help in addressing this concern, the development of a common assessment framework is proposed, which is based on a shared, practitioner-researcher-stakeholder understanding of what constitutes a satisfactory integrated/sustainability impact assessment. The paper outlines a possible structure for this framework, which contains three interconnected elements-the planning context in which the assessment is to be carried out; the process by which the assessment is to be undertaken and its findings used; and the methods, technical and consultative, by which impacts are to be assessed. It concludes with suggested 'next steps', addressed to researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, by which the assessment framework might be tested and improved, and its subsequent use supported

  17. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Stewart facility located approximately 25 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO. The tables also present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  18. Integrated Model to Assess Cloud Deployment Effectiveness When Developing an IT-strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikov, S.; Prankevich, D.

    2016-04-01

    Developing an IT-strategy of cloud deployment is a complex issue since even the stage of its formation necessitates revealing what applications will be the best possible to meet the requirements of a company business-strategy, evaluate reliability and safety of cloud providers and analyze staff satisfaction. A system of criteria, as well an integrated model to assess cloud deployment effectiveness is offered. The model makes it possible to identify what applications being at the disposal of a company, as well as new tools to be deployed are reliable and safe enough for implementation in the cloud environment. The data on practical use of the procedure to assess cloud deployment effectiveness by a provider of telecommunication services is presented. The model was used to calculate values of integral indexes of services to be assessed, then, ones, meeting the criteria and answering the business-strategy of a company, were selected.

  19. Assessment of the integrity of WWER type reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1995-01-01

    Procedures are given for the assessment of the residual lifetime of reactor pressure vessels with respect to a sudden failure, the lifetime of vessels with defects disclosed during in-service inspections, and the fatigue or corrosion-mechanical lifetime. Also outlined are the ways of assessing the effects of major degradation mechanisms, i.e. radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, and fatigue damage, including the use of calculated values and experimental examination, by means of surveillance specimens in particular. All results of assessment performed so far indicate that the life of reactor pressure vessels at the Dukovany, Jaslovske Bohunice, and Temelin nuclear power plants is well secured. 7 figs., 3 refs

  20. Assessment for Complex Learning Resources: Development and Validation of an Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Wesiak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s e-learning systems meet the challenge to provide interactive, personalized environments that support self-regulated learning as well as social collaboration and simulation. At the same time assessment procedures have to be adapted to the new learning environments by moving from isolated summative assessments to integrated assessment forms. Therefore, learning experiences enriched with complex didactic resources - such as virtualized collaborations and serious games - have emerged. In this extension of [1] an integrated model for e-assessment (IMA is outlined, which incorporates complex learning resources and assessment forms as main components for the development of an enriched learning experience. For a validation the IMA was presented to a group of experts from the fields of cognitive science, pedagogy, and e-learning. The findings from the validation lead to several refinements of the model, which mainly concern the component forms of assessment and the integration of social aspects. Both aspects are accounted for in the revised model, the former by providing a detailed sub-model for assessment forms.

  1. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Integrated Monitoring System for Durability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An ageing and deteriorating bridge stock presents the bridge owners with the growing challenge of maintaining the structures at a satisfactory level of safety, performance and aesthetic appearance within the allocated budgets. This task calls for optimized bridge management based on efficient methods of selecting technical and economical optimal maintenance and rehabilitation strategies. One of the crucial points in the assessment of the current condition and future development and performance. Selecting the optimal maintenance and rehabilitation strategy within the actual budget is a key point in bridge management for which an accurate assessment of performance and deterioration rate is necessary. For this assessment, the use of integrated monitoring system has several advantages compared to the traditional approach of scattered visual inspections combined with occasional on site testing with portable equipment and laboratory testing of collected samples. For this reason, attention is more focusing on the development of permanent integrated monitoring system for durability assessment of concrete bridges. It is estimated that with the implementation of such integrated monitoring systems, it should be possible to reduce the operating costs of inspections and maintenance by 25% and the operator of the structures will be able to take protective actions before damaging processes start. This paper indentifies the main bridge owner requirements to integrated monitoring systems and outlines how monitoring systems may be used for performance and deterioration rate assessment to establish a better basis for selecting the optimal maintenance and rehabilitation strategy.

  3. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  4. Guidelines and procedures for the International Code Assessment and Applications Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This document presents the guidelines and procedures by which the International Code Assessment and Applications Program (ICAP) will be conducted. The document summarizes the management structure of the program and the relationships between and responsibilities of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the international participants. The procedures for code maintenance and necessary documentation are described. Guidelines for the performance and documentation of code assessment studies are presented. An overview of an effort to quantify code uncertainty, which the ICAP supports, is included

  5. Integrated safety assessment report: Integrated Safety Assessment Program: Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-245): Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP) was initiated in November 1984, by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to conduct integrated assessments for operating nuclear power reactors. The integrated assessment is conducted in a plant-specific basis to evaluate all licensing actions, licensee initiated plant improvements and selected unresolved generic/safety issues to establish implementation schedules for each item. In addition, procedures will be established to allow for a periodic updating of the schedules to account for licensing issues that arise in the future. This report documents the review of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1, operated by Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (located in Waterford, Connecticut). Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1, is one of two plants being reviewed under the pilot program for ISAP. This report indicates how 85 topics selected for review were addressed. This report presents the staff's recommendations regarding the corrective actions to resolve the 85 topics and other actions to enhance plant safety. The report is being issued in draft form to obtain comments from the licensee, nuclear safety experts, and the Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). Once those comments have been resolved, the staff will present its positions, along with a long-term implementation schedule from the licensee, in the final version of this report

  6. Reliability assessment of a manual-based procedure towards learning curve modeling and fmea analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rech

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Separation procedures in drug Distribution Centers (DC are manual-based activities prone to failures such as shipping exchanged, expired or broken drugs to the customer. Two interventions seem as promising in improving the reliability in the separation procedure: (i selection and allocation of appropriate operators to the procedure, and (ii analysis of potential failure modes incurred by selected operators. This article integrates Learning Curves (LC and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis aimed at reducing the occurrence of failures in the manual separation of a drug DC. LCs parameters enable generating an index to identify the recommended operators to perform the procedures. The FMEA is then applied to the separation procedure carried out by the selected operators in order to identify failure modes. It also deployed the traditional FMEA severity index into two sub-indexes related to financial issues and damage to company´s image in order to characterize failures severity. When applied to a drug DC, the proposed method significantly reduced the frequency and severity of failures in the separation procedure.

  7. Assessment of Patients Radiation Dose During Interventional Radiological Procedure in PPUKM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Salleh; Muhammad Jamal Muhammad Isa

    2014-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a relatively new subspecialty of radiology. It is subspecialty where minimally invasive procedures are performed under radiological guidance using X-ray. This procedure can deliver high radiation doses compared with other radiological method due to long screening time. Because of these it is important to determine radiation doses received by patients undergoing IR procedures. It is to ensure that the dose is within the range deemed to be saved. A total of 128 patients undergoing IR procedures in PPUKM between 2012 and 2013 were study retrospectively. Dose area product (DAP) meter were used to measure the integral dose for the whole procedures. Mean kerma-area products for abdomen, head, pelvis, and thorax were 243.1, 107.3, 39.05 and 45.7 Gycm 2 , respectively. This study may provide the useful information which can be use to establish baseline patient dose data for dose optimizing study and carried out a recommendation on effective method of patient dose reduction during IR procedures. A more detail results of this study are presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  9. Assessment and management of ecological integrity: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing and understanding the impacts of human activities on aquatic ecosystems has long been a focus of ecologists, water resources managers, and fisheries scientists. While traditional fisheries management focused on single-species approaches to enhance fish stocks, there is a growing emphasis on management approaches at community and ecosystem levels. Of course, as fisheries managers shift their attention from narrow (e.g., populations) to broad organizational scales (e.g., communities or ecosystems), ecological processes and management objectives become more complex. At the community level, fisheries managers may strive for a fish assemblage that is complex, persistent, and resilient to disturbance. Aquatic ecosystem level objectives may focus on management for habitat quality and ecological processes, such as nutrient dynamics, productivity, or trophic interactions, but a long-term goal of ecosystem management may be to maintain ecological integrity. However, human users and social, economic, and political demands of fisheries management often result in a reduction of ecological integrity in managed systems, and this conflict presents a principal challenge for the modern fisheries manager. The concepts of biotic integrity and ecological integrity are being applied in fisheries science, natural resource management, and environmental legislation, but explicit definitions of these terms are elusive. Biotic integrity of an ecosystem may be defined as the capability of supporting and maintaining an integrated, adaptive community of organisms having a species composition, diversity, and functional organization comparable to that of a natural habitat of the region (Karr and Dudley 1981). Following that, ecological integrity is the summation of chemical, physical, and biological integrity. Thus, the concept of ecological integrity extends beyond fish and represents a holistic approach for ecosystem management that is especially applicable to aquatic systems. The

  10. The safety assessment of OPR-1000 nuclear power plant for station blackout accident applying the combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu, E-mail: littlewing@kins.re.kr [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure (CDPP) was proposed for safety assessment of the BDBAs. • The safety assessment of OPR-1000 nuclear power plant for SBO accident is performed by applying the CDPP. • By estimating the offsite power restoration time appropriately, the SBO risk is reevaluated. • It is concluded that the CDPP is applicable to safety assessment of BDBAs without significant erosion of the safety margin. - Abstract: Station blackout (SBO) is a typical beyond design basis accident (BDBA) and significant contributor to overall plant risk. The risk analysis of SBO could be important basis of rulemaking, accident mitigation strategy, etc. Recently, studies on the integrated approach of deterministic and probabilistic method for nuclear safety in nuclear power plants have been done, and among them, the combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure (CDPP) was proposed for safety assessment of the BDBAs. In the CDPP, the conditional exceedance probability obtained by the best estimate plus uncertainty method acts as go-between deterministic and probabilistic safety assessments, resulting in more reliable values of core damage frequency and conditional core damage probability. In this study, the safety assessment of OPR-1000 nuclear power plant for SBO accident was performed by applying the CDPP. It was confirmed that the SBO risk should be reevaluated by eliminating excessive conservatism in existing probabilistic safety assessment to meet the targeted core damage frequency and conditional core damage probability. By estimating the offsite power restoration time appropriately, the SBO risk was reevaluated, and it was finally confirmed that current OPR-1000 system lies in the acceptable risk against the SBO. In addition, it is concluded that the CDPP is applicable to safety assessment of BDBAs in nuclear power plants without significant erosion of the safety margin.

  11. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  12. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  13. Formative Assessment Design for PDA Integrated Ecology Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Lin, Yu-Fen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing and mobile technologies provide a new perspective for designing innovative outdoor learning experiences. The purpose of this study is to propose a formative assessment design for integrating PDAs into ecology observations. Three learning activities were conducted in this study. An action research approach was applied to…

  14. Integrated assessment of climate change with reductions of methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van A.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have been living in the anthropocene era since about 1950, and evidence of human influence on the natural ecosystems and climate is mounting. Reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are needed to reduce the effects of climate change in the future. In an integrated assessment with the IMAGE model

  15. Integrating Planning, Assessment, and Improvement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on Penn State's popular "Innovation Insights" series, this book brings together in one handy reference nearly a decade of tried and true insights into continuous quality improvements in higher education. Their five-step model for integrating planning, assessment, and improvement moves plans off the shelf and into the weekly and daily…

  16. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  17. Integrated assessment of ecosystem services in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frélichová, Jana; Vačkář, David; Pártl, Adam; Loučková, Blanka; Lorencová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, jun (2014), s. 110-117 ISSN 2212-0416 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA TA ČR TD010066 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystems * ecosystem services * integrated assessment * database * valuation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Integrity assessment of TAPS reactor pressure vessel at extended EOL using surveillance test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Shah, Priti Kotak

    2008-05-01

    Integrity assessment of pressure vessels of nuclear reactors (RPV) primarily concentrates on the prevention of brittle failure and conditions are defined under which brittle failure can be excluded. Accordingly, two approaches based on Transition Temperature Concept and Fracture Mechanics Concept were adopted using the impact test results of three credible surveillance data sets obtained from the surveillance specimens of Tarapur Atomic Power Station. RT NDT data towards end of life (EOL) were estimated from the impact test results in accordance with the procedures of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99, Rev. 2 and were used as primary input for assessment of the vessel integrity. SA302B (nickel modified) steel cladded with stainless steel is used as the pressure vessel material for the two 210 MWe boiling water reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). The reactors were commissioned during the year 1969. The chemical compositions of SA302B (modified) steel used in fabricating the vessel and the specified tensile property and the Charpy impact property requirements of the steel broadly meet ASME specified requirements. Therefore, the pressure temperature limit curves prescribed by General Electric (G.E.) were compared with those as obtained using procedures of ASME Section XII, Appendix G. The tensile and the Charpy impact properties at 60 EFPY of vessel operation as derived from the surveillance specimens even fulfilled the specified requirements for the virgin material of ASME. Integrity assessment carried out using the two approaches indicated the safety of the vessel for continued operation up to 60 EFPY. (author)

  19. Eye lens exposure to medical staff performing electrophysiology procedures: dose assessment and correlation to patient dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Bozovic, Predrag; Arandjic, Danijela; Antic, Vojislav; Selakovic, Jovana; Pavlovic, Sinisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the patient exposure and staff eye dose levels during implantation procedures for all types of pacemaker therapy devices performed under fluoroscopic guidance and to investigate potential correlation between patients and staff dose levels. The mean eye dose during pacemaker/defibrillator implementation was 12 μSv for the first operator, 8.7 μSv for the second operator/nurse and 0.50 μSv for radiographer. Corresponding values for cardiac re-synchronisation therapy procedures were 30, 26 and 2.0 μSv, respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the eye dose and the kerma-area product was found for the first operator and radiographers, but not for other staff categories. The study revealed eye dose per procedure and eye dose normalised to patient dose indices for different staff categories and provided an input for radiation protection in electrophysiology procedures. (authors)

  20. Stimulating Learning with Integrated Assessments in Construction Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyas Kamardeen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of learning students experience is heavily dependent on the effectiveness of course design. Assessments are a key component in course design and students determine their level of involvement in a learning activity based on whether it is assessed or not. Assessments are therefore a powerful tool that lecturers can utilise to drive learning. However, designing effective assessments to stimulate learning is challenging in the presence of disciplinary, contextual dimensions. A case study approach is adopted to demonstrate how effective integrated assessment schemes may be developed and implemented for construction education. The scheme in the case study amalgamated case-based learning, online quizzes and adaptive eTests to provide a variety of assessments, aligned with lecture topics and contemporary real-word scenarios. It was found that the presence of both formative and summative tasks in the assessment scheme complemented each other, kept students constantly motivated and engaged in learning, and resulted in a good learning experience for them. The study provide evidence, and valuable insights and tips for lecturers in similar degree programs as to how they could modify pedagogical styles in their courses for better learning experiences for students and improved teaching ratings for themselves. Keywords: Pedagogy, Integrated assessment, Case-based learning, Online quiz, Adaptive eLearning

  1. Stimulating Learning with Integrated Assessments in Construction Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyas Kamardeen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of learning students experience is heavily dependent on the effectiveness of course design. Assessments are a key component in course design and students determine their level of involvement in a learning activity based on whether it is assessed or not. Assessments are therefore a powerful tool that lecturers can utilise to drive learning. However, designing effective assessments to stimulate learning is challenging in the presence of disciplinary, contextual dimensions. A case study approach is adopted to demonstrate how effective integrated assessment schemes may be developed and implemented for construction education. The scheme in the case study amalgamated case-based learning, online quizzes and adaptive eTests to provide a variety of assessments, aligned with lecture topics and contemporary real-word scenarios. It was found that the presence of both formative and summative tasks in the assessment scheme complemented each other, kept students constantly motivated and engaged in learning, and resulted in a good learning experience for them. The study provide evidence, and valuable insights and tips for lecturers in similar degree programs as to how they could modify pedagogical styles in their courses for better learning experiences for students and improved teaching ratings for themselves.   Keywords: Pedagogy, Integrated assessment, Case-based learning, Online quiz, Adaptive eLearning

  2. Assessment of creep-fatigue damage using the UK strain based procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bate, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The UK strain based procedures have been developed for the evaluation of damage in structures, arising from fatigue cycles and creep processes. The fatigue damage is assessed on the basis of modelling crack growth from about one grain depth to an allowable limit which represents an engineering definition of crack formation. Creep damage is based up on the exhaustion of available ductility by creep strain accumulation. The procedures are applicable only when level A and B service conditions apply, as defined in RCC-MR or ASME Code Case N47. The procedures require the components of strain to be evaluated separately, thus they may be used with either full inelastic analysis or simplified methods. To support the development of the UK strain based creep-fatigue procedures an experimental program was undertaken by NNC to study creep-fatigue interaction of structures operating at high temperature. These tests, collectively known as the SALTBATH tests considered solid cylinder and tube-plate specimens, manufactured from Type 316 stainless steel. These specimens were subjected to thermal cycles between 250 deg. C and 600 deg. C. In all the cases the thermal cycle produces tensile residual stresses during dwells at 600 deg. C. One of the tube-plate specimens was used as a benchmark for validating the strain based creep fatigue procedures and subsequently as part of a CEC co-operative study. This benchmark work is described in this paper. A thermal and inelastic stress analysis was carried out using the finite element code ABAQUS. The inelastic behaviour of the material was described using the ORNL constitutive equations. A creep fatigue assessment using the strain based procedures has been compared with an assessment using the RCC-MR inelastic rules. The analyses indicated that both the UK strain based procedures and the RCC-MR rules were conservative, but the conservatism was greater for the RCC-MR rules. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Integration of inaccurate data into model building and uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleou, Thierry

    1998-12-31

    Model building can be seen as integrating numerous measurements and mapping through data points considered as exact. As the exact data set is usually sparse, using additional non-exact data improves the modelling and reduces the uncertainties. Several examples of non-exact data are discussed and a methodology to honor them in a single pass, along with the exact data is presented. This automatic procedure is valid for both ``base case`` model building and stochastic simulations for uncertainty analysis. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  4. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-07-02

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.

  5. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ''dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.'' This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD

  6. Definition, development, and demonstration of analytical procedures for the structured assessment approach. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Analytical procedures were refined for the Structural Assessment Approach for assessing the Material Control and Accounting systems at facilities that contain special nuclear material. Requirements were established for an efficient, feasible algorithm to be used in evaluating system performance measures that involve the probability of detection. Algorithm requirements to calculate the probability of detection for a given type of adversary and the target set are described

  7. Developing best practices teaching procedures for skinfold assessment: observational examination using the Think Aloud method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Michael E; Verba, Steven D; Lynn, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Skinfold assessment is valid and economical; however, it has a steep learning curve, and many programs only include one exposure to the technique. Increasing the number of exposures to skinfold assessment within an undergraduate curriculum would likely increase skill proficiency. The present study combined observational and Think Aloud methodologies to quantify procedural and cognitive characteristics of skinfold assessment. It was hypothesized that 1) increased curricular exposure to skinfold assessment would improve proficiency and 2) the combination of an observational and Think Aloud analysis would provide quantifiable areas of emphasis for instructing skinfold assessment. Seventy-five undergraduates with varied curricular exposure performed a seven-site skinfold assessment on a test subject while expressing their thoughts aloud. A trained practitioner recorded procedural observations, with transcripts generated from audio recordings to capture cognitive information. Skinfold measurements were compared with a criterion value, and bias scores were generated. Participants whose total bias fell within ±3.5% of the criterion value were proficient, with the remainder nonproficient. An independent-samples t-test was used to compare procedural and cognitive observations across experience and proficiency groups. Additional curricular exposure improved performance of skinfold assessment in areas such as the measurement of specific sites (e.g., chest, abdomen, and thigh) and procedural (e.g., landmark identification) and cognitive skills (e.g., complete site explanation). Furthermore, the Think Aloud method is a valuable tool for determining curricular strengths and weaknesses with skinfold assessment and as a pedagogical tool for individual instruction and feedback in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  8. Towards Enterprise Integration Performance Assessment based on Category Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhnovsky, Victoria; Ormandjieva, Olga

    A major difference between what we refer to as a "well-developed" science, such as civil engineering, and sciences which are less so, like enterprise engineering, is the degree to which nonfunctional requirements, such as performance, are integrated into the design and development process, and satisfaction of those requirements is controlled by theoretically valid measurement procedures. This paper introduces the preliminary results, which are aimed at developing a concise formal framework for enterprise performance modeling, measurement, and control during enterprise integration activities. The novelty of this research consists in employing the mathematical category theory for modeling purposes, an approach that is broad enough to formally capture heterogeneous (structural, functional and nonfunctional) requirements, by, for example, using the constructs from the graphical categorical formal language.

  9. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Botzen, W. J.; Clarke, K. C.; Cutter, S. L.; Hall, J. W.; Merz, B.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Kunreuther, H.

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of individuals, businesses, and government entities before, during, and immediately after a disaster can dramatically affect the impact and recovery time. However, existing risk-assessment methods rarely include this critical factor. In this Perspective, we show why this is a concern, and demonstrate that although initial efforts have inevitably represented human behaviour in limited terms, innovations in flood-risk assessment that integrate societal behaviour and behavioural adaptation dynamics into such quantifications may lead to more accurate characterization of risks and improved assessment of the effectiveness of risk-management strategies and investments. Such multidisciplinary approaches can inform flood-risk management policy development.

  10. Extended device profiles and testing procedures for the approval process of integrated medical devices using the IEEE 11073 communication standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janß, Armin; Thorn, Johannes; Schmitz, Malte; Mildner, Alexander; Dell'Anna-Pudlik, Jasmin; Leucker, Martin; Radermacher, Klaus

    2018-02-23

    Nowadays, only closed and proprietary integrated operating room systems (IORS) from big manufacturers are available on the market. Hence, the interconnection of components from third-party vendors is only possible with increased time and costs. In the context of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)-funded project OR.NET (2012-2016), the open integration of medical devices from different manufacturers was addressed. An integrated operating theater based on the open communication standard IEEE 11073 shall give clinical operators the opportunity to choose medical devices independently of the manufacturer. This approach would be advantageous especially for hospital operators and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) of medical devices. Actual standards and concepts regarding technical feasibility and the approval process do not cope with the requirements for a modular integration of medical devices in the operating room (OR), based on an open communication standard. Therefore, innovative approval strategies and corresponding certification and test procedures, which cover actual legal and normative standards, have to be developed in order to support the future risk management and the usability engineering process of open integrated medical devices in the OR. The use of standardized device and service profiles and a three-step testing procedure, including conformity, interoperability and integration tests are described in this paper and shall support the manufacturers to integrate their medical devices without disclosing the medical devices' risk analysis and related confidential expertise or proprietary information.

  11. Development of Procedures to Assess Problem-Solving Competence in Computing Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jorge; Vizcarro, Carmen; García, Javier; Bermúdez, Aurelio; Cobos, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    In the context of higher education, a competence may be understood as the combination of skills, knowledge, attitudes, values, and abilities that underpin effective and/or superior performance in a professional area. The aim of the work reported here was to design a set of procedures to assess a transferable competence, i.e., problem solving, that…

  12. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  13. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  14. Meeting on Common Ground: Assessing Parent-Child Relationships through the Joint Painting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavron, Tami

    2013-01-01

    A basic assumption in psychotherapy with children is that the parent-child relationship is central to the child's development. This article describes the Joint Painting Procedure, an art-based assessment for evaluating relationships with respect to the two main developmental tasks of middle childhood: (a) the parent's ability to monitor and…

  15. IRS/TUEV activities during the licensing procedure. Safety assessment and preexamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendler, H.

    1976-01-01

    Short summary about the IRS/TUEV activities in the licensing procedure for a nuclear power plant: work for assessments, for pre-examination and approval specifications and drawings and for the quality control, time and the manpower necessary for this work. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Phantoms for quality control procedures in digital breast tomosynthesis: dose assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R. W.; Diaz, O.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    The recent introduction of digital breast tomosynthesis into clinical practice requires quality control procedures. In this study we have investigated whether the assessment of the average glandular dose for modelled standard breasts can be performed using a combination of polymethyl methacrylate

  17. Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Bettine; Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Taminiau, E. M. C., Corbalan, G., Kester, L., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, March). Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education. Presentation at the ICO Springschool, Niederalteich, Germany.

  18. Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Bettine; Kester, Liesbeth; Corbalan, Gemma; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Taminiau, E. M. C., Kester, L., Corbalan, G., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education. Paper presented at the Junior Researchers of EARLI Conference 2010, Frankfurt, Germany.

  19. The quality of procedures to assess and credit prior learning: Implications for design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Jochems, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijsmans, D. M. A., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2008). The quality of procedures to assess and credit prior learning: Implications for design. Educational Research Review, 3, 51-65. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2007.08.001.

  20. Assessment procedure and probability determination methods of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiyan; Zhang Lijun; Huang Weiqi; Yin Qingliao

    2010-01-01

    Assessment procedure of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants, and the methods of probability determination in two different stages of prelimi- nary screening and detailed evaluation are introduced in this paper. Except for general air traffic, airport operations and aircraft in the corridor, the probability of aircraft crash by military operation in the military airspaces is considered here. (authors)

  1. Evaluating Referral, Screening, and Assessment Procedures for Middle School Trauma/Grief-Focused Treatment Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassetti, Stevie N.; Williamson, Ariel A.; Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger; Layne, Christopher M.; Kaplow, Julie B.; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    There is a need to delineate best practices for referring, assessing, and retaining students suspected of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and maladaptive grief (MG) in school-based treatment. Evidence-based risk-screening procedures should accurately include students who are appropriate for group treatment and exclude students who do not require…

  2. Procedures and Tools Used by Teachers When Completing Functional Vision Assessments with Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Justin T.; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study analyzed survey responses from 314 teachers of students with visual impairments regarding the tools and procedures used in completing functional vision assessments (FVAs). Methods: Teachers of students with visual impairments in the United States and Canada completed an online survey during spring 2016. Results: The…

  3. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a Measure of Spider Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Emma; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    A greater understanding of implicit cognition can provide important information regarding the etiology and maintenance of psychological disorders. The current study sought to determine the utility of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a measure of implicit aversive bias toward spiders in two groups of known variation, high fear…

  4. Optimized in vitro procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of magnesium-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ole; Smeets, Ralf; Porchetta, Dario; Kopp, Alexander; Ptock, Christoph; Müller, Ute; Heiland, Max; Schwade, Max; Behr, Björn; Kröger, Nadja; Kluwe, Lan; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biomaterial for degradable implant applications that has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo in recent years. In this study, we developed a procedure that allows an optimized and uniform in vitro assessment of the cytocompatibility of Mg-based materials while respecting the standard protocol DIN EN ISO 10993-5:2009. The mouse fibroblast line L-929 was chosen as the preferred assay cell line and MEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin/streptomycin and 4mM l-glutamine as the favored assay medium. The procedure consists of (1) an indirect assessment of effects of soluble Mg corrosion products in material extracts and (2) a direct assessment of the surface compatibility in terms of cell attachment and cytotoxicity originating from active corrosion processes. The indirect assessment allows the quantification of cell-proliferation (BrdU-assay), viability (XTT-assay) as well as cytotoxicity (LDH-assay) of the mouse fibroblasts incubated with material extracts. Direct assessment visualizes cells attached to the test materials by means of live-dead staining. The colorimetric assays and the visual evaluation complement each other and the combination of both provides an optimized and simple procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A procedure for NEPA assessment of selenium hazards associated with mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2007-02-01

    This paper gives step-by-step instructions for assessing aquatic selenium hazards associated with mining. The procedure was developed to provide the U.S. Forest Service with a proactive capability for determining the risk of selenium pollution when it reviews mine permit applications in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The procedural framework is constructed in a decision-tree format in order to guide users through the various steps, provide a logical sequence for completing individual tasks, and identify key decision points. There are five major components designed to gather information on operational parameters of the proposed mine as well as key aspects of the physical, chemical, and biological environment surrounding it--geological assessment, mine operation assessment, hydrological assessment, biological assessment, and hazard assessment. Validation tests conducted at three mines where selenium pollution has occurred confirmed that the procedure will accurately predict ecological risks. In each case, it correctly identified and quantified selenium hazard, and indicated the steps needed to reduce this hazard to an acceptable level. By utilizing the procedure, NEPA workers can be confident in their ability to understand the risk of aquatic selenium pollution and take appropriate action. Although the procedure was developed for the Forest Service it should also be useful to other federal land management agencies that conduct NEPA assessments, as well as regulatory agencies responsible for issuing coal mining permits under the authority of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and associated Section 401 water quality certification under the Clean Water Act. Mining companies will also benefit from the application of this procedure because priority selenium sources can be identified in relation to specific mine operating parameters. The procedure will reveal the point(s) at which there is a need to modify operating

  6. A procedure for safety assessment of components with cracks - Handbook. 3rd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, P.; Bergman, M.; Brickstad, B.; Dahlberg, L.; Nilsson, F.; Sattari-Far, I. [SAQ Kontroll AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    In this handbook a procedure is described which can be used both for assessment of detected cracks or crack-like defects and for defect tolerance analysis. The procedure can be used to calculate possible crack growth due to fatigue or stress corrosion and to calculate the reserve margin for failure due to fracture and plastic collapse. For ductile materials, the procedure gives the reserve margin for initiation of stable crack growth. Thus, an extra reserve margin, unknown to size, exists for failure in components made of ductile materials. The procedure was developed for operative use with the following objectives in mind: a) The procedure should be able to handle both linear and non-linear problems without any a priori division. b) The procedure shall ensure uniqueness of the safety assessment. c) The procedure should be well defined and easy to use. d) The conservatism of the procedure should be well validated. e) The handbook, that documents the procedure, should be so complete that for most assessments, access to any other fracture mechanics literature should not be necessary. The method utilized in the procedure is based on the R6-method developed at Nuclear Electric plc. The basic assumption is that fracture initiated by a crack can be described by the variables K{sub r} and L{sub r}. K{sub r} is the ratio between the stress intensity factor and the fracture toughness of the material. L{sub r} is the ratio between applied load and the plastic limit load of the structure. The pair of calculated values of these variables is plotted in a diagram. If the point is situated within the noncritical region, fracture is assumed not to occur. If the point is situated outside the region, crack growth and fracture may occur. The method can in principal be used for all metallic materials. It is, however, more extensively verified for steel alloys only. The method is not intended for use in temperature regions where creep deformation is of importance. To fulfil the above

  7. A procedure for safety assessment of components with cracks - Handbook. 3rd revised edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Bergman, M.; Brickstad, B.; Dahlberg, L.; Nilsson, F.; Sattari-Far, I.

    1999-12-01

    In this handbook a procedure is described which can be used both for assessment of detected cracks or crack-like defects and for defect tolerance analysis. The procedure can be used to calculate possible crack growth due to fatigue or stress corrosion and to calculate the reserve margin for failure due to fracture and plastic collapse. For ductile materials, the procedure gives the reserve margin for initiation of stable crack growth. Thus, an extra reserve margin, unknown to size, exists for failure in components made of ductile materials. The procedure was developed for operative use with the following objectives in mind: a) The procedure should be able to handle both linear and non-linear problems without any a priori division. b) The procedure shall ensure uniqueness of the safety assessment. c) The procedure should be well defined and easy to use. d) The conservatism of the procedure should be well validated. e) The handbook, that documents the procedure, should be so complete that for most assessments, access to any other fracture mechanics literature should not be necessary. The method utilized in the procedure is based on the R6-method developed at Nuclear Electric plc. The basic assumption is that fracture initiated by a crack can be described by the variables K r and L r . K r is the ratio between the stress intensity factor and the fracture toughness of the material. L r is the ratio between applied load and the plastic limit load of the structure. The pair of calculated values of these variables is plotted in a diagram. If the point is situated within the noncritical region, fracture is assumed not to occur. If the point is situated outside the region, crack growth and fracture may occur. The method can in principal be used for all metallic materials. It is, however, more extensively verified for steel alloys only. The method is not intended for use in temperature regions where creep deformation is of importance. To fulfil the above given objectives

  8. 1998 242-A interim evaporator tank system integrity assessment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-03-31

    Portions of the 242-A Evaporator on the Hanford Site must be assessed to meet the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology`s Dangerous Waste Regulation, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. The assessment is limited to the provisions of Section 173-303-640. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies tasks which will be performed during the assessment phase and describes the intended assessment techniques. The 242-A Evaporator facility processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants of the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the evaporator to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to the Tank Farms at a significantly reduce volume. The water vapor from the evaporation process is condensed, filtered, and can be pumped through an ion exchange bed before transfer to a retention basin. The non-condensable portion of the vapor is filtered and continuously monitored before venting to the atmosphere. The 242-A Evaporator will be assessed as seven subsystems. Four of the subsystems store, transport or treat Washington State Dangerous wastes, the other three subsystems are integral parts of the process, however, they do not directly store, transfer, or treat listed dangerous wastes. The facility will be inspected, tested, and analyzed through this assessment. The seven subsystems, defined in detail in Appendix B, are: Evaporator Process and Slurry Subsystem; Vapor Condenser Subsystem; Vessel Vent Subsystem; Process Condensate Subsystem; Steam Condensate Subsystem; Raw Water Disposal Subsystem; and Building and Secondary Containment Subsystem.

  9. 1998 242-A interim evaporator tank system integrity assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Portions of the 242-A Evaporator on the Hanford Site must be assessed to meet the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology's Dangerous Waste Regulation, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. The assessment is limited to the provisions of Section 173-303-640. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies tasks which will be performed during the assessment phase and describes the intended assessment techniques. The 242-A Evaporator facility processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants of the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the evaporator to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to the Tank Farms at a significantly reduce volume. The water vapor from the evaporation process is condensed, filtered, and can be pumped through an ion exchange bed before transfer to a retention basin. The non-condensable portion of the vapor is filtered and continuously monitored before venting to the atmosphere. The 242-A Evaporator will be assessed as seven subsystems. Four of the subsystems store, transport or treat Washington State Dangerous wastes, the other three subsystems are integral parts of the process, however, they do not directly store, transfer, or treat listed dangerous wastes. The facility will be inspected, tested, and analyzed through this assessment. The seven subsystems, defined in detail in Appendix B, are: Evaporator Process and Slurry Subsystem; Vapor Condenser Subsystem; Vessel Vent Subsystem; Process Condensate Subsystem; Steam Condensate Subsystem; Raw Water Disposal Subsystem; and Building and Secondary Containment Subsystem

  10. Development of Improved Caprock Integrity and Risk Assessment Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    GeoMechanics Technologies has completed a geomechanical caprock integrity analysis and risk assessment study funded through the US Department of Energy. The project included: a detailed review of historical caprock integrity problems experienced in the natural gas storage industry; a theoretical description and documentation of caprock integrity issues; advanced coupled transport flow modelling and geomechanical simulation of three large-scale potential geologic sequestration sites to estimate geomechanical effects from CO₂ injection; development of a quantitative risk and decision analysis tool to assess caprock integrity risks; and, ultimately the development of recommendations and guidelines for caprock characterization and CO₂ injection operating practices. Historical data from gas storage operations and CO₂ sequestration projects suggest that leakage and containment incident risks are on the order of 10-1 to 10-2, which is higher risk than some previous studies have suggested for CO₂. Geomechanical analysis, as described herein, can be applied to quantify risks and to provide operating guidelines to reduce risks. The risk assessment tool developed for this project has been applied to five areas: The Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California, Kevin Dome in Montana, the Louden Field in Illinois, the Sleipner CO₂ sequestration operation in the North Sea, and the In Salah CO₂ sequestration operation in North Africa. Of these five, the Wilmington Graben area represents the highest relative risk while the Kevin Dome area represents the lowest relative risk.

  11. Uncertainty assessment of integrated distributed hydrological models using GLUE with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasone, Roberta-Serena; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2008-01-01

    uncertainty estimation (GLUE) procedure based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is applied in order to improve the performance of the methodology in estimating parameters and posterior output distributions. The description of the spatial variations of the hydrological processes is accounted for by defining......In recent years, there has been an increase in the application of distributed, physically-based and integrated hydrological models. Many questions regarding how to properly calibrate and validate distributed models and assess the uncertainty of the estimated parameters and the spatially......-site validation must complement the usual time validation. In this study, we develop, through an application, a comprehensive framework for multi-criteria calibration and uncertainty assessment of distributed physically-based, integrated hydrological models. A revised version of the generalized likelihood...

  12. An integrative approach to the assessment of narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R; Ménard, Kim S; Conroy, David E

    2013-01-01

    Narcissism research is poorly calibrated across fields of study in part due to confusion over how to integrate normal and pathological descriptions of narcissism. We argue that pathological and normal narcissism can be integrated in a single model that organizes around self-regulation mechanisms. We present theoretical and empirical support for this interpretation, and demonstrate that modeling pathological and normal narcissism as 2 dimensions underlying the narcissistic character can help to resolve some of the inconsistencies in the field regarding how to best assess adaptive and maladaptive expressions of narcissism.

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  14. Integration of human reliability analysis into the probabilistic risk assessment process: phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.J.; Vickroy, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a research program in 1984 to develop a testable set of analytical procedures for integrating human reliability analysis (HRA) into the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) process to more adequately assess the overall impact of human performance on risk. In this three phase program, stand-alone HRA/PRA analytic procedures will be developed and field evaluated to provide improved methods, techniques, and models for applying quantitative and qualitative human error data which systematically integrate HRA principles, techniques, and analyses throughout the entire PRA process. Phase 1 of the program involved analysis of state-of-the-art PRAs to define the structures and processes currently in use in the industry. Phase 2 research will involve developing a new or revised PRA methodology which will enable more efficient regulation of the industry using quantitative or qualitative results of the PRA. Finally, Phase 3 will be to field test those procedures to assure that the results generated by the new methodologies will be usable and acceptable to the NRC. This paper briefly describes the first phase of the program and outlines the second

  15. Integration of human reliability analysis into the probabilistic risk assessment process: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.J.; Vickroy, S.C.

    1984-10-01

    A research program was initiated to develop a testable set of analytical procedures for integrating human reliability analysis (HRA) into the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) process to more adequately assess the overall impact of human performance on risk. In this three-phase program, stand-alone HRA/PRA analytic procedures will be developed and field evaluated to provide improved methods, techniques, and models for applying quantitative and qualitative human error data which systematically integrate HRA principles, techniques, and analyses throughout the entire PRA process. Phase 1 of the program involved analysis of state-of-the-art PRAs to define the structures and processes currently in use in the industry. Phase 2 research will involve developing a new or revised PRA methodology which will enable more efficient regulation of the industry using quantitative or qualitative results of the PRA. Finally, Phase 3 will be to field test those procedures to assure that the results generated by the new methodologies will be usable and acceptable to the NRC. This paper briefly describes the first phase of the program and outlines the second

  16. Diagnostic flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy: development of a procedure specific assessment tool using a Delphi methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Dikkers, Frederik G; Gavilán, Javier; Noordzij, J Pieter; Fried, Marvin P; Novakovic, Daniel; Fagan, Johannes; Charabi, Birgitte W; Konge, Lars; von Buchwald, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Proper training and assessment of skill in flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy are central in the education of otorhinolaryngologists. To facilitate an evidence-based approach to curriculum development in this field, a structured analysis of what constitutes flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy is necessary. Our aim was to develop an assessment tool based on this analysis. We conducted an international Delphi study involving experts from twelve countries in five continents. Utilizing reiterative assessment, the panel defined the procedure and reached consensus (defined as 80% agreement) on the phrasing of an assessment tool. FIFTY PANELISTS COMPLETED THE DELPHI PROCESS. THE MEDIAN AGE OF THE PANELISTS WAS 44 YEARS (RANGE 33-64 YEARS). MEDIAN EXPERIENCE IN OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY WAS 15 YEARS (RANGE 6-35 YEARS). TWENTY-FIVE WERE SPECIALIZED IN LARYNGOLOGY, 16 WERE HEAD AND NECK SURGEONS, AND NINE WERE GENERAL OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGISTS. AN ASSESSMENT TOOL WAS CREATED CONSISTING OF TWELVE DISTINCT ITEMS.: Conclusion The gathering of validity evidence for assessment of core procedural skills within Otorhinolaryngology is central to the development of a competence-based education. The use of an international Delphi panel allows for the creation of an assessment tool which is widely applicable and valid. This work allows for an informed approach to technical skills training for flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy and as further validity evidence is gathered allows for a valid assessment of clinical performance within this important skillset.

  17. Financial and testamentary capacity evaluations: procedures and assessment instruments underneath a functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Liliana B; Simões, Mário R; Firmino, Horácio; Peisah, Carmelle

    2014-02-01

    Mental health professionals are frequently involved in mental capacity determinations. However, there is a lack of specific measures and well-defined procedures for these evaluations. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a review of financial and testamentary capacity evaluation procedures, including not only the traditional neuropsychological and functional assessment but also the more recently developed forensic assessment instruments (FAIs), which have been developed to provide a specialized answer to legal systems regarding civil competencies. Here the main guidelines, papers, and other references are reviewed in order to achieve a complete and comprehensive selection of instruments used in the assessment of financial and testamentary capacity. Although some specific measures for financial abilities have been developed recently, the same is not true for testamentary capacity. Here are presented several instruments or methodologies for assessing financial and testamentary capacity, including neuropsychological assessment, functional assessment scales, performance based functional assessment instruments, and specific FAIs. FAIs are the only specific instruments intended to provide a specific and direct answer to the assessment of financial capacity based on legal systems. Considering the need to move from a diagnostic to a functional approach in financial and testamentary capacity evaluations, it is essential to consider both general functional examination as well as cognitive functioning.

  18. A comparative assessment of alternative waste management procedures for selected reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickford, G.E.; Plews, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    This report, which has been prepared by Associated Nuclear Services for the Department of the Environment, presents the results of a study and comparative assessment of management procedures for low and intermediate level solid waste streams arising from current and future fuel reprocessing operations on the Sellafield site. The characteristics and origins of the wastes under study are discussed and a reference waste inventory is presented, based on published information. Waste management strategy in the UK and its implications for waste conditioning, packaging and disposal are discussed. Wastes currently arising which are not suitable for Drigg burial or sea dumping are stored in an untreated form. Work is in hand to provide additional and improved disposal facilities which will accommodate all the waste streams under study. For each waste stream viable procedures are identified for further assessment. The procedures comprise a series of on-site operations-recovery from storage, pre-treatment, treatment, encapsulation, and packaging, prior to storage or disposal of the conditioned waste form. Assessments and comparisons of each procedure for each waste are presented. These address various process, operational, economic, radiological and general safety factors. The results are presented in a series of tables with supporting text. For the majority of wastes direct encapsulation with minimal treatment appears to be a viable procedure. Occupational exposure and general safety are not identified as significant factors governing the choice of procedures. The conditioned wastes meet the general requirements for safe handling during storage and transportation. The less active wastes suitable for disposal by currently available routes meet the appropriate disposal criteria. It is not possible to consider in detail the suitability for disposal of the more active wastes for which disposal facilities are not yet available. (Author)

  19. Structural Integrity Assessment of Reactor Containment Subjected to Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junyong; Chang, Yoonsuk

    2013-01-01

    When an accident occurs at the NPP, containment building which acts as the last barrier should be assessed and analyzed structural integrity by internal loading or external loading. On many occasions that can occur in the containment internal such as LOCA(Loss Of Coolant Accident) are already reflected to design. Likewise, there are several kinds of accidents that may occur from the outside of containment such as earthquakes, hurricanes and strong wind. However, aircraft crash that at outside of containment is not reflected yet in domestic because NPP sites have been selected based on the probabilistic method. After intentional aircraft crash such as World Trade Center and Pentagon accident in US, social awareness for safety of infrastructure like NPP was raised world widely and it is time for assessment of aircraft crash in domestic. The object of this paper is assessment of reactor containment subjected to aircraft crash by FEM(Finite Element Method). In this paper, assessment of structural integrity of containment building subjected to certain aircraft crash was carried out. Verification of structure integrity of containment by intentional severe accident. Maximum stress 61.21MPa of horizontal shell crash does not penetrate containment. Research for more realistic results needed by steel reinforced concrete model

  20. Implementation of an Integrated Orthopedic Curriculum to Increase Clinical and Procedural Competency amongst Pediatric Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-05

    to Increase Clinical and Procedural Competency Amongst Pediatric Residents presented at/published to APPD Conference, Anaheim, CA, 5-8 April 2017 in...Increase Clinical and Procedural Competency amongst Pediatric Residents 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? 0 YES l8] t-’O FUNDING SOURCE 8. DO YOU NEED...and Procedural Competency amongst Pediatric Residents Sarah Nelin MD, Taneishia Jones, MD, Jason Beachler MD, Michelle Lawson MD, Bryan Lawson, MD

  1. RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Alina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the ‘top 8-12’ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in the area and the professional expertise, this article outlines an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management reporting processes, by separating the risk in two main categories: strategic and operational risks. The focus is on risk prioritization and scoring; the final output will comprise a mix of strategic and operational (‘top 8-12’ risks, which should be used to establish the annual Internal Audit plan. Originality/value: By using an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management will eliminate the need for a separate Internal Audit risk assessment over prevailing risks. It will reduce the level of risk assessment overlap by different functions (Tax, Treasury, Information System over the same risk categories as a single methodology, is used and will align timings of risk assessment exercises. The risk prioritization by usage of risk and control scoring criteria highlights the combination between financial and non-financial impact criteria allowing risks that do not naturally lend themselves to a financial amount to be also assessed consistently. It is emphasized the usage of score method to prioritize the risks included in the annual audit plan in order to increase accuracy and timelines.

  2. European project for developing general guidelines for harmonising internal dose assessment procedures (IDEAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.; Bailey, M.; Puncher, M.; Berkovski, V.; Eric Blanchardon, E.; Jourdain, J.-R.; Carlo-Maria Castellani, C.-M.; Doerfel, H.; Christian Hurtgen, Ch.; Le Guen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Several international intercomparison exercises on intake and internal dose assessments from monitoring data led to the conclusion that the results calculated by different participants varied significantly mainly because of the wide variety of methods and assumptions applied in the assessment procedure. Based on these experiences the need for harmonisation of the procedures has been formulated as an EU research project under the 5 th Framework Programme (2001-2005), with the aim of developing general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. In the IDEAS project eight institutions from seven European countries are participating using inputs also from internal dosimetry professionals from across Europe to ensure broad consensus in the outcome of the project. The IDEAS project is explained

  3. Assessment of eye lens doses for workers during interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urboniene, A.; Sadzeviciene, E.; Ziliukas, J.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of eye lens doses for workers during interventional radiology (IR) procedures was performed using a new eye lens dosemeter. In parallel, the results of routine individual monitoring were analysed and compared with the results obtained from measurements with a new eye lens dosemeter. The eye lens doses were assessed using H p (3) measured at the level of the eyes and were compared with H p (10) measured with the whole-body dosemeter above the lead collar. The information about use of protective measures, the number of performed interventional procedures per month and their fluoroscopy time was also collected. The assessment of doses to the lens of the eye was done for 50 IR workers at 9 Lithuanian hospitals for the period of 2012-2013. If the use of lead glasses is not taken into account, the estimated maximum annual dose equivalent to the lens of the eye was 82 mSv. (authors)

  4. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (II) Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of intensity- and time-based seismic risk assessments of a sample nuclear power plant (NPP) to demonstrate the risk-assessment methodology proposed in its companion paper. The intensity-based assessments include three sets of sensitivity studies to identify the impact of the following factors on the seismic vulnerability of the sample NPP, namely: (1) the description of fragility curves for primary and secondary components of NPPs, (2) the number of simulations of NPP response required for risk assessment, and (3) the correlation in responses between NPP components. The time-based assessment is performed as a series of intensity-based assessments. The studies illustrate the utility of the response-based fragility curves and the inclusion of the correlation in the responses of NPP components directly in the risk computation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A cadaveric procedural anatomy simulation course improves video-based assessment of operative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Aycart, Mario A; O'Mara, Lynne; Havens, Joaquim; Nehs, Matthew; Shimizu, Naomi; Smink, Douglas S; Gravereaux, Edwin; Gates, Jonathan D; Askari, Reza

    2018-03-01

    Inadequate anatomic knowledge has been cited as a major contributor to declining surgical resident operative competence. We analyzed the impact of a comprehensive, procedurally oriented cadaveric procedural anatomy dissection laboratory on the operative performance of surgery residents, hypothesizing that trainees' performance of surgical procedures would improve after such a dissection course. Midlevel general surgery residents (n = 9) participated in an 8 wk, 16-h surgery faculty-led procedurally oriented cadaver simulation course. Both before and after completion of the course, residents participated in a practical examination, in which they were randomized to perform one of nine Surgical Council on Resident Education-designated "essential" procedures. The procedures were recorded using wearable video technology. Videos were deidentified before evaluation by six faculty raters blinded to examinee and whether performances occurred before or after an examinee had taken the course. Raters used the validated Operative Performance Rating System and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill scales. After the course residents had higher procedure-specific scores (median, 4.0 versus 2.4, P 4.0 versus 3.0, P = 0.006), respect for tissue (4.0 versus 3.0, P = 0.0004), time and motion (3.0 versus 2.0, P = 0.0007), operation flow (3.0 versus 2.0, P = 0.0005), procedural knowledge (4.0 versus 2.0, P = 0.0001), and overall performance scores (4.0 versus 2.0, P < 0.0001). Operative Performance Rating System and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill scales averaged by number of items in each were also higher (3.2 versus 2.0, P = 0.0002 and 3.1 versus 2.2, P = 0.002, respectively). A cadaveric procedural anatomy simulation course covering a broad range of open general surgery procedures was associated with significant improvements in trainees' operative performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Proposed Model for Selecting Measurement Procedures for the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E

    2016-03-01

    Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment.

  7. NASA Safety Standard: Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for Limiting Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Collision with orbital debris is a hazard of growing concern as historically accepted practices and procedures have allowed man-made objects to accumulate in orbit. To limit future debris generation, NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 1700.8, 'Policy to Limit Orbital Debris Generation,' was issued in April of 1993. The NMI requires each program to conduct a formal assessment of the potential to generate orbital debris. This document serves as a companion to NMI 1700.08 and provides each NASA program with specific guidelines and assessment methods to assure compliance with the NMI. Each main debris assessment issue (e.g., Post Mission Disposal) is developed in a separate chapter.

  8. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice.

  9. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated 'toolkit' consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  10. Technology integration performance assessment using lean principles in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Florentino; Yalcin, Ali; Eikman, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of an automated infusion system (AIS) integration at a positron emission tomography (PET) center based on "lean thinking" principles. The authors propose a systematic measurement system that evaluates improvement in terms of the "8 wastes." This adaptation to the health care context consisted of performance measurement before and after integration of AIS in terms of time, utilization of resources, amount of materials wasted/saved, system variability, distances traveled, and worker strain. The authors' observations indicate that AIS stands to be very effective in a busy PET department, such as the one in Moffitt Cancer Center, owing to its accuracy, pace, and reliability, especially after the necessary adjustments are made to reduce or eliminate the source of errors. This integration must be accompanied by a process reengineering exercise to realize the full potential of AIS in reducing waste and improving patient care and worker satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Usefulness of alternative integrative assessment methodologies in public decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L. E.; Litchfield, J. W.; Currie, J. W.; McDonald, C. L.; Adams, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    Many diverse social, economic, and environmental effects are associated with each of the available energy development alternatives. The assessment of the costs, risks, and benefits of these energy development options is an important function of the U. S. Department of Energy. This task is more difficult when no single alternative is better than the others in all respects. This paper compares benefit-cost and multi-attribute utility analysis as decision aids for these more difficult and more common assessment cases. PNL has developed expertise in making these assessments through its involvement since the Calvert Cliffs decision in both the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements and the development of methods to make these statements more thorough and responsive to the spirit of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Since 1973 PNL has had continuing efforts to quantify, value, and compare all of the major factors which influence the overall impacts of energy development options. An important part of this work has been the measurement and incorporation of the relative values which community groups place on these conflicting factors. Such difficult assessment problems could be approached in many ways including the use of benefit-cost or multi-attribute utility analysis. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Should an integrative assessment methodology be used for the overall assessment of these costs, risks, and benefits. (2) If an integrative assessment methodology is to be used, what alternative methods are available and what should be the basis for selecting a method. (3) Is it possible to use one of the available alternatives for one portion of the assessment and another for another portion of the assessment. The answers to these questions presented in this report are applicable to most public decision problems.

  12. An integrated risk assessment approach: Risk assessment in the programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The following paper is an informal summary of salient points made in the presentation entitled open-quotes An Integrated Risk Assessment Approach: Risk Assessment in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS).close quotes. This presentation was given at the U.S. DOE Integrated Planning Workshop in Denver, Colorado on June 2, 1994. Integrated decision analysis is very important in environmental restoration and waste management in the evaluation of such things as land use planning, waste load forecasting, cost analyses, and technology development activities. Integrated risk assessment is an approach that addresses multiple components of risk, including: risks from surplus facilities as well as typical environmental restoration sites, risks to the public, risks to workers, ecological risk, risks before, during and after remediation activities, and others

  13. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  14. Structural integrity and its role in nuclear safety: recent UK advances in the development of high temperature design procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper takes the liquid metal fast breeder reactor as an example and identifies those topics where research has had a role to play in providing improved design rules. Many of the previously adopted procedures contained large amounts of pessimism to allow for uncertainties in the prediction of long-term structural behaviour. The aim has therefore been to gain an improved physical insight into the phenomena which govern performance and to develope less restrictive procedures which, at the same time, guarantee the high standards of integrity which are required. (orig.)

  15. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Integrating Occupational Therapy Specific Assessments in Practice: Exploring Practitioner Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Asaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational therapists sometimes find it challenging to integrate client-centered and occupational therapy specific assessments in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the use of occupational therapy specific assessments such as the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS among occupational therapists in Sweden and Japan. Methods. Interviews and qualitative thematic analyses were utilized. Findings. Four themes are reported: (1 use it or lose it, (2 simply no space until after hours, (3 biggest barriers can be colleagues, and (4 being more specific: communication. Conclusion. In keeping with previous studies, occupational therapists often find it challenging to implement client-centered and occupation-based assessment tools into practice. However, more work is needed to understand how best practices can be incorporated into a changing occupational therapy daily practice.

  17. Procedures for conducting common cause failure analysis in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The principal objective of this report is to supplement the procedure developed in Mosleh et al. (1988, 1989) by providing more explicit guidance for a practical approach to common cause failures (CCF) analysis. The detailed CCF analysis following that procedure would be very labour intensive and time consuming. This document identifies a number of options for performing the more labour intensive parts of the analysis in an attempt to achieve a balance between the need for detail, the purpose of the analysis and the resources available. The document is intended to be compatible with the Agency's Procedures for Conducting Probabilistic Safety Assessments for Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA, 1992), but can be regarded as a stand-alone report to be used in conjunction with NUREG/CR-4780 (Mosleh et al., 1988, 1989) to provide additional detail, and discussion of key technical issues

  18. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  19. A Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  20. Human capital, innovation, and climate policy: An integrated assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study the climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital incre...

  1. Using models in Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Melaku Canu, Donata; Libralato, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Numerical Models can greatly contribute to integrated ecological assessment of coastal and marine systems. Indeed, models can: i) assist in the identification of efficient sampling strategy; ii) provide space interpolation and time extrapolation of experiemtanl data which are based on the knowedge on processes dynamics and causal realtionships which is coded within the model, iii) provide estimates of hardly measurable indicators. Furthermore model can provide indication on potential effects of implementation of alternative management policies. Finally, by providing a synthetic representation of an ideal system, based on its essential dynamic, model return a picture of ideal behaviour of a system in the absence of external perturbation, alteration, noise, which might help in the identification of reference behaivuor. As an important example, model based reanalyses of biogeochemical and ecological properties are an urgent need for the estimate of the environmental status and the assessment of efficacy of conservation and environmental policies, also with reference to the enforcement of the European MSFD. However, the use of numerical models, and particularly of ecological models, in modeling and in environmental management still is far from be the rule, possibly because of a lack in realizing the benefits which a full integration of modeling and montoring systems might provide, possibly because of a lack of trust in modeling results, or because many problems still exists in the development, validation and implementation of models. For istance, assessing the validity of model results is a complex process that requires the definition of appropriate indicators, metrics, methodologies and faces with the scarcity of real-time in-situ biogeochemical data. Furthermore, biogeochemical models typically consider dozens of variables which are heavily undersampled. Here we show how the integration of mathematical model and monitoring data can support integrated ecosystem

  2. Route assessment using comparative risk factors integrated through a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel was simplified through the use of comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed route and environmental attributes. The route characteristics, integrated into risk measures, vary strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The route data and evaluation were managed using a geographic information system (GIS). An assessment of four real North Florida routes was performed and an interstate highway route exhibited the lowest risk based on the application of the risk factors

  3. Psychomotor skills assessment in practicing surgeons experienced in performing advanced laparoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel; Bowers, Steven P; Seymour, Neal E; Pearson, Adam; McNatt, Steven; Hananel, David; Satava, Richard M

    2003-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has introduced a new and unique set of psychomotor skills for a surgeon to acquire and master. Although assessment technologies have been proposed, precise and objective psychomotor skills assessment of surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures has not been detailed. Two hundred ten surgeons attending the 2001 annual meeting of the American College of Surgeons in New Orleans who reported having completed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures participated. Subjects were required to complete one box-trainer laparoscopic cutting task and a similar virtual reality task. These tasks were specifically designed to test only psychomotor and not cognitive skills. Both tasks were completed twice. Performance of tasks was assessed and analyzed. Demographic and laparoscopic experience data were also collected. Complete data were available on 195 surgeons. In this group, surgeons performed the box-trainer task better with their dominant hand (p psychomotor skills is now possible. Surgeons who had performed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures showed considerable variability in their performance on a simple laparoscopic and virtual reality task. Approximately 10% of surgeons tested performed the task significantly worse than the group's average performance. Studies such as this may form the methodology for establishing criteria levels and performance objectives in objective assessment of the technical skills component of determining surgical competence.

  4. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  5. Assessment of radiation protection of patients and staff in interventional procedures in four Algerian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Toutaoui, A.; Merad, A.; Sakhri-Brahimi, Z.; Baggoura, B.; Mansouri, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess patient dosimetry in interventional cardiology (IC) and radiology (IR) and radiation safety of the medical operating staff. For this purpose, four major Algerian hospitals were investigated. The data collected cover radiation protection tools assigned to the operating staff and measured radiation doses to some selected patient populations. The analysis revealed that lead aprons are systematically worn by the staff but not lead eye glasses, and only a single personal monitoring badge is assigned to the operating staff. Measured doses to patients exhibited large variations in the maximum skin dose (MSD) and in the dose area product (DAP). The mean MSD registered values are as follows: 0.20, 0.14 and 1.28 Gy in endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures, respectively. In PTCA, doses to 3 out of 22 patients (13.6 %) had even reached the threshold value of 2 Gy. The mean DAP recorded values are as follows: 21.6, 60.1 and 126 Gy cm 2 in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. Mean fluoroscopic times are 2.5, 5 and 15 min in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. The correlation between DAP and MSD is fair in CA (r = 0.62) and poor in PTCA (r = 0.28). Fluoroscopic time was moderately correlated with DAP in CA (r = 0.55) and PTCA (r = 0.61) procedures. Local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in CA and PTCA procedures have been proposed. In conclusion, this study stresses the need for a continuous patient dose monitoring in interventional procedures with a special emphasis in IC procedures. Common strategies must be undertaken to substantially reduce radiation doses to both patients and medical staff. (authors)

  6. Prospective randomized assessment of single versus double-gloving for general surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'aya, H U; Madziga, A G; Eni, U E

    2009-01-01

    There is increased tendency towards double-gloving by general surgeons in our practice, due probably to awareness of the risk of contamination with blood or other body fluids during surgery. The aim of the study was to compare the relative frequency of glove puncture in single-glove versus double glove sets in general surgical procedures, and to determine if duration of surgery affects perforation rate. Surgeons at random do single or double gloves at their discretion, for general surgical procedures. All the gloves used by the surgeons were assessed immediately after surgery for perforation. A total of 1120 gloves were tested, of which 880 were double-glove sets and 240 single-glove sets. There was no significant difference in the overall perforation rate between single and double glove sets (18.3% versus 20%). However, only 2.3% had perforations in both the outer and inner gloves in the double glove group. Therefore, there was significantly greater risk for blood-skin exposure in the single glove sets (p < 0.01). The perforation rate was also significantly greater during procedures lasting an hour or more compared to those lasting less than an hour (p < 0.01). Double-gloving reduces the risk of blood-skin contamination in all general surgical procedures, and especially so in procedures lasting an hour or more.

  7. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10-19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation.

  8. Development of residual stress analysis procedure for fitness-for-service assessment of welded structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.; Prager, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a state of art review of existing residual stress analysis techniques and representative solutions is presented in order to develop the residual stress analysis procedure for Fitness-For-Service(FFS) assessment of welded structure. Critical issues associated with existing residual stress solutions and their treatments in performing FFS are discussed. It should be recognized that detailed residual stress evolution is an extremely complicated phenomenon that typically involves material-specific thermomechanical/metallurgical response, welding process physics, and structural interactions within a component being welded. As a result, computational procedures can vary significantly from highly complicated numerical techniques intended only to elucidate a small part of the process physics to cost-effective procedures that are deemed adequate for capturing some of the important features in a final residual stress distribution. Residual stress analysis procedure for FFS purposes belongs to the latter category. With this in mind, both residual stress analysis techniques and their adequacy for FFS are assessed based on both literature data and analyses performed in this investigation

  9. Assessment of bleeding during minor oral surgical procedures and extraction in patients on anticoagulant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The risk of postoperative hemorrhage from oral surgical procedures has been a concern in the treatment of patients who are receiving long-term anticoagulation therapy. A study undertaken in our institution to address questions about the amount and severity of bleeding associated with minor outpatient oral surgery procedures by assessing bleeding in patients who did not alter their anticoagulant regimen. Subjects and Methods: Eighty-three patients receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy visited Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from May 2010 to October 2011 for extractions and minor oral surgical procedures. Each patient was required to undergo preoperative assessment of prothrombin time (PT and measurement of the international normalized ratio. Fifty-six patients with preoperative PT values within the therapeutic range 3-4 were included in the study. The patients′ age ranged between 30 and 75 years. Application of surgispon was done following the procedure. Extraction of teeth performed with minimal trauma to the surrounding tissues, the socket margins sutured, and sutures removed after 5 days. Results: There was no significant incidence of prolonged or excessive hemorrhage and wound infection and the healing process was normal.

  10. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added

  11. A Web-Based Integration Procedure for the Development of Reconfigurable Robotic Work-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Ferreira; Victoria Reyes; João Mestre

    2013-01-01

    Concepts related to the development of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) and methodologies to provide the best practices in the processing industry and factory automation, such as system integration and web-based technology, are major issues in designing next-generation manufacturing systems (NGMS). Adaptable and integrable devices are crucial for the success of NGMS. In robotic cells the integration of manufacturing components is essential to accelerate system adaptability. Sensors,...

  12. Core design optimization by integration of a fast 3-D nodal code in a heuristic search procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geemert, R. van; Leege, P.F.A. de; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Quist, A.J. [Delft University of Technology, NL-2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    An automated design tool is being developed for the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR) in Delft, the Netherlands, which is a 2 MWth swimming-pool type research reactor. As a black box evaluator, the 3-D nodal code SILWER, which up to now has been used only for evaluation of predetermined core designs, is integrated in the core optimization procedure. SILWER is a part of PSl's ELCOS package and features optional additional thermal-hydraulic, control rods and xenon poisoning calculations. This allows for fast and accurate evaluation of different core designs during the optimization search. Special attention is paid to handling the in- and output files for SILWER such that no adjustment of the code itself is required for its integration in the optimization programme. The optimization objective, the safety and operation constraints, as well as the optimization procedure, are discussed. (author)

  13. Core design optimization by integration of a fast 3-D nodal code in a heuristic search procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geemert, R. van; Leege, P.F.A. de; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Quist, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    An automated design tool is being developed for the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR) in Delft, the Netherlands, which is a 2 MWth swimming-pool type research reactor. As a black box evaluator, the 3-D nodal code SILWER, which up to now has been used only for evaluation of predetermined core designs, is integrated in the core optimization procedure. SILWER is a part of PSl's ELCOS package and features optional additional thermal-hydraulic, control rods and xenon poisoning calculations. This allows for fast and accurate evaluation of different core designs during the optimization search. Special attention is paid to handling the in- and output files for SILWER such that no adjustment of the code itself is required for its integration in the optimization programme. The optimization objective, the safety and operation constraints, as well as the optimization procedure, are discussed. (author)

  14. A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual's performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average

  15. Training courses on integrated safety assessment modelling for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface or deep repositories of radioactive waste are being developed and evaluated all over the world. Also, existing repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste often need to be re-evaluated to extend their license or to obtain permission for final closure. The evaluation encompasses both a technical feasibility as well as a safety analysis. The long term safety is usually demonstrated by means of performance or safety assessment. For this purpose computer models are used that calculate the migration of radionuclides from the conditioned radioactive waste, through engineered barriers to the environment (groundwater, surface water, and biosphere). Integrated safety assessment modelling addresses all relevant radionuclide pathways from source to receptor (man), using in combination various computer codes in which the most relevant physical, chemical, mechanical, or even microbiological processes are mathematically described. SCK-CEN organizes training courses in Integrated safety assessment modelling that are intended for individuals who have either a controlling or supervising role within the national radwaste agencies or regulating authorities, or for technical experts that carry out the actual post-closure safety assessment for an existing or new repository. Courses are organised by the Department of Waste and Disposal

  16. Analytical solution to the 1D Lemaitre's isotropic damage model and plane stress projected implicit integration procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    obtaining an integral relationship between total strain and effective stress. By means of the generalized binomial theorem, an expression in terms of infinite series is subsequently derived. The solution is found to simplify considerably existing techniques for material parameters identification based...... on optimization, as all issues associated with classical numerical solution procedures of the constitutive equations are eliminated. In addition, an implicit implementation of the plane stress projected version of Lemaitre's model is discussed, showing that the resulting algebraic system can be reduced...

  17. An integrated electron and optical metallographic procedure for the identification of precipitate phases in type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slattery, G.F.; O'Riordan, P.; Lambert, M.E.; Green, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A sequential and integrated metallographic procedure has been developed and successfully employed to differentiate between carbide, sigma, chi, Laves and ferrite phases which are commonly encountered in type 316 austenitic steel. The experimental techniques of optical and electron microscopy to identify these phases have been outlined and provide a rapid and convenient method of characterizing the microstructure of the steel. The techniques sequence involves selective metallographic etching, Nomarski interference microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. (author)

  18. Integrating knowledge exchange and the assessment of dryland management alternatives - A learning-centered participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Susana; Llovet, Joan; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Mayor, Ángeles G; Murias, Cristina; Vallejo, V Ramón; Orr, Barron J

    2017-06-15

    The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes. We outline a structured procedure for a transparent assessment of land management alternatives, tailored to dryland management, that is based on (1) principles of constructivism and social learning, (2) the participation of stakeholders throughout the whole assessment process, from design to implementation, and (3) the combination of site-specific indicators, identified by local stakeholders as relevant to their particular objectives and context conditions, and science-based indicators that represent ecosystem services of drylands worldwide. The proposed procedure follows a pattern of eliciting, challenging, and self-reviewing stakeholder perspectives that aims to facilitate learning. The difference between the initial baseline perspectives and the final self-reviewed stakeholder perspectives is used as a proxy of learning. We illustrate the potential of this methodology by its application to the assessment of land uses in a Mediterranean fire-prone area in East Spain. The approach may be applied to a variety of socio-ecological systems and decision-making and governance scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of Google Glass and traditional video vantage points for bedside procedural skill assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Heather L; O'Shea, Dylan J; Morris, Amy E; Keys, Kari A; Wright, Andrew S; Schaad, Douglas C; Ilgen, Jonathan S

    2016-02-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility of using first person (1P) video recording with Google Glass (GG) to assess procedural skills, as compared with traditional third person (3P) video. We hypothesized that raters reviewing 1P videos would visualize more procedural steps with greater inter-rater reliability than 3P rating vantages. Seven subjects performed simulated internal jugular catheter insertions. Procedures were recorded by both Google Glass and an observer's head-mounted camera. Videos were assessed by 3 expert raters using a task-specific checklist (CL) and both an additive- and summative-global rating scale (GRS). Mean scores were compared by t-tests. Inter-rater reliabilities were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. The 1P vantage was associated with a significantly higher mean CL score than the 3P vantage (7.9 vs 6.9, P = .02). Mean GRS scores were not significantly different. Mean inter-rater reliabilities for the CL, additive-GRS, and summative-GRS were similar between vantages. 1P vantage recordings may improve visualization of tasks for behaviorally anchored instruments (eg, CLs), whereas maintaining similar global ratings and inter-rater reliability when compared with conventional 3P vantage recordings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhaus, Martin W; Gift, Jeffrey S; Hogan, Karen A; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlhaus, Martin W.; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Karen A.; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M.; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  2. An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities: Procedures, operations and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toto, G.; Lindgren, A.J.

    1981-02-01

    The 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island commercial nuclear power plant has led to a number of studies of nuclear reactors, in both the public and private sectors. One of these is that of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee, which has outlined tasks for assessment of 13 reactors owned by DOE and operated by contractors. This report covers one of the tasks, the assessment of procedures, operations, and maintenance at the DOE reactor facilities, based on a review of actual documents used at the reactor sites

  3. Integrated assessment and consultation for the preoperative patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, David G; Rosenbaum, Stanley H

    2009-12-01

    Assessment of the presurgical patient requires interdisciplinary cooperation over the continuum of documentation and optimization of existing disorders, determination of patient resilience and reserve, and planning for subsequent interventions and care. For many patients, evident or suspected morbidities or anticipated surgical disturbance warrant specialty consultation. There may be uncertainty as to the optimal processes for a given patient, a limitation attributable to myriad factors, not the least of which is that there is often a paucity of evidence that is directly relevant to a given patient in a given setting. The present article discusses these limitations and describes a framework for documentation, optimization, risk assessment, and planning, as well as a uniform grading of existing morbidities and anticipated perioperative disturbances for patients requiring integrated assessment and consultation.

  4. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  5. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Hilt, Lori M.; Chereji, Elizabeth; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment integrity refers to implementing interventions as intended. Treatment integrity is critically important for experimental validity and for drawing valid inferences regarding the relationship between treatment and outcome. Yet, it is rarely adequately addressed in psychotherapy research. The authors examined barriers to treatment integrity…

  6. A Cooperative Learning Group Procedure for Improving CTE and Science Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives utilized in secondary CTE courses. The objectives of the study were to determine if CLGs were an effective means for increasing the number of: a) science integrating learning…

  7. Integrated assessment indicator for watercourses. Perspectives and possibilities; Inngrepsindikator for vassdrag. Perspektiver og muligheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voksoe, A.; Homstvedt, S. [eds.; Aalbu, Oe.; Valland, N.; Yndesdal, N.; Pettersen, S.; Eikenes, O.; Hoeifoedt, H.; Taugboel, G.

    1996-12-31

    This publication presents the result of a project aiming at developing a GIS (Geographical Information System) -based procedure to assess the integrated effect of various encroachments in and along watercourses. Four major catchments in Norway have been investigated. The GIS-method has been developed using existing data and data from detailed field registrations of encroachments in two catchments. Using existing data only, two other catchments have been analysed to test the validity of the proposed procedure. The various types of encroachments were assigned different weights and areal influences according to their estimated deteriorating effect on the natural situation. Applying the GIS-procedure the integrated effect is determined, giving a representative picture of the total situation. The results of the project are an interactive Windows-based application to operate the GIS-tool and produce maps as well as recommendations as to which categories of encroachments are to be considered. The method is proposed as a tool to obtain a consistent national management of preserved watersheds. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A Scheme for the Integrated Assessment of Mitigation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.; Edenhofer, O.

    2003-04-01

    After some consensus has been achieved that the global mean temperature will have increased by 1.4 to 5.8^oC at the end of this century in case of continued ``business as usual'' greenhouse gas emissions, society has to decide if or which mitigation measures should be taken. A new integrated assessment project on this very issue will be started at PIK in spring 2003. The assessment will cover economic aspects as well as potential side effects of various measures. In the economic module, the effects of investment decisions on technological innovation will be explicitly taken into account. Special emphasize will be put on the issue of uncertainty. Hereby we distinguish the uncertainty related to the Integrated Assessment modules, including the economic module, from the fact that no over-complex system can be fully captured by a model. Therefore, a scheme for the assessment of the ``residual'', the non-modelled part of the system, needs to be worked out. The scheme must be truly interdisciplinary, i.e. must be applicable to at least the natural science and the economic aspects. A scheme based on meta-principles like minimum persistence, ubiquity, or irreversibility of potential measures appears to be a promising candidate. An implementation of ubiquity as at present successfully operated in environmental chemistry may serve as a guideline [1]. Here, the best-known mechanism within a complex impact chain of potentially harmful chemicals, their transport, is captured by a reaction-diffusion mechanism [2]. begin{thebibliography}{0} bibitem{s} M. Scheringer, Persistence and spatial range as endpoints of an exposure-based assessment of organic chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1652-1659 (1996). bibitem{h} H. Held, Robustness of spatial ranges of environmental chemicals with respect to model dimension, accepted for publication in Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assessment.

  9. Portfolio assessment during medical internships: How to obtain a reliable and feasible assessment procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nele R M; Driessen, Erik W; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Van Gaal, Luc F; Bossaert, Leo L; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2009-12-01

    A portfolio is used to mentor and assess students' clinical performance at the workplace. However, students and raters often perceive the portfolio as a time-consuming instrument. In this study, we investigated whether assessment during medical internship by a portfolio can combine reliability and feasibility. The domain-oriented reliability of 61 double-rated portfolios was measured, using a generalisability analysis with portfolio tasks and raters as sources of variation in measuring the performance of a student. We obtained reliability (Phi coefficient) of 0.87 with this internship portfolio containing 15 double-rated tasks. The generalisability analysis showed that an acceptable level of reliability (Phi = 0.80) was maintained when the amount of portfolio tasks was decreased to 13 or 9 using one and two raters, respectively. Our study shows that a portfolio can be a reliable method for the assessment of workplace learning. The possibility of reducing the amount of tasks or raters while maintaining a sufficient level of reliability suggests an increase in feasibility of portfolio use for both students and raters.

  10. ANL/CANTIA code for steam generator tube integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revankar, S.T.; Wolf, B.; Majumdar, S.; Riznic, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator (SG) tubes have an important safety role in CANDU type reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) because they constitute one of the primary barriers between the radioactive and non-radioactive sides of the nuclear plant. The SG tubes are susceptible to corrosion and damage. A failure of a single steam generator tube, or even a few tubes, would not be a serious safety-related event in a CANDU reactor. The leakage from a ruptured tube is within makeup capacity of the primary heat transport system, so that as long as the operator takes the correct actions, the off-site consequences will be negligible. A sufficient safety margin against tube rupture used to be the basis for a variety of maintenance strategies developed to maintain a suitable level of plant safety and reliability. Several through-wall flaws may remain in operation and potentially contribute to the total primary-to-secondary leak rate. Assessment of the conditional probabilities of tube failures, leak rates, and ultimately risk of exceeding licensing dose limits has been used for steam generator tube fitness-for-service assessment. The advantage of this type of analysis is that it avoids the excessive conservatism typically present in deterministic methodologies. However, it requires considerable effort and expense to develop all of the failure, leakage, probability of detection, and flaw growth distributions and models necessary to obtain meaningful results from a probabilistic model. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) recently developed the CANTIA methodology for probabilistic assessment of inspection strategies for steam generator tubes as a direct effect on the probability of tube failure and primary-to-secondary leak rate Recently Argonne National Laboratory has developed tube integrity and leak rate models under Integrated Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (ISGTIP-2). These models have been incorporated in the ANL/CANTIA code. This paper presents the ANL

  11. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  12. Alternative Procedure of Heat Integration Tehnique Election between Two Unit Processes to Improve Energy Saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, S. S.; Renanto; Altway, A.

    2018-01-01

    The energy use system in a production process, in this case heat exchangers networks (HENs), is one element that plays a role in the smoothness and sustainability of the industry itself. Optimizing Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs) from process streams can have a major effect on the economic value of an industry as a whole. So the solving of design problems with heat integration becomes an important requirement. In a plant, heat integration can be carried out internally or in combination between process units. However, steps in the determination of suitable heat integration techniques require long calculations and require a long time. In this paper, we propose an alternative step in determining heat integration technique by investigating 6 hypothetical units using Pinch Analysis approach with objective function energy target and total annual cost target. The six hypothetical units consist of units A, B, C, D, E, and F, where each unit has the location of different process streams to the temperature pinch. The result is a potential heat integration (ΔH’) formula that can trim conventional steps from 7 steps to just 3 steps. While the determination of the preferred heat integration technique is to calculate the potential of heat integration (ΔH’) between the hypothetical process units. Completion of calculation using matlab language programming.

  13. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wanderer@dlr.de; Herle, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.herle@rwth-aachen.de

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  14. Pipeline integrity management in an urban environment supported by an External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dus, Pedro Luiz; Valente, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo (COMGAS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Valdes, Alberto [GE Oil and Gas-PII Pipeline Solutions, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    COMGAS is the largest natural gas distributing company in Brazil, having more than 700,000 costumers. Gas delivery to this customer base is achieved through a network of high-pressure steel pipelines (17 and 35 bar) with around 1,100 km (690 miles) in length, the majority operating inside urban areas. The Integrity Management of this network is a particularly difficult task since neither pigging nor hydrostatic testing can be used to inspect the existing pipelines. Direct Assessment (DA) is the only assessment technique available at the moment. As an initial stage COMGAS has implemented an innovative project called SIA (Sistema de Integridade de Ativos). SIA combines functionality targeted for guiding and implementing an External Corrosion Assessment (ECDA) procedure, with full data alignment and integration, corporate policies on safety and dedicated reporting capabilities. Seamless interaction between SIA and the existing Operations GIS system was a key specification requirement for the construction of the system. This paper describes the lessons learned during the implementation of the ECDA module of the SIA, the first application experiences of the ECDA process with the support of the module and the initial benefits obtained from the use of the new Integrity Management System. (author)

  15. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, Thomas; Herle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  16. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  17. Fish habitat simulation models and integrated assessment tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Alfredsen, K.

    1999-01-01

    Because of human development water use increases in importance, and this worldwide trend is leading to an increasing number of user conflicts with a strong need for assessment tools to measure the impacts both on the ecosystem and the different users and user groups. The quantitative tools must allow a comparison of alternatives, different user groups, etc., and the tools must be integrated while impact assessments includes different disciplines. Fish species, especially young ones, are indicators of the environmental state of a riverine system and monitoring them is a way to follow environmental changes. The direct and indirect impacts on the ecosystem itself are measured, and impacts on user groups is not included. Fish habitat simulation models are concentrated on, and methods and examples are considered from Norway. Some ideas on integrated modelling tools for impact assessment studies are included. One dimensional hydraulic models are rapidly calibrated and do not require any expert knowledge in hydraulics. Two and three dimensional models require a bit more skilled users, especially if the topography is very heterogeneous. The advantages of using two and three dimensional models include: they do not need any calibration, just validation; they are predictive; and they can be more cost effective than traditional habitat hydraulic models when combined with modern data acquisition systems and tailored in a multi-disciplinary study. Suitable modelling model choice should be based on available data and possible data acquisition, available manpower, computer, and software resources, and needed output and accuracy in the output. 58 refs

  18. Integrated approach to assess ecosystem health in harbor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebianno, M J; Pereira, C G; Rey, F; Cravo, A; Duarte, D; D'Errico, G; Regoli, F

    2015-05-01

    Harbors are critical environments with strategic economic importance but with potential environmental impact: health assessment criteria are a key issue. An ecosystem health status approach was carried out in Portimão harbor as a case-study. Priority and specific chemical levels in sediments along with their bioavailability in mussels, bioassays and a wide array of biomarkers were integrated in a biomarker index (IBR index) and the overall data in a weight of evidence (WOE) model. Metals, PAHs, PCBs and HCB were not particularly high compared with sediment guidelines and standards for dredging. Bioavailability was evident for Cd, Cu and Zn. Biomarkers proved more sensitive namely changes of antioxidant responses, metallothioneins and vittellogenin-like proteins. IBR index indicated that site 4 was the most impacted area. Assessment of the health status by WOE approach highlighted the importance of integrating sediment chemistry, bioaccumulation, biomarkers and bioassays and revealed that despite some disturbance in the harbor area, there was also an impact of urban effluents from upstream. Environmental quality assessment in harbors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Incentives and stability of international climate coalitions: An integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the incentives to participate in an international climate agreement and the stability of the resulting climate coalition using the integrated assessment model WITCH. Coalition stability is assessed under alternative assumptions concerning the pure rate of time preference, the aggregation of social welfare, and the severity of climate damages. The profitability, stability, and strong potential internal stability of a number of coalitions, those potentially effective in reducing GHG emissions, is explored in the paper. The main conclusion is that only the grand coalition, i.e. a coalition where all world regions cooperate to reduce emissions, can maintain GHG concentration below 550 ppm CO 2 -eq. However, this coalition is not internally stable, even when allowing for monetary transfers across world regions. Nonetheless, the paper also shows that strongly potentially internally stable coalitions exist, though of smaller size, which can mitigate global warming and limit GHG concentrations to 600 ppm CO 2 -eq. - Highlights: ► We analyse climate coalitions with an integrated assessment model. ► Coalitions’ profitability and stability is analysed under alternative assumptions. ► Effective coalitions should include larger emitters (such as India and China). ► A coalition that achieves 550 ppm CO 2 -eq is not internally stable. ► A stable coalition can achieve around 518 ppme in 2050 and 600 ppme in 2100

  20. Integrating Fuzzy Logic, Optimization, and GIS for Ecological Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Juárez, Lourdes; Cruz-Bello, Gustavo

    2002-09-01

    Appraisal of ecological impacts has been problematic because of the behavior of ecological system and the responses of these systems to human intervention are far from fully understood. While it has been relatively easy to itemize the potential ecological impacts, it has been difficult to arrive at accurate predictions of how these impacts affect populations, communities, or ecosystems. Furthermore, the spatial heterogeneity of ecological systems has been overlooked because its examination is practically impossible through matrix techniques, the most commonly used impact assessment approach. Besides, the public has become increasingly aware of the importance of the EIA in decision-making and thus the interpretation of impact significance is complicated further by the different value judgments of stakeholders. Moreover, impact assessments are carried out with a minimum of data, high uncertainty, and poor conceptual understanding. Hence, the evaluation of ecological impacts entails the integration of subjective and often conflicting judgments from a variety of experts and stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to present an environmental impact assessment approach based on the integration fuzzy logic, geographical information systems and optimization techniques. This approach enables environmental analysts to deal with the intrinsic imprecision and ambiguity associated with the judgments of experts and stakeholders, the description of ecological systems, and the prediction of ecological impacts. The application of this approach is illustrated through an example, which shows how consensus about impact mitigation can be attained within a conflict resolution framework.

  1. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  2. A methodological approach to assessing alveolar ridge preservation procedures in humans: soft tissue profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Vanessa; Rompen, Eric; Lecloux, Geoffrey; Rues, Stefan; Schmitter, Marc; Lambert, France

    2014-03-01

    The aesthetic results of implant restoration in the anterior maxilla are particularly related to the soft tissue profile. Although socket preservation techniques appear to reduce bone remodelling after tooth extraction, there is still few investigations assessing the external soft tissue profile after such procedures. The goal of this study was to describe an accurate technique to evaluate soft tissue contour changes after performing socket preservation procedures. The secondary objective was to apply the newly developed measuring method to a specific socket preservation using a "saddled" connective tissue graft combined with the insertion of slowly resorbable biomaterials into the socket. A total of 14 patients needing tooth replacement in the aesthetic region were included to receive a socket preservation procedure using a connective tissue graft. Impressions were taken before the tooth extraction (baseline) and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after the procedure. The corresponding plaster casts were scanned, and the evolution of the soft tissue profile in relation to the baseline situation was assessed using imaging software. The measuring technique allowed assessing the soft tissue profiles accurately at different levels of the alveolar process. The insertion of a saddled connective tissue appeared to compensate for the horizontal and vertical bone remodelling after a socket preservation procedure in most regions of the alveolar crest. After 12 weeks, the only significant change was located in the more cervical and central region of the alveolar process and reached a median drop of 0.62 mm from baseline. Within the limitations of this study, we found that a saddled connective tissue graft combined with a socket preservation procedure could almost completely counteract the bone remodelling in terms of the external soft tissue profile. The minor changes found in the cervical region might disappear with the emergence profile of the prosthodontic components. The described

  3. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Jin Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods.

  4. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yung-Chul; Won, Doo-Hee; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Kong, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI) applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT) individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent) to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods. PMID:23202765

  5. Generic assessment procedures for determining protective actions during a reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This manual provides the tools, procedures and data needed to evaluate the consequences of a nuclear accident occurring at a nuclear power plant throughout all phases of the emergency before, during and after a release of radioactive material. It is intended for use by on-site and off-site groups responsible for evaluating the accident consequences and making recommendations for the protection of the plant personnel, the emergency workers and the public. The scope of this manual is restricted to the technical assessment of radiological consequences. It does not address the emergency response infrastructure requirements, nor does it cover the emergency management aspects of accident assessment (e.g. reporting, staff qualification, shift replacement, and procedure implementation). The procedures and methods in this manual were developed based on a number of assumptions concerning the design and operation of the nuclear power plant and national practices. Therefore, this manual must be reviewed as part of the planning process to match the potential accidents, local conditions, national criteria and other unique characteristics of an area or nuclear reactor where it may be used. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo Alina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the ‘top 8-12’ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in ...

  7. Integrated assessment, water resources, and science-policy communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, E.G.R.; Akhtar, M.K.; McBean, G.A.; Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional climate change modeling neglects the role of feedbacks between different components of society-biosphere-climate system. Yet, such interconnections are critical. This paper describes an alternative, Integrated Assessment (IA) model that focuses on feedbacks not only within individual elements of the society-biosphere-climate system, but also on their interconnections. The model replicates the relevant dynamics of nine components of the society-biosphere- climate system at the sectoral, or single-component, level: climate, carbon cycle, hydrological cycle, water demand, water quality, population, land use, energy and economy. The paper discusses the role of the model in science-policy dialogue. (author)

  8. Annual Summary of the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-27

    An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) is required each year (DOE O 435.1 Chg 1,1 DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1;2 and DOE/ORP-2000-013). The most recently approved PA is DOE/ORP-2000-24.4 The ILAW PA evaluated the adequacy of the ILAW disposal facility, now referred to as the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), for the safe disposal of vitrified Hanford Site tank waste.

  9. Objective Integrated Assessment of Functional Outcomes in Reduction Mammaplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Ilaria; Malovini, Alberto; Faga, Angela; Toffola, Elena Dalla

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was an objective integrated assessment of the functional outcomes of reduction mammaplasty. Methods: The study involved 17 women undergoing reduction mammaplasty from March 2009 to June 2011. Each patient was assessed before surgery and 2 months postoperatively with the original association of 4 subjective and objective assessment methods: a physiatric clinical examination, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Berg Balance Scale, and a static force platform analysis. Results: All of the tests proved multiple statistically significant associated outcomes demonstrating a significant improvement in the functional status following reduction mammaplasty. Surgical correction of breast hypertrophy could achieve both spinal pain relief and recovery of performance status in everyday life tasks, owing to a muscular postural functional rearrangement with a consistent antigravity muscle activity sparing. Pain reduction in turn could reduce the antalgic stiffness and improved the spinal range of motion. In our sample, the improvement of the spinal range of motion in flexion matched a similar improvement in extension. Recovery of a more favorable postural pattern with reduction of the anterior imbalance was demonstrated by the static force stabilometry. Therefore, postoperatively, all of our patients narrowed the gap between the actual body barycenter and the ideal one. The static force platform assessment also consistently confirmed the effectiveness of an accurate clinical examination of functional impairment from breast hypertrophy. Conclusions: The static force platform assessment might help the clinician to support the diagnosis of functional impairment from a breast hypertrophy with objectively based data. PMID:25289256

  10. An assessment of methods for monitoring entrance surface dose in fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, J.C.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the light of a growing awareness of the risks of inducing skin injuries as a consequence of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIPs), this paper compares three methods of monitoring entrance surface dose (ESD). It also reports measurements of ESDs made during the period August 1998 to June 1999 on 137 patients undergoing cardiac, neurological and general FGIPs. Although the sample is small, the results reinforce the need for routine assessments to be made of ESDs in FGIPs. At present, the most reliable and accurate form of ESD measurement would seem to be arrays of TLDs. However, transducer based methods, although likely to be less accurate, have considerable advantages in relation to a continuous monitoring programme. It is also suggested that there may be the potential locally for threshold dose area product (DAP) values to be set for specific procedures. These could be used to provide early warning of the potential for skin injuries. (author)

  11. Assessment of organ doses by standard X-ray procedures in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautz, M.; Brandt, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modern method has been described to assess the radiation burden by X-ray procedures with consideration of the standards of our Society for Medical Radiology in the GDR. The underlying methodology is a Monte Carlo computer technique, which simulates stochastically the energy deposition of X-ray photons in a mathematically described heterogeneous anthropomorphic phantom by Rosenstein (US Department of Health, Education and Welfare). To apply the procedure specific values for the following parameters must be determined for each dose estimation: projection and view, X-ray field size and location entrance exposure at skin surface, beam quality, source-to-image receptor distance. The base data are obtained in terms of tissue-air ratio. Organ doses were calculated for chest, urography, skull, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lymphography. Concluding possibilities have been discussed for reduction of radiation burden. 9 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (author)

  12. A Cyber Security Risk Assessment Procedure for Digital I and C Systems in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J. G.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, C. K.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, D. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) use general digital technologies similar to those used in IT systems. However, one of significant differences between the two systems resides in the duration of their service life. The I and C systems in NPPs operate for more than 20 years. IT systems, on the other hand, are in service for about 3 to 5 years. Hence, a one-time risk assessment for IT systems is normally acceptable. In contrast, the risk assessment for the I and C systems in NPPs should be recursively performed during their longer operation life. A recursive procedure for cyber security risk assessment of the I and C systems in NPPs is studied and proposed in this paper

  13. A Cyber Security Risk Assessment Procedure for Digital I and C Systems in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. G.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, C. K.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, D. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) use general digital technologies similar to those used in IT systems. However, one of significant differences between the two systems resides in the duration of their service life. The I and C systems in NPPs operate for more than 20 years. IT systems, on the other hand, are in service for about 3 to 5 years. Hence, a one-time risk assessment for IT systems is normally acceptable. In contrast, the risk assessment for the I and C systems in NPPs should be recursively performed during their longer operation life. A recursive procedure for cyber security risk assessment of the I and C systems in NPPs is studied and proposed in this paper

  14. The role of risk assessment and safety analysis in integrated safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niall, R.; Hunt, M.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    To ensure that the design and operation of both nuclear and non- nuclear hazardous facilities is acceptable, and meets all societal safety expectations, a rigorous deterministic and probabilistic assessment is necessary. An approach is introduced, founded on the concept of an ''Integrated Safety Assessment.'' It merges the commonly performed safety and risk analyses and uses them in concert to provide decision makers with the necessary depth of understanding to achieve ''adequacy.'' 3 refs., 1 fig

  15. Information resources assessment of a healthcare integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, C. S.; Friedman, C. P.; Douglas, G.; Miller, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    While clinical healthcare systems may have lagged behind computer applications in other fields in the shift from mainframes to client-server architectures, the rapid deployment of newer applications is closing that gap. Organizations considering the transition to client-server must identify and position themselves to provide the resources necessary to implement and support the infrastructure requirements of client-server architectures and to manage the accelerated complexity at the desktop, including hardware and software deployment, training, and maintenance needs. This paper describes an information resources assessment of the recently aligned Pennsylvania regional Veterans Administration Stars and Stripes Health Network (VISN4), in anticipation of the shift from a predominantly mainframe to a client-server information systems architecture in its well-established VistA clinical information system. The multimethod assessment study is described here to demonstrate this approach and its value to regional healthcare networks undergoing organizational integration and/or significant information technology transformations. PMID:10566414

  16. An Integrated Method of Supply Chains Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain vulnerability identification and evaluation are extremely important to mitigate the supply chain risk. We present an integrated method to assess the supply chain vulnerability. The potential failure mode of the supply chain vulnerability is analyzed through the SCOR model. Combining the fuzzy theory and the gray theory, the correlation degree of each vulnerability indicator can be calculated and the target improvements can be carried out. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we use Kendall’s tau coefficient to measure the effect of different methods. The result shows that the presented method has the highest consistency in the assessment compared with the other two methods.

  17. Natriuretic peptides and integrated risk assessment for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeit, Peter; Kaptoge, S; Welsh, P.

    2016-01-01

    samples and collection of data from studies identified through a systematic search of the literature (PubMed, Scientific Citation Index Expanded, and Embase) for articles published up to Sept 4, 2014, using search terms related to natriuretic peptide family members and the primary outcomes......BACKGROUND: Guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases focus on prediction of coronary heart disease and stroke. We assessed whether or not measurement of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration could enable a more integrated approach than at present...... by predicting heart failure and enhancing coronary heart disease and stroke risk assessment. METHODS: In this individual-participant-data meta-analysis, we generated and harmonised individual-participant data from relevant prospective studies via both de-novo NT-proBNP concentration measurement of stored...

  18. Information resources assessment of a healthcare integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, C S; Friedman, C P; Douglas, G; Miller, D J

    1999-01-01

    While clinical healthcare systems may have lagged behind computer applications in other fields in the shift from mainframes to client-server architectures, the rapid deployment of newer applications is closing that gap. Organizations considering the transition to client-server must identify and position themselves to provide the resources necessary to implement and support the infrastructure requirements of client-server architectures and to manage the accelerated complexity at the desktop, including hardware and software deployment, training, and maintenance needs. This paper describes an information resources assessment of the recently aligned Pennsylvania regional Veterans Administration Stars and Stripes Health Network (VISN4), in anticipation of the shift from a predominantly mainframe to a client-server information systems architecture in its well-established VistA clinical information system. The multimethod assessment study is described here to demonstrate this approach and its value to regional healthcare networks undergoing organizational integration and/or significant information technology transformations.

  19. Russian practice of RPV integrity assessment under PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piminov, V.; Dragunov, Yu.; Kostyrkin, S.; Akbachev, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the approach used by Gidopress (main designer of Russian WWER reactors) for RPV integrity assessment is presented. Recently performed calculations for RPVs of Novoronezh NPP, units 3 and 4, are used as an example of practical application of this approach. The calculations have been performed on the base of Russian regulatory requirements, at the same time the recommendations of IAEA Guidelines for PTS assessment was also taken into account. The scope of the work includes: Analysis of real state of NPP systems and PTS selection; analysis of material behavior including results of templets investigation; thermal hydraulic calculations; structural analyses for the leading transients; development of supplementary measures to reduce the risk of RPV fracture. 5 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  20. Russian practice of RPV integrity assessment under PTS conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piminov, V; Dragunov, Yu; Kostyrkin, S; Akbachev, I

    1997-09-01

    In this paper the approach used by Gidopress (main designer of Russian WWER reactors) for RPV integrity assessment is presented. Recently performed calculations for RPVs of Novoronezh NPP, units 3 and 4, are used as an example of practical application of this approach. The calculations have been performed on the base of Russian regulatory requirements, at the same time the recommendations of IAEA Guidelines for PTS assessment was also taken into account. The scope of the work includes: Analysis of real state of NPP systems and PTS selection; analysis of material behavior including results of templets investigation; thermal hydraulic calculations; structural analyses for the leading transients; development of supplementary measures to reduce the risk of RPV fracture. 5 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  1. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  2. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem. A decision-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The project on the title subject aims at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models. 4 figs., 5 refs

  3. Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.

  4. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  5. Development of Integrated Code for Risk Assessment (INCORIA) for Physical Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2010-01-01

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent human attacks. Among critical facilities, nuclear facilities and nuclear weapon sites require the highest level of PPS. After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, international communities, including the IAEA, have made substantial efforts to protect nuclear material and nuclear facilities. The international flow on nuclear security is using the concept or risk assessment. The concept of risk assessment is firstly devised by nuclear safety people. They considered nuclear safety including its possible risk, which is the frequency of failure and possible consequence. Nuclear security people also considers security risk, which is the frequency of threat action, vulnerability, and consequences. The concept means that we should protect more when the credible threat exists and the possible radiological consequence is high. Even if there are several risk assessment methods of nuclear security, the application needs the help of tools because of a lot of calculation. It's also hard to find tools for whole phase of risk assessment. Several codes exist for the part of risk assessment. SAVI are used for vulnerability of PPS. Vital area identification code is used for consequence analysis. We are developing Integrated Code for Risk Assessment (INCORIA) to apply risk assessment methods for nuclear facilities. INCORIA evaluates PP-KINAC measures and generation tools for threat scenario. PP-KINAC is risk assessment measures for physical protection system developed by Hosik Yoo and is easy to apply. A threat scenario tool is used to generate threat scenario, which is used as one of input value to PP-KINAC measures

  6. Integrated ecosystem assessment for western development of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for Western Development of China includes: (1) providing scientific basis for ecosystem protection, ecosystem management and ecological construction in the western development; (2) developing complete database and analytical tools and strengthening decision-making support capacity; and (3) improving ecosystem management in China, spreading ecological knowledge to the public, serving decision-making of local and central governments, and promoting socio-economic sustainable development. The design and implementation of the project are of significance under the macro background of western development of China. By the integrated assessment of western China, we can get the first-hand data covering all the environmental factors as well as disclose the situations and their changing trends of ecosystem in the western part of China, which will benefit the decision-making for the central and local governments in the implementation of the western development strategy. In other words, the implementation of the project, to a certain extent, can guarantee the regional sustainable development of western China.

  7. USE OF SOFTWARES FOR POSTURE ASSESSMENT: INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyla Maria Porto de Freitas Camelo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To carry out an integrative literature review on the postural analysis softwares available today. It is an integrative-narrative review of qualitative and methodological nature performed during April-July 2014. As inclusion criteria, the articles should be bibliographical or original research and available with full access. At first, we proceeded to the identification of the keywords for the softwares related to postural assessment commonly used in the health field, in such case "posture", "software", and "postural assessment". The search was narrowed by publication date from 2002 to 2014. Through the information acquired from the articles and from the software developers, information on 12 programs that assist the postural evaluation were obtained - Alcimage, All Body Scan 3D, Aplob, APPID, Biotonix, Corporis Pro, Fisimetrix, Fisiometer Posturograma, Physical Fisio, Physio Easy, Posture Print and SAPO. However, only one tool has more information and studies, namely SAPO. There are many postural analysis softwares available on the internet today, however, these are quite disparate in relation to possible answers and are still poorly widespread as research tools.

  8. Integrated fate and toxicity assessment for site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Finster, Molly; Douglas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions. Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contaminants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illustrated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules. Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide the performance targets. (authors)

  9. The Safety Assessment of OPR-1000 for Station Blackout Applying Combined Deterministic and Probabilistic Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Ahn, Seung-Hoon; Cho, Dae-Hyung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This is termed station blackout (SBO). However, it does not generally include the loss of available AC power to safety buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources. Historically, risk analysis results have indicated that SBO was a significant contributor to overall core damage frequency. In this study, the safety assessment of OPR-1000 nuclear power plant for SBO accident, which is a typical beyond design basis accident and important contributor to overall plant risk, is performed by applying the combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure (CDPP). In addition, discussions are made for reevaluation of SBO risk at OPR-1000 by eliminating excessive conservatism in existing PSA. The safety assessment of OPR-1000 for SBO accident, which is a typical BDBA and significant contributor to overall plant risk, was performed by applying the combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure. However, the reference analysis showed that the CDF and CCDP did not meet the acceptable risk, and it was confirmed that the SBO risk should be reevaluated. By estimating the offsite power restoration time appropriately, the SBO risk was reevaluated, and it was finally confirmed that current OPR-1000 system lies in the acceptable risk against the SBO. In addition, it was demonstrated that the proposed CDPP is applicable to safety assessment of BDBAs in nuclear power plants without significant erosion of the safety margin.

  10. Measurement procedure to assess exposure to extremely low-frequency fields: A primary school case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Bahillo, A.; De la Rosa, R.; Carrera, A.; Duran, R. J.; Fernandez, P.

    2012-01-01

    How to correctly measure the exposure of general public to extremely low-frequency (ELF) radiation is a key issue for ELF epidemiological studies. This paper proposes a measurement procedure to accurately assess the exposure of people to electric and magnetic field in the frequency band from 5 Hz to 100 kHz in buildings and their premises. As ELF radiation could be particularly harmful to children, the measurement procedure is focused on exposure to ELF in schools. Thus, the students' exposure to ELF fields can be assessed by correlating the ELF measurements to the hours of school activity. In this paper, the measurement protocol was applied to study the ELF exposure on students from Garcia Quintana primary school in Valladolid, Spain. The campaign of measurements for ELF exposure assessment in this primary school was of great interest for the Regional Council of Public Health because of the social alarm generated by the presence of a significant number cancer cases in children. (authors)

  11. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Quinot, P. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Bloc Reacteur et Boucles Primaires, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Ingenierie et Service, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  12. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, G.; Quinot, P.; Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  13. An Integrative Review of Pediatric Fall Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGerolamo, Kimberly; Davis, Katherine Finn

    Patient fall prevention begins with accurate risk assessment. However, sustained improvements in prevention and quality of care include use of validated fall risk assessment tools (FRATs). The goal of FRATs is to identify patients at highest risk. Adult FRATs are often borrowed from to create tools for pediatric patients. Though factors associated with pediatric falls in the hospital setting are similar to those in adults, such as mobility, medication use, and cognitive impairment, adult FRATs and the factors associated with them do not adequately assess risk in children. Articles were limited to English language, ages 0-21years, and publish date 2006-2015. The search yielded 22 articles. Ten were excluded as the population was primarily adult or lacked discussion of a FRAT. Critical appraisal and findings were synthesized using the Johns Hopkins Nursing evidence appraisal system. Twelve articles relevant to fall prevention in the pediatric hospital setting that discussed fall risk assessment and use of a FRAT were reviewed. Comparison between and accuracy of FRATs is challenged when different classifications, definitions, risk stratification, and inclusion criteria are used. Though there are several pediatric FRATs published in the literature, none have been found to be reliable and valid across institutions and diverse populations. This integrative review highlights the importance of choosing a FRAT based on an institution's identified risk factors and validating the tool for one's own patient population as well as using the tool in conjunction with nursing clinical judgment to guide interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Methods for assessing NPP containment pressure boundary integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being conducted to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants. Objectives of this research are to (1) understand the significant factors relating to corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and of liners of concrete containments; (2) provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; and (3) provide recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation. Activities include development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of candidate techniques for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion

  15. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  16. Video observation of procedural skills for assessment of trabeculectomy performed by residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Narges; Chen, Rebecca; Baikpour, Masoud; Moghimi, Sasan

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy and sufficiency of a healthcare system is directly related to the knowledge and skills of graduates working in the system. In this regard, many different assessment methods have been proposed to evaluate various skills of the learners. Video Observation of Procedural Skills (VOPS) is one newly-proposed method. In this study we aimed to compare the results of the VOPS method with the more commonly used Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS). In this prospective study conducted in 2012, all 10 ophthalmology residents of post graduate year 4 were selected for participation. Three months into training in the glaucoma ward, these residents performed trabeculectomy surgery on patients, and their procedural skills were assessed in real time by an expert via the DOPS method. All surgeries were also recorded and later evaluated via the VOPS method by an expert. Bland-Altman plot also was used to compare the two methods and calculating the mean and 95% limit of agreement. Residents have been done a mean of 14.9 ± 3.5 (range 10-20) independent trabeculectomy before the assessments. DOPS grade was positively associated with number of independent trabeculectomy during glaucoma rotation (β=0.227, p = 0.004). The intra-observer reproducibility of VOPS measurements was 0.847 (95% CI: 0.634, 0.961). The mean VOPS grade was significantly lower than the mean DOPS grade (8.4 vs. 8.9, p = 0.02). However, a good correlation was observed between the grades of VOPS and DOPS (r = 0.89, p = 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that all data points fell within the 95% limits of agreement (-1.46, 0.46). The present study showed that VOPS might be considered a feasible, valid, and reliable assessment method for procedural skills of medical students and residents that can be used as an alternative to the DOPS method. However, VOPS might underestimate DOPS in evaluating surgical skills of residents.

  17. An integrated portfolio optimisation procedure based on data envelopment analysis, artificial bee colony algorithm and genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Ming

    2014-12-01

    Portfolio optimisation is an important issue in the field of investment/financial decision-making and has received considerable attention from both researchers and practitioners. However, besides portfolio optimisation, a complete investment procedure should also include the selection of profitable investment targets and determine the optimal timing for buying/selling the investment targets. In this study, an integrated procedure using data envelopment analysis (DEA), artificial bee colony (ABC) and genetic programming (GP) is proposed to resolve a portfolio optimisation problem. The proposed procedure is evaluated through a case study on investing in stocks in the semiconductor sub-section of the Taiwan stock market for 4 years. The potential average 6-month return on investment of 9.31% from 1 November 2007 to 31 October 2011 indicates that the proposed procedure can be considered a feasible and effective tool for making outstanding investment plans, and thus making profits in the Taiwan stock market. Moreover, it is a strategy that can help investors to make profits even when the overall stock market suffers a loss.

  18. Integrated Safeguards and Security Management Self-Assessment 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunford, Dan; Ramsey, Dwayne

    2005-04-01

    In 2002 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory deployed the first Integrated Safeguards and Security Management (ISSM) Self-Assessment process, designed to measure the effect of the Laboratory's ISSM efforts. This process was recognized by DOE as a best practice and model program for self-assessment and training. In 2004, the second Self-Assessment was launched. The cornerstone of this process was an employee survey that was designed to meet several objectives: (1) Ensure that Laboratory assets are protected. (2) Provide a measurement of the Laboratory's current security status that can be compared against the 2002 Self-Assessment baseline. (3) Educate all Laboratory staff about security responsibilities, tools, and practices. (4) Provide security staff with feedback on the effectiveness of security programs. (5) Provide line management with the information they need to make informed decisions about security. This 2004 Self Assessment process began in July 2004 with every employee receiving an information packet and instructions for completing the ISSM survey. The Laboratory-wide survey contained questions designed to measure awareness and conformance to policy and best practices. The survey response was excellent--90% of Berkeley Lab employees completed the questionnaire. ISSM liaisons from each division followed up on the initial survey results with individual employees to improve awareness and resolve ambiguities uncovered by the questionnaire. As with the 2002 survey, the Self-Assessment produced immediate positive results for the ISSM program and revealed opportunities for longer-term corrective actions. Results of the questionnaire provided information for organizational profiles and an institutional summary. The overall level of security protection and awareness was very high--often above 90%. Post-survey work by the ISSM liaisons and line management consistently led to improved awareness and metrics, as shown by a comparison of

  19. Sustainable BECCS pathways evaluated by an integrated assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.

    2017-12-01

    Negative emissions technologies, particularly Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), are key components of mitigation strategies in ambitious future socioeconomic scenarios analysed by integrated assessment models. Generally, scenarios aiming to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Also, in the context of Paris agreement which acknowledges "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century", RD&D for the negative emissions technologies in this decade has a crucial role for the possibility of early deployment of the technology. Because of the requirement of potentially extensive use of land and water for producing the bioenergy feedstock to get the anticipated level of gross negative emissions, researches on how to develop sustainable scenarios of BECCS is needed. Here, we present BECCS deployment scenarios that consider economically viable flow of bioenergy system including power generation and conversion process to liquid and gaseous fuels for transportation and heat with consideration of sustainable global biomass use. In the modelling process, detailed bioenergy representations, i.e. various feedstock and conversion technologies with and without CCS, are implemented in an integrated assessment (IA) model GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). Also, to overcome a general discrepancy about assumed future agricultural yield between 'top-down' IA models and 'bottom-up' estimates, which would crucially affect the land-use pattern, we applied yields change of food and energy crops consistent with process-based biophysical crop models in consideration of changing climate conditions. Using the framework, economically viable strategy for implementing sustainable bioenergy and BECCS flow are evaluated in the scenarios targeting to keep global average

  20. Preoperative testing and risk assessment: perspectives on patient selection in ambulatory anesthetic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stierer TL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracey L Stierer,1,2 Nancy A Collop3,41Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Critical Care Medicine, Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Neurology, Emory University, Emory Sleep Center, Wesley Woods Center, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: With recent advances in surgical and anesthetic technique, there has been a growing emphasis on the delivery of care to patients undergoing ambulatory procedures of increasing complexity. Appropriate patient selection and meticulous preparation are vital to the provision of a safe, quality perioperative experience. It is not unusual for patients with complex medical histories and substantial systemic disease to be scheduled for discharge on the same day as their surgical procedure. The trend to “push the envelope” by triaging progressively sicker patients to ambulatory surgical facilities has resulted in a number of challenges for the anesthesia provider who will assume their care. It is well known that certain patient diseases are associated with increased perioperative risk. It is therefore important to define clinical factors that warrant more extensive testing of the patient and medical conditions that present a prohibitive risk for an adverse outcome. The preoperative assessment is an opportunity for the anesthesia provider to determine the status and stability of the patient’s health, provide preoperative education and instructions, and offer support and reassurance to the patient and the patient’s family members. Communication between the surgeon/proceduralist and the anesthesia provider is critical in achieving optimal outcome. A multifaceted approach is required when considering whether a specific patient will be best served having their procedure on an outpatient basis. Not only should the patient's comorbidities be stable and optimized, but details regarding the planned procedure and the resources available

  1. Programs and procedures for assessing quality of spectral gamma-ray borehole data for the UGTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the procedures and computer programs used to process spectral gamma-ray borehole logging data in the UGTA (UnderGround Test Area) program at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) to assess data quality. These programs and procedures were used to analyze data from five boreholes in the UGTA program. Development of these computer programs and procedures required considerable effort and the primary purpose of this report is to provide continuity with future activities related to spectral gamma-ray borehole logging in the UGTA program. This is especially important because of the long time interval between cessation of logging in April, 1996 and the next round of activity, which has not yet occurred. This report should also be useful if any quality control issues arise regarding past or forthcoming spectral gamma-ray log analyses. In the characterization work underway at the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area, the logging contractor, Western Atlas, agreed to identify five artificial nuclides based on their gamma-ray signatures. Those nuclides are 60 Co, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs. In the case of 106 Ru, which is not a gamma emitter, any detected gamma rays come from the daughter nuclide 106 Rh which has a half-life of 30 s. With such a short half-life, 106 Rh can be considered to be in equilibrium with 106 Ru under most conditions so the result is the same as if the gamma rays were emitted by the 106 Ru. The Western Atlas spectral gamma-ray curve plots from a given borehole present detailed qualitative information on the apparent distribution of natural and artificial nuclides with depth in the borehole. The computer programs and procedures described in this report were used to provide a quality analysis of the contractor's processed data and to work with the contractor to validate and/or refine their existing automatic processing. This was done using a procedure that was developed and tested successfully in earlier work at the NTS; the revised

  2. Incorporating mesh-insensitive structural stress into the fatigue assessment procedure of common structural rules for bulk carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a fatigue assessment procedure using mesh-insensitive structural stress method based on the Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers by considering important factors, such as mean stress and thickness effects. The fatigue assessment result of mesh-insensitive structural stress method have been compared with CSR procedure based on equivalent notch stress at major hot spot points in the area near the ballast hold for a 180 K bulk carrier. The possibility of implementing mesh-insensitive structural stress method in the fatigue assessment procedure for ship structures is discussed.

  3. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, K.M.; Guzowski, R.V.; Hora, S.C.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature

  4. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Business Administration & Economics Div.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

  5. Positive predictive value of abnormal mammographic findings and role of assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, S.; Marra, V.; Di Virgilio, M.R.; Macchia, G.; Frigerio, A.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the positive predictive value for cancer of abnormal mammographic findings and the role of assessment, the authors reviewed a series of 962 patients recalled and examined in the first breast screening center of Turin (Italy), out of 18996 women aged 50-59 from 1991 to 1995, within a population-based mammography program. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer and the different role of assessment procedures in the various abnormal mammographic findings. The improvement in positive predictive value for screening demonstrates the importance of the learning curve within the screening team. Most of this improvement could be referred to refined diagnostic criteria for calcifications [it

  6. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, K.M.; Guzowski, R.V.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature

  7. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure: A state-of-the-art survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.

    1989-05-01

    High-temperature crack growth under cyclic, static, and combined loading is received with an emphasis on fracture mechanics aspects. Experimental studies of the effects of loading history, microstructure, temperature, and environment on crack growth behavior are described and interpreted. The experimental evidence is used to examine crack growth parameters and theoretical models for fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue crack propagation at elevated temperatures. The limitations of both elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics for high-temperature subcritical crack growth are assessed. Existing techniques for modeling critical crack growth/ligament instability failure are also presented. Related topics of defect modeling and engineering flaw assessment procedures, nondestructive evaluation methods, and probabilistic failure analysis are briefly discussed. 142 refs., 33 figs

  8. RISK-ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES AND ESTABLISHING THE SIZE OF SAMPLES FOR AUDITING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In auditing financial statements, the procedures for the assessment of the risks and the calculation of the materiality differ from an auditor to another, by audit cabinet policy or advice professional bodies. All, however, have the reference International Audit Standards ISA 315 “Identifying and assessing the risks of material misstatement through understanding the entity and its environment” and ISA 320 “Materiality in planning and performing an audit”. On the basis of specific practices auditors in Romania, the article shows some laborious and examples of these aspects. Such considerations are presented evaluation of the general inherent risk, a specific inherent risk, the risk of control and the calculation of the materiality.

  9. Tropical forest carbon assessment: integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale carbon mapping is needed to support the UNFCCC program to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Managers of forested land can potentially increase their carbon credits via detailed monitoring of forest cover, loss and gain (hectares), and periodic estimates of changes in forest carbon density (tons ha -1 ). Satellites provide an opportunity to monitor changes in forest carbon caused by deforestation and degradation, but only after initial carbon densities have been assessed. New airborne approaches, especially light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a means to estimate forest carbon density over large areas, which greatly assists in the development of practical baselines. Here I present an integrated satellite-airborne mapping approach that supports high-resolution carbon stock assessment and monitoring in tropical forest regions. The approach yields a spatially resolved, regional state-of-the-forest carbon baseline, followed by high-resolution monitoring of forest cover and disturbance to estimate carbon emissions. Rapid advances and decreasing costs in the satellite and airborne mapping sectors are already making high-resolution carbon stock and emissions assessments viable anywhere in the world.

  10. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results.

  11. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, Frank; Langdon, Esther Jean; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  12. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Philippe [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Langdon, Esther Jean [Department of Anthropology, Center for Philosophy and Human Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina PO Box 5104, 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Arts, Jos [Department of Planning, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  13. Scalable Microfabrication Procedures for Adhesive-Integrated Flexible and Stretchable Electronic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Y.; Kim, Yun-Soung; Ornelas, Gladys; Sinha, Mridu; Naidu, Keerthiga; Coleman, Todd P.

    2015-01-01

    New classes of ultrathin flexible and stretchable devices have changed the way modern electronics are designed to interact with their target systems. Though more and more novel technologies surface and steer the way we think about future electronics, there exists an unmet need in regards to optimizing the fabrication procedures for these devices so that large-scale industrial translation is realistic. This article presents an unconventional approach for facile microfabrication and processing of adhesive-peeled (AP) flexible sensors. By assembling AP sensors on a weakly-adhering substrate in an inverted fashion, we demonstrate a procedure with 50% reduced end-to-end processing time that achieves greater levels of fabrication yield. The methodology is used to demonstrate the fabrication of electrical and mechanical flexible and stretchable AP sensors that are peeled-off their carrier substrates by consumer adhesives. In using this approach, we outline the manner by which adhesion is maintained and buckling is reduced for gold film processing on polydimethylsiloxane substrates. In addition, we demonstrate the compatibility of our methodology with large-scale post-processing using a roll-to-roll approach. PMID:26389915

  14. Fuel poverty as injustice: Integrating distribution, recognition and procedure in the struggle for affordable warmth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gordon; Day, Rosie

    2012-01-01

    Bringing attention to fuel poverty as a distinct manifestation of social inequality has asserted the place of affordable warmth in the profile of contemporary rights and entitlements. As such, fuel poverty can be understood as an expression of injustice, involving the compromised ability to access energy services and thereby to secure a healthful living environment. In this paper, we consider how fuel poverty may be aligned to various alternative concepts of social and environmental justice. Whilst recognising that fuel poverty is fundamentally a complex problem of distributive injustice, we argue that other understandings of injustice are also implicated and play important roles in producing and sustaining inequalities in access to affordable warmth. Addressing fuel poverty has to involve seeking justice in terms of the cultural and political recognition of vulnerable and marginalised social groups and pursuing procedural justice through opening up involvement and influence in decision-making processes. We make this argument both in theoretical terms, and through considering the experience of fuel poverty advocacy and policy development in the UK. Opportunities for future action may be illuminated through such interconnected justice framings as wider awareness of energy, climate and poverty issues emerge. - Highlights: ► We examine fuel poverty through different concepts of social and environmental justice. ► UK experience is used to inform and exemplify our analysis. ► Distributional justice is central but insufficient on its own. ► Procedural justice and justice as recognition are key necessary goals in the struggle for affordable warmth.

  15. Distributed Energy Resources and Dynamic Microgrid: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Duo Rick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to improve understanding in terms of the benefit of DERs to both utility and to electricity end-users when integrated in power distribution system. To achieve this goal, a series of two studies was conducted to assess the value of DERs when integrated with new power paradigms. First, the arbitrage value of DERs was examined in markets with time-variant electricity pricing rates (e.g., time of use, real time pricing) under a smart grid distribution paradigm. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage over a five-year period. The optimization process involves two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with different assumptions on technology performance, electricity market and PHEV owner types. The simulation results indicate that expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services without more favorable policy and PHEV battery technologies. Subsidy or change in electricity tariff or both are needed. Second, it examined the concept of dynamic microgrid as a measure to improve distribution resilience, and estimates the prices of this emerging service. An economic load dispatch (ELD) model is developed to estimate the market-clearing price in a hypothetical community with single bid auction electricity market. The results show that the electricity market clearing price on the dynamic microgrid is predominantly decided by power output and cost of electricity of each type of DGs. At circumstances where CHP is the only source, the electricity market clearing price in the island is even cheaper than the on-grid electricity price at normal times. Integration of PHEVs in the dynamic microgrid will increase electricity market clearing prices. It demonstrates that dynamic microgrid is an economically viable alternative to enhance grid resilience.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education's environmental survey and site assessment program field sampling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.; Bright, T.L.; Roberts, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters Office, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) compared the documented procedures that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ESSAP use for collecting environmental samples. The project objectives were to review both organizations' procedures applicable to collecting various sample matrices, compare the procedures for similarities and differences, and then to evaluate the reason for any identified procedural differences and their potential impact on ESSAP's sample data quality. The procedures reviewed included those for sampling surface and subsurface soil, surface and groundwater, vegetation, air, and removable surface contamination. ESSAP obtained copies of relevant EPA documents and reviewed and prepared a tabulated summary of each applicable procedure. The methods for collecting and handling each type of sample were evaluated for differences, and where these were identified, the significance and effect of the differences on analytical quality were determined. The results of the comparison showed that, overall, the procedures and methods that EPA and ESSAP use for sample collection are very similar. The number of minor differences noted were the result of restrictions or procedures necessary to ensure sample integrity and prevent the introduction of interfering compounds when samples are to be analyzed for chemical parameters. For most radio nuclide analyses, these additional procedures are not necessary. Another item noted was EPA's inclusion of steps that reduce the potential for sample cross-contamination by preparing (dressing) a location prior to collecting a sample or removing a portion of a sample prior to containerization

  17. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment: Concepts, challenges, research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • IDPSA contributes to robust risk-informed decision making in nuclear safety. • IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among component failures and system process. • Also, IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among control and operator actions. • Computational efficiency by advanced Monte Carlo and meta-modelling simulations. • Efficient post-processing of IDPSA output by clustering and data mining. - Abstract: Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment (IDPSA) is conceived as a way to analyze the evolution of accident scenarios in complex dynamic systems, like nuclear, aerospace and process ones, accounting for the mutual interactions between the failure and recovery of system components, the evolving physical processes, the control and operator actions, the software and firmware. In spite of the potential offered by IDPSA, several challenges need to be effectively addressed for its development and practical deployment. In this paper, we give an overview of these and discuss the related implications in terms of research perspectives

  18. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we......REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported...... present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo...

  19. Life stressors and social resources: an integrated assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, R H; Fenn, C B; Billings, A G

    1988-01-01

    The Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES) is described. The inventory provides an integrated assessment of an individual's life context. It taps both relatively stable and new aspects of life stressors and social resources in eight domains: physical health, home/neighborhood, financial, work, spouse/partner, children, extended family, and friends. The indices were developed on data obtained at two points in time from groups of depressed patients, alcoholic patients, arthritic patients, and healthy adults. The indices are internally consistent, moderately intercorrelated, and relatively stable over time. In addition, they are predictably related to changes in respondents' functioning. Although more developmental work is needed, the LISRES has some potential clinical and research applications and may be helpful in examining the process of stress and coping.

  20. Integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in a health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the quantification of health outcomes in a health impact assessment (HIA) is scarce in practice, it is preferred by policymakers, as it assists various aspects of the decision-making process. This article provides an example of integrating a quantitative risk appraisal...... in an HIA performed for the recently adopted Hungarian anti-smoking policy which introduced a smoking ban in closed public places, workplaces and public transport vehicles, and is one of the most effective measures to decrease smoking-related ill health. METHODS: A comprehensive, prospective HIA...... to decrease the prevalence of active and passive smoking and result in a considerably positive effect on several diseases, among which lung cancer, chronic pulmonary diseases, coronary heart diseases and stroke have the greatest importance. The health gain calculated for the quantifiable health outcomes...

  1. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment: Concepts, challenges, research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zio, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.zio@ecp.fr [Ecole Centrale Paris and Supelec, Chair on System Science and the Energetic Challenge, European Foundation for New Energy – Electricite de France (EDF), Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • IDPSA contributes to robust risk-informed decision making in nuclear safety. • IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among component failures and system process. • Also, IDPSA considers time-dependent interactions among control and operator actions. • Computational efficiency by advanced Monte Carlo and meta-modelling simulations. • Efficient post-processing of IDPSA output by clustering and data mining. - Abstract: Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment (IDPSA) is conceived as a way to analyze the evolution of accident scenarios in complex dynamic systems, like nuclear, aerospace and process ones, accounting for the mutual interactions between the failure and recovery of system components, the evolving physical processes, the control and operator actions, the software and firmware. In spite of the potential offered by IDPSA, several challenges need to be effectively addressed for its development and practical deployment. In this paper, we give an overview of these and discuss the related implications in terms of research perspectives.

  2. An integrated urban drainage system model for assessing renovation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Due to sustained economic growth in China over the last three decades, urbanization has been on a rapidly expanding track. In recent years, regional industrial relocations were also accelerated across the country from the east coast to the west inland. These changes have led to a large-scale redesign of urban infrastructures, including the drainage system. To help the reconstructed infrastructures towards a better sustainability, a tool is required for assessing the efficiency and environmental performance of different renovation schemes. This paper developed an integrated dynamic modeling tool, which consisted of three models for describing the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the receiving water body respectively. Three auxiliary modules were also incorporated to conceptualize the model, calibrate the simulations, and analyze the results. The developed integrated modeling tool was applied to a case study in Shenzhen City, which is one of the most dynamic cities and facing considerable challenges for environmental degradation. The renovation scheme proposed to improve the environmental performance of Shenzhen City's urban drainage system was modeled and evaluated. The simulation results supplied some suggestions for the further improvement of the renovation scheme.

  3. Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Thorne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies that develop infrastructure such as roads, waterworks, and energy delivery often impact natural ecosystems, but they also have unique opportunities to contribute to the conservation of regional natural resources through compensatory mitigation. Infrastructure development requires a planning, funding, and implementation cycle that can frequently take a decade or longer, but biological mitigation is often planned and implemented late in this process, in a project-by-project piecemeal manner. By adopting early regional mitigation needs assessment and planning for habitat-level impacts from multiple infrastructure projects, agencies could secure time needed to proactively integrate these obligations into regional conservation objectives. Such practice can be financially and ecologically beneficial due to economies of scale, and because earlier mitigation implementation means potentially developable critical parcels may still be available for conservation. Here, we compare the integration of regional conservation designs, termed greenprints, with early multi-project mitigation assessment for two areas in California, USA. The expected spatial extent of habitat impacts and associated mitigation requirements from multiple projects were identified for each area. We used the reserve-selection algorithm MARXAN to identify a regional greenprint for each site and to seek mitigation solutions through parcel acquisition that would contribute to the greenprint, as well as meet agency obligations. The two areas differed in the amount of input data available, the types of conservation objectives identified, and local land-management capacity. They are representative of the range of conditions that conservation practitioners may encounter, so contrasting the two illustrates how regional advanced mitigation can be generalized for use in a wide variety of settings. Environmental organizations can benefit from this approach because it provides a

  4. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  5. Integrated manure utilization system life-cycle value assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, J.; Neabel, D. [Pembina Inst. for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    A life-cycle assessment of the Alberta Research Council (ARC) and Highmark Renewables' development of an integrated manure utilization system (IMUS) were presented. The assessment focused on an evaluation of factors of primary importance to government, investors and the livestock industry. IMUS technology uses manure as a resource to produce electricity, heat, bio-based fertilizer and reusable water. Results of the assessment indicated that IMUS plants have the potential to be financially viable if a power purchase of $90 MWh on average can be purchased from a 30,000 head livestock operation. A capital cost of under $11 million is necessary, and an established biofertilizer price of $50 per tonne should be established. An IMUS plant was estimated to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 70 to 80 per cent when compared to land spreading. Reductions are accomplished through displacing electricity from the provincial grid and reducing nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from spreading of manure The IMUS plants lessen environment impacts by reducing the extraction and consumption of non-renewable resources, and by displacing an estimated 11,700 GJ of coal and natural gas per 1000 head of cattle per year. In addition, various pathogens within manure are eliminated. The plants have the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with the disposal of deadstock. The systems reduce manure odour, lessen truck traffic and are expected to contribute to rural economic diversification. Barriers to further implementation of IMUS were discussed, as well as emerging opportunities for IMUS developers. It was concluded that the initial assessments of the IMUS were positive. Further investigation is needed to determine actual life-cycle performance of the operations. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Assessment of integrated watershed health based on the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Watershed health, including the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology, is assessed for the Han River basin (34 148 km2 in South Korea by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The evaluation procedures follow those of the Healthy Watersheds Assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. Six components of the watershed landscape are examined to evaluate the watershed health (basin natural capacity: stream geomorphology, hydrology, water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition. In particular, the SWAT is applied to the study basin for the hydrology and water-quality components, including 237 sub-watersheds (within a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map along with three multipurpose dams, one hydroelectric dam, and three multifunction weirs. The SWAT is calibrated (2005–2009 and validated (2010–2014 by using each dam and weir operation, the flux-tower evapotranspiration, the time-domain reflectometry (TDR soil moisture, and groundwater-level data for the hydrology assessment, and by using sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen data for the water-quality assessment. The water balance, which considers the surface–groundwater interactions and variations in the stream-water quality, is quantified according to the sub-watershed-scale relationship between the watershed hydrologic cycle and stream-water quality. We assess the integrated watershed health according to the U.S. EPA evaluation process based on the vulnerability levels of the natural environment, water resources, water quality, and ecosystem components. The results indicate that the watershed's health declined during the most recent 10-year period of 2005–2014, as indicated by the worse results for the surface process metric and soil water dynamics compared to those of the 1995–2004 period. The integrated watershed health tended to decrease farther downstream within the watershed.

  7. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Mixing Procedures and Materials Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinger, Becky D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kashgarian, Michaele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-14

    Three mixing procedures have been standardized for the IDCA proficiency test—solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. Due to the variety of precursors used in formulating the materials for the test, these three mixing methods have been designed to address all combinations of materials. Hand mixing is recommended for quantities less than 10 grams and Jar Mill mixing is recommended for quantities over 10 grams. Consideration must also be given to the type of container used for the mixing due to the wide range of chemical reactivity of the precursors and mixtures. Eight web site sources from container and chemical manufacturers have been consulted. Compatible materials have been compiled as a resource for selecting containers made of materials stable to the mixtures. In addition, container materials used in practice by the participating laboratories are discussed. Consulting chemical compatibility tables is highly recommended for each operation by each individual engaged in testing the materials in this proficiency test.

  8. Robust parameter design for integrated circuit fabrication procedure with respect to categorical characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    We consider a robust parameter design of the process for forming contact windows in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits. Robust design is often used to find the optimal levels of process conditions which would provide the output of consistent quality as close to a target value. In this paper, we analyze the results of the fractional factorial design of nine factors: mask dimension, viscosity, bake temperature, spin speed, bake time, aperture, exposure time, developing time, etch time, where the outcome of the experiment is measured in terms of a categorized window size with five categories. Random effect analysis is employed to model both the mean and variance of categorized window size as functions of some controllable factors as well as random errors. Empirical Bayes' procedures are then utilized to fit both the models, and to eventually find the robust design of CMOS circuit process by means of a Bootstrap resampling approach

  9. Containment integrity and leak testing. Procedures applied and experiences gained in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Containment systems are the ultimate safety barrier for preventing the escape of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive materials produced in normal operation, not retained in process systems, and for keeping back radioactive materials released by system malfunction or equipment failure. A primary element of the containment shell is therefore its leak-tight design. The report describes the present containment concepts mostly used in European countries. The leak-testing procedures applied and the experiences gained in their application are also discussed. The report refers more particularly to pre-operational testing, periodic testing and extrapolation methods of leak rates measured at test conditions to expected leak rates at calculated accident conditions. The actual problems in periodic containment leak rate testing are critically reviewed. In the appendix to the report a summary is given of the regulations and specifications applied in different member countries

  10. Robust parameter design for integrated circuit fabrication procedure with respect to categorical characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.Y

    1999-12-01

    We consider a robust parameter design of the process for forming contact windows in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits. Robust design is often used to find the optimal levels of process conditions which would provide the output of consistent quality as close to a target value. In this paper, we analyze the results of the fractional factorial design of nine factors: mask dimension, viscosity, bake temperature, spin speed, bake time, aperture, exposure time, developing time, etch time, where the outcome of the experiment is measured in terms of a categorized window size with five categories. Random effect analysis is employed to model both the mean and variance of categorized window size as functions of some controllable factors as well as random errors. Empirical Bayes' procedures are then utilized to fit both the models, and to eventually find the robust design of CMOS circuit process by means of a Bootstrap resampling approach.

  11. Integration of intraoperative stereovision imaging for brain shift visualization during image-guided cranial procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaewe, Timothy J.; Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Simon, David A.

    2014-03-01

    Dartmouth and Medtronic Navigation have established an academic-industrial partnership to develop, validate, and evaluate a multi-modality neurosurgical image-guidance platform for brain tumor resection surgery that is capable of updating the spatial relationships between preoperative images and the current surgical field. A stereovision system has been developed and optimized for intraoperative use through integration with a surgical microscope and an image-guided surgery system. The microscope optics and stereovision CCD sensors are localized relative to the surgical field using optical tracking and can efficiently acquire stereo image pairs from which a localized 3D profile of the exposed surface is reconstructed. This paper reports the first demonstration of intraoperative acquisition, reconstruction and visualization of 3D stereovision surface data in the context of an industry-standard image-guided surgery system. The integrated system is capable of computing and presenting a stereovision-based update of the exposed cortical surface in less than one minute. Alternative methods for visualization of high-resolution, texture-mapped stereovision surface data are also investigated with the objective of determining the technical feasibility of direct incorporation of intraoperative stereo imaging into future iterations of Medtronic's navigation platform.

  12. Pressurized thermal shock in nuclear power plants: Good practices for assessment. Deterministic evaluation for the integrity of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    Starting in the early 1970s, a series of coordinated research projects (CRPs) was sponsored by the IAEA focusing on the effects of neutron radiation on reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and RPV integrity. In conjunction with these CRPs, many consultants meetings, specialists meetings, and international conferences, dating back to the mid-1960s, were held. Individual studies on the basic phenomena of radiation hardening and embrittlement were also performed to better understand increases in tensile strength and shifts to higher temperatures for the integrity of the RPV. The overall objective of this CRP was to perform benchmark deterministic calculations of a typical pressurized thermal shock (PTS) regime, with the aim of comparing the effects of individual parameters on the final RPV integrity assessment, and then to recommend the best practices for their implementation in PTS procedures. At present, several different procedures and approaches are used for RPV integrity assessment for both WWER 440-230 reactors and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). These differences in procedures and approaches are based, in principle, on the different codes and rules used for design and manufacturing, and the different materials used for the various types of reactor, and the different levels of implementation of recent developments in fracture mechanics. Benchmark calculations were performed to improve user qualification and to reduce the user effect on the results of the analysis. This addressed generic PWR and WWER types of RPV, as well as sensitivity analyses. The complementary sensitivity analyses showed that the following factors significantly influenced the assessment: flaw size, shape, location and orientation, thermal hydraulic assumptions and material toughness. Applying national codes and procedures to the benchmark cases produced significantly different results in terms of allowable material toughness. This was mainly related to the safety factors used and the

  13. Evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, K.C.; Burson, Z.G.; Smith, J.M.; Blanchard, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to co-ordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency. The Evaluation and Assessment (E and A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing, and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E and A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC is presented, with emphasis on the E and A Division. The contents of the E and A manual are briefly described, as are future plans for its expansion. (author)

  14. Development and assessment of best estimate integrated safety analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin; Hwang, Moon Kyu (and others)

    2007-03-15

    Improvement of the integrated safety analysis code MARS3.0 has been carried out and a multi-D safety analysis application system has been established. Iterative matrix solver and parallel processing algorithm have been introduced, and a LINUX version has been generated to enable MARS to run in cluster PCs. MARS variables and sub-routines have been reformed and modularised to simplify code maintenance. Model uncertainty analyses have been performed for THTF, FLECHT, NEPTUN, and LOFT experiments as well as APR1400 plant. Participations in international cooperation research projects such as OECD BEMUSE, SETH, PKL, BFBT, and TMI-2 have been actively pursued as part of code assessment efforts. The assessment, evaluation and experimental data obtained through international cooperation projects have been registered and maintained in the T/H Databank. Multi-D analyses of APR1400 LBLOCA, DVI Break, SLB, and SGTR have been carried out as a part of application efforts in multi-D safety analysis. GUI based 3D input generator has been developed for user convenience. Operation of the MARS Users Group (MUG) was continued and through MUG, the technology has been transferred to 24 organisations. A set of 4 volumes of user manuals has been compiled and the correction reports for the code errors reported during MARS development have been published.

  15. Development and assessment of best estimate integrated safety analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2007-03-01

    Improvement of the integrated safety analysis code MARS3.0 has been carried out and a multi-D safety analysis application system has been established. Iterative matrix solver and parallel processing algorithm have been introduced, and a LINUX version has been generated to enable MARS to run in cluster PCs. MARS variables and sub-routines have been reformed and modularised to simplify code maintenance. Model uncertainty analyses have been performed for THTF, FLECHT, NEPTUN, and LOFT experiments as well as APR1400 plant. Participations in international cooperation research projects such as OECD BEMUSE, SETH, PKL, BFBT, and TMI-2 have been actively pursued as part of code assessment efforts. The assessment, evaluation and experimental data obtained through international cooperation projects have been registered and maintained in the T/H Databank. Multi-D analyses of APR1400 LBLOCA, DVI Break, SLB, and SGTR have been carried out as a part of application efforts in multi-D safety analysis. GUI based 3D input generator has been developed for user convenience. Operation of the MARS Users Group (MUG) was continued and through MUG, the technology has been transferred to 24 organisations. A set of 4 volumes of user manuals has been compiled and the correction reports for the code errors reported during MARS development have been published

  16. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun; Lee, Sang hoon

    2016-01-01

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed

  17. Architecture for Integrated Medical Model Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Myers, J. G.; Goodenow, D.; Young, M.; Arellano, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a modeling tool used to predict potential outcomes of a complex system based on a statistical understanding of many initiating events. Utilizing a Monte Carlo method, thousands of instances of the model are considered and outcomes are collected. PRA is considered static, utilizing probabilities alone to calculate outcomes. Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (dPRA) is an advanced concept where modeling predicts the outcomes of a complex system based not only on the probabilities of many initiating events, but also on a progression of dependencies brought about by progressing down a time line. Events are placed in a single time line, adding each event to a queue, as managed by a planner. Progression down the time line is guided by rules, as managed by a scheduler. The recently developed Integrated Medical Model (IMM) summarizes astronaut health as governed by the probabilities of medical events and mitigation strategies. Managing the software architecture process provides a systematic means of creating, documenting, and communicating a software design early in the development process. The software architecture process begins with establishing requirements and the design is then derived from the requirements.

  18. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  19. Effect of different procedures of ejaculate collection, extenders and packages on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-06-01

    Whole ejaculate or sperm-rich fraction, collected from four sexually mature boars, was frozen in an extender containing lactose-hen egg yolk with glycerol (lactose-HEY-G) or extender containing lactose, lyophilized lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk and glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G), and Orvus Es Paste, respectively. The sperm samples were also frozen in a standard boar semen extender (Kortowo-3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed using a modified neutral comet assay. Sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123) and acrosome integrity were monitored. Freezing-thawing caused a significant increase (Pextender type. Sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly lower (Pextender exhibited lower (Pboar semen.

  20. Developing an integration tool for soil contamination assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, Maria; Zingg, Felix; Pérez-Álvarez, José Miguel; Madejón, Paula; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades, huge soil areas have been negatively influenced or altered in multiples forms. Soils and, consequently, underground water, have been contaminated by accumulation of contaminants from agricultural activities (fertilizers and pesticides) industrial activities (harmful material dumping, sludge, flying ashes) and urban activities (hydrocarbon, metals from vehicle traffic, urban waste dumping). In the framework of the RECARE project, local partners across Europe are focusing on a wide range of soil threats, as soil contamination, and aiming to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures by designing and applying targeted land management strategies (van Lynden et al., 2013). In this context, the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Southern Spain) was used as a case study, aiming to obtain soil data and new information in order to assess soil contamination. The main threat in the Guadiamar valley is soil contamination after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. About four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud, rich in heavy metals, were released into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers affecting more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land. Main trace elements contaminating soil and water were As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn. The objective of the present research is to develop informatics tools that integrate soil database, models and interactive platforms for soil contamination assessment. Preliminary results were obtained related to the compilation of harmonized databases including geographical, hydro-meteorological, soil and socio-economic variables based on spatial analysis and stakeholder's consultation. Further research will be modellization and upscaling at the European level, in order to obtain a scientifically-technical predictive tool for the assessment of soil contamination.

  1. Development of Computational Procedure for Assessment of Patient Dose in Multi-Detector Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Wook

    2007-02-01

    Technological development to improve the quality and speed with which images are obtained have fostered the growth of frequency and collective effective dose of CT examination. Especially, High-dose x-ray technique of CT has increased in the concern of patient dose. However CTDI and DLP in CT dosimetry leaves something to be desired to evaluate patient dose. And even though the evaluation of effective dose in CT practice is required for comparison with other radiography, it's not sufficient to show any estimation because it's not for medical purpose. Therefore the calculation of effective dose in CT procedure is needed for that purpose. However modelling uncertainties will be due to insufficient information from manufacturing tolerances. Therefore the purpose of this work is development of computational procedure for assessment of patient dose through the experiment for getting essential information in MDCT. In order to obtain exact absorbed dose, normalization factors must be created to relate simulated dose values with CTDI air measurement. The normalization factors applied to the calculation of CTDI 100 using axial scanning and organ effective dose using helical scanning. The calculation of helical scanning was compared with the experiment of Groves et al.(2004). The result has a about factor 2 of the experiment. It seems because AEC is not simulated. In several studies, when AEC applied to a CT examination, approximately 20-30% dose reduction was appeared. Therefore the study of AEC simulation should be added and modified

  2. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Assessment procedure for the soft skills requested by Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotet Gabriela Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasingly more performant global and informational environment, as the one found in the virtual organization, the process of selecting and evaluating the human resources holds a particular important role. The premise behind this article is that of the need to adapt the human resource performance to the requests of the industry 4.0 being supported by the organizational culture. Following the analysis of the state of the art literature we concluded that there is no clear procedure for the assessment of the constellation of skills and personal qualities – soft skills requested by industry 4.0. These capabilities should complete professional technical hard-skills; the procedure should provide a map for the constellation of capabilities necessary to adapt and perform, in specific industry 4.0 activities. Current psychological evaluation systems consider only some of such requested capabilities not always the most relevant. To solve this problem, we tried to identify and evaluate what we considered as the core of the complex various skills required. Our research was centred on the use of a psychological instrument for evaluating transversal capabilities. The capabilities map needed for the evaluation and selection of the human resource fit to work in the industry 4.0 environment was designed after the application of this complex system of evaluation on successive series of students from the University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.

  4. Procedure for conducting probabilistic safety assessment: level 1 full power internal event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dae; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J. [and others

    2003-07-01

    This report provides guidance on conducting a Level I PSA for internal events in NPPs, which is based on the method and procedure that was used in the PSA for the design of Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). Level I PSA is to delineate the accident sequences leading to core damage and to estimate their frequencies. It has been directly used for assessing and modifying the system safety and reliability as a key and base part of PSA. Also, Level I PSA provides insights into design weakness and into ways of preventing core damage, which in most cases is the precursor to accidents leading to major accidents. So Level I PSA has been used as the essential technical bases for risk-informed application in NPPs. The report consists six major procedural steps for Level I PSA; familiarization of plant, initiating event analysis, event tree analysis, system fault tree analysis, reliability data analysis, and accident sequence quantification. The report is intended to assist technical persons performing Level I PSA for NPPs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs. On the other hand, this report would be useful for the managers or regulatory persons related to risk-informed regulation, and also for conducting PSA for other industries.

  5. DEA radial measurement for environmental assessment and planning: Desirable procedures to evaluate fossil fuel power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Energy policy depends on a proper use of methodology in guiding a large energy issue such as the global warming and climate change. DEA is one of such methodologies that are often used for preparing environmental policy, which is closely linked to various energy issues. Unfortunately, the use of DEA applied to environmental policy is insufficient, often misguiding policy makers and other individuals who are involved in energy issues. This study provides three guidelines for a use of DEA in preparing environmental assessment. First, it is important to prepare both primal and dual formulations to confirm whether information regarding all production factors (i.e., inputs, desirable and undesirable outputs) is fully utilized in DEA assessment. Second, DEA has model variations in radial and non-radial measurements. It is necessary for us to examine environmental issues by different models in order to avoid a methodological bias existing in those empirical studies. Finally, DEA environmental assessment needs to incorporate the concept of natural and managerial disposability. The natural disposability indicates that a firm negatively adapts a regulation change on undesirable outputs. In contrast, the managerial disposability indicates that a firm positively adapts the regulation change because the firm considers the regulation change as a new business opportunity. - Highlights: ► This study proposes three disable procedures. ► The disposability is separated into natural and managerial disposability. ► All extensions have large applicability in energy policy.

  6. Meeting CCS communication challenges head-on: Integrating communications, planning, risk assessment, and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S.; Gauvreau, L.; Hnottavange-Telleen, K.; Finley, R.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Archer Daniels Midland has implemented a comprehensive communications plan at the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP), a one million metric tonne Carbon Capture and Storage project in Decatur, IL, USA funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The IBDP Communication Plan includes consortium information, funding and disclaimer citations, description of target audiences, media communications guidelines, paper and presentations guidelines, site visit information, crisis communication, on-site photography regulations, and other components. The creation, development, and implementation processes for the IBDP Communication Plan (the Plan) are shared in this paper. New communications challenges, such as how to address add-on research requests, data sharing and management, scope increase, and contract agreements have arisen since the Plan was completed in January 2009, resulting in development of new policies and procedures by project management. Integrating communications planning, risk assessment, and project management ensured that consistent, factual information was developed and incorporated into project planning, and constitutes the basis of public communications. Successful integration has allowed the IBDP to benefit from early identification and mitigation of the potential project risks, which allows more time to effectively deal with unknown and unidentified risks that may arise. Project risks and risks associated with public perception can be managed through careful planning and integration of communication strategies into project management and risk mitigation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Degree of vertical integration between the undergraduate program and clinical internship with respect to cervical and cranial diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught at the canadian memorial chiropractic college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009-2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and "muscle" adjustments. There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction.

  8. Assessment of soil/structure interaction analysis procedures for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.; Wei, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents an assessment of two state-of-the-art soil/structure interaction analysis procedures that are frequently used to provide seismic analyses of nuclear power plant structures. The advantages of large three-dimensional, elastic, discrete mass models and two-dimensional finite element models are compared. The discrete mass models can provide three-dimensional response capability with economical computer costs but only fair soil/structure interaction representation. The two-dimensional finite element models provide good soil/structure interaction representation, but cannot provide out-of-plane response. Three-dimensional finite element models would provide the most informative and complete analyses. For this model, computer costs would be much greater, but modeling costs would be approximately the same as those required for three-dimensional discrete mass models

  9. Assessment of Calculation Procedures for Piles in Clay Based on Static Loading Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    College in London. The calculation procedures are assessed based on an established database of static loading tests. To make a consistent evaluation of the design methods, corrections related to undrained shear strength and time between pile driving and testing have been employed. The study indicates...... that the interpretation of the field tests is of paramount importance, both with regard to the soil profile and the loading conditions. Based on analyses of 253 static pile loading tests distributed on 111 sites, API-RP2A provides the better description of the data. However, it should be emphasised that some input......Numerous methods are available for the prediction of the axial capacity of piles in clay. In this paper, two well-known models are considered, namely the current API-RP2A (1987 to present) and the recently developed ICP method. The latter is developed by Jardine and his co-workers at Imperial...

  10. Procedures for conducting probabilistic safety assessment for non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A well performed and adequately documented safety assessment of a nuclear facility will serve as a basis to determine whether the facility complies with the safety objectives, principles and criteria as stipulated by the national regulatory body of the country where the facility is in operation. International experience shows that the practices and methodologies used to perform safety assessments and periodic safety re-assessment for non-reactor nuclear facilities differ significantly from county to country. Most developing countries do not have methods and guidance for safety assessment that are prescribed by the regulatory body. Typically the safety evaluation for the facility is based on a case by case assessment. Whilst conservative deterministic analyses are predominantly used as a licensing basis in many countries, recently probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques have been applied as a useful complementary tool to support safety decision making. The main benefit of PSA is to provide insights into the safety aspects of facility design and operation. PSA points up the potential environmental impacts of postulated accidents, including the dominant risk contributors, and enables safety analysts to compare options for reducing risk. In order to advise on how to apply PSA methodology for the safety assessment of non-reactor nuclear facilities, the IAEA organized several consultants meetings, which led to the preparation of this TECDOC. This document is intended as guidance for the conduct of PSA in non-nuclear facilities. The main emphasis here is on the general procedural steps of a PSA that is specific for a non-reactor nuclear facility, rather than the details of the specific methods. The report is directed at technical staff managing or performing such probabilistic assessments and to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for these PSAs. It is understood that the level of detail implied in the tasks presented in this

  11. Fracture mechanics characteristics and associated safety margins for integrity assessment; Bruchmechanische Kennwerte und zugeordnete Sicherheitsfaktoren bei Integritaetsanalysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Stumpfrock, L.; Silcher, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2008-07-01

    Within the integrity assessment of components and structural members of plants safety margins have to be applied, whose magnitude depend on several factors. Important factors influencing the magnitude of the safety margins are as for instance: Material behaviour (ductile / brittle behaviour), the event to be considered (local deformation / fracture), possible consequences of failure (human health, environmental damage, economic consequences) and many others. One important factor also is the fact, how precisely and reliably the appropriate material characteristics can be determined and how precisely and reliably the components behaviour can be predicted and assessed by means of this material characteristic. In contemporary safety assessment procedures by means of fracture mechanics evaluation tools (e.g. [1]) a concept of partial safety margins is proposed for application. The basic idea with this procedure is that only those sources of uncertainty have to be considered, which are relevant or may be relevant for the structure to be considered. For this purpose each source of possible uncertainty has to be quantified individually, finally only those singular safety margins are superimposed to a total safety margin which are relevant. The more the uncertainties have to be taken into account, the total safety margin to be applied, consequently will be larger. If some sources of uncertainty can be eliminated totally or can be minimized (for instance by a more reliable calculational procedure of the component loading or by more precise material characteristics), the total safety margin can be reduced. In this contribution the different procedures for the definition of safety margins within the integrity assessment by means of fracture mechanics procedures will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Life cycle assessment of roof integrated solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brummelen, M.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    1994-01-01

    The research protocol, applied in this report, is designed for use within the energy R and D-context: it provides a framework for finding bottlenecks and opportunities for (new) energy technologies in the context of (energy) resource scarcity and environmental issues. Finding and analyzing these bottlenecks and opportunities is a major objective of this study. A derived objective of this study is to gain experience in using the LCA-framework and the research protocol described earlier, and to evaluate the usefulness of these instruments in helping to find and analyze bottlenecks and opportunities in energy technologies. Photovoltaic solar cell systems (PV systems) are comprised of solar cell modules and a Balance-of-System (BOS): a support structure and power conditioning equipment. In this LCA amorphous silicon cells (a-Si) are considered. For the Netherlands roof-integrated, grid-connected systems are assumed to be the major application of PV in the future. Two cases will be studied. In case 1 a system of 30 m 2 of modules which are connected to the grid via a single inverter are studied. The modules are comprised of a-Si cells and have a conversion efficiency of 10%. Integration into the roof is done with aluminium profiles. In case 2 a system of 30 m 2 a-Si cell modules integrated in the roof with plastic 'tiles' is studied. The modules have an efficiency of 15% and connection to the grid is more or less centralized: 25 systems share an inverter which is connected to the grid. The goal and scope of the LCA and the functional unit are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 the process tree and descriptions of the distinguished processes are given and the inventory table is drawn up. In chapter 4 the impact assessment is dealt with, followed by a discussion of improvement options in chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations are given in the chapters 6 and 7 only regarding the environmental aspects. 9 figs., 13 tabs., 4 appendices, 13 refs

  13. An integrated approach to risk assessment and mitigating the CBRN threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2009-01-01

    CBRN mass casualty events threat mitigation remains today the highest international priority. Although significant progress has been made, the national security requirements for efforts to combat Weapons of Mass Destruction and Weapons of Mass Disruption will be of the highest national priority in the near future. An integration of a number of approaches is essential in the risk assessment and mitigating the CBRN treat. Preparedness measures and procedures, engineering, science and technology, policy, medical, and emergency response are essential to reduce the threat from the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Improved coordination between international, public and private security entities is also essential task to hopefully prevent the terrorist attacks. In this lecture, it will be presented very important scientific approach to risk assessment of potential use of nuclear, radiological, biological or chemical weapons in terrorist actions. An integrated approach for mitigating the CBRN threat, crisis management and preparedness measures for prevention and reduction of potential consequences, will be presented.(author)

  14. Development of internal dose assessment procedure for workers in industries using raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Yong Geon; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Koo, Bon Cheol; Chang, Byung Uck

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary to assess radiation dose to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to ensure radiological safety required by the Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The objective of this study is to develop an internal dose assessment procedure for workers at industries using raw materials containing natural radionuclides. The dose assessment procedure was developed based on harmonization, accuracy, and proportionality. The procedure includes determination of dose assessment necessity, preliminary dose estimation, airborne particulate sampling and characterization, and detailed assessment of radiation dose. The developed dose assessment procedure is as follows. Radioactivity concentration criteria to determine dose assessment necessity are 10 Bq·g-1 for 40K and 1 Bq·g-1 for the other natural radionuclides. The preliminary dose estimation is performed using annual limit on intake (ALI). The estimated doses are classified into 3 groups (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, and >0.3 mSv). Air sampling methods are determined based on the dose estimates. Detailed dose assessment is performed using air sampling and particulate characterization. The final dose results are classified into 4 different levels (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, 0.3-1 mSv, and >1 mSv). Proper radiation protection measures are suggested according to the dose level. The developed dose assessment procedure was applied for NORM industries in Korea, including coal combustion, phosphate processing, and monazite handing facilities. The developed procedure provides consistent dose assessment results and contributes to the establishment of optimization of radiological protection in NORM industries

  15. Development of internal dose assessment procedure for workers in industries using raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Yong Geon; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol; Chang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    It is necessary to assess radiation dose to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to ensure radiological safety required by the Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The objective of this study is to develop an internal dose assessment procedure for workers at industries using raw materials containing natural radionuclides. The dose assessment procedure was developed based on harmonization, accuracy, and proportionality. The procedure includes determination of dose assessment necessity, preliminary dose estimation, airborne particulate sampling and characterization, and detailed assessment of radiation dose. The developed dose assessment procedure is as follows. Radioactivity concentration criteria to determine dose assessment necessity are 10 Bq·g-1 for 40K and 1 Bq·g-1 for the other natural radionuclides. The preliminary dose estimation is performed using annual limit on intake (ALI). The estimated doses are classified into 3 groups (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, and >0.3 mSv). Air sampling methods are determined based on the dose estimates. Detailed dose assessment is performed using air sampling and particulate characterization. The final dose results are classified into 4 different levels (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, 0.3-1 mSv, and >1 mSv). Proper radiation protection measures are suggested according to the dose level. The developed dose assessment procedure was applied for NORM industries in Korea, including coal combustion, phosphate processing, and monazite handing facilities. The developed procedure provides consistent dose assessment results and contributes to the establishment of optimization of radiological protection in NORM industries.

  16. Assessment of integrated solar ultraviolet radiation by PM-355 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2000-01-01

    The increase in environmental solar UV radiation due to depletion of ozone layer is a recent challenge to human health (skin cancer and eye effects) in countries having clear skies. Therefore, applying integrated, passive and inexpensive techniques to assess solar UV radiation is very much essential. Measurements of environmental solar UV radiation in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia area were carried out for a period of two months in the summer period in 1996 using two techniques in parallel namely: passive nuclear track detectors and active solar UV radiometers. Some of the nuclear track detectors were mounted in different conditions such as: under shadow band, on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays. Others were mounted on perpendicular, tilted and horizontal surfaces in sunlight. All detectors were attached to a wooden background of the same thickness (0.5 cm) to eliminate interference of the heat effect of various support materials and have uniformity of the support materials. The assessment was carried out for different periods extending from two to nine weeks continuously. The investigated period covered the hottest months in Saudi Arabia (July and August) when the sky was clear of clouds. The results indicate linear correlation between alpha track diameters and the integrated exposure to solar UV as measured by the solar UV radiometer for all nuclear track detector positions and orientations. The highest slope has been observed for the detectors placed on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays and the lowest from detectors oriented under the shadow band on horizontal position (measuring the diffused UV radiation only). The results show that most of the measured UV radiation (60%) were from the diffused UV radiation. The characteristics of the upper layer of the detectors are changed after chemical etching very quickly, with increase in the exposure time to UV solar radiation at certain orientation. The results encourage the use of nuclear track

  17. Assessment of integrated solar ultraviolet radiation by PM-355 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2000-06-01

    The increase in environmental solar UV radiation due to depletion of ozone layer is a recent challenge to human health (skin cancer and eye effects) in countries having clear skies. Therefore, applying integrated, passive and inexpensive techniques to assess solar UV radiation is very much essential. Measurements of environmental solar UV radiation in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia area were carried out for a period of two months in the summer period in 1996 using two techniques in parallel namely: passive nuclear track detectors and active solar UV radiometers. Some of the nuclear track detectors were mounted in different conditions such as: under shadow band, on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays. Others were mounted on perpendicular, tilted and horizontal surfaces in sunlight. All detectors were attached to a wooden background of the same thickness (0.5 cm) to eliminate interference of the heat effect of various support materials and have uniformity of the support materials. The assessment was carried out for different periods extending from two to nine weeks continuously. The investigated period covered the hottest months in Saudi Arabia (July and August) when the sky was clear of clouds. The results indicate linear correlation between alpha track diameters and the integrated exposure to solar UV as measured by the solar UV radiometer for all nuclear track detector positions and orientations. The highest slope has been observed for the detectors placed on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays and the lowest from detectors oriented under the shadow band on horizontal position (measuring the diffused UV radiation only). The results show that most of the measured UV radiation (60%) were from the diffused UV radiation. The characteristics of the upper layer of the detectors are changed after chemical etching very quickly, with increase in the exposure time to UV solar radiation at certain orientation. The results encourage the use of nuclear track

  18. Sustainable Development Impacts of NAMAs: An integrated approach to assessment of co-benefits based on experience with the CDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm

    to assess the SD impacts of NAMAs. This paper argues for a new integrated approach to asses NAMAs' SD impacts that consists of SD indicators, procedures for stakeholder involvement and safeguards against negative impacts. The argument is based on a review of experience with the CDM’s contribution to SD...... and a comparison of similarities and differences between NAMAs and CDM. Five elements of a new approach towards assessment of NAMAs SD impacts are suggested based on emerging approaches and methodologies for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas reductions and SD impacts of NAMAs....

  19. A comparison of integrated safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, Dennis R.; Mattern, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted a comparison of two standard tools for risk informing the regulatory process, namely, the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA). PRA is a calculation of risk metrics, such as Large Early Release Frequency (LERF), and has been used to assess the safety of all commercial power reactors. ISA is an analysis required for fuel cycle facilities (FCFs) licensed to possess potentially critical quantities of special nuclear material. A PRA is usually more detailed and uses more refined models and data than an ISA, in order to obtain reasonable quantitative estimates of risk. PRA is considered fully quantitative, while most ISAs are typically only partially quantitative. The extension of PRA methodology to augment or supplant ISAs in FCFs has long been considered. However, fuel cycle facilities have a wide variety of possible accident consequences, rather than a few surrogates like LERF or core damage as used for reactors. It has been noted that a fuel cycle PRA could be used to better focus attention on the most risk-significant structures, systems, components, and operator actions. ISA and PRA both identify accident sequences; however, their treatment is quite different. ISA's identify accidents that lead to high or intermediate consequences, as defined in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 70, and develop a set of Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS) to assure adherence to performance criteria. PRAs identify potential accident scenarios and estimate their frequency and consequences to obtain risk metrics. It is acceptable for ISAs to provide bounding evaluations of accident consequences and likelihoods in order to establish acceptable safety; but PRA applications usually require a reasonable quantitative estimate, and often obtain metrics of uncertainty. This paper provides the background, features, and methodology associated with the PRA and ISA. The differences between the

  20. The Feasibility of Real-Time Intraoperative Performance Assessment With SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning): Early Experience From a Multi-institutional Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Jordan D; George, Brian C; Williams, Reed G; Schuller, Mary C; DaRosa, Debra A; Torbeck, Laura; Mullen, John T; Meyerson, Shari L; Auyang, Edward D; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Choi, Jennifer N; Choti, Michael A; Endean, Eric D; Foley, Eugene F; Mandell, Samuel P; Meier, Andreas H; Smink, Douglas S; Terhune, Kyla P; Wise, Paul E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Lillemoe, Keith D; Dunnington, Gary L; Fryer, Jonathan P

    Intraoperative performance assessment of residents is of growing interest to trainees, faculty, and accreditors. Current approaches to collect such assessments are limited by low participation rates and long delays between procedure and evaluation. We deployed an innovative, smartphone-based tool, SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning), to make real-time intraoperative performance assessment feasible for every case in which surgical trainees participate, and hypothesized that SIMPL could be feasibly integrated into surgical training programs. Between September 1, 2015 and February 29, 2016, 15 U.S. general surgery residency programs were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial. SIMPL was made available after 70% of faculty and residents completed a 1-hour training session. Descriptive and univariate statistics analyzed multiple dimensions of feasibility, including training rates, volume of assessments, response rates/times, and dictation rates. The 20 most active residents and attendings were evaluated in greater detail. A total of 90% of eligible users (1267/1412) completed training. Further, 13/15 programs began using SIMPL. Totally, 6024 assessments were completed by 254 categorical general surgery residents (n = 3555 assessments) and 259 attendings (n = 2469 assessments), and 3762 unique operations were assessed. There was significant heterogeneity in participation within and between programs. Mean percentage (range) of users who completed ≥1, 5, and 20 assessments were 62% (21%-96%), 34% (5%-75%), and 10% (0%-32%) across all programs, and 96%, 75%, and 32% in the most active program. Overall, response rate was 70%, dictation rate was 24%, and mean response time was 12 hours. Assessments increased from 357 (September 2015) to 1146 (February 2016). The 20 most active residents each received mean 46 assessments by 10 attendings for 20 different procedures. SIMPL can be feasibly integrated into surgical training programs