WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrating private transport

  1. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy. The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul H.; Rask, Morten; Mathews, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of electric vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market for co-ordinated production and consumption of renewable energy. The innovative contribution of the model rests in its ability to combine two problems and thereby solve them in a fresh way. One problem derives from utilizing power grids with a substantial increase in renewable electric energy production (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage devices for electricity, thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources, while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) distributed power generation; introducing IT intelligence to the grid, and creating virtual power plants from distributed sources; and providing new applications for carbon credits in the decarbonisation of the economy. The countries and regions that have signed on to this model and are working to introduce it in 2009-2011 include Israel, Denmark, Australia, and in the US, the Bay Area cities and the state of Hawaii. (author)

  2. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy: The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Mathews, John A.; Rask, Morten

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of Electric Vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market...... (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage...

  3. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  4. Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Greve, Carsten

    The provision of transport infrastructure and services creates fundamental value to society. With traditional sources of transport public funding running short, governments around the world are increasingly turning to public-private finance (PPPs) as a promising tool of public infrastructure...... of the public but of the private actor as well, to act perhaps motivated by corporate social responsibility, committing to bringing innovation and transparency in their efforts for advancing sustainability....

  5. The emergence of integrated private reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Jill; Solomon, A.; Norton, S. D.; Joseph, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Private social and environmental reporting (SER) has grown considerably in recent years, consistent with a rise in institutional investor engagement and dialogue with investee companies. We interpret the emergence of integrated private reporting through the lens of institutional logics. We frame the emergence of integrated private reporting as a merging of two hitherto separate and possibly rival institutional logics.\\ud Methodology/Approach: We interviewed 19 companies listed on the...

  6. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dr. Dirk Hansohm. Institution. Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit. Pays d' institution. Namibia. Site internet. http://www.nepru.org.na. Extrants. Rapports. Regional integration, trade and private sector development : final report. Contenus connexes. L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique ...

  7. Integrating Containers in the CERN Private Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Bertrand; Michelino, Davide; Velten, Mathieu; Rocha, Ricardo; Trigazis, Spyridon

    2017-10-01

    Containers remain a hot topic in computing, with new use cases and tools appearing every day. Basic functionality such as spawning containers seems to have settled, but topics like volume support or networking are still evolving. Solutions like Docker Swarm, Kubernetes or Mesos provide similar functionality but target different use cases, exposing distinct interfaces and APIs. The CERN private cloud is made of thousands of nodes and users, with many different use cases. A single solution for container deployment would not cover every one of them, and supporting multiple solutions involves repeating the same process multiple times for integration with authentication services, storage services or networking. In this paper we describe OpenStack Magnum as the solution to offer container management in the CERN cloud. We will cover its main functionality and some advanced use cases using Docker Swarm and Kubernetes, highlighting some relevant differences between the two. We will describe the most common use cases in HEP and how we integrated popular services like CVMFS or AFS in the most transparent way possible, along with some limitations found. Finally we will look into ongoing work on advanced scheduling for both Swarm and Kubernetes, support for running batch like workloads and integration of container networking technologies with the CERN infrastructure.

  8. Privatization of Land Plot Under Integral Real Estate Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchek A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions concerning the privatization of a land plot under integral real estate complex. The authors come to conclusion that a number of legislation norms relating to privatization of a land plot do not take into account the construction of an integral real estate complex that could cause some problems in the realization of the right to privatization of the land plot

  9. CAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPETE WITH THE PRIVATE CAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport is often perceived to be a poor alternative for car use. This paper describes who may be open to use public transport more often, and how people might be persuaded to use it. A computerised questionnaire study was conducted among 1,803 Dutch respondents in May 2001. Results revealed that especially fervent car users disliked public transport. For them, the car outperformed public transport not only because of its instrumental function, but also because the car represents cultural and psychological values, e.g. the car is a symbol of freedom and independence, a status symbol and driving is pleasurable. So, for fervent car users, car use is connected with various important values in modern society. Infrequent car users judged less positively about the car and less negatively about public transport. Consequently, they may be open to use public transport more regularly. In contrast, many efforts are needed to stimulate fervent car users to travel by public transport, because in their view, public transport cannot compete with their private car. In this case, policies should be aimed at reducing the functional, psychological and cultural values of private cars, as well as increasing the performance of public transport and other (more environmentally sound modes of transport on these aspects.

  10. Know the Risks: Transporting Students in Private Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Scheduling off-campus extracurricular activities is not the issue, but how to get students there can present a problem. The transportation of students by staff in their private cars for extracurricular activities is common and occurs chiefly as a matter of convenience or cost saving. But it is not without risks. In general, the best solution for…

  11. Integrating containers in the CERN private cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Bertrand; Michelino, Davide; Velten, Mathieu; Rocha, Ricardo; Trigazis, Spyridon

    2017-01-01

    Containers remain a hot topic in computing, with new use cases and tools appearing every day. Basic functionality such as spawning containers seems to have settled, but topics like volume support or networking are still evolving. Solutions like Docker Swarm, Kubernetes or Mesos provide similar functionality but target different use cases, exposing distinct interfaces and APIs. The CERN private cloud is made of thousands of nodes and users, with many different use cases. A single solution for ...

  12. 77 FR 2297 - Office of Asset and Transportation Management; Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... of Asset and Transportation Management; Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY... Bulletin 12-02, Calendar Year (CY) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate...

  13. Solutions to Improve Person Transport System in the Pitesti City by Analyzing Public Transport vs. Private Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaela, Istrate; Alexandru, Boroiu; Viorel, Nicolae; Ionel, Vieru

    2017-10-01

    One of the major problems facing the Pitesti city is the road congestion that occurs in the central area of the city during the peak hours. With all the measures taken in recent years - the widening of road arteries, increasing the number of parking spaces, the creation of overground road passages - it is obvious that the problem can only be solved by a new philosophy regarding urban mobility: it is no longer possible to continue through solutions to increase the accessibility of the central area of the city, but it is necessary, on the contrary, to promote a policy of discouraging the penetration of vehicles in the city center, coupled with a policy of improving the connection between urban public transport and county public transport. This new approach is also proposed in the new Urban Mobility Plan of Pitesti city, under development. The most convincing argument for the necessity of this new orientation in the Pitesti city mobility plan is based on the analysis of the current situation of passenger transport on the territory of Pitesti city: the analysis of “public transport versus private transport” reveals a very low occupancy rate for cars and the fact that the road surface required for a passenger (the dynamic area) is much higher in the case of private transport than in the case of public transport. Measurements of passenger flows and vehicle flows on the 6 penetration ways in the city have been made and the calculations clearly demonstrate the benefits of an urban public transport system connected by “transshipment buses” to be made at the edge of the city, to the county public transport system. In terms of inter-county transport, it will continue to be connected to the urban public transport system by existing bus Station, within the city: South Bus Station and North Bus Station. The usefulness of the paper is that it identifies the solutions for sustainable mobility in Pitesti city and proposes concrete solutions for the development of the

  14. Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption Impacts of Private Capital Investment in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducing private capital into the public transport system for its sustainable development has been increasing around the world. However, previous research ignores emissions and energy consumption impacts, which are important for private capital investment policy-making. To address this problem, the system dynamic (SD approach was used to quantitatively analyze the cumulative effects of different private capital investment models in public transport from the environmental perspective. The SD model validity was verified in the case study of Jinan public traffic. Simulation results show that the fuel consumption and emission reductions are obvious when the private capital considering passenger value invests in public transport compared with the no private capital investment and traditional investment models. There are obvious cumulative reductions for fuel consumption, CO2, CO, SO2, and PM10 emissions for 100 months compared with no private capital investment. This research verifies the superiority of the passenger value investment model in public transport from the environmental point of view, and supplies a theoretical tool for administrators to evaluate the private capital investment effects systematically.

  15. Intercontinental nuclear transport from the private international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, U.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a survey on choice of law rules which apply outside the nuclear liability conventions in case of damage caused by international nuclear transports. We found a remarkable variety of solutions. Some of the solutions make it difficult or even impossible to predict in advance which substantive law in a hypothetical case would apply. These difficulties are increased by the fact that more often than not, a victim can choose where to sue and thereby also influence the final outcome of a case. As far as private international law rules apply - and as mentioned the non-ratification of the nuclear liability conventions by many nuclear states forces us to fall back on the choice of law rules in many cases - the applicable law and the hypothetical level of compensation therefore often remain uncertain when judged at the time of organisation of the nuclear transport. However, at this time the question of undertaking risks and of insurability must be decided. (author)

  16. Integrating multiple scientific computing needs via a Private Cloud infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, S; Berzano, D; Brunetti, R; Lusso, S; Vallero, S

    2014-01-01

    In a typical scientific computing centre, diverse applications coexist and share a single physical infrastructure. An underlying Private Cloud facility eases the management and maintenance of heterogeneous use cases such as multipurpose or application-specific batch farms, Grid sites catering to different communities, parallel interactive data analysis facilities and others. It allows to dynamically and efficiently allocate resources to any application and to tailor the virtual machines according to the applications' requirements. Furthermore, the maintenance of large deployments of complex and rapidly evolving middleware and application software is eased by the use of virtual images and contextualization techniques; for example, rolling updates can be performed easily and minimizing the downtime. In this contribution we describe the Private Cloud infrastructure at the INFN-Torino Computer Centre, that hosts a full-fledged WLCG Tier-2 site and a dynamically expandable PROOF-based Interactive Analysis Facility for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC and several smaller scientific computing applications. The Private Cloud building blocks include the OpenNebula software stack, the GlusterFS filesystem (used in two different configurations for worker- and service-class hypervisors) and the OpenWRT Linux distribution (used for network virtualization). A future integration into a federated higher-level infrastructure is made possible by exposing commonly used APIs like EC2 and by using mainstream contextualization tools like CloudInit.

  17. Trip Generation by Transportation Mode of Private School, Semi-private and Public. Case Study in Merida-Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero Petit, A.M.; Diaz Gallardo, M.I.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    The trip generation model (TGM) is the first step in transportation forecasting, this is useful for estimating travel demand because it can predict travel from or to a particular land use. Typically, the analysis focuses in residential trip generation as a function of the social and economic attributes of households, but nonresidential land use suggests others variables. Travel generator poles such as: Private school, Semi-private and Public, have not been studied in Venezuela. The TGMs that shows the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), EE.UU, are used typically and could be not appropriate. By using stepwise regression and transformation of data, high correlation coefficients and substantial improvements in the variability of data from several schools they were found. The trip generation rates (TGRs) by transportation mode: walking, motorcycle, public transport and cars, can be compared and be included in the Ibero-American Network of travel attractors poles. (Author)

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Road Vehicles for Private and Public Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Sundvor, Christian Fredric

    2013-01-01

    Ever increasing prosperity and global civilization heralds an increasing demand for communication and transport. The transport sector alone accounts for one quarter of global human greenhouse gas emissions. In the transport sector, road transport alone is responsible for 70%. To help mitigate these emissions, people are advised to take advantage of public transportation systems, on the argument that public transit is more environmentally friendly than private transport. To assess the environm...

  19. Feasibility Study of Increasing Multimodal Interaction between Private and Public Transport Based on the Use of Intellectual Transport Systems and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Weidmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of intellectual transport systems and services (ITS into the public and private transport sectors is closely connected with the development of multimodality in transport system (particularly, in towns and their suburbs. Taking into consideration the problems of traffic jams, the need for increasing the efficiency of power consumption and reducing the amount of burnt gases ejected into the air and the harmful effect of noise, the use of multimodal transport concept has been growing fast recently in most cities. It embraces a system of integrated tickets, the infrastructure, allowing a passenger to leave a car or a bike near a public transport station and to continue his/her travel by public transport (referred to as ‘Park&Ride’, ‘Bike&Ride’, as well as, real-time information system, universal design, and computer-aided traffic control. These concepts seem to be even more effective, when multimodal intellectual transport systems and services (ITS are introduced. In Lithuania, ITS is not widely used in passenger transportation, though its potential is great, particularly, taking into consideration the critical state of the capacity of public transport infrastructure. The paper considers the possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of public transport system ITS by increasing its interaction with private transport in the context of multimodal concept realization.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell; Hodge, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private...... sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all...... of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify...

  1. From public good to private exploitation : electricity deregulation, privatization and continental integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin Cohen, M.

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the initiative of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on energy taking place through negotiations on the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which coincide with the U.S. drive for integrated continental energy policy. These negotiations will affect the nature of the electricity industry in Canada. It was noted that if the U.S. proposal for energy in GATS succeeds, it would support complete electricity deregulation, privatization of power generation, and full-scale continental pricing. This report includes several chapters. The chapter on electricity deregulation deals with changes in the electricity industry and the U.S. drive for energy. The GATS chapter describes the main features of GATS and what it covers, including general obligations, disciplines and negotiations. The chapter on the electricity industry in Canada describes major features, major electrical utilities, exports and the state of deregulation in Canada's 10 provinces. The chapter on GATS implications for electrical utilities focused on deregulation and market power, the implications for developing nations and general environmental issues. It was cautioned that if a Canadian agreement were to include electricity as a covered industry, it could erode the security of supply, drive prices up and have negative consequences for energy conservation. 137 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Valuing public sector risk exposure in transportation public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report presents a methodological framework to evaluate public sector financial risk exposure when : delivering transportation infrastructure through public-private partnership (PPP) agreements in the United : States (U.S.). The framework is base...

  3. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Lund, H.; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  4. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  5. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  6. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    WEI, Chien-Hung; CHUNG, Ming-Chih

    2002-01-01

    Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnai...

  7. Integrated monitoring of multi-domain backbone connections Operational experience in the LHC optical private network

    CERN Document Server

    Marcu, Patricia; Fritz, Wolfgang; Yampolskiy, Mark; Hommel, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Novel large scale research projects often require cooperation between various different project partners that are spread among the entire world. They do not only need huge computing resources, but also a reliable network to operate on. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a representative example for such a project. Its experiments result in a vast amount of data, which is interesting for researchers around the world. For transporting the data from CERN to 11 data processing and storage sites, an optical private network (OPN) has been constructed. As the experiment data is highly valuable, LHC defines very high requirements to the underlying network infrastructure. In order to fulfil those requirements, the connections have to be managed and monitored permanently. In this paper, we present the integrated monitoring solution developed for the LHCOPN. We first outline the requirements and show how they are met on the single network layers. After that, we describe, how those single measurements can be comb...

  8. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  9. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Model at a Private University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ramona Ann; Gottlieb, Helmut; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C.; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a private University in South Texas sought to prepare eight cohorts of 25 nursing, optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and health care administration students with an interprofessional education activity as a model for collaborative learning. The two semester interprofessional activity used a blended model (Blackboard Learn®,…

  10. Network integration modelling of feeder and BRT(bus rapid transit) to reduce the usage of private vehicles in Palembang’s suburban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur'afalia, D.; Afifa, F.; Rubianto, L.; Handayeni, K. D. M. E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the optimal feeder network route that integrates with BRT (Bus Rapid Transit). Palembang, a high growing population city with unresolved transportation demand sector. BRT as main public transportation could not fulfill people’s demand in transportation, especially in Alang-Alang Lebar sub-district. As an impact, the usage of private vehicles increases along the movement toward the city center. The concept of Network Integration that integrates feeder network with BRT is expected to be a solution to suppress the rate of private vehicles’ usage and to improve public transportation service, so that the use of BRT will be increased in the suburban area of Palembang. The method used to identifying the optimal route using Route Analysis method is route analysis using Tranetsim 0.4. The best route is obtained based on 156 movement samples. The result is 58,7% from 199 mobility’s potency of private vehicle usage’s can be reduced if there is a feeder network’s route in Alang-Alang Lebar’s sub-district. From the result, the existance of integration between feeder network and BRT is potential enough to reduce the usage of private vehicles and supports the sustainability of transportation mobility in Palembang City.

  11. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung WEI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnaire to find out the most important factors affecting BOT financing. The findings of this study are four major factors affecting public and private financing scenarios. In this paper, we also propose some suggestions as possible complements to public and private sector financing strategies.

  12. Organizational and financial mechanism of development of services of railway transport through public-private partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorko, I.

    2014-01-01

    The paper developed organizational and financial mechanism development of railway transport services, which, unlike the existing ones, includes participants of investment and transportation process, the state target program, a list of potential private and public sources of financing of investment projects, the system of state financial control, which allows to provide the necessary storage the volume of investment funds, effective funding for the achievement of strategic, technical and techn...

  13. EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF FINANCING TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS REALIZED IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Vasiliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the basic approach to evaluating efficiency of financing transport infrastructure projects realized in the framework of public private partnership. The main ways of the project realization are identified, and their main advantages and disadvantages are described. Detailed elaboration and structuring of infrastructure projects are grounded.

  14. Integral management of hazardous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of outsourcing transport operations and complementary services on the part of the producers and shippers, there is a growing demand for global services that integrate the whole external logistics value chain, the latter being understood to signify the process that includes the storage, transport (monomodal or bi-multi-modal) and delivery to destination. This circumstance has obliged transport firms to undertake a process of internal transformation: from offering an activity purely of transport to becoming logistics operators. Express Truck, S. a. (hereinafter ETSA) could not ignore this market requirement. We will explain the evolutionary process of ETSA in this sense. (Author)

  15. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  16. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  17. Efficiency improvement of the investment and innovation activities in the transport facility construction field with public-private partnership involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayeva, Marina; Serebryakova, Yelena; Shalnev, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    Growing demand to increase the investment volume in modernization and development projects for transport infrastructure define the urgency of the current study. The amount of private sector investments in the field is insufficient to implement the projects for road construction due to their significant capital intensity and long payoff period. The implementation of social significant infrastructure projects on the principles of public-private partnership is one of the key strategic directions of growth for transport facilities. The authors come up with a concept and methodology for modeling the investment and innovation activity in the transport facility construction. Furthermore, there is developed a model to find the balance between public and private sector investments in implementing construction projects for transport infrastructure with involvement of PPP (further - public-private partnership). The suggested concepts aim to improve the efficiency rate of the investment and innovation activity in the field of transport facility construction on the basis of public and private sectors collaboration.

  18. The FBI is Leading the Way by Making the Private Sector an Integral Part of the Counterterrorism Homeland Security Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This thesis discusses the building of a sustainable business process wherein the private sector is integrated into the homeland security apparatus...As the threat our nation and her allies face continues to evolve, so must our responses. Integrating the private sector into the homeland security...attack. The private sector brings with it a plethora of talents and resources. Because it has not traditionally been seen as a partner the private sector has

  19. Smart Integrated Payment System for Public Transportation in Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Spits Warnars, Harco Leslie Hendric; Lanita, Yulia; Prasetyo, Andhika; Randriatoamanana, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Jakarta has many types of public transportation such as Kereta Rel Listrik (KRL), Transjakarta, taxi, angkot, metromini, mikrolet, bajaj, ojek, etc. But, there are some problems that happen in public transportation where the people don't want to use public transportation and choose to use private transportation that cause more traffic in Jakarta. The problems of public transportation are in the facility which is still inappropriate, unclear information, uncomfortable, bad accessibility of pub...

  20. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  1. Adaptive integral equation methods in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive multilevel algorithm for integral equations is described that has been developed with the Chandrasekhar H equation and its generalizations in mind. The algorithm maintains good performance when the Frechet derivative of the nonlinear map is singular at the solution, as happens in radiative transfer with conservative scattering and in critical neutron transport. Numerical examples that demonstrate the algorithm's effectiveness are presented

  2. Integral representation of nonlinear heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Mima, K.; Haines, M.G.

    1985-07-01

    The electron distribution function in a plasma with steep temperature gradient is obtained from a Fokker-Planck equation by Green's function method. The formula describes the nonlocal effects on thermal transport over the range, λ e /L e /L → 0. As an example, the heat wave is analyzed numerically by the integral formula and it is found that the previous simulation results are well reproduced. (author)

  3. The Implementation of Transportation and Transit Projects on the Basis of Public-Private Partnership in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Valery Anatolyevich Tsevtkov; Kobilzhon Khodzhievich Zoidov; Alexey Anatolyevich Medkov

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the main directions of the implementation of the current transportation and transit projects on the basis of the institution of public-private partnership in Russia. This work is a continuation of the study of the theory and practice of the application of public-private partnership in the investment projects aimed at the development and realization of the transportation and transit potential of the country. On the methodological basis of evolutionary and institu...

  4. Els nous reptes del transport amb autocar a Catalunya: guanyar clientela al vehicle privat

    OpenAIRE

    Herrán Sánchez, Lluís

    1992-01-01

    Les empreses catalanes de transport col·lectiu amb autocar s'enfronten als canvis que comporta la integració en el nou mercat europeu, canvis que vindran més per l'adaptació a un mercat en creixement i cada cop més exigent, que no pas per la competència que pugui representar l'entrada d'empreses estrangeres. Oferir serveis de qualitat, tecnificar la gestió empresarial i guanyar clientela al competidor immediat, el vehicle privat, són els principals reptes que ha de superar el sector.

  5. Teachers' level of ICT integration in teaching and learning: A survey in Malaysian private preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman; Abdullah, Che Anuar Che; Idris, Mohd Noor; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of ICT integration in teaching and learning in private preschool in Malaysia. A total 61 teachers from 10 private preschools in the district of Mualim in the state of Perak Malaysia were randomly chosen in this survey research. The findings revealed that most of the teachers were knowledgeable about the educational ICT application. However, the findings revealed that the teachers' level of ICT integration is still at the low level. This is based on the results of a study that most of the teachers are normal users and ICT application was used for their own work rather than using it in their teaching and learning in the classroom. In addition, the findings indicated that teachers' awareness towards the important of ICT in teaching and learning is not encouraging and this issue is related to the training provided, equipment and time constraints that hinder the integration of ICT.

  6. Integration of health care organizations: using the power strategies of horizontal and vertical integration in public and private health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldorf, Carey; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Integration in health care attempts to provide all elements in a seamless continuum of care. Pressures influencing development of system-wide integration primarily come from unsustainable cost increases in the United States over the later part of the 20th century and the early 21st century. Promoters of health care integration assume that it will lead to increased effectiveness and quality of care while concurrently increasing cost-effectiveness and possibly facilitating cost savings. The primary focus of this literature review is on the Power Strategies of Horizontal and Vertical Integration. The material presented suggests that vertical integration is most effective in markets where the partners involved are larger and dominant in the regions they serve. The research has also found that integrating health care networks had little or no significant effect on improving overall organizational efficiencies or profits. Capital investment in information technologies still is cost prohibitive and outweighs its benefits to integration efficiencies in the private sector; however, there are some indications of improvements in publicly provided health care. Further research is needed to understand the reasons the public sector has had greater success in improving effectiveness and efficiency through integration than the private sector.

  7. Integration of quantum key distribution and private classical communication through continuous variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyi; Gong, Feng; Lu, Anjiang; Zhang, Damin; Zhang, Zhengping

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme that integrates quantum key distribution and private classical communication via continuous variables. The integrated scheme employs both quadratures of a weak coherent state, with encrypted bits encoded on the signs and Gaussian random numbers encoded on the values of the quadratures. The integration enables quantum and classical data to share the same physical and logical channel. Simulation results based on practical system parameters demonstrate that both classical communication and quantum communication can be implemented over distance of tens of kilometers, thus providing a potential solution for simultaneous transmission of quantum communication and classical communication.

  8. Ergonomic work analysis: A case study of bus drivers in the private collective transportation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adolfo Vicente; Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Fernandes, Haroldo; Arcanjo, Georgia Santos

    2018-05-03

    The collective transportation system is essential to reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. Concerns exist related to quality, comfort and safety of bus driver's workstations. The objective of this study was to improve the driver's workstation in the private collective transportation sector by analyzing ergonomic practices using the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The EWA was chosen because it seeks to evaluate the labor condition as it relates to the psychophysiological conditions of workers, it complies with regulatory standard 17 (NR17). To identify driver concerns, interviews and questionnaires were administered. The workstation and worker routines were observed. The analysis revealed that the largest number of complaints related to noise, display light and location of the passenger identifier device. Drivers reported discomfort in the knees and lower back. Recommendations were made to improve the workstation and change the routine to minimize the discomfort and ergonomic risk factors.

  9. Optimation of Operation System Integration between Main and Feeder Public Transport (Case Study: Trans Jakarta-Kopaja Bus Services)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Priadi, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    Promoting a better public transport is a key strategy to cope with urban transport problems which are mostly caused by a huge private vehicle usage. A better public transport service quality not only focuses on one type of public transport mode, but also concerns on inter modes service integration. Fragmented inter mode public transport service leads to a longer trip chain as well as average travel time which would result in its failure to compete with a private vehicle. This paper examines the optimation process of operation system integration between Trans Jakarta Bus as the main public transport mode and Kopaja Bus as feeder public transport service in Jakarta. Using scoring-interview method combined with standard parameters in operation system integration, this paper identifies the key factors that determine the success of the two public transport operation system integrations. The study found that some key integration parameters, such as the cancellation of “system setoran”, passenger get in-get out at official stop points, and systematic payment, positively contribute to a better service integration. However, some parameters such as fine system, time and changing point reliability, and information system reliability are among those which need improvement. These findings are very useful for the authority to set the right strategy to improve operation system integration between Trans Jakarta and Kopaja Bus services.

  10. How Important is the Integration of Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrníková Michaela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.

  11. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles ...

  12. Improvements of the integral transport theory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavenoky, A.; Lam-Hime, M.; Stankovski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The integral transport theory is widely used in practical reactor design calculations however it is computer time consuming for two dimensional calculations of large media. In the first part of this report a new treatment is presented; it is based on the Galerkin method: inside each region the total flux is expanded over a three component basis. Numerical comparison shows that this method can considerably reduce the computing time. The second part of the this report is devoted to homogeneization theory: a straightforward calculation of the fundamental mode for an heterogeneous cell is presented. At first general presentation of the problem is given, then it is simplified to plane geometry and numerical results are presented

  13. Future energy and emissions policy scenarios in Ireland for private car transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a technological model of Ireland's future car stock to simulate the impact of a range of policy measures on the baseline trend in energy demand in the period to 2030. The policies and measures modelled comprise meeting deployment targets for electric vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles, an EU regulation for the improvement of vehicle efficiency, implementation of a national biofuel obligation, as well as several behavioural measures (encouraging modal shifting and reduced travel demand). The impact of the different measures simulated is measured in terms of their contribution to meeting Ireland's ambitious targets for energy savings, for renewable energy penetration and for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The results point to a possible improvement of 32% in car stock efficiency, the achievement of 7.8% renewable energy share of road and rail transport and a 22% reduction in non-ETS private car CO 2 emissions relative to 2009 levels. A scenario analysis on meeting the EV penetration target shows a significant range of CO 2 emissions reductions depending on the cars (and mileage) displaced and on the electricity generation portfolio. - Highlights: ► Private car policy scenarios for Ireland modelled. ► Impact of vehicle efficiency, fuel switching and behavioural measures evaluated. ► Highlights distance to EU non-ETS emissions and renewable energy targets. ► Analysis of EV target shows that GHG mitigation potential is very sensitive.

  14. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  15. ICT Integration in Accounting Education: Evidence from Two Private Higher Institutions in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebisi Mary Ogundana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of ICT integration in accounting education on the value adding capacity of accounting students in Nigeria. The study adopted the Survey research design involving the collection of data from accounting students in selected private universities in Nigeria. Copies of Questionnaire were administered to 147 respondents out of which 111 were gathered. Pearson Correlation and Linear Regression were employed in the analysis of the data collected with the use of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS. The results revealed that integration of ICT (accounting software packages and IT knowledge and skills into accounting education (curriculum would help accounting graduates fulfill their responsibility of adding value to organizations. Consequently, it was recommended that the Nigeria Universities Commission (NUC and relevant educational bodies should compulsorily integrate (in all higher institution into accounting curriculum at all level a practical course on accounting packages and IT knowledge and skills.

  16. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community-acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were "malaria", "pneumonia", "diarrhoea", "private sector" and "community case management". A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM-related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM-related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non-malaria-associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in conjunction with private sector intervention programs.

  17. Weather information integration in transportation management center (TMC) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-02

    This report presents the results of the third phase of an on-going FHWA study on weather integration in Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations. The report briefly describes the earlier phases of the integration study, summarizes the findin...

  18. Intermodal transport as an integral part of logistics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bitkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of companies that are successful in the carriage of goods prove that intermodal transport is now a major factor in determining the success of logistics system. A modern approach to the transport is based on intermodal transport. The article is based on the method of external observation. It presents the essence of intermodal transport and its benefits. It specifies transportation as an integral part of logistics system.

  19. Review of Regulatory Emphasis on Transportation Safety in the United States, 2002-2009: Public versus Private Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waycaster, Garrett C; Matsumura, Taiki; Bilotkach, Volodymyr; Haftka, Raphael T; Kim, Nam H

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation is responsible for implementing new safety improvements and regulations with the goal of ensuring limited funds are distributed to where they can have the greatest impact on safety. In this work, we conduct a study of new regulations and other reactions (such as recalls) to fatal accidents in several different modes of transportation implemented from 2002 to 2009. We find that in the safest modes of commercial aviation and bus transport, the amount of spending on new regulations is high in relation to the number of fatalities compared to the regulatory attention received by less safe modes of general aviation and private automobiles. Additionally, we study two major fatal accident investigations from commercial aviation and two major automotive recalls associated with fatal accidents. We find differences in the cost per expected fatality prevented for these reactions, with the airline accident investigations being more cost effective. Overall, we observe trends in both the automotive and aviation sectors that suggest that public transportation receives more regulatory attention than private transport. We also observe that the types of safety remedies utilized, regulation versus investigation, have varying levels of effectiveness in different transport modes. We suggest that these differences are indicative of increased public demand for safety in modes where a third party may be held responsible, even for those not participating in the transportation. These findings have important implications for the transportation industry, policymakers, and for estimating the public demand for safety in new transport modes. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Data integration for urban transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    Urban transport planning aims at balancing conflicting challenges by promoting more efficient transport systems while reducing negative impacts. The availability of better and more reliable data has not only stimulated new planning methodologies, but also created challenges for efficient data

  1. Integrating passenger and freight transportation : model formulation and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; Woensel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating passenger and freight ows creates attractive business opportunities because the same transportation needs can be met with fewer vehicles and emissions. This paper seeks an integrated solution for the transportation of passenger and freight simultaneously, so that fewer vehicles are

  2. Development of virtual private network for JT-60SA CAD integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Takayuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Seki, Masami; Kawashima, Hisato; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Verrecchia, M.; Teuchner, B.

    2010-01-01

    The CAD models will be exchanged and integrated at Naka for JT-60SA, a common computer network efficiently connected between Naka site and the Garching site is needed to be established. Virtual Private Network (VPN) was introduced with LAN on computer network physically-separated from JAEA intranet area and firewall. In July 2009, a new VPN connection between the Naka and Garching sites has been successfully demonstrated using IPSec-VPN technology with a commercial and cost-effective firewall/router for security. It was found that the introduction of the Wide Area File Service (WAFS) could solve the issue of the data transmission time and enhance the usability of the VPN for design integration in JT-60SA. (author)

  3. Restructuring the oil segment in South America: public policy, private capital and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotti, A.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Alveal, C.

    2006-01-01

    The World Oil Industry (WOI) developed through two types of economic organization, built up around vertically integrated and internationalized enterprises: the US model, based on private international firms, and the model centered on setting up State-run enterprises, initially in the United Kingdom, Argentina and Mexico. However, from the first oil crisis (1973) onwards, the World Oil Industry has gradually been un-bundled through nationalization and the loss of control over the reserves by the oil majors. With this new configuration of the industry, from the 1980's onwards, the strategies of the major international oil companies focused on developing the spot market, while lowering investment and operating costs, introducing correlated diversification strategies, and enhancing industrial concentration through mergers and acquisitions and/or cooperation agreements between companies. The core purpose of these strategic shifts is to obtain control over new oil field areas. The restructuring processes of national oil industries all over the world - particularly in South America - constituted an important drive aligned with these new guidelines, headed up by the global oil operators. This paper analyzes the changes in the South American oil sector during the 1990's, analyzing aspects involved in awarding mineral rights in the upstream segment. Despite similar policies, market deregulation processes follow different patterns. However, the most significant aspect is an increase in the presence of international private capital in the dynamics of this sector, mainly in regional energy integration processes. (authors)

  4. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  5. An analysis of patients transported by a private helicopter emergency medical service in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbauer, Dagmar; Naidoo, Raveen; Hardcastle, Timothy C

    2016-01-12

    A helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) is a specialist flying emergency service where on-board medical personnel have both the knowledge and equipment to perform complicated medical procedures. The paucity of literature describing the types of patients flown by HEMS in South Africa (SA) and their clinical outcome poses a challenge for current aeromedical services, as there is no baseline information on which to base flight criteria, staffing and policy documents. This has the potential to hamper the advancement of HEMS in SA. To undertake a descriptive analysis of patients flown by the Netcare 911 HEMS over a 12-month period in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) provinces, SA, and to assess patient outcomes. The clinical demographics of patients transported by the HEMS were analysed, time frames from dispatch of the helicopter to delivery of the patient to the receiving hospital determined, and patient outcomes at 24 hours and 72 hours analysed. The study utilised a retrospective quantitative, descriptive design to analyse patients transported by a private HEMS in SA. All complete records of patients transported by the Netcare 911 HEMS between 1 January and 31 December 2011 were included. The final study population comprised 537 cases, as 10 cases had to be excluded owing to incomplete documentation. Of the 537 cases, 82 (15.3%) were managed by the KZN HEMS and 455 (84.7%) by the Gauteng HEMS. Adult males were the patients most commonly flown in both Gauteng and KZN (350/455 patients (76.9%) in Gauteng and 48/82 (58.5%) in KZN were males, and 364/455 patients (80.0%) in Gauteng and 73/82 (89.0%) in KZN were adults). Motor vehicle collisions were the most common incidents necessitating transport by HEMS in both operations (n=193, 35.9%). At the 24-hour follow-up, 339 patients (63.1%) were alive and stable, and at the 72-hour follow-up, 404 (75.3%) were alive and stable. The study findings provided valuable information that may have an impact on the current

  6. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Phyllis Awor; Jane Miller; Stefan Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community–acquired malaria, pneu...

  7. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered to...

  8. Integration of transportation for improved mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    Mobility management and improvement have become the focal point of the federal, state, and local transportation agencies over the last decade. Even with decreasing vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) over the same time span, the congestion and delays have n...

  9. Integration of multimodal transportation services : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-08

    Flexible route paratransit services may complement as well as compete with conventional public transportation services (that : have fixed routes and schedules). Flexible routes are especially suitable for service areas or time periods with low demand...

  10. Health care consumers’ perspectives on pharmacist integration into private general practitioner clinics in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw PS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pui San Saw,1 Lisa M Nissen,2,3 Christopher Freeman,2,4 Pei Se Wong,3 Vivienne Mak5 1School of Postgraduate Studies and Research, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; 5School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists’ involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers’ views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia.Methods: A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results: A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1 pharmacists’ role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2 readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3 willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4 concerns about GPs’ resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy

  11. Integral Transportation Systems in Military Transport Aircraft Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply of goods, equipment and soldiers by militwy transportaircraft can serve as a support to airborne landing operation,support to encircled forces, and support to forces leadinga gue1rilla war. Transport aircraft are designed in such a wayas to be able to cany containers, pallets, most of land vehiclesand helicopters. Militwy transport aircraft can be grouped intothose that were originally designed for military transp01t andthose that are modified civilian aircraft and helicopters. Supplypallets can be wooden, metal, can be airdropped in "taxiing","low-flight", and can also be fitted with a parachute or"retrorocket" for reducing the ground impact. Pallets canamong other things carry liquids, heavy combat and ca1rier vehicles,artillery and rocket weapons and valious containers.Pallets are usually pe1manently deformed at ground impact.Nowadays, high precision of airdrop has been achieved. Containersare used to carry various equipment, food, fue~ weapons,ammunition etc. It is to be expected that the containers,wmoured combat and other vehicles will be redesigned so asto provide more efficient transport and fast a!Tangement ofhigh-mobility units, whereas the form of the future militarytransport aircraft will not undergo substantial changes. By adjustingand standardising the transporlation vehicles, integraltransportation means and cwgo, the overall combat efficiencywill be increased, the a~rangement time especially shortenedand the air supply safety increased.

  12. IS IT POSSIBLE TO INTEGRATE BASIC BIOLOGICAL DISCIPLINES IN A PRIVATE INSTITUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic biological disciplines as biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology have grown faster than any of other sciences. Moreover, those disciplines contribute to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses. On the other hand, teachers cannot assure the graduating students that each particular discipline  is essential.  Furthermore,  those disciplines are often studied separately without any interdisciplinary integration between them.  The new curriculum proposed at Anhembi Morumbi University  - a private institution placed at São Paulo city  - incorporates learning blocks that  have been designed to integrate basic biological disciplines and clinical contents from the beginning in order to provide the stimulation and motivation to guide the  student through his learning.  The educational trend has concentrated on the following steps: 1 Biochemistry, genetic, cellular and molecular biology teachers´ from that institution have elaborated a new discipline  that was named Biologic Process. The aim of this new discipline was integrate basic biological sciences in a single content;  2  Selecting problems that could be discussed in the light of biochemistry, genetic and molecular contents; e.g. sickle cell anemia; 3 Developing  an innovative instructional method that challenges students “learn to learn” different from problem-based learning , economically unavailable at any particular university,  and  4 Assessments that measure knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.  We believe that the future pedagogical system in  private health university will be a combination of “classical”  presentation of contents combined with actively involved students in the educational process and instruction based on either hypothetical  or real clinical cases in order to create  the stimulus for  the student continues to  integrate basic and clinical investigation.

  13. The Implementation of Transportation and Transit Projects on the Basis of Public-Private Partnership in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolyevich Tsevtkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of the implementation of the current transportation and transit projects on the basis of the institution of public-private partnership in Russia. This work is a continuation of the study of the theory and practice of the application of public-private partnership in the investment projects aimed at the development and realization of the transportation and transit potential of the country. On the methodological basis of evolutionary and institutional economics, historical approach, system-oriented analysis and the theory of firms, the main current projects for the development of Russian transportation and transit system using public-private partnership are considered. They are the construction of a high-speed line of Moscow — Kazan with subsequent extension to the Chinese border; functioning of the transport and logistics in the Chelyabinsk region; infrastructure of transit cargo by Northern Sea Route; participation of foreign investors in the development of Russian seaports and sea gates. It is shown that the competitive advantage of transit traffic by a particular route requires more traversing speed of cargo with a minimum of stops, handling and overloads in the way. Revenue from transportation and transit potential implementation can be comparable to the size of the resource rent in the case of the development in Russia of the production and transit sector of the economy, and not only of a transit one . In this regard, the emphasis is placed on the determination of the possibility and necessity of organizational changes associated with the development of a large public-private transportation company, able to compete with global sea container services of the route of Asia — Europe. The main directions and activities under the proposed national project «Development of transit economy in Russia: Uniting Eurasia» and its subprogram «Creation of innovative rolling stock for container and multimodal

  14. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  15. Notation for integrals of transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Like many authors in nuclear reactor physics, I have been careless in my notation but now I regret my deficiences! This letter attempts redress in calling upon my colleagues to take more care in writing integrals as they occur in our trade. I draw attention to what are common errors, with examples drawn from standard tests and well-established journals. I mean no disrespect to their authors and editors; we have, nearly all of us, not written what we meant. I propose that we should undertake to follow a more rigorous notation. It is convenient to divide the examination into a section studying integrals over the unit directional vector Ω and subsequently apply the principles appropriate to that class of integrals to integrals over a vector phase-space. (Author)

  16. To develop a public private partnership model of disease notification as a part of integrated disease surveillance project (IDSP for private medical practitioners in Mumbai City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnendra R. Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The main objective of Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP was early detection of disease outbreaks. This could be possible only when the public health authorities have a strong and effective surveillance system in collaboration with Private Health Sector. Objectives 1 To assess knowledge, attitude & practice about notification of diseases amongst Private Medical Practitioners (PMPs. 2 To find out barriers experienced by PMPs in reporting of diseases under surveillance. 3 To assess feasibility of various alternative ways of reporting convenient for PMPs. 4 To develop a Public Private Partnership Model of disease notification based on feasible options obtained in the study. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the F South Municipal ward of Mumbai city during April-May 2011. Two stage simple random sampling was used to select 104 PMPs for the study. Results and Conclusions Nearly 98% PMPs felt importance of notification in health system, but only 46% had practiced it. Most common reason for non-reporting was lack of information about reporting system. The convenient way of reporting for PMPs was to report to the nearest health post personally or to District Surveillance Unit through SMS/phone call and both at weekly interval.

  17. An integrated Ka/Ku-band payload for personal, mobile and private business communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward J.; Keelty, J. Malcolm

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Department of Communications has been studying options for a government-sponsored demonstration payload to be launched before the end of the century. A summary of the proposed system concepts and network architectures for providing an advanced private business network service at Ku-band and personal and mobile communications at Ka-band is presented. The system aspects addressed include coverage patterns, traffic capacity, and grade of service, multiple access options as well as special problems, such as Doppler in mobile applications. Earth terminal types and the advanced payload concept proposed in a feasibility study for the demonstration mission are described. This concept is a combined Ka-band/Ku-band payload which incorporates a number of advanced satellite technologies including a group demodulator to convert single-channel-per-carrier frequency division multiple access uplink signals to a time division multiplex downlink, on-board signal regeneration, and baseband switching to support packet switched data operation. The on-board processing capability of the payload provides a hubless VSAT architecture which permits single-hop full mesh interconnectivity. The Ka-band and Ku-band portions of the payload are fully integrated through an on-board switch, thereby providing the capability for fully integrated services, such as using the Ku-band VSAT terminals as gateway stations for the Ka-band personal and mobile communications services.

  18. Implementation of Private Cloud Computing Using Integration of JavaScript and Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper deals with the design and deployment of a novel library class in Python, enabling the use of JavaScript functionalities in Application Programming and the leveraging of this Library into development for third generation technologies such as Private Cloud Computing. The integration of these two prevalent languages provides us with a new level of compliance which helps in developing an understanding between Web Programming and Application Programming. An inter-browser functionality wrapping, which would enable users to have a JavaScript experience in Python interfaces directly, without having to depend on external programs, has been developed. The functionality of this concept is prevalent in the fact that Applications written in JavaScript and accessed on the browser now have the capability of interacting with each other on a common platform with the help of a Python wrapper. The idea is demonstrated by the integrating with the now ubiquitous Cloud Computing concept. With the help of examples, we have showcased the same and explained how the Library XOCOM can be a stepping stone to flexible cloud computing environment.

  19. A simulation study of the impact of the public-private partnership strategy on the performance of transport infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengfeng; Zheng, Pengjun; Ma, Yanqiang; Li, Xuan; Xu, Wenjun; Zhu, Wanlu

    2016-01-01

    The choice of investment strategy has a great impact on the performance of transport infrastructure. Positive projects such as the "Subway plus Property" model in Hong Kong have created sustainable financial profits for the public transport projects. Owing to a series of public debt and other constraints, public-private partnership (PPP) was introduced as an innovative investment model to address this issue and help develop transport infrastructure. Yet, few studies provide a deeper understanding of relationships between PPP strategy and the performance of such transport projects (particularly the whole transport system). This paper defines the research scope as a regional network of freeway. With a popular PPP model, travel demand prediction method, and relevant parameters as input, agents in a simulation framework can simulate the choice of PPP freeway over time. The simulation framework can be used to analyze the relationship between the PPP strategy and performance of the regional freeway network. This study uses the Freeway Network of Yangtze River Delta (FN-YRD) in China as the context. The results demonstrate the value of using simulation models of complex transportation systems to help decision makers choose the right PPP projects. Such a tool is viewed as particularly important given the ongoing transformation of functions of the Chinese transportation sector, including franchise rights of transport projects, and freeway charging mechanism.

  20. Public-Private Partnership as the Core Form of the Implementation of Russia’s Transport and Transit Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolyevich Tsvetkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theory and practice of the implementation and development of transport and transit potential (TTP of Russia. This could be an effective way to replace the natural resource rent as the main source of income for the state and economic actors. For the modernization of national economic system the key importance are innovative technologies in the development of transport and transit potential through the organization of the production of goods and services with the highest added value in Russia. We proposed and substantiated the hypothesis about the necessity of creation of a Federal company responsible for the financing and implementation of Russia’s transport and transit potential development projects on the principles of public-private partnership (PPP. The authors have revealed the economic, institutional and organizational prerequisites for the establishment of such a public-private partnership company. We have provided the opinions of scientists and experts showing the urgent need to create in one form or another a single operator to transport goods on the territory of Russia and the Eurasian economic Union. To prove the hypothesis, we presented a description and analysis of the factors affecting the value of transit freight transport on Euro-Asian routes. We paid the special attention to identify the reasons of the increasing competitive advantage of Maritime transport in the world’s goods movement system. The authors based the main conclusion that, first of all, the created publicprivate partnership company should be large due to tough competition of developing transit freight by land routes with the global Maritime container services. Secondly, it needs a significant state participation since the management of the world’s cargo flows requires the effort of foreign policy and geo-economic nature. We emphasized that this business entity would become an active proponent and lobbyist of the most effective

  1. Perturbation theory and importance functions in integral transport formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1976-01-01

    Perturbation theory expressions for the static reactivity derived from the flux, collision density, birth-rate density, and fission-neutron density formulations of integral transport theory, and from the integro-differential formulation, are intercompared. The physical meaning and relation of the adjoint functions corresponding to each of the five formulations are established. It is found that the first-order approximation of the perturbation expressions depends on the transport theory formulation and on the adjoint function used. The approximations of the integro-differential formulation corresponding to different first-order approximations of the integral transport theory formulations are identified. It is found that the accuracy of all first-order approximations of the integral transport formulations examined is superior to the accuracy of first-order integro-differential perturbation theory

  2. An integral equation arising in two group neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassell, J S; Williams, M M R

    2003-01-01

    An integral equation describing the fuel distribution necessary to maintain a flat flux in a nuclear reactor in two group transport theory is reduced to the solution of a singular integral equation. The formalism developed enables the physical aspects of the problem to be better understood and its relationship with the corresponding diffusion theory model is highlighted. The integral equation is solved by reducing it to a non-singular Fredholm equation which is then evaluated numerically

  3. Association of Prehospital Mode of Transport With Mortality in Penetrating Trauma: A Trauma System-Level Assessment of Private Vehicle Transportation vs Ground Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael W; Nathens, Avery B; Shapiro, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-02-01

    Time to definitive care following injury is important to the outcomes of trauma patients. Prehospital trauma care is provided based on policies developed by individual trauma systems and is an important component of the care of injured patients. Given a paucity of systems-level trauma research, considerable variability exists in prehospital care policies across trauma systems, potentially affecting patient outcomes. To evaluate whether private vehicle prehospital transport confers a survival advantage vs ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport following penetrating injuries in urban trauma systems. Retrospective cohort study of data included in the National Trauma Data Bank from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, comprising 298 level 1 and level 2 trauma centers that contribute data to the National Trauma Data Bank that are located within the 100 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Of 2 329 446 patients assessed for eligibility, 103 029 were included in this study. All patients were 16 years or older, had a gunshot wound or stab wound, and were transported by ground EMS or private vehicle. In-hospital mortality. Of the 2 329 446 records assessed for eligibility, 103 029 individuals at 298 urban level 1 and level 2 trauma centers were included in the analysis. The study population was predominantly male (87.6%), with a mean age of 32.3 years. Among those included, 47.9% were black, 26.3% were white, and 18.4% were Hispanic. Following risk adjustment, individuals with penetrating injuries transported by private vehicle were less likely to die than patients transported by ground EMS (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.31-0.47). This association remained statistically significant on stratified analysis of the gunshot wound (OR,  0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.56) and stab wound (OR,  0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.52) subgroups. Private vehicle transport is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death when compared with

  4. Allocation private building in urban city and along the transport arteries for creating a modern energy-efficient living environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyanov, Vitaliy; Prelovskaya, Yana

    2017-10-01

    This article submits for consideration the structuring elements of the “private sector” development system, the so-called architectural heritage of the Russian province [1]. Three types of development, still present in central parts of settlement systems, i.e. parts of historical value, are revealed. Common features of private plot development for the majority of middle-scale and small towns are characterized. Dependence of the types on various factors: ethnical, natural (geographical), economical, is revealed. It is important to determine which buildings are located along the transport arteries. Does it have historical significance and cultural value, since it forms the image of the city. The outgoing line passes, as a rule, through the entire settlement system and leads to the central part. Basic principles of formation of historically emerged development types, such as blocks, streets and side streets, are shown, and also problems needed to be solved by the means of urban planning are generalized and casted.

  5. Privatization, industry integration and international politics: The case of energy and the role of business leadership in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireur, Yannick

    2000-10-01

    This thesis analyzes how matters traditionally decided by states because deemed strategic such as cross-border physical energy integration, are now the product of corporate strategy. As a direct result of state divestiture implemented in the scope of a changing model of political economy, corporate bodies have taken on an increasingly important role in the achievement of regional integration. The privatization and ownership transfer of a strategic industry, namely energy, has indeed positioned the private sector at the forefront of regional economic affairs. The study also points out the political impact of private sector-driven projects of infrastructure, particularly between two countries that have been separated by strong antagonism in the recent past, the launching of regional energy integration by private companies has provided the substance that was lacking to governments, even though these were willing to operate a rapprochement. The parameters of foreign policy decisions have been modified and rapprochement has been accelerated as a result of initiatives from the private sector. The thesis thus explores the links between the adoption of a neo-liberal political economy that includes the privatization of the energy sector, regional energy integration, and foreign relations. It analyzes how the transformation of transnational economic ties usually derived from decisions of state can now be the product of private business deals. It emphasizes the role of corporate executives in carrying out projects and shaping a new economic reality that governments have proved to be unable or unwilling to create in the past. Its focus is the Chile-Argentina energy integration process and rapprochement in the nineties. The spread of neo-liberalism in the Southern Cone has taken place in a time of waning alternative discourse on development strategy in the international public arena and of acute sense of development imperative in the so-called emerging economies. The thesis

  6. Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b......) the least-regret scenario forms a compromise between the desired and the expected scenarios, (c) the least-regret scenario can lead to higher user benefits in the short term and lower user benefits in the long term, (d) the utility-based, the regret-based, and the combined utility- and regret...

  7. Numerical Integration of the Transport Equation For Infinite Homogeneous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Rune

    1962-01-15

    The transport equation for neutrons in infinite homogeneous media is solved by direct numerical integration. Accounts are taken to the anisotropy and the inelastic scattering. The integration has been performed by means of the trapezoidal rule and the length of the energy intervals are constant in lethargy scale. The machine used is a Ferranti Mercury computer. Results are given for water, heavy water, aluminium water mixture and iron-aluminium-water mixture.

  8. Business integration between manufacturing and transport-logistics firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, Olga W.

    electronically through EDI. The current business integration practices are primarily restricted to some sub-processes in three key SC processes: Customer service management, order fulfillment and backwards logistics. In the future the manufacturers want a better integration with the TLSPs, but at the same time......Purpose - This paper analyses how manufacturers and transport-logistics service providers (TLSPs) work together and integrate their business processes. The information technologies used to support the integration, the processes currently integrated, and the expected future integration, are searched......, manufacturers would like to have the freedom of breaking the relationship, if the party does not fulfill the requisites and expectations. The future developments associated to the "commoditization" of TLSPs' services would reinforce this trend. Originality/value - This research has shed light on a relatively...

  9. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun; Lee, Sang hoon

    2016-01-01

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed

  10. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  11. Integration of transport concepts for risk assessment of pesticide erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Zee, van der Sjoerd E.A.T.M.; Gai, Lingtong; Wesseling, Jan G.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agrochemicals has been a large problem for decades. Pesticides are transported in runoff and remain attached to eroded soil particles, posing a risk to water and soil quality and human health. We have developed a parsimonious integrative model of pesticide

  12. Transport (and logistic integration of Slovenia with EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Trupac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with transporl (and logistic integration ofSlovenia with EU. Because of its position Slovenia has goodopportunities for transportation activities. Transpmtation (andlogistics is also of extraordinwy imp01tance for economic developmentand appearance on the European and other markets.

  13. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type...... to equilibrium price differentials between markets. Unlike previous studies this article shows that French wheat markets were well integrated by the middle of the 19th century...... of modeling acknowledges the fact that error corrections only take place when price differentials between markets exceed transport costs. The method used produces estimates of implied transport costs, which are quite close to observed costs, and generates more accurate estimates of the adjustment speed...

  14. Developing an integrated management model for Private Higher Educational Institutions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D. Ed. (Educational Management) The cornerstone of this research is to understand the role of the Private Higher Education (PHE) sector in South Africa, including the challenges and problems encountered by the Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs) in competing in the public HE sector that is legally accountable to and funded by government. The country’s HE sector is deeply fragmented owing to the past racial divisions and inequalities, and the research thus intends to contribute to...

  15. Integrating the NEPA 216 process with large-scale privatization projects under the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of replacing the existing Hanford Site 200 Are steam system through a privatization effort. Such an action would be subject to requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Section 216 of the Doe NEPA Implementation Procedures (216 Process) provides a specific mechanism for integrating the DOE procurement process with NEPA compliance requirements

  16. Justified requirements in private transportation and a recommendation for improving the efficiency of household energy utilisation through the use of small ecologically-friendly or 'ultralight' vehicles for mass private transportation in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juravic, T.

    1999-01-01

    Needs and ownership are sociobiologically manifested in the alter-ego of a Homo sapiens where the natural progression of events (a household being the fundamental microlevel) and the social order, i.e. globalisation, are based on ownership and needs as sacred rights, and for this reason universal values like energy conservation end up as the waste of the mindless worship of consumption. Justified needs are phenomena of a consumerist (egocentric, pragmatic, voluntary) social conscience and instinctive behaviour - an unpredictable cause resulting from freedom being the foundation of the quality of life, socio-economic and political changes but are mutually exclusive to understanding (expressing and gaining deeper and richer knowledge). Inbuilt limits and/or control of consumption, which are already used in household appliances with aforeset processes (goals) for unknown consumers, to achieve large energy savings in 'routine' functions are more effective than attempts to prevent mistakes (lack of user knowledge through repression). A private vehicle, as a symbol of the freedom and quality of life, is a mechanism for achieving 'justified' needs and presents another means of household energy utilisation. The consumer's desires regarding private transportation are not sufficiently reconciled with intelligent microprocessors (expert systems), which achieve (the most) optimal behaviour in the process of transportation. This detailed consideration (as part of investigating the technical system) cannot be examined on a strictly logical or scientific basis, as it only proposes a method of co-agreement (not co-reponsability) of manufacturers and consumers and an alternative logical way of thinking, or organisation of the interaction between vehicles and traffic in order to form a judgement of really justifiable needs, and to achieve a robotic private vehicle, transportation and traffic. The goal of this consideration is to establish the DIVISION of energy with the help of

  17. Natural gas for public and private transportation: Present situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, M.; Iannaccone, S.; Unich, A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles has grown due to its interesting chemical-physical properties which make it an efficient fuel and more environmentally compatible than conventional fuels. This promising consumption trend has led to increased R ampersand D investments in attempts to enhance the fuel's automotive performance and exhaust emission characteristics. This paper reviews the advances in these directions which have been made thus far by research teams around the world and assesses commercialization prospects for natural gas automotive fuels in light of the more stringent air pollution regulations being proposed by the European Communities

  18. COMPARISON OF SUSTAINABILITY BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT CONSIDERING URBAN STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Masanobu KII

    2003-01-01

    It is said that the car is convenient but consumes high-energy per passenger, while public transport is an environmentally friendly mode but needs high cost of investment and management. However, this view does not take account of urban structure such as population size and density. For instance, higher population density would cause congestion and consequent inconvenience for car usage. This may shift demand to public transport use. On the other hand, in a lower density of urban area, public...

  19. Transport energy demand in Andorra. Assessing private car futures through sensitivity and scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Gallachóir, Brian P.Ó.; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model which estimates current car fleet energy consumption in Andorra and forecasts such consumption as a reference scenario. The base-year model is built through a bottom-up methodology using vehicle registration and technical inspection data. The model forecasts energy consumption up to 2050, taking into account the fleet structure, the car survival profile, trends in activity of the various car categories, and the fuel price and income elasticities that affect car stock and total fleet activity. It provides an initial estimate of private car energy demand in Andorra and charts a baseline scenario that describes a hypothetical future based on historical trends. A local sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most sensitive input parameters and study the effect of its variability. In addition, the scenario analysis explores the most uncertain future aspects which can cause important variability in the results with respect to the Reference scenario and provides a broad estimate of potential energy savings related to different policy strategies. - Highlights: •A private car energy model is built using aggregated available data. •Andorra's current car fleet energy consumption is estimated and forecasted to 2050. •Potential energy savings have been estimated using sensitivity and scenario analysis.

  20. Continuous improvement of the BNFL transport integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The integrated Management System of BNFL Transport and Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) is subject to continuous improvement by the application of established improvement techniques adopted by BNFL. The technique currently being used is the application of a Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy, involving the identification of key processes, benchmarking against existing measures, initiating various improvement projects and applying process changes within the Company. The measurement technique being used is based upon the European Foundation for Quality Management Model (EFQM). A major initiative was started in 1996 to include the requirements of the Environmental Management Systems standard ISO 14001 within the existing integrated management system. This resulted in additional activities added to the system, modification to some existing activities and additional training for personnel. The system was audited by a third party certification organisation, Lloyds Register Quality Assurance (LRQA), during 1997. This paper describes the arrangements to review and update the integrated management system of BNFL Transport and PNTL to include the requirements of the environmental standard ISO 14001 and it also discusses the continuous improvement process adopted by BNFL Transport. (authors)

  1. Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

  2. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    is the use of biofuel (ethanol) and synthetic fuel (methanol) for internal combustion cars. An increase in the fraction of electricity delivered by fluctuating sources like wind power will lead to excess electricity production and the two aforementioned scenarios have a substantial effect on the decrease...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  3. Integration of transport concepts for risk assessment of pesticide erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Van Der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Gai, Lingtong; Wesseling, Jan G; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2016-05-01

    Environmental contamination by agrochemicals has been a large problem for decades. Pesticides are transported in runoff and remain attached to eroded soil particles, posing a risk to water and soil quality and human health. We have developed a parsimonious integrative model of pesticide displacement by runoff and erosion that explicitly accounts for water infiltration, erosion, runoff, and pesticide transport and degradation in soil. The conceptual framework was based on broadly accepted assumptions such as the convection-dispersion equation and lognormal distributions of soil properties associated with transport, sorption, degradation, and erosion. To illustrate the concept, a few assumptions are made with regard to runoff in relatively flat agricultural fields: dispersion is ignored and erosion is modelled by a functional relationship. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the total mass of pesticide associated with soil eroded by water scouring increased with slope, rain intensity, and water field capacity of the soil. The mass of transported pesticide decreased as the micro-topography of the soil surface became more distinct. The timing of pesticide spraying and rate of degradation before erosion negatively affected the total amount of transported pesticide. The mechanisms involved in pesticide displacement, such as runoff, infiltration, soil erosion, and pesticide transport and decay in the topsoil, were all explicitly accounted for, so the mathematical complexity of their description can be high, depending on the situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  5. Assessment of Integrated Environmental Management in Public and Private Schools in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makisa, Kaponda

    2016-01-01

    Copperbelt Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. It has public and private schools which have been faced with escalating levels of environmental problems due to growth in human population and economic growth. The environmental problems which are matters of concern in the schools include, unsound waste management, loss of vegetation…

  6. Integrating Environmental Science and the Economy: Innovative Partnerships between the Private Sector and Research Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad Chabbi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a preliminary analysis of the funding, organizational culture, environmental, and innovation challenges that are currently faced by Environmental Research Infrastructures (ERI and private enterprises working together. We contend there is a strong case for building creative collaboration models across these sectors that also require to new management tools to effectively generate economically-driven solutions to the global society at large in the face of climate change. To that end, public/private stakeholders that are likely to partner to address climate change also face new frontiers in how they will structurally and organizationally work together. We explore these issues around changing political, scientific, commercial environments; partnerships models; barriers in bridging these communities; and the role of formal project management processes. There is no one solution to fit all conditions that can bring together a specific public/private enterprise that incorporates a research infrastructure. However, we have provided two examples of collaborative models of public/private enterprises to highlight how these issues can be addressed, and to foster future dynamic and creative solutions to this problem.

  7. Integrating transportation and production: an international study case

    OpenAIRE

    L Bertazzi; O Zappa

    2012-01-01

    The problem we study is inspired by the real case of Mesdan S.p.A., an Italian company worldwide leader in the textile machinery sector, which has two production units with two warehouses, one located in Italy (Brescia) and the other in China (Foshan). The critical point in this logistic system is the integration between production and transportation management, given the long distance between Brescia and Foshan. Shipments are performed by the means of different types of vehicles with differe...

  8. Deterministic methods to solve the integral transport equation in neutronic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, X.

    1993-11-01

    We present a synthesis of the methods used to solve the integral transport equation in neutronic. This formulation is above all used to compute solutions in 2D in heterogeneous assemblies. Three kinds of methods are described: - the collision probability method; - the interface current method; - the current coupling collision probability method. These methods don't seem to be the most effective in 3D. (author). 9 figs

  9. Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; Lagos, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data was developed to support the Department of Energy (DOE) mandated accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to site waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedules. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of waste that would be generated by the DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site has historically collected, organized, and displayed site waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. However, waste and shipment information from all sites needed a common application to allow interested parties to understand and view the complete complex-wide picture. The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, has deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  10. The modal transfer analysis by adding transport costs. Case study: The use of bus and private vehicle student Institut Teknologi Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliarto, H.; Alhamidi; Syahbandi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Since the last two years the Institut Teknologi Sumatera to accept new students in large numbers. Increasing the number of students is directly proportional to the increase of private vehicles that enter the campus it is not in line with the policy of the Institut Teknologi Sumatera as Smart, Friendly, and Forest Campus. Institut Teknologi Sumatera as Smart, Friendly, and Forest Campus fact has made some deal with mass public transport, Damri, to provide bus transportation to the Institut Teknologi Sumatera, but the number of bus users is still inferior to the number of private vehicle users. This study was conducted to see the modal transfer of the entire academic community ITERA, from private cars to public transport such as buses, with the addition of transportation costs in the form of parking rates. This study shows the dominant displacement can occur if the respondent charged parking fees of IDR 4.000. Besides the displacement mode of transportation from using private vehicles be using the bus can occur if Trans Lampung fix three systems including bus departure and arrival schedules, facility service providers that support, and the addition of the Bus Trans Lampung.

  11. Randomised controlled trial of integrated care to reduce disability from chronic low back pain in working and private life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeek, Ludeke C; van Mechelen, Willem; Knol, Dirk L; Loisel, Patrick; Anema, Johannes R

    2010-03-16

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated care programme, combining a patient directed and a workplace directed intervention, for patients with chronic low back pain. Population based randomised controlled trial. Primary care (10 physiotherapy practices, one occupational health service, one occupational therapy practice) and secondary care (five hospitals). 134 adults aged 18-65 sick listed for at least 12 weeks owing to low back pain. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care (n=68) or integrated care (n=66). Integrated care consisted of a workplace intervention based on participatory ergonomics, involving a supervisor, and a graded activity programme based on cognitive behavioural principles. The primary outcome was the duration of time off work (work disability) due to low back pain until full sustainable return to work. Secondary outcome measures were intensity of pain and functional status. The median duration until sustainable return to work was 88 days in the integrated care group compared with 208 days in the usual care group (P=0.003). Integrated care was effective on return to work (hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.8, P=0.004). After 12 months, patients in the integrated care group improved significantly more on functional status compared with patients in the usual care group (P=0.01). Improvement of pain between the groups did not differ significantly. The integrated care programme substantially reduced disability due to chronic low back pain in private and working life. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28478651.

  12. Integrational Models and Forms of Inter-State Public-Private Partnership: Aspects of Financial Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA KULAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examined the main models and forms of public-private partnership, their role in the socio-economic development and deepening of financial convergence of countries-participants of the partnership. The attention was paid to decentralization of inter-state forms of public-private partnership as the basis of cross-border and transnational partnership. The scientific research, described in this publication, have found their practical application in the realization of the project within Euro-region “Bug”. This project has founded a joined Ukrainian – Polish institution of labor migration administration and also of granting necessary permissions for realization activities within Ukraine.

  13. Enhance the sustainability of private land transport system at Ayer Keroh, Melaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Heoy Shin; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Yang, Yu Xin Ou

    2017-03-01

    Ayer Keroh Toll that under the administration of Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is the main entrance for the people to enter to the city from North-South Expressway. This situation causes congestion to happen in this area especially during weekend and holiday and lead to air pollution. Hence, it is important to solve this problem beginning with the transport system and brings the city toward the sustainable way by learning the foreign city experience. In this research, the researchers start to revise the case study from foreign city councils on what and how they improve their cities transport system in term of sustainability. There are total of 17 case studies been studied including the cities that recognize with Sustainable Transport Award (STA) and other special activity and event that held worldwide. These cases studied are merged with the behavioral modification. There are four methods of changing behavior: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Besides, the data from the administrative staff (HTJMC's officer) also important to success the planning. There are 16 officers that involved in this research and the data that obtained is used as the primary data resources. By knowing the behavioral modification and suggestion that brought by each case studies, the researchers will conclude whether the solution practicable in Ayer Keroh, Melaka or not. Throughout the research, the researchers can conclude that the not all the foreign experience is practical in Ayer, Keroh, Melaka due to the problem of weather, culture and technology that available in the city. The experience from foreign city cannot be exactly to implement in the city but need to redesign to match culture in the city.

  14. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cope

    Full Text Available Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong, and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights, were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy.

  15. Metropolitan ITS integration : a cross-cutting study : working together to improve transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform transportation managers and decision-makers of the value of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) integration. The report is intended for operations and planning departments of transportation-related agencie...

  16. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    The research project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), was approved in the 7th Framework Programme, in the Joint Call ICT and Security and started on 1st July 2009. The purpose of ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. The transportation sector's components are susceptible to the consequences of natural disasters and can also be attractive as terrorist targets. The sector's size, its physically dispersed and decentralized nature, the many public and private entities involved in its operations, the critical importance of cost considerations, and the inherent requirement of convenient accessibility to its services by all users - make the transportation particularly vulnerable to security and safety threats. As well known, the surface transportation system consists of interconnected infrastructures including highways, transit systems, railroads, airports, waterways, pipelines and ports, and the vehicles, aircraft, and vessels that operate along these networks. Thus, interdependencies exist between transportation and nearly every other sector of the economy and the effective operation of this system is essential to the European economic productivity; therefore, transportation sector protection is of paramount importance since threats to it may impact other industries that rely on it. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite

  17. An Integrated Hybrid Transportation Architecture for Human Mars Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Chai, Patrick R.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture that uses both chemical and electric propulsion systems on the same vehicle to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By applying chemical and electrical propulsion where each is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper presents an integrated Hybrid in-space transportation architecture for piloted missions and delivery of cargo. A concept for a Mars campaign including orbital and Mars surface missions is described in detail including a system concept of operations and conceptual design. Specific constraints, margin, and pinch points are identified for the architecture and opportunities for critical path commercial and international collaboration are discussed.

  18. Integration of cabs and hired cars in urban transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer,

    1984-01-01

    Integrating taxis and limousine services into the public transit system has become a major goal in designing new forms of public transportation. Expanding the spectrum of possible use for these vehicles - for both scheduled and on-demand service - requires, first of all, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the current state of affairs in this area. Administrative, organizational, technical, and legal issues as well as the respective traffic patterns had to be investigated. This investigation was to find out if, and in what ways, taxis and limousine services could actually be incorporated into the public transit system. In addition, the results were interpreted against the background of experiments and tentative models for regular, scheduled and supplementary public transit. As a result, we developed a generalized concept for integrating the two systems and proposed possible forms of service, organization, and financial calculation. Included were legal issues and comments on contractual relations between the partners.

  19. Integrated risk management of safety and development on transportation corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thekdi, Shital A.; Lambert, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Prioritization of investments to protect safety and performance of multi-regional transportation networks from adjacent land development is a key concern for infrastructure agencies, land developers, and other stakeholders. Despite ample literature describing relationships between transportation and land use, no evidence-based methods exist for monitoring corridor needs on a large scale. Risk analysis is essential to the preservation of system safety and capacity, including avoidance of costly retrofits, regret, and belated action. This paper introduces the Corridor Trace Analysis (CTA) for prioritizing corridor segments that are vulnerable to adjacent land development. The method integrates several components: (i) estimation of likelihood of adjacent land development, using influence diagram and rule-based modeling, (ii) characterization of access point density using geospatial methods, and (iii) plural-model evaluation of corridors, monitoring indices of land development likelihood, access point densities, and traffic volumes. The results inform deployment of options that include closing access points, restricting development, and negotiation of agencies and developers. The CTA method is demonstrated on a region encompassing 6000 centerline miles (about 10,000 km) of transportation corridors. The method will be of interest to managers investing in safety and performance of infrastructure systems, balancing safety, financial, and other criteria of concern for diverse stakeholders. - Highlights: • The Corridor Trace Analysis (CTA) method for prioritizing transportation corridors. • The CTA method studies corridors vulnerable to adjacent land development. • The CTA method quantifies the influence of risk scenarios on agency priorities. • The CTA method is demonstrated on 6000 miles of critical transportation corridor

  20. Planning for Integrated Transport in Indonesia: Some Lessons from the UK’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Sunitiyoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion has been a major problem in many cities in Indonesia, thus requiring abetter transport policy. Many developed countries, including the United Kingdom, has beenimplementing the integrated transport policy to replace traditional transport policy that focuson only building roads to anticipate traffic demand. This paper provides a highlight on theimplementation of integrated transport policy in the United Kingdom. Some key issues thatcan be learnt by the Indonesian government from their experience are discussed. This includesthe integration within and between all types of transport, integration with land use planning,integration with environment policy and integration with policies for education, health andwealth creations. In the implementation, the policy requires continuity and stability inorganization and politics, coordination in local transport plans, more devolution on powerand revenue funding from the government in addition to capital funding.Key words: traffic congestion, integrated transport policy

  1. Integral Transport Theory in One-dimensional Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I

    1966-06-15

    A method called DIT (Discrete Integral Transport) has been developed for the numerical solution of the transport equation in one-dimensional systems. The characteristic features of the method are Gaussian integration over the coordinate as described by Kobayashi and Nishihara, and a particular scheme for the calculation of matrix elements in annular and spherical geometry that has been used for collision probabilities in earlier Flurig programmes. The paper gives a general theory including such things as anisotropic scattering and multi-pole fluxes, and it gives a brief description of the Flurig scheme. Annular geometry is treated in some detail, and corresponding formulae are given for spherical and plane geometry. There are many similarities between DIT and the method of collision probabilities. DIT is in many cases faster, because for a certain accuracy in the fluxes DIT often needs fewer space points than the method of collision probabilities needs regions. Several computer codes using DIT, both one-group and multigroup, have been written. It is anticipated that experience gained in calculations with these codes will be reported in another paper.

  2. Methodology for coupling computational fluid dynamics and integral transport neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J. W.; Zhong, Z.; Sofu, T.; Downar, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    The CFD code STAR-CD was coupled to the integral transport code DeCART in order to provide high-fidelity, full physics reactor simulations. An interface program was developed to perform the tasks of mapping the STAR-CD mesh to the DeCART mesh, managing all communication between STAR-CD and DeCART, and monitoring the convergence of the coupled calculations. The interface software was validated by comparing coupled calculation results with those obtained using an independently developed interface program. An investigation into the convergence characteristics of coupled calculations was performed using several test models on a multiprocessor LINUX cluster. The results indicate that the optimal convergence of the coupled field calculation depends on several factors, to include the tolerance of the STAR-CD solution and the number of DeCART transport sweeps performed before exchanging data between codes. Results for a 3D, multi-assembly PWR problem on 12 PEs of the LINUX cluster indicate the best performance is achieved when the STAR-CD tolerance and number of DeCART transport sweeps are chosen such that the two fields converge at approximately the same rate. (authors)

  3. Integral indicator for evaluating system of material motivation employees of state and private enterprises in the construction sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotkina Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modeling mechanism for evaluation the labor contribution of Russian employees of public and private enterprises in the construction sector based on an analysis of current problems in the remuneration of the government. There was also taken into account the state of motivation system and job satisfaction of human resources in the executive authorities in the subject of Russian Federation (on an example of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug - YaNAO. The survey was dedicated to revealing preferences of civil servants in matters of career growth, professional development. On the basis of the quota survey of civil servants using absentee (dispenser survey, conducted in July-September 2015 in Yamalo-Nenets, the following conclusions were formulated. The study has found that enrollment in the personnel reserve is not an effective measure to motivate public servants since it functions mostly just formally. Of particular importance are such working conditions as “remuneration dependence on the actual results” and “Personal responsibility for specific areas of activity”, which is directly linked with the possibility to receive appropriate remuneration. Authors propose an integral indicator for assessing labor contribution of an employee of public and private enterprises of the construction sector in order to improve financial motivation and increase the level of interest, which is based on the principles of economic and mathematical modeling.

  4. The role of calling EMS versus using private transportation in improving the management of stroke in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gache, Kristel; Couralet, Melanie; Nitenberg, Gérard; Leleu, Henri; Minvielle, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    To compare the time from symptom onset to brain imaging between patients calling emergency medical services (EMS) and those using private means for transportation. We focused on symptom onset-to-brain imaging times of ≤2 hours and ≤3 hours 30 minutes, assuming a one-hour interval between imaging and thrombolysis. Other variables were the patient's age, gender, stroke type, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, presence of an on-site stroke unit, and period of symptom onset. Univariate analyses and a hierarchical linear regression model were used, as appropriate, and adjusted for these variables. A total of 1,105 stroke patients (28%) were included in the analyses, 40.6% of them transported by EMS. Patients using EMS were significantly older (72.8 vs. 70.5 years; p = 0.008), they had a higher NIHSS score (8 vs. 6.1; p = 0.0001), fewer were ischemic (85.1% vs. 90.6%; p = 0.005), and more of them reached hospitals with an on-site stroke unit (81.3% vs. 72.9%; p = 0.002). For the EMS-call patients, the median symptom onset-to-brain imaging time was significantly shorter (3 hours 21 minutes vs. 5 hours 57 minutes), and after adjustment, maximum delays of 2 hours and 3 hours 30 minutes were independently associated with EMS call: 28% vs. 18% (p = 0.015) and 66% vs. 45% (p < 0.0001) of patients, respectively, leading to an adjusted odds ratio of 2.77 (95% confidence interval, 2.007-3.828; p < 0.0001) for the threshold of 3 hours 30 minutes. The symptom onset-to-brain imaging time was significantly shorter in case of EMS transportation, but most patients did not reach the hospital in time to be eligible for thrombolysis. Efforts are still needed to reduce delays, especially public education and EMS activation. These efforts should be combined with new approaches for the quality management of stroke patients.

  5. An integrated approach to transportation policy in BC : assessing greenhouse gas reductions opportunities in freight transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, B.; Ries, F.; Reynolds, C.; Mazzi, E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Resources, Environment and Sustainability; Lim, C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Bureau of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Freight Security; Dowlatabadi, H. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Resources, Environment and Sustainability; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Liu Inst. for Global Issues

    2008-11-15

    This paper presented an integrated assessment for the design of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction policies in British Columbia (BC) with particular reference to the drivers of GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Transportation services are central to the movement of goods and people in modern economies and their provision involves tradeoffs between economic benefits, health effects, and social and environmental impacts. More than a dozen BC initiatives were reviewed, with a specific focus on freight movement. The paper emphasized that consequences of proposals such as low carbon fuel standards need to be carefully assessed, along with mandated vehicle technologies, congestion fees and investment in alternative transportation infrastructure. The Activity, Modal Share, Intensity and Fuel (ASIF) framework was shown to provide insight into drivers of GHG emissions and the potential impact of policy decisions. The framework refers to factors such as the amount of kilometres traveled, share of activity per mode of travel, energy intensity, and GHG emissions per unit of energy for fuel type used in the transportation mode. The relationship between factors indicates that GHG emissions increase as energy intensity increases and as the carbon intensity of fuel increases. The overall intensity of the fleet depends greatly on vehicle composition and the share of travel between different modes. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Public Participation Procedure in Integrated Transport and Green Infrastructure Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finka, Maroš; Ondrejička, Vladimír; Jamečný, Ľubomír; Husár, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The dialogue among the decision makers and stakeholders is a crucial part of any decision-making processes, particularly in case of integrated transportation planning and planning of green infrastructure where a multitude of actors is present. Although the theory of public participation is well-developed after several decades of research, there is still a lack of practical guidelines due to the specificity of public participation challenges. The paper presents a model of public participation for integrated transport and green infrastructure planning for international project TRANSGREEN covering the area of five European countries - Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary and Romania. The challenge of the project is to coordinate the efforts of public actors and NGOs in international environment in oftentimes precarious projects of transport infrastructure building and developing of green infrastructure. The project aims at developing and environmentally-friendly and safe international transport network. The proposed public participation procedure consists of five main steps - spread of information (passive), collection of information (consultation), intermediate discussion, engagement and partnership (empowerment). The initial spread of information is a process of communicating with the stakeholders, informing and educating them and it is based on their willingness to be informed. The methods used in this stage are public displays, newsletters or press releases. The second step of consultation is based on transacting the opinions of stakeholders to the decision makers. Pools, surveys, public hearings or written responses are examples of the multitude of ways to achieve this objective and the main principle of openness of stakeholders. The third step is intermediate discussion where all sides of are invited to a dialogue using the tools such as public meetings, workshops or urban walks. The fourth step is an engagement based on humble negotiation, arbitration and

  7. Direct integration multiple collision integral transport analysis method for high energy fusion neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new analysis method specially suited for the inherent difficulties of fusion neutronics was developed to provide detailed studies of the fusion neutron transport physics. These studies should provide a better understanding of the limitations and accuracies of typical fusion neutronics calculations. The new analysis method is based on the direct integration of the integral form of the neutron transport equation and employs a continuous energy formulation with the exact treatment of the energy angle kinematics of the scattering process. In addition, the overall solution is analyzed in terms of uncollided, once-collided, and multi-collided solution components based on a multiple collision treatment. Furthermore, the numerical evaluations of integrals use quadrature schemes that are based on the actual dependencies exhibited in the integrands. The new DITRAN computer code was developed on the Cyber 205 vector supercomputer to implement this direct integration multiple-collision fusion neutronics analysis. Three representative fusion reactor models were devised and the solutions to these problems were studied to provide suitable choices for the numerical quadrature orders as well as the discretized solution grid and to understand the limitations of the new analysis method. As further verification and as a first step in assessing the accuracy of existing fusion-neutronics calculations, solutions obtained using the new analysis method were compared to typical multigroup discrete ordinates calculations

  8. The Integrated Approach versus the Traditional Approach: Analyzing the Benefits of a Dance and Transportation Integrated Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a dance and transportation integrated curriculum on student learning and engagement. The curriculum, entitled Consequences of Our Actions: Dance and Transportation, synthesized transportation content with the art form of dance. The experimental and control groups were comprised of fifth-grade…

  9. Numerical method for solving integral equations of neutron transport. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyalka, S.K.; Tsai, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In a recent paper it was pointed out that the weakly singular integral equations of neutron transport can be quite conveniently solved by a method based on subtraction of singularity. This previous paper was devoted entirely to the consideration of simple one-dimensional isotropic-scattering and one-group problems. The present paper constitutes interesting extensions of the previous work in that in addition to a typical two-group anisotropic-scattering albedo problem in the slab geometry, the method is also applied to an isotropic-scattering problem in the x-y geometry. These results are compared with discrete S/sub N/ (ANISN or TWOTRAN-II) results, and for the problems considered here, the proposed method is found to be quite effective. Thus, the method appears to hold considerable potential for future applications. (auth)

  10. Extending helicopter operations to meet future integrated transportation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn

    2016-03-01

    Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Aging Evaluation Programs for Jet Transport Aircraft Structural Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with criteria and procedures in evaluationof timely preventive maintenance recommendations that willsupport continued safe operation of aging jet transports untiltheir retirement from service. The active service life of commercialaircraft has increased in recent years as a result of low fuelcost, and increasing costs and delivery times for fleet replacements.Air transport industry consensus is that older jet transportswill continue in service despite anticipated substantial increasesin required maintenance. Design concepts, supportedby testing, have worked well due to the system that is used to ensureflying safety. Continuing structural integrity by inspectionand overhaul recommendation above the level contained inmaintenance and service bulletins is additional requirement, insuch cases. Airplane structural safety depends on the performanceof all participants in the system and the responsibility forsafety cannot be delegated to a single participant. This systemhas three major participants: the manufacturers who design,build and support airplanes in service, the airlines who operate,inspect and mantain airplanes and the airworthiness authoritieswho establish rules and regulations, approve the design andpromote airline maintenance performance.

  12. The Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simeone, Jr, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    .... Virtual public-private partnerships (VP3s) offer local law enforcement agencies an effective and efficient way to leverage a vast and resourceful private sector for the purpose of enhancing ILP...

  13. Integrating climate change into the transportation planning process : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to advance the practice and application of transportation planning among state, regional, and local transportation planning agencies to successfully meet growing concerns about the relationship between transportation an...

  14. Analysis and integration of spatial data for transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Transportation planning requires substantial amounts of data and cooperation among transportation planning : agencies. Advances in computer technology and the increasing availability of geographic information : systems (GIS) are giving transportation...

  15. Development of a conceptual framework toward an integrated transportation system : final report, April 10, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-10

    This report documents research on the conceptual framework of an integrated transportation system with a prototype application under the framework. Three levels of control are involved in this framework: at the global level (an entire transportation ...

  16. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, Georgia Tech's School of Aerospace Engineering was awarded a NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) to address 'Integrated Design and Manufacturing for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)' in its graduate aerospace systems design courses. This report summarizes the results of the five courses incorporated into the Georgia Tech's USRA ADP program. It covers AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering, AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD, AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost, AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One, and AE6352: Aerospace Systems Design Two. AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering was an introductory course addressing the basic principles of concurrent engineering (CE) or integrated product development (IPD). The design of a total system was not the objective of this course. The goal was to understand and define the 'up-front' customer requirements, their decomposition, and determine the value objectives for a complex product, such as the high speed civil transport (HSCT). A generic CE methodology developed at Georgia Tech was used for this purpose. AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost addressed the basic economic issues for an HSCT using a robust design technique, Taguchi's parameter design optimization method (PDOM). An HSCT economic sensitivity assessment was conducted using a Taguchi PDOM approach to address the robustness of the basic HSCT design. AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD permitted students to develop and utilize CAE/CAD/CAM knowledge and skills using CATIA and CADAM as the basic geometric tools. AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One focused on the conceptual design refinement of a baseline HSCT configuration as defined by Boeing, Douglas, and NASA in their system studies. It required the use of NASA's synthesis codes FLOPS and ACSYNT. A criterion called the productivity index (P.I.) was used to evaluate disciplinary sensitivities and provide refinements of the baseline HSCT

  17. Research on the Special Railway Intelligence Transportation Hierarchy and System Integration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jie WANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid development of information technology in the field of railway transportation, the problems of establishing a digital, integrated and intelligent special railway system need to be solved immediately. This paper designs and implements the intelligent transportation information system based on the unique pattern of transportation organization, the characteristics of transportation operations and the workflow of special railway. Through the detailed analysis of system architecture and framework design, the main subsystems and the internal comprehensive integrated principle, business system from a system integration perspective of the special railway is optimized, which can be able to realize the integration of all kinds of information resources. The implementation of integration and the special railway intelligent system is a great change in terms of maximizing transportation capacity, improving efficiency and guaranteeing the safety of special railway transportation.

  18. Review of the Effects of Normal Conditions of Transport on Spent Fuel Integrity in Transportation Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junggoo; Yoo, Youngik; Lee, Seongki; Lim, Chaejoon [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Spent fuel(SF) storage capacity of each domestic nuclear power plant will reach a saturated state in the near future. Although there are several methods of SF disposal, interim storage is suggested as the most realistic and promising alternative. SF integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in Part 71 of Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 of the U..S. NRC licensing requirement. In this paper, the report is reviewed written by EPRI in US and it is helpful to a development of domestic SF integrity evaluation technology. EPRI report about integrity evaluation method on normal conditions of high burn-up spent fuel transport is reviewed. First, dynamic forces occurred in one-foot side drop are calculated. And deformation patterns and fuel rods responses by dynamic forces calculated from spent fuel and cask model are analyzed. It is shown that the damage of fuel rods is not occurred by the dynamic forces on normal conditions. Assembly distortion is not predicted, by virtue of the facts that the spacer grids do not experience significant permanent deformation. Axial forces, bending moments and pinch forces of fuel rods are calculated and compared with the results under the hypothetical accident conditions. No occurrence of transverse tearing mode that is the most serious damage mode in side drop case is predicted. Till now, in Korea, regulatory requirements related with structural integrity of spent fuel are not specified such as 10CFR71. To establish own regulation standards, producing and analyzing sufficient experimental data must be performed preferentially. Based on this, failure analysis and criteria establishment are necessary through modeling and analyzing of spent fuel.

  19. Utilization of a state run public private emergency transportation service exclusively for childbirth: the Janani (maternal) Express program in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n = 104) experienced a transport related delay. The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY.

  20. “Green” fuel tax on private transportation services and subsidies to electric energy. A model-based assessment for the main European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartocci, Anna; Pisani, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental and macroeconomic implications for France, Germany, Italy and Spain of taxing motor vehicle fuels for private transportation, a sector not subject to the Emissions Trading System, so as to reduce taxes on electricity consumption and increase subsidies to renewable sources of electricity generation. The assessment is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model calibrated for each of the four countries. The results suggest that the measures posited will reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the transportation sector and favor the development of electricity generation from renewable sources, thus limiting the growth of emissions from electricity generation. The measures do not jeopardize economic activity. The results are robust whether implementation is unilateral in one country or simultaneous throughout the EU. - Highlights: • The European Union's Agenda 2020 calls for member countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase renewable energy. • We evaluate implications in the EU of taxing fuels for private transportation, reducing taxes on electricity and increase subsidies to renewable sources of electricity. • The assessment is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model. • The measures reduce emissions, in particular in the transportation sector, favor electricity generation from renewable sources and do not jeopardize economic activity

  1. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerr, R. Joseph, E-mail: rjz116@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Azmy, Yousry Y., E-mail: yyazmy@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Burlington Engineering Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  2. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerr, R. Joseph; Azmy, Yousry Y.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  3. Basic tests on integrity evaluation for natural hexafluoride transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomi, Yoshio; Yamakawa, Hidetsugu; Kato, Osamu; Kobayashi, Seiichi

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the affected factors that needed to integrity evaluation for UF 6 transporting 48Y cylinder, were confirmed by basic tests and preliminary analysis. The factors were the sealing parts and external surface emissivity that ruled both the behavior under fire accident condition and the fire resistance capability of the cylinder, and the external pressure resistance capability at the sunk accident. The results obtained as follows. (1) Confirming tests for fire resistance of cylinder valve and plug, seat leakage of the valve caused at 150 degrees C. by unequal thermal expansion between the valve body and the stem. The tin-lead solder coating the tapered thread of valve and plug, melted at 200 degrees C., then the sealing boundary broke. (2) An external emissivity influence to radiation heat transfer measured with test pieces heated by electric oven. The covered paints of the specimen burned and separated, the emissivity changed 0.4 to 0.6, dependent on the surrounding temperature. Type 48Y cylinder filled with 12.5 tons of UF 6 and the measured emissivity was used the computer code analysis. The hydraulic breaking did not happen under the fire accident condition at 800 degrees C., for 30 minutes. (3) The external pressure test of the valve endured the hydrostatic pressure at 3000 meters, which corresponded to about five times the cylinder body buckling strength. (author)

  4. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  5. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  6. Internal medicine network: a new way of thinking hospital-territory integration and public-private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Pietrantonio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This working proposal aims to establish an Internal Medicine Network (IMN model for the appropriate management of the poly-pathological complex patient in the different phases of his illness natural hystory. The IMN is based on an organization recalling the Hub and Spoke system already used for existing specialized networks. The Internal Medicine Unit (IMU is the natural destination of acutely ill patients suffering from systemic or multi-organ diseases. Three are the IMU specific tasks: i to stabilize acute, severe, poly-pathologic and complex patients; ii to develop difficult etiological diagnosis in these patients and in those who should necessarily be admitted to the hospital, not being possible, for different reasons, alternative routes; iii to select the acute poly-pathological complex patient’s priorities. The expected results of a new model of integration system inside the IMN are: i reduction and rationalization of expenditure in the medical area, increasing effectiveness, quality and safety guaranteeing patient centrality; ii patients stratification based on characteristics of gravity, acute illness, estimated duration of hospitalization; iii reduction of inappropriate hospital admissions ensuring connections between hospital and primary care units; iv definition of different care pathways for patients hospitalized due to non-communicable diseases; v implementation of new common medical records. The public-private partnership inside the IMN could be able to increase appropriateness reducing health costs. Patient-centered problems assessment, together with integration, cooperation, coordination and effective communication are some simple rules useful to achieve tangible results in a complex system and the IMN model represents its practical application.

  7. Integrity management, hydrocarbons transport: NAG 100-RES 1460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, Jose Mauricio; Soula, Gerardo [GIE S.A., Lima (Peru)

    2009-12-19

    In May, 2007, a series of tasks were implemented in the actives of the client at Patagonia, Argentina, with the purpose of applying a Pipeline Integrity System. The purpose of this system is to effectively operate their facilities in such a way that no adverse effects are suffered by their employees, the environment, or the public at large, which is one of the main goals followed by any oil pipeline operator. In this paper, all tasks, inspections, controls and records made by the operator about gas and liquid hydrocarbons Pipelines contemplated by local requirements, NAG 100 and Resolution 1460 are described. Firstly, a description of gas and liquid hydrocarbons transport systems was made. This description consisted in the recollection of basic information about construction, maintenance, operation and inspection. Later, tasks to complete the ILI process started by the company in the past were implemented. This implementation consisted in the analysis of inspections that were made, priority of anomalies to verify, definition of verifications, direct assessment and analysis of the results. A gap analysis was made with the purpose of stating the compliance level of the normative requirements for each system. This analysis consisted in the determination of the company's practices about applicable regulations. As a result of this, a series of duties were developed from the collection and integration of information, using the database that was already implemented by the company. A risk analysis was also made, based on the determination of the kind of events or adverse conditions that can make an impact in the oil pipeline, the possibilities that these events or condition can conduct to a failure, and the seriousness of the possible consequences that these failures can produce. With the results of the risk analysis, the Inspection plan developed by the company was refreshed and it resulted in an improvement Plan in data collection and identification of sensitive

  8. Women and Private Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  9. Private pensions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, L.; van Ewijk, C.

    2011-01-01

    Private pensions can enhance international and intergenerational risk-sharing and create a deeper European capital market, which allows for better diversification of country-specific risks and facilitates economic growth. Private funding of pensions creates a more integrated European capital market

  10. Choosing the route to traveler information systems deployment : decision factors for creating public/private business plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) are moving beyond the research stage to become fully integrated elements of urban transportation management systems. By definition, ATIS work best when multiple public and private organizations are able to...

  11. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  12. Optimal solution of full fuzzy transportation problems using total integral ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam’an, M.; Farikhin; Hariyanto, S.; Surarso, B.

    2018-03-01

    Full fuzzy transportation problem (FFTP) is a transportation problem where transport costs, demand, supply and decision variables are expressed in form of fuzzy numbers. To solve fuzzy transportation problem, fuzzy number parameter must be converted to a crisp number called defuzzyfication method. In this new total integral ranking method with fuzzy numbers from conversion of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to hexagonal fuzzy numbers obtained result of consistency defuzzyfication on symmetrical fuzzy hexagonal and non symmetrical type 2 numbers with fuzzy triangular numbers. To calculate of optimum solution FTP used fuzzy transportation algorithm with least cost method. From this optimum solution, it is found that use of fuzzy number form total integral ranking with index of optimism gives different optimum value. In addition, total integral ranking value using hexagonal fuzzy numbers has an optimal value better than the total integral ranking value using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.

  13. Modeling of capacitated transportation systems for integral scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by a planned automated cargo transportation network, we consider transportation problems in which the finite capacity of resources has to be taken into account. We present a flexible modeling methodology which allows to construct, evaluate, and improve feasible solutions. The modeling is

  14. Modeling of capacitated transportation systems for integral scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by a planned automated cargo transportation network, we consider transportation problems in which the finite capacity of resources has to be taken nto account. We present a flexible modeling methodology which allows to construct, evaluate, and improve feasible solutions. The modeling is

  15. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  16. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  17. Data integration for statewide transportation planning : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the data availability, accessibility, and interoperability issues arisen from the statewide : transportation planning activities undertaken at WisDOT and to identify possible approaches for addressing these i...

  18. Integrating Telco interoffice fiber transport with coaxial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Steven M.

    1993-02-01

    Real success in the residential broadband market is contingent on a platform that most efficiently shares broadband port costs while at the same time affords us an elegant, and cost efficient, upgrade from today's analog to tomorrow's digital world. Spectrum transport, whether it be over new or existing fiber/coax systems or FTTC, is that platform. It is compatible with today's home entertainment market, can be evolved to future digital transport, and effectively shares the cost of interfacing with a broadband network.

  19. Integration of packaging design and planning into transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, numerous programs, projects, and design concepts for packaging and materials production have taken place without all the principal participants being involved in the up-front planning process. Many major facilities and packagings have been designed without the involvement of Transportation professionals. Unfortunately, Transportation has been overlooked and in most cases is a critical element that should have been included in the Planning process. (J.P.N.)

  20. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  1. properties of the SN - equivalent integral transport operator in slab geometry and the iterative acceleration of neutron transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massimiliano, Rosa; Azmy, Y.Y.; Morel, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The general expressions for the matrix elements of the discrete Sn-equivalent integral transport operator have been derived in slab geometry. Their asymptotic behavior has been investigated both for a homogeneous slab and for a heterogeneous slab characterized by a periodic material discontinuity wherein each optically thick cell is surrounded by two optically thin cells in a repeating pattern. In the case of a homogeneous slab, the asymptotic analysis conducted in a diffusive limit obtained as the thick limit of computational cell size for a highly scattering medium, has shown that the discretized integral transport operator is approximated by a sparse matrix characterized by a tri-diagonal diffusion-like coupling stencil. Also, the tri-diagonal matrix structure, characteristic of the diffusion coupling stencil, is approached at a fast exponential rate. In the case of periodically heterogeneous slab configurations, the asymptotic behavior investigated is that in which the cells' optical thicknesses are pushed apart, i.e. the thick is made thicker while the thin is made thinner at a prescribed rate. It has been shown that in this limit the discretized integral transport operator is approximated by a penta-diagonal structure. Notwithstanding, the discrete operator is amenable to algebraic transformations leading to a matrix representation still asymptotically approaching a tri-diagonal structure at a fast exponential rate. The existence of a low order tri-diagonal approximation to the full discrete integral transport operator in the case of a periodically heterogeneous slab might provide a basic understanding of the superior convergence properties of diffusion-based acceleration schemes observed in slab geometry, even in the presence of sharp material discontinuities. The obtained results also suggest that a sparse approximation to the S n -equivalent integral transport operator might itself be used as the low-order operator in an acceleration scheme for the

  2. Integration of weather information in transportation management center operations : self-evaluation and planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    The Federal Highway Administrations Road Weather Management Program is helping to reduce the adverse impacts of weather on the transportation system by assisting agencies in integrating weather information and technologies into their daily Transpo...

  3. Organizational Change: A Study of the Integrated Customer Support System at United States Transportation Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Kim

    2001-01-01

    ...) System, a Customer Relationship Management solution. This strategic objective to integrate ICS into the Defense Transportation System working environment is an attempt to provide immediate and complete responsiveness to external customer needs...

  4. Discrete nodal integral transport-theory method for multidimensional reactor physics and shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.D.; Dorning, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A coarse-mesh discrete nodal integral transport theory method has been developed for the efficient numerical solution of multidimensional transport problems of interest in reactor physics and shielding applications. The method, which is the discrete transport theory analogue and logical extension of the nodal Green's function method previously developed for multidimensional neutron diffusion problems, utilizes the same transverse integration procedure to reduce the multidimensional equations to coupled one-dimensional equations. This is followed by the conversion of the differential equations to local, one-dimensional, in-node integral equations by integrating back along neutron flight paths. One-dimensional and two-dimensional transport theory test problems have been systematically studied to verify the superior computational efficiency of the new method

  5. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41200836X; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  6. Integral and Lagrangian simulations of particle and radiation transport in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christlieb, A J; Hitchon, W N G; Lawler, J E; Lister, G G

    2009-01-01

    Accurate integral and Lagrangian models of transport in plasmas, in which the models reflect the actual physical behaviour as closely as possible, are presented. These methods are applied to the behaviour of particles and photons in plasmas. First, to show how these types of models arise in a wide range of plasma physics applications, an application to radiation transport in a lighting discharge is given. The radiation transport is solved self-consistently with a model of the discharge to provide what are believed to be very accurate 1D simulations of fluorescent lamps. To extend these integral methods to higher dimensions is computationally very costly. The wide utility of 'treecodes' in solving massive integral problems in plasma physics is discussed, and illustrated in modelling vortex formation in a Penning trap, where a remarkably detailed simulation of vortex formation in the trap is obtained. Extension of treecode methods to other integral problems such as radiation transport is under consideration.

  7. Iterative resonance self-shielding methods using resonance integral table in heterogeneous transport lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Kim, Kang-Seog

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the iteration methods using resonance integral tables to estimate the effective resonance cross sections in heterogeneous transport lattice calculations. Basically, these methods have been devised to reduce an effort to convert resonance integral table into subgroup data to be used in the physical subgroup method. Since these methods do not use subgroup data but only use resonance integral tables directly, these methods do not include an error in converting resonance integral into subgroup data. The effective resonance cross sections are estimated iteratively for each resonance nuclide through the heterogeneous fixed source calculations for the whole problem domain to obtain the background cross sections. These methods have been implemented in the transport lattice code KARMA which uses the method of characteristics (MOC) to solve the transport equation. The computational results show that these iteration methods are quite promising in the practical transport lattice calculations.

  8. Development of a conceptual framework toward an integrated transportation system (continued).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    As a continuing effort documented in the first phase project UMAR19-13, this research focuses : on the design of a prototype application under the framework toward an Integrated : Transportation System. More specifically, this research aims at improv...

  9. Drop analysis for structural integrity evaluation of KJRR fuel transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yun Young; Lim, Jong Min; Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Ju Chan

    2016-01-01

    A fuel transport container for KiJang Research Reactor(KJRR) has been developed to transport fresh fuel assemblies and fission molly targets which are used for a research reactor built in Kijang. The KJRR fuel transport container is a type-A(F) container, which is defined in domestic and foreign regulations of a radioactive substance container. According to Nuclear Safety and Security Commission's notification, the container should meet the accident conditions defined in IAEA safety Standard Series, US NRC and etc. In this study, a structural integrity of the KJRR fuel transport container is evaluated by conducting computational analyses of 9-meter free drop and 1 meter puncture. It is confirmed that structural integrity of the KJRR fuel transport container can be maintained in the transportation accident condition. Hereafter, when the test model is produced, a safety test will be conducted and its result will be compared with the result of drop and puncture analyses.

  10. Experience in developing control integrated multilevel systems for gas transport; Developpement de systemes integres de gestion multi-niveaux pour le transport du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostyukov, V.Y. [NIIIS, (Russian Federation); Bityukov, V.S. [Gasprom, (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the experience of the integrated control multilevel system (IACS) development and implementation for gas transport at the regional enterprises of JSC 'Gasprom', specificity of IACS creation by the Russian enterprises on the basis of the technical and licensed basic software SCADA Geamatics purchased from AEG company under the contract. (authors)

  11. Transport coefficients for deeply inelastic scattering from the Feynman path integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.; Neto, J.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    Friction and diffusion coefficients can be derived simply by combining statistical arguments with the Feynman path integral method. A transport equation for Feynman's influence functional is obtained, and transport coefficients are deduced from it. The expressions are discussed in the limits of weak, and of strong coupling. (Auth.)

  12. Transport fuel demand responses to fuel price and income projections : Comparison of integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Emmerling, J.; Daly, H.; Kitous, A.; McCollum, D. L.; Saadi Failali, N.

    Income and fuel price pathways are key determinants in projections of the energy system in integrated assessment models. In recent years, more details have been added to the transport sector representation in these models. To better understand the model dynamics, this manuscript analyses transport

  13. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  14. Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    optimal investments in both power plants and vehicle technologies is presented in this article. The model includes the interactions between the power system and the transport system including the competition between flexibility measures such as hydrogen storage in combination with electrolysis, heat...... storage in combination with heat pumps and heat boilers, and plug-in electric vehicles....

  15. The integration of transportation with the energy system in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Beella, Satish Kumar

    were carried out in sequence. Firstly, a Chinese transport model has been created and approach reliability has been examined. Secondly, two scenarios, continued improvement (CI) scenario and accelerated improvement (AI) scenario, have been designed and evaluated. The results indicate that evident fuel...

  16. Modeling sediment transport with an integrated view of the biofilm effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. W.; Lai, H. J.; Cheng, W.; Huang, L.; He, G. J.

    2017-09-01

    Most natural sediment is invariably covered by biofilms in reservoirs and lakes, which have significant influence on bed form dynamics and sediment transport, and also play a crucial role in natural river evolution, pollutant transport, and habitat changes. However, most models for sediment transport are based on experiments using clean sediments without biological materials. In this study, a three-dimensional mathematical model of hydrodynamics and sediment transport is presented with a comprehensive consideration of the biofilm effects. The changes of the bed resistance mainly due to the different bed form dynamics of the biofilm-coated sediment (biosediment), which affect the hydrodynamic characteristics, are considered. Moreover, the variations of parameters related to sediment transport after the biofilm growth are integrated, including the significant changes of the incipient velocity, settling velocity, reference concentration, and equilibrium bed load transport rate. The proposed model is applied to evaluate the effects of biofilms on the hydrodynamic characteristics and sediment transport in laboratory experiments. Results indicate that the mean velocity increases after the biofilm growth, and the turbulence intensity near the river bed decreases under the same flow condition. Meanwhile, biofilm inhibits sediment from moving independently. Thus, the moderate erosion is observed for biosediment resulting in smaller suspended sediment concentrations. The proposed model can reasonably reflect these sediment transport characteristics with biofilms, and the approach to integration of the biological impact could also be used in other modeling of sediment transport, which can be further applied to provide references for the integrated management of natural aqueous systems.

  17. European Transportation Policy for better Integration. Shifting the Balance between the Modes of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for transportation and mobility of citizen gives raises the importance oftransportation policy. The development of the European transportation policy has a great significance for theEuropean Union. The common transportation policy of the European Union is reviewed and updated everynine years. The first common transportation policy of the European Commission was published in December1992. Besides the railway sector, most of the objectives listed in this policy were realized in ten years. In2001, the European Commission proffered a new transportation policy with sixty new measures. Thus, thispaper shows the importance of transportation projects -especially in the field of railways- for European Unionmember states. In accounting, cross-border sections of projects are more or less neglected, as member statestend to prioritize the development of sections of the projects, which are economically viable for themselves,thereby delaying the overall connectivity of the trans-European network. The railway modal is the hardestmodal to interoperate between the member countries. Therefore it is not a surprise that the objectives listed inthe first European transportation policy were not realized in the railway sector. There were enormousdifferences between railway systems before the European Union. Some of them still have an influence oncurrent railway infrastructure and operations today. To sum up, this research shall deal with the crucialaspects of common transportation policies as well as problems of its implications.

  18. Assessing policies towards sustainable transport in Europe: an integrated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    A transport simulation and forecast model is presented, which is designed for the assessment of policy options aiming to achieve sustainability in transportation. Starting from a simulation of the economic behaviour of consumers and producers within a microeconomic optimisation framework and the resulting calculation of the modal split, the allocation of the vehicle stock into vintages and technological groups is modelled. In a third step, a technology-oriented algorithm, which incorporates the relevant state-of-the-art knowledge in Europe, calculates emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases as well as appropriate indicators for traffic congestion, noise and road accidents. The paper outlines the methodology and the basic data sources used in connection with work done so far in Europe, presents the outlook according to a 'reference case' run for the 15 current European Union Member States up to 2030, displays aggregate results from a number of alternative scenarios and outlines elements of future work

  19. Effects of ICT Integration in Management of Private Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya: Policy Options and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyier, Charles Richard; Odundo, Paul Amollo; Lilian, Ganira Khavugwi; Wangui, Kahiga Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The convergence between telecommunication, broadcasting multimedia and related technologies commonly known as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), promises a fundamental change in educational management. ICT could be the missing tool in improving efficiency of private secondary schools to cope with rapidly changing world to…

  20. Cross border Classical Swine Fever control: Improving Dutch and German crisis management systems by an integrated public-private approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, O.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Schütz, V.; Brinkmann, D.; Petersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research approach is to analyse in which ways crisis management measures against Classical Swine Fever (CSF) can be improved by a public private cross border model. A core activity contains the analysis of information and communication systems: In a case study it has been

  1. Integrated spent fuel storage and transportation system using NUHOMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, R.; McConaghy, W.; Rosa, J.

    1990-01-01

    As utilities with nuclear power plants face increasing near term spent fuel store needs, various systems for dry storage such as the NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system are being implemented to augment existing spent fuel pool storage capacities. These decisions are based on a number of generic and utility specific considerations including both short term and long term economics. Since the US Department of Energy (DOE) is tasked by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act with the future responsibility of transporting spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility anchor a permanent geologic repository, the interfaces between the utilities at-reactor dry storage system and the DOE's away-from-reactor transportation system become important. This paper presents a study of the interfaces between the current at-reactor NUHOMS system and the future away-from-reactor DOE transportation system being developed under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  3. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-10-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.

  4. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    use are largely lost in the current fossil fuel dominated energy systems. Sustainable transport development requires solutions from an overall renewable energy system in which integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energy needs assistance. Technologies of alternative vehicle fuels...... in transport may play a role in furthering such integration. The objective of this research is to make a contribution to the development of methodologies to identify and develop future sustainable transport systems as well as to apply such methodologies to the case of China. In particular, the methodological...... development focuses on 1) identifying suitable transport technologies and strategies based on renewable energy and 2) evaluating such technologies from the perspective of overall renewable energy system integration. For this purpose, a methodological framework involving the research fields of both...

  5. Integrating wildfire plume rises within atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, D. V.; Kochanski, A.; Wu, D.; Urbanski, S. P.; Krueger, S. K.; Lin, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires can generate significant pyro-convection that is responsible for releasing pollutants, greenhouse gases, and trace species into the free troposphere, which are then transported a significant distance downwind from the fire. Oftentimes, atmospheric transport and chemistry models have a difficult time resolving the transport of smoke from these wildfires, primarily due to deficiencies in estimating the plume injection height, which has been highlighted in previous work as the most important aspect of simulating wildfire plume transport. As a result of the uncertainties associated with modeled wildfire plume rise, researchers face difficulties modeling the impacts of wildfire smoke on air quality and constraining fire emissions using inverse modeling techniques. Currently, several plume rise parameterizations exist that are able to determine the injection height of fire emissions; however, the success of these parameterizations has been mixed. With the advent of WRF-SFIRE, the wildfire plume rise and injection height can now be explicitly calculated using a fire spread model (SFIRE) that is dynamically linked with the atmosphere simulated by WRF. However, this model has only been tested on a limited basis due to computational costs. Here, we will test the performance of WRF-SFIRE in addition to several commonly adopted plume parameterizations (Freitas, Sofiev, and Briggs) for the 2013 Patch Springs (Utah) and 2012 Baker Canyon (Washington) fires, for both of which observations of plume rise heights are available. These plume rise techniques will then be incorporated within a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model (STILT) in order to simulate CO and CO2 concentrations during NASA's CARVE Earth Science Airborne Program over Alaska during the summer of 2012. Initial model results showed that STILT model simulations were unable to reproduce enhanced CO concentrations produced by Alaskan fires observed during 2012. Near-surface concentrations were drastically

  6. Integration of transport and handling equipment at CERN criteria to satisfy operational needs and safety aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, C; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Within the last 4 years TS-IC-HM (former ST-HM group) integrated about 150 transport and handling supplies including 29 cranes, 20 fork lift trucks, 60 tunnel vehicles. Most of these are standardised supplies, but very often special functionality has been implemented and the complexity of the equipment has been increased. With the Rocla cryo-dipol transporters even prototype equipment was integrated that had been specially designed for CERN. This paper discusses the differences regarding the actions that have to be performed when the different kind of equipment have to be integrated.

  7. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. The critically mixed methods of resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two part the first part (note CEA-N-2165) deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. These methods are applied for one-dimensional geometries with highly anisotropic scattering. In order to simplify the set of integral equation provided by the integral transport equation, the integro-differential equation is used to obtain relations that allow to lower the number of integral equation to solve; a general mathematical and numerical study is presented [fr

  8. Extension of Applicability of integral neutron transport theory in reactor cell and core investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Bosevski, T.; Kocic, A.; Altiparmakov, D.

    1980-01-01

    A Space-Point Energy-Group integral transport theory method (SPEG) is developed and applied to the local and global calculations of the Yugoslav RA reactor. Compared to other integral transport theory methods, the SPEG distinguishes by (1) the arbitrary order of the polynomial, (2) the effective determination of integral parameters through point flux values, (3) the use of neutron balance condition. as a posterior measure of the accuracy of the calculation and (4) the elimination of the subdivisions- into zones, in realistic cases. In addition, different direct (collision probability) and indirect (Monte Carlo) approaches to integral transport theory have been investigated and Some effective acceleration procedures introduced. The study was performed on three test problems in plane and cylindrical geometry, as well as on the nine-region cell of the RA reactor. In particular, the limitations of the integral transport theory including its non-applicability to optically large material regions and to global reactor calculations were examined. The proposed strictly multipoint approach, avoiding the subdivision into zones and groups, seems to provide a good starting point to overcome these limitations of the integral transport theory. (author)

  9. Normal and adjoint integral and integrodifferential neutron transport equations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.

    1976-01-01

    Using the simplifying hypotheses of the integrodifferential Boltzmann equations of neutron transport, given in JEN 334 report, several integral equations, and theirs adjoint ones, are obtained. Relations between the different normal and adjoint eigenfunctions are established and, in particular, proceeding from the integrodifferential Boltzmann equation it's found out the relation between the solutions of the adjoint equation of its integral one, and the solutions of the integral equation of its adjoint one (author)

  10. INTEGRATED TICKETING SYSTEM OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN JAKARTA VS VÄRMLAND, SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Himawan Ronggosusanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The heightened mobility of people in the DKI Jakarta province and surrounding area requires balance of the development public transport services. One of service attributes in public transportation is ticketing system. Currently, the ticketing system in Jakarta needs to be improved and still not integrated. Therefore, the importance to develop and implement a new integrated ticketing system to increase the competitiveness and attractiveness of public transports. It also gives an opportunity to the operators in order to implement several of ticket prices. There are some of barriers that faced by operators in development a new integrated ticketing system such as; institutional issue, resources integration, and financial problems. In order to describe and analyze the development of a new integrated ticketing system, this thesis uses a qualitative research approach and five sources of evidence i.e. documentation, archival records, an interview, direct and participant observations through a survey using the form of questionnaires that distributed to the public transport users. Further, this study also uses the case of Värmlandstrafik AB as the comparative study and the theoretical basis of the new services development as an approach to assess the possibility of implement a new integrated ticketing system. It aims to investigate the ticketing system phenomenon using information and data observations as materials to analyze, explore, and provide depth explanation. By analyzing data from a survey of passengers, this study gave a description and explanation related the characteristic and the travel behavior of passenger, also an assessment of ticketing system that underlies the development a new integrated ticketing system. Then, using the comparative case study of Värmlandstrafik AB that already implement an integrated ticketing system and the self-services in provision of public transport services gave an analysis what needs to prepare for implement a

  11. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  12. Privat boligudlejning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2008-01-01

    for private udlejningsboligers pris, økonomi og kvalitet. Det økonomiske afkast af investering i private udlejningsejendomme har været højt i de sidste 10 år, men fortrinsvist pga. værdistigninger. For tiden er disse gået i stå, hvilket gør den økonomiske fremtid for den private udlejningssektor mindre...

  13. Integrated heat transport simulation of high ion temperature plasma of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sakai, A.

    2014-10-01

    A first dynamical simulation of high ion temperature plasma with carbon pellet injection of LHD is performed by the integrated simulation GNET-TD + TASK3D. NBI heating deposition of time evolving plasma is evaluated by the 5D drift kinetic equation solver, GNET-TD and the heat transport of multi-ion species plasma (e, H, He, C) is studied by the integrated transport simulation code, TASK3D. Achievement of high ion temperature plasma is attributed to the 1) increase of heating power per ion due to the temporal increase of effective charge, 2) reduction of effective neoclassical transport with impurities, 3) reduction of turbulence transport. The reduction of turbulence transport is most significant contribution to achieve the high ion temperature and the reduction of the turbulent transport from the L-mode plasma (normal hydrogen plasma) is evaluated to be a factor about five by using integrated heat transport simulation code. Applying the Z effective dependent turbulent reduction model we obtain a similar time behavior of ion temperature after the C pellet injection with the experimental results. (author)

  14. Private prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.

  15. Private shippers' efforts to transport spent nuclear fuel and waste by rail: the Interstate Commerce Commission cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F. II

    1978-01-01

    While the nuclear industry is beset on many sides by opposition and uncertainty, notable success has been achieved to date by fighting railroads that would impose onerous restrictions on the transportation of nuclear materials on their own battleground. Regardless of how commercial spent nuclear fuel is ultimately handled, it must eventually be shipped from reactor sites. The most efficient method for doing this is generally by railroad. The railroads of the Nation have contended either that they are not common carriers for the transportation of radioactive materials, or if common carriers, that the carriage must be by the use of special trains and special operating procedures at great additional expense. The rationale for this railroad position has been principally one of concern with regard to the hazards presented and the adequacy of safety regulations and insurance-indemnity coverage. The nuclear industry, realizing that, if the railroads prevailed, the added cost per year by the mid-1980s could be about $600 million and that extensive safety precautions had been provided, challenged the railroads' positions before the Interstate Commerce Commission. This paper will describe the position of the nuclear industry in opposing unnecessary restrictions sought to be imposed by the railroads, including the uncertainties presented by the lack of published tariffs, the risks of carriage with and without added requirements, the insurance-indemnity coverage available, and the need for railroad transportation. As of this time, the Interstate Commerce Commission has concurred with the position of the nuclear shippers and has found the railroads' positions unreasonable and in violation of applicable laws. This legal battle, however, will continue until finally concluded by the ICC or by the courts if appeals are taken

  16. «Life Cycle Contract» in the field of Transport Infrastructure – the New Public-Private Partnership Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica V. Turgeneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to analyze the Russian experience in using public-private partnership mechanism (further – PPP for the supply and maintenance of rolling stock for Moscow public transport vehicle fleet under the «Life Сycle Сontract» (further – LLC. Overview of LLC, benefits, strengths and weakness identification are needed to achieve the objectives. Methods: methodological and theoretical background of the article based on feasibility study of LCC implementation projects as well as practical experience of LCC in CUE «Mosgortrans» and CUE «Moscow Metro». Information based on official data from Ministry of Economic development of the RF, Moscow Mayor official website, Moscow City Investment Agency. Results: research into LCC in PPP system, strengths and weaknesses identification will allow to minimize risks and to improve system. Conclusions and Relevance: this article proves that LCC model under the tready of of rolling stock procurement and maintenance contracts for Moscow public transport can provide a city with the new generation rolling stock, increase comfort and safety, obtain additional reliability assurance and timekeeping, remain high properties of rolling stock during exploitation period. 

  17. Application of NUHOMS to an integrated MRS/transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.M.; Lehnert, R.A.; Quinn, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that storage of spent fuel a reactor sites in weld sealed canisters has been increasing steadily since 1989, with three utilities now having ISFSIs which employ the NUHOMS technology. Expansion of existing Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs) and implementation of new ones will result in a substantial fraction of the at-reactor spent fuel inventory in dry storage canisters by 1998 and beyond. Since the same technology is readily applicable to the MRS, it is advantageous to transfer canisters directly from the ISFSI to the MRS for storage thee without the need to reopen the canisters or rehandle the fuel. A store-only MRS offers the possibility of a simple, economical facility which can more easily be demonstrated to be temporary and environmentally benign. Transportation of an intact canister is feasible in a shipping cask of conventional design that is compatible with existing railcars and railroad interchange rules. The use of canisterized fuel also has advantages for eventual shipment and disposal at the federal repository

  18. Renewable Hydrogen-Economically Viable: Integration into the U.S. Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Peters, Mike; Muratori, Matteo; Gearhart, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The U.S. transportation sector is expected to meet numerous goals in differing applications. These goals address security, safety, fuel source, emissions reductions, advanced mobility models, and improvements in quality and accessibility. Solutions to meeting these goals include a variety of alternative-fuel technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, synthetic fuels, and biofuels, as well as modifying how current transportation systems are used and integrating new systems, such as storing renewable energy. Overall, there are many combinations of problems, objectives, and solutions.

  19. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  20. Design of integrated autopilot/autothrottle for NASA TSRV airplane using integral LQG methodology. [transport systems research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Isaac; Benson, Russell A.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle control system has been developed for the NASA transport system research vehicle using a two-degree-of-freedom approach. Based on this approach, the feedback regulator was designed using an integral linear quadratic regulator design technique, which offers a systematic approach to satisfy desired feedback performance requirements and guarantees stability margins in both control and sensor loops. The resulting feedback controller was discretized and implemented using a delta coordinate concept, which allows for transient free controller switching by initializing all controller states to zero and provides a simple solution for dealing with throttle limiting cases.

  1. Integral Transport Analysis Results for Ions Flowing Through Neutral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Gilbert; Santarius, John

    2017-10-01

    Results of a computational model for the flow of energetic ions and neutrals through a background neutral gas will be presented. The method models reactions as creating a new source of ions or neutrals if the energy or charge state of the resulting particle is changed. For a given source boundary condition, the creation and annihilation of the various species is formulated as a 1-D Volterra integral equation that can quickly be solved numerically by finite differences. The present work focuses on multiple-pass, 1-D ion flow through neutral gas and a nearly transparent, concentric anode and cathode pair in spherical, cylindrical, or linear geometry. This has been implemented as a computer code for atomic (3He, 3He +, 3He + +) and molecular (D, D2, D-, D +, D2 +, D3 +) ion and neutral species, and applied to modeling inertial-electrostatic connement (IEC) devices. The code yields detailed energy spectra of the various ions and energetic neutral species. Calculations for several University of Wisconsin IEC and ion implantation devices will be presented. Research supported by US Dept. of Homeland Security Grant 2015-DN-077-ARI095, Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG02-04ER54745, and the Grainger Foundation.

  2. Transition flow ion transport via integral Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcie, T.E.

    1983-10-01

    A new approach is developed to solve the Integral Boltzmann Equation for the evolving velocity distribution of a source of ions, undergoing electrostatic acceleration through a neutral gas target. The theory is applicable to arbitrarily strong electric fields, any ion/neutral mass ratio greater than unity, and is not limited to spatially isotropic gas targets. A hard sphere collision model is used, with a provision for inelasticity. Both axial and radial velocity distributions are calculated for applications where precollision radial velocities are negligible, as is the case for ion beam extractions from high pressure sources. Theoretical predictions are tested through an experiment in which an atmospheric pressure ion source is coupled to a high vacuum energy analyser. Excellent agreement results for configurations in which the radial velocity remains small. Velocity distributions are applied to predicting the efficiency of coupling an atmospheric pressure ion source to a quadrupole mass spectrometer and results clearly indicate the most desirable extracting configuration. A method is devised to calculate ion-molecule hard sphere collision cross sections for easily fragmented organic ions

  3. Integrated transport code system for a multicomponent plasma in a gas dynamic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, A.V.; Karpushov, A.N.; Noak, K.; Strogalova, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report is focused on the development of the theoretical and numerical models of multicomponent high-β plasma confinement and transport in the gas-dynamic trap (GDT). In order to simulate the plasma behavior in the GDT as well as that in the GDT-based neutron source the Integrated Transport Code System is developed from existing stand-alone codes calculating the target plasma, the fast ions and the neutral gas in the GDT. The code system considers the full dependence of the transport phenomena on space, time, energy and angle variables as well as the interactions between the particle fields [ru

  4. Energy efficiency of urban transportation system in Xiamen, China. An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanxin; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Casazza, Marco; Cui, Shenghui; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated life cycle approach is used to study Urban Transport Metabolism (UTM). • A selection of different material, energy and environmental assessment methods is synergically applied. • The study is based on an accurate inventory of infrastructure, machinery and operative resource costs. • Results show that the different methods provide much needed insight into different aspects of UTM. • Innovative Bus Rapid Transport shows better resource and environmental performance than Normal Bus Transport system. - Abstract: An integrated life cycle approach framework, including material flow analysis (MFA), Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), exergy analysis (EXA), Emergy Assessment (EMA), and emissions (EMI) has been constructed and applied to examine the energy efficiency of high speed urban bus transportation systems compared to conventional bus transport in the city of Xiamen, Fujian province, China. This paper explores the consistency of the results achieved by means of several evaluation methods, and explores the sustainability of innovation in urban public transportation systems. The case study dealt with in this paper is a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system compared to Normal Bus Transit (NBT). All the analyses have been performed based on a common yearly database of natural resources, material, labor, energy and fuel input flows used in all life cycle phases (resource extraction, processing and manufacturing, use and end of life) of the infrastructure, vehicle and vehicle fuel. Cumulative energy, material and environmental support demands of transport are accounted for. Selected pressure indicators are compared to yield a comprehensive picture of the public transportation system. Results show that Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) shows much better energy and environmental performance than NBT, as indicated by the set of sustainability indicators calculated by means of our integrated approach. This is because of the higher efficiency of such

  5. Integrated ELM simulation with edge MHD stability and transport of SOL-divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Takizuka, Tomonori; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Ozeki, Takahisa; Oyama, Naoyuki

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the pressure profile on the energy loss caused by edge localized modes (ELMs) has been investigated by using an integrated simulation code TOPICS-IB based on a core transport code with a stability code for the peeling-ballooning modes and a transport model for scrape-off-layer and divertor plasmas. The steep pressure gradient inside the pedestal top is found to broaden the region of the ELM enhanced transport through the broadening of eigenfunctions and enhance the ELM energy loss. The ELM energy loss in the simulation becomes larger than 15% of the pedestal energy, as is shown in the database of multi-machine experiments. (author)

  6. Is Swedish district heating operating on an integrated market? – Differences in pricing, price convergence, and marketing strategy between public and private district heating companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Fälting, L.; Forssell, A.

    2016-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 made it possible to operate municipal district heating commercially. Until that time district heating had been organized mainly as municipal utilities. After 1996 district heating is instead expected to function on a market. In competitive and integrated markets, prices are expected to be equal, or converging. To find out if district heating operates on an integrated market the differences in price levels, price convergence, price strategy, and business goals, among municipal, private and state owned district heating companies are investigated. Price statistics was used along with results from a questionnaire that was answered by representatives for 109 Swedish district heating companies. The results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge significantly and that variations in prices among municipal systems are larger than among private and state owned systems. Furthermore, despite the fact that district heating is supposed to be commercial, a vast majority of district heating companies apply cost-based pricing and not market pricing. The municipal companies give priority to political goals before financial goals. The conclusion is that a Swedish integrated market for heat has not yet evolved, and some district heating price-controlling mechanism is necessary. - Highlights: • Price statistics and owner type data were used along with results from a questionnaire. • Results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge. • Municipal district heating companies still apply cost-based pricing to a large extent. • District heating companies are not operating on an integrated market for heat. • Some price-controlling mechanism for district heating is necessary.

  7. Integrated management platform of nuclear fuel storage and transportation based on RFID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yafeng; Ma Yanqin; Chen Liyu; Jiang Yong; Wu Jianlei; Yang Haibo; Zhang Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes integrated system model to improve work efficiency and optimize control measures of nuclear fuel storage and transportation, RFID and information integration technology is introduced, traditional management processes are innovated in data acquisition and monitoring fields as well, system solutions and design model are given by emphasizing on the following key technologies: cascade protection of information system, security protocol of RFID information, algorithm of collision. (authors)

  8. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of companies providing transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Žvirblis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main principles of the integrated evaluation of macro environment components and factors influencing the performance of transport companies as well as providing the validated quantitative evaluation models and results obtained in evaluating the macro environment of Lithuanian companies providing transport services. Since quantitative evaluation is growing in importance, the process of developing the principles and methods of business macro environment quantitative evaluation is becoming relevant from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The created methodology is based on the concept of macro environment as an integrated whole of components, formalization and the principle of three-stage quantitative evaluation. The methodology suggested involves the quantitative evaluation of primary factors and macro environment components as an integral dimension (expressed in points. On the basis of this principle, an integrated macro environment evaluation parameter is established as its level index. The methodology integrates the identification of significant factors, building scenarios, a primary analysis of factors, expert evaluation, the quantitative evaluation of macro environment components and their whole. The application of the multi-criteria Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method is validated. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of Lithuanian freight transportation companies was conducted. As a result, the level indices of all components as well as the level index of macro environment considered as a whole of components were identified. The latter reflects the extent of deviation from an average level of a favourable macro environment. This is important for developing strategic marketing decisions and expanding a strategic area.

  9. Assessing the rebound effect using a natural experiment setting: Evidence from the private transportation sector in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steren, Aviv; Rubin, Ofir D.; Rosenzweig, Stav

    2016-01-01

    Subsidizing energy-efficient technologies is considered by energy and environmental organizations to be one of the most effective policies for decreasing energy consumption. In the transportation sector such policies are becoming ever more popular, and have been implemented in a considerable number of countries in recent years. Because these policies promote energy-efficient cars with lower usage costs, they may rebound and increase the distances traveled by households that have switched to energy-efficient cars. From an econometric perspective, a subsidization policy can be used as a valid instrument to identify the households’ choice of energy efficiency levels of the cars they own. This identification, in turn, can be utilized to account for endogeneity in the estimation of a rebound effect. The present study uses a natural experiment setting of such a policy implemented in Israel in 2009. The empirical results indicate a fairly large average rebound effect of 40%. The results also indicate that while the policy indeed encouraged the purchase of energy-efficient cars, households that bought a new or used car during the surveyed period did not generate a rebound effect of a different magnitude compared with other households that did not. We discuss the implications of our findings. - Highlights: •Subsidizing energy-efficient cars has become a popular policy in many countries. •We are unaware of studies identifying rebound via cars’ subsidization policy. •We explored a rebound in light of such a policy in Israel. •Household expenditure survey data, fuel prices and car characteristics were employed. •We found an average rebound effect of 40%.

  10. Integrated freight network model : a GIS-based platform for transportation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The models currently used to examine the behavior transportation systems are usually mode-specific. That is, they focus on a single mode (i.e. railways, highways, or waterways). The lack of : integration limits the usefulness of models to analyze the...

  11. Decomposing passenger transport futures : Comparing results of global integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; McCollum, D. L.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Daly, H.; Fujimori, S.; Kitous, A.; Kyle, P.; Ó Broin, E.; Karkatsoulis, P.; Sano, F.

    The transport sector is growing fast in terms of energy use and accompanying greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used widely to analyze energy system transitions over a decadal time frame to help inform and evaluating international climate policy. As part of this, IAMs

  12. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    OpenAIRE

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  13. An integrated transient model for simulating the operation of natural gas transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.

    This paper presents an integrated transient hydraulic model that describes the dynamic behavior of natural gas transport systems (GTS). The model includes sub models of the most important facilities comprising a GTS, such as pipelines, compressor stations, pressure reduction stations, underground

  14. ITS - The integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A.; Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    The TIGER series of time-independent coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes is a group of multimaterial, multidimensional codes designed to provide a state-of-the-art description of the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade. The codes follow both electrons and photons from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV, and the user has the option of combining the collisional transport with transport in macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Source particles can be either electrons or photons. The most important output data are (a) charge and energy deposition profiles, (b) integral and differential escape coefficients for both electrons and photons, (c) differential electron and photon flux, and (d) pulse-height distributions for selected regions of the problem geometry. The base codes of the series differ from one another primarily in their dimensionality and geometric modeling. They include (a) a one-dimensional multilayer code, (b) a code that describes the transport in two-dimensional axisymmetric cylindrical material geometries with a fully three-dimensional description of particle trajectories, and (c) a general three-dimensional transport code which employs a combinatorial geometry scheme. These base codes were designed primarily for describing radiation transport for those situations in which the detailed atomic structure of the transport medium is not important. For some applications, it is desirable to have a more detailed model of the low energy transport. The system includes three additional codes that contain a more elaborate ionization/relaxation model than the base codes. Finally, the system includes two codes that combine the collisional transport of the multidimensional base codes with transport in macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence

  15. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  16. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  17. An integrated methodology for characterizing flow and transport processes in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yu-Shu

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the coupled processes involved in fluid and heat flow and chemical transport in the highly heterogeneous, unsaturated-zone (UZ) fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, we present an integrated modeling methodology. This approach integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and geochemical isotopic field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modeling analyses. The results of field applications of the methodology show that moisture data, such as water potential and liquid saturation, are not sufficient to determine in situ percolation flux, whereas temperature and geochemical isotopic data provide better constraints to net infiltration rates and flow patterns. In addition, pneumatic data are found to be extremely valuable in estimating large-scale fracture permeability. The integration of hydrologic, pneumatic, temperature, and geochemical data into modeling analyses is thereby demonstrated to provide a practical modeling approach for characterizing flow and transport processes in complex fractured formations

  18. Business process integration between European manufacturers and transport and logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, W

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of disparate processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...... a total integration. This study illustrates, from an empirical point of view, the problems associated to SC integration among European firms operating in global/international markets. The focus is on the relationship between two echelons in the supply chain: manufacturers and their transport and logistics...... service providers (TLSPs). The paper examines (1) the characteristics of the collaborative partnerships established between manufacturers and their TLSPs; (2) to what extent manufacturers and their TLSPs have integrated SC business processes; (3) the IT used to support the SC cooperation and integration...

  19. Integrated compartmental model for describing the transport of solute in a fractured porous medium. [FRACPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-10-01

    This report documents a model, FRACPORT, that simulates the transport of a solute through a fractured porous matrix. The model should be useful in analyzing the possible transport of radionuclides from shallow-land burial sites in humid environments. The use of the model is restricted to transport through saturated zones. The report first discusses the general modeling approach used, which is based on the Integrated Compartmental Method. The basic equations of solute transport are then presented. The model, which assumes a known water velocity field, solves these equations on two different time scales; one related to rapid transport of solute along fractures and the other related to slower transport through the porous matrix. FRACPORT is validated by application to a simple example of fractured porous medium transport that has previously been analyzed by other methods. Then its utility is demonstrated in analyzing more complex cases of pulses of solute into a fractured matrix. The report serves as a user's guide to FRACPORT. A detailed description of data input, along with a listing of input for a sample problem, is provided. 16 references, 18 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Integration of Transport-relevant Data within Image Record of the Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the collected information on the road within the image recorded by the surveillance system forms a unified source of transport-relevant data about the supervised situation. The basic assumption is that the procedure of integration changes the image to the extent that is invisible to the human eye, and the integrated data keep identical content. This assumption has been proven by studying the statistical properties of the image and integrated data using mathematical model modelled in the programming language Python using the combinations of the functions of additional libraries (OpenCV, NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib. The model has been used to compare the input methods of meta-data and methods of steganographic integration by correcting the coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform JPEG compressed image. For the procedures of steganographic data processing the steganographic algorithm F5 was used. The review paper analyses the advantages and drawbacks of the integration methods and present the examples of situations in traffic in which the formed unified sources of transport-relevant information could be used.

  1. 06. Facilitating Collection of Research and Quality Data in Integrative Medicine Clinical Settings: Views From Academic, Health System and Private Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Rowena; Victorson, David; Amoils, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care The purpose of this panel discussion is to share successful efforts from a practice-based research network (PBRN) including ten integrative medicine clinics. The BraveNet PBRN includes integrative medicine clinics with academic health centers, large health systems, and a stand-alone private practice clinic. While clinical care is prioritized across all of these centers, introducing research into clinical sites oriented to providing care poses challenges that vary by clinic environment. We will highlight some of the unique issues encountered when trying to standardize data collection in sites practicing a patient-centered, whole-systems approach to healing as well as the solutions used to overcome these issues. We will present some operational solutions and data collected from the PBRN's ongoing data registry, entitled PRIMIER. The panel will engage attendees in a dialogue centering on potential for future analyses of existing results, ideas for possible upcoming studies, and creative ways to expand the PBRN data registry to include additional sites that may have expertise and interest in participating.

  2. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  3. Modeling Fate and Transport of Rotavirus in Surface Flow by Integrating WEPP and a Pathogen Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, R.; Kalita, P. K.; Davidson, P. C.; Kuhlenschmidt, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    observed and predicted results; however, transport of pathogens from vegetated surface has been challenging. This paper will provide concepts of the pathogen transport model, integration with WEPP, and results obtained from the modeling framework.

  4. An Integrated Inventory-Transportation System with Periodic Pick-Ups and Leveled Replenishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Volling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a combined inventory-transportation system. The general idea is to integrate a simple replenishment policy with a routing component to derive operationally consistent standard routes as a basis for milk run design. The most interesting feature of the approach is that we combine stochastic vehicle routing with a replenishment policy which makes use of inventory to level the variability propagated into transportation operations. To evaluate the approach, we compare its performance with stochastic vehicle routing as well as sequential vehicle routing and replenishment planning. With respect to these approaches, substantial gains are achieved.

  5. Risk Assessment of Structural Integrity of Transportation Casks after Extended Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Luis; Medina, Ricardo; Yang, Haori

    2018-03-23

    This study assessed the risk of loss of structural integrity of transportation casks and fuel cladding after extended storage. Although it is known that fuel rods discharged from NPPs have a small percentage of rod cladding defects, the behavior of fuel cladding and the structural elements of assemblies during transportation after long-term storage is not well understood. If the fuel degrades during extended storage, it could be susceptible to damage from vibration and impact loads during transport operations, releasing fission-product gases into the canister or the cask interior (NWTRB 2010). Degradation of cladding may occur due to mechanisms associated with hydrogen embrittlement, delayed hydride cracking, low temperature creep, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that may affect fuel cladding and canister components after extended storage of hundreds of years. Over extended periods at low temperatures, these mechanisms affect the ductility, strength, and fracture toughness of the fuel cladding, which becomes brittle. For transportation purposes, the fuel may be transferred from storage to shipping casks, or dual-purpose casks may be used for storage and transportation. Currently, most of the transportation casks will be the former case. A risk assessment evaluation is conducted based on results from experimental tests and simulations with advanced numerical models. A novel contribution of this study is the evaluation of the combined effect of component aging and vibration/impact loads in transportation scenarios. The expected levels of deterioration will be obtained from previous and current studies on the effect of aging on fuel and cask components. The emphasis of the study is placed on the structural integrity of fuel cladding and canisters.

  6. Randomised controlled trial of integrated care to reduce disability from chronic low back pain in working and private life

    OpenAIRE

    Lambeek, L.C.; van Mechelen, W.; Knol, D.L.; Loisel, P.; Anema, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated care programme, combining a patient directed and a workplace directed intervention, for patients with chronic low back pain. Design Population based randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care (10 physiotherapy practices, one occupational health service, one occupational therapy practice) and secondary care (five hospitals). Participants 134 adults aged 18-65 sick listed for at least 12 weeks owing to low back pain. Intervention P...

  7. Control-oriented Automatic System for Transport Analysis (ASTRA)-Matlab integration for Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevillano, M.G.; Garrido, I.; Garrido, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The exponential growth in energy consumption has led to a renewed interest in the development of alternatives to fossil fuels. Between the unconventional resources that may help to meet this energy demand, nuclear fusion has arisen as a promising source, which has given way to an unprecedented interest in solving the different control problems existing in nuclear fusion reactors such as Tokamaks. The aim of this manuscript is to show how one of the most popular codes used to simulate the performance of Tokamaks, the Automatic System For Transport Analysis (ASTRA) code, can be integrated into the Matlab-Simulink tool in order to make easier and more comfortable the development of suitable controllers for Tokamaks. As a demonstrative case study to show the feasibility and the goodness of the proposed ASTRA-Matlab integration, a modified anti-windup Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)-based controller for the loop voltage of a Tokamak has been implemented. The integration achieved represents an original and innovative work in the Tokamak control area and it provides new possibilities for the development and application of advanced control schemes to the standardized and widely extended ASTRA transport code for Tokamaks. -- Highlights: → The paper presents a useful tool for rapid prototyping of different solutions to deal with the control problems arising in Tokamaks. → The proposed tool embeds the standardized Automatic System For Transport Analysis (ASTRA) code for Tokamaks within the well-known Matlab-Simulink software. → This allows testing and combining diverse control schemes in a unified way considering the ASTRA as the plant of the system. → A demonstrative Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)-based case study is provided to show the feasibility and capabilities of the proposed integration.

  8. Preliminary integrated calculation of radionuclide cation and anion transport at Yucca Mountain using a geochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Campbell, K.; Eggert, K.G.; Travis, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary transport calculations for radionuclide movement at Yucca Mountain using preliminary data for mineral distributions, retardation parameter distributions, and hypothetical recharge scenarios. These calculations are not performance assessments, but are used to study the effectiveness of the geochemical barriers at the site at mechanistic level. The preliminary calculations presented have many shortcomings and should be viewed only as a demonstration of the modeling methodology. The simulations were run with TRACRN, a finite-difference porous flow and radionuclide transport code developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. Approximately 30,000 finite-difference nodes are used to represent the unsaturated and saturated zones underlying the repository in three dimensions. Sorption ratios for the radionuclides modeled are assumed to be functions of mineralogic assemblages of the underlying rock. These transport calculations present a representative radionuclide cation, 135 Cs and anion, 99 Tc. The effects on transport of many of the processes thought to be active at Yucca Mountain may be examined using this approach. The model provides a method for examining the integration of flow scenarios, transport, and retardation processes as currently understood for the site. It will also form the basis for estimates of the sensitivity of transport calculations to retardation processes. 11 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  9. Development of an Integrated Nonlinear Aeroservoelastic Flight Dynamic Model of the NASA Generic Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a recent development of an integrated fully coupled aeroservoelastic flight dynamic model of the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM). The integrated model couples nonlinear flight dynamics to a nonlinear aeroelastic model of the GTM. The nonlinearity includes the coupling of the rigid-body aircraft states in the partial derivatives of the aeroelastic angle of attack. Aeroservoelastic modeling of the control surfaces which are modeled by the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap is also conducted. The R.T. Jones' method is implemented to approximate unsteady aerodynamics. Simulations of the GTM are conducted with simulated continuous and discrete gust loads..

  10. The selection of a mode of urban transportation: Integrating psychological variables to discrete choice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoba Maquilon, Jorge E; Gonzalez Calderon, Carlos A; Posada Henao, John J

    2011-01-01

    A study using revealed preference surveys and psychological tests was conducted. Key psychological variables of behavior involved in the choice of transportation mode in a population sample of the Metropolitan Area of the Valle de Aburra were detected. The experiment used the random utility theory for discrete choice models and reasoned action in order to assess beliefs. This was used as a tool for analysis of the psychological variables using the sixteen personality factor questionnaire (16PF test). In addition to the revealed preference surveys, two other surveys were carried out: one with socio-economic characteristics and the other with latent indicators. This methodology allows for an integration of discrete choice models and latent variables. The integration makes the model operational and quantifies the unobservable psychological variables. The most relevant result obtained was that anxiety affects the choice of urban transportation mode and shows that physiological alterations, as well as problems in perception and beliefs, can affect the decision-making process.

  11. Particle production and Boltzmann integral form of relativistic quantum transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.; Davis, E.D.; Bialynicki-Birula, I.

    1993-01-01

    The 3+3+1 dimensional relativistic quantum transport equation for the fermion matter field, combines the particle pair production with flow phenomena, which occur at very different time scale. A direct numerical treatment of dynamical situations is therefore practically impossible. The authors attempt a seperation of these two sectors by the method of prediagonalization of the integral equations. They exploit the structure of the resolvent of the transport equations: it contains two poles corresponding to the flow sector and two to the pair production sector. Their hope for practical applications is to treat matter flow as a classical phenomenon and to be able to obtain an integral term describing the pair production accurately

  12. Calculations of Neutron Flux Distributions by Means of Integral Transport Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I

    1967-05-15

    Flux distributions have been calculated mainly in one energy group, for a number of systems representing geometries interesting for reactor calculations. Integral transport methods of two kinds were utilised, collision probabilities (CP) and the discrete method (DIT). The geometries considered comprise the three one-dimensional geometries, planes, sphericals and annular, and further a square cell with a circular fuel rod and a rod cluster cell with a circular outer boundary. For the annular cells both methods (CP and DIT) were used and the results were compared. The purpose of the work is twofold, firstly to demonstrate the versatility and efficacy of integral transport methods and secondly to serve as a guide for anybody who wants to use the methods.

  13. The UK transport carbon model: An integrated life cycle approach to explore low carbon futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Christian; Tran, Martino; Anable, Jillian

    2012-01-01

    Current debate focuses on the need for the transport sector to contribute to more ambitious carbon emission reduction targets. In the UK, various macro-economic and energy system wide, top-down models are used to explore the potential for energy demand and carbon emissions reduction in the transport sector. These models can lack the bottom-up, sectoral detail needed to simulate the effects of integrated demand and supply-side policy strategies to reduce emissions. Bridging the gap between short-term forecasting and long-term scenario “models”, this paper introduces a newly developed strategic transport, energy, emissions and environmental impacts model, the UK Transport Carbon Model (UKTCM). The UKTCM covers the range of transport–energy–environment issues from socio-economic and policy influences on energy demand reduction through to life cycle carbon emissions and external costs. The model is demonstrated in this paper by presenting the results of three single policies and one policy package scenario. Limitations of the model are also discussed. Developed under the auspices of the UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) the UKTCM can be used to develop transport policy scenarios that explore the full range of technological, fiscal, regulatory and behavioural change policy interventions to meet UK climate change and energy security goals. - Research highlights: ►New strategic transport, energy, emissions and environmental impacts model. ►Tool to develop and analyse full consequences of multiple scenarios of transport policy packages. ►Novel approach to modelling demand for new vehicles by market and technology. ►Model available for use by research community via http://www.ukerc.ac.uk/support/tiki-index.php?page=UK+Transport+Carbon+Model.

  14. Temperature dependent transport of two dimensional electrons in the integral quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the temperature dependent electronic transport properties of a two dimensional electron gas subject to background potential fluctuations and a perpendicular magnetic field. The author carried out an extensive temperature dependent study of the transport coefficients, in the region of an integral quantum plateau, in an In/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As/InP heterostructure for 4.2K 10 cm -2 meV -1 ) even at the middle between two Landau levels, which is unexpected from model calculations based on short ranged randomness. In addition, the different T dependent behavior of rho/sub xx/ between the states in the tails and those near the center of a Landau level, indicates the existence of different electron states in a Landau level. Additionally, the author reports T-dependent transport measurements in the transition region between two quantum plateaus in several different materials

  15. Problems in manufacturing and transport of pressure vessels of integral reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralovec, J.

    1997-01-01

    Integral water-cooled reactors are typical with eliminating large-diameter primary pipes and placing primary components, i.e. steam generators and pressurizers in reactor vessels. This arrangement leads to reactor pressure vessels of large dimensions: diameters, heights and thick walls and subsequently to great weights. Thus, even medium power units have pressure vessels which are on the very limit of present manufacturing capabilities. Principal manufacturing and inspection operations as well as pertinent equipment are concerned: welding, cladding, heat treatment, machining, shop-handling, non-destructive testing, hydraulic pressure tests etc. Tile transport of such a large and heavy component makes a problem which effects its design as well as the selection of the plant site. Railway, road and ship are possible ways of transport each of them having its advantages and limitations. Specific features and limits of the manufacture and transport of large pressure vessels are discussed in the paper. (author)

  16. Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs : Component 1. Case Study Summary and Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    IC Net

    2004-01-01

    The World Bank in November 2001 commissioned IC Net Limited of Japan to carry out a study titled 'Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs' in accord with the terms of reference (TOR) issued in June 2001. The study was financed by a grant from the Japanese Large Studies Trust Fund. The contract came into effect on 15 December 2001 and covers the period to 15 June 2004...

  17. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołowrocki Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  18. Privatization costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, I.

    2007-01-01

    The efforts in progress now in Great Britain to liberalize the nuclear decommissioning activity market imply that by 2012 the competitive commercial private companies will lead the national nuclear decommissioning and decontamination related activity market. Paper dwells upon the new market peculiar features and upon some peculiar features of the new market related activities [ru

  19. Sustainable transport planning using GIS and remote sensing: an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgoudis, Marios D.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Shiftan, Yoram

    2014-08-01

    The main advantage of using GIS is its ability to access and analyze spatially distributed data. The applications of GIS to transportation can be viewed as involving either on data retrieval; data integrator; or data analysis. The use of remote sensing can assist the retrieval of land use changes. Indeed, the integration of GIS and remote sensing will be used to fill the gap in the smart transport planning. A four step research is going to be done in order to try to integrate the usage of GIS and remote sensing to sustainable transport planning. The proposed research will be held in the city of Limassol, Cyprus. The data that are going to be used are data that are going to be collected through questionnaires, and other available data from the Cyprus Public Works Department and from the Remote Sensing Laboratory and Geo-Environment Research Lab of the Cyprus University of Technology. Overall, statistical analysis and market segmentation of data will be done, the land usage will be examined, and a scenario building on mode choice will be held. This paper presents an overview of the methodology that will be adopted.

  20. An integrated decision-making framework for transportation architectures: Application to aviation systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewe, Jung-Ho

    The National Transportation System (NTS) is undoubtedly a complex system-of-systems---a collection of diverse 'things' that evolve over time, organized at multiple levels, to achieve a range of possibly conflicting objectives, and never quite behaving as planned. The purpose of this research is to develop a virtual transportation architecture for the ultimate goal of formulating an integrated decision-making framework. The foundational endeavor begins with creating an abstraction of the NTS with the belief that a holistic frame of reference is required to properly study such a multi-disciplinary, trans-domain system. The culmination of the effort produces the Transportation Architecture Field (TAF) as a mental model of the NTS, in which the relationships between four basic entity groups are identified and articulated. This entity-centric abstraction framework underpins the construction of a virtual NTS couched in the form of an agent-based model. The transportation consumers and the service providers are identified as adaptive agents that apply a set of preprogrammed behavioral rules to achieve their respective goals. The transportation infrastructure and multitude of exogenous entities (disruptors and drivers) in the whole system can also be represented without resorting to an extremely complicated structure. The outcome is a flexible, scalable, computational model that allows for examination of numerous scenarios which involve the cascade of interrelated effects of aviation technology, infrastructure, and socioeconomic changes throughout the entire system.

  1. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector - A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi [Economics Department, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran (Iran); Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-02-15

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of ''Reference Energy System (RES)'' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Private Sector Roles in Space Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Blair, Brad R.; Diaz, Javier; Oderman, Mark; Duke, Michael B.; Vaucher, Marc; Manvi, Ramachandra; Easter, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated engineering and financial modeling approach has been developed and used to evaluate the potential for private sector investment in space resource development, and to assess possible roles of the public sector in fostering private interest. This paper presents the modeling approach and its results for a transportation service using propellant extracted from lunar regolith. The analysis starts with careful case study definition, including an analysis of the customer base and market requirements, which are the basis for design of a modular, scalable space architecture. The derived non-recurring, recurring and operations costs become inputs for a `standard' financial model, as used in any commercial business plan. This model generates pro forma financial statements, calculates the amount of capitalization required, and generates return on equity calculations using two valuation metrics of direct interest to private investors: market enterprise value and multiples of key financial measures. Use of this model on an architecture to sell transportation services in Earth orbit based on lunar propellants shows how to rapidly test various assumptions and identify interesting architectural options, key areas for investment in exploration and technology, or innovative business approaches that could produce an economically viable industry. The same approach can be used to evaluate any other possible private ventures in space, and conclude on the respective roles of NASA and the private sector in space resource development and solar system exploration.

  3. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  4. Integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from green cut material from landscape conservation and private households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, F; Richter, F; Wachendorf, M

    2011-11-01

    Green cut material is a potential source of renewable energy which is not fully exploited through conventional energy recovery systems. A new energy conversion process, the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB), which includes mechanical separation after hydro-thermal conditioning, was investigated. Ash softening temperature and lower heating value of the solid fuel were increased through the IFFB process in comparison to the untreated raw material. The net energy yield of IFBB at 40 °C conditioning temperature ranged between 1.96 and 2.85 kWh kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and for the direct combustion between 1.75 and 2.65 kWh kg(-1) DM. Conversion efficiencies for the IFBB system were 0.42-0.68 and for direct combustion 0.42-0.63. The IFBB system produces storable energy from material which is nowadays not used for energy conversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  6. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  7. Integrated simulation of ELM energy loss determined by pedestal MHD and SOL transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Takizuka, T.; Ozeki, T.; Aiba, N.; Oyama, N.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated simulation code TOPICS-IB based on a transport code with a stability code for the peeling-ballooning modes and a scrape-off-layer (SOL) model has been developed to clarify self-consistent effects of edge localized modes (ELMs) and the SOL on the plasma performance. Experimentally observed collisionality dependence of the ELM energy loss is found to be caused by both the edge bootstrap current and the SOL transport. The bootstrap current decreases with an increase in collisionality and intensifies the magnetic shear at the pedestal region. The increase in the magnetic shear reduces the width of eigenfunctions of unstable modes, which results in the reduction of both the area of the ELM enhanced transport and the ELM enhanced transport near the separatrix. On the other hand, when an ELM crash occurs, the energy flows into the SOL and the SOL temperature rapidly increases. The increase in the SOL temperature lowers the ELM energy loss due to the flattening of the radial edge gradient. The parallel electron heat conduction determines how the SOL temperature increases. For higher collisionality, the conduction becomes lower and the SOL electron temperature increases more. By the above two mechanisms, the ELM energy loss decreases with increasing collisionality

  8. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-09-15

    Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali; Meidianti, Rahma; Wildian,; Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation

  10. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Meidianti, Rahma, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Wildian,, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Fitriyani, Dian, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id [Department of Physics, Andalas University Padang West Sumatera Indonesia (Indonesia); Tongkukut, Seni H. J. [Department of Physics, Sam Ratulangi University Manado North Sulawesi Indonesia (Indonesia); Arkundato, Artoto [Department of Physics, Jember University Jember East Java Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.

  11. Recent developments in the integrated approach toward characterization of radionuclide transport, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.; Canepa, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The radionuclide migration program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) includes studies of radionuclide solubility, sorption, diffusion, and transport. The study plans incorporate all possible parameters of investigation; decision-making strategies for prioritizing the parameters and evaluating their significance were developed in conjunction with the study plans. After definition of explicit research goals for each study, YMP evaluated the applicability of existing data and formulated experimental approaches for obtaining additional data. This resulted in development of individual testing strategies that were integrated into an overall strategy for the radionuclide migration program designed to provide input to credible performance assessments. The strategies allow for decision points at various steps of data collection and testing. They provide a streamlined process toward a defensible level of understanding of chemical retardation and transport processes that will be used to predict the mountain's ability to isolate waste. (author)

  12. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, M. Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • An integrated framework is developed to optimize risk reduction. • A negative binomial regression model is developed to analyze accident-cause-specific railcar derailment probability. • A Pareto-optimality technique is applied to determine the lowest risk given any level of resource. • A multi-attribute decision model is developed to determine the optimal amount of investment for risk reduction. • The models could aid the government and rail industry in developing cost-efficient risk reduction policy and practice. -- Abstract: Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation.

  13. Deciphering Equatorial Pacific Deep Sea Sediment Transport Regimes by Core-Log-Seismic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, E.; Tominaga, M.; Marcantonio, F.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating deep-sea sediment transportation and deposition regimes is a key to accurately understand implications from geological information recorded by pelagic sediments, e.g. climate signals. However, except for physical oceanographic particle trap experiments, geochemical analyses of in situsediments, and theoretical modeling of the relation between the bottom currents and sediment particle flux, it has remained a challenging task to document the movement of deep sea sediments, that takes place over time. We utilized high-resolution, multichannel reflection seismic data from the eastern equatorial Pacific region with drilling and logging results from two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sites, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) 7 (Site U1337) and 8 (Site U1338), to characterize sediment transportation regimes on 18-24 Ma oceanic crust. Site U1337, constructed by a series of distinct abyssal hills and abyssal basins; Site U1338, located 570 km SE from Site U1337 site and constructed by a series of ridges, seamounts, and abyssal hills. These sites are of particular interest due to their proximity to the equatorial productivity zone, areas with high sedimentation rates and preservation of carbonate-bearing sediment that provide invaluable insights on equatorial Pacific ecosystems and carbon cycle. We integrate downhole geophysical logging data as well as geochemistry and physical properties measurements on recovered cores from IODP Sites U1337 and U1338 to comprehensively examine the mobility of deep-sea sediments and sediment diagenesis over times in a quasi-3D manner. We also examine 1100 km of high resolution underway seismic surveys from site survey lines in between PEAT 7 and 8 in order to investigate changes in sediment transportation between both sites. Integrating detailed seismic interpretations, high resolution core data, and 230Th flux measurements we aim to create a detailed chronological sedimentation and sediment diagenesis history

  14. Industrial & Engineering Systems Career Cluster ITAC for Career-Focused Education: Transportation Sub-Cluster. Integrated Technical & Academic Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Designed for Ohio educators responsible for planning programs to prepare high school students for careers in transportation, this document presents an overview of Ohio's Integrated Technical and Academic Competencies (ITAC) system of career-focused education and specific information about the transportation subcluster of the industrial and…

  15. Forecasting household transport energy demand in South African cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available in South Africa have over the recent past increased at a rate more than any other household expenditure item (StasSA, 2008). Transport energy from fuel, forms a large component of the transport costs for both private car and public transport trips... by the Constitution to plan and manage the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner. The services include water, sanitation, electricity and transport. Some of the management instruments used by local government include Integrated Development...

  16. Method of online cleanliness control for upward-facing transport mirrors in integration test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Longbiao; Qin Lang; Zhou Guorui; Ye Yayun; Zhang Chuanchao; Miao Xinxiang; Wang Hongbin; Yuan Xiaodong; Wang Xiaohong; Cheng Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    An online cleanliness control method based on the online monitoring system was developed for controlling the particle pollution and damage of upward-facing transport mirrors in the integration test bed. By building up gas knife system, the online cleanliness processing was effectively achieved for the particle pollution on the mirror surface. By using the gas screen, the cleanliness of the mirror surface was effectively online maintained. The image processing system was applied to assessing the effect of online cleanliness processing. The experimental results indicate that the particle pollution was reduced by the gas knife and the gas screen was useful to avoid the settlement of particle pollution. (authors)

  17. Asymptotic formulae for solutions of the two-group integral neutron-transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duracz, T.

    1976-01-01

    The steady-state, two-group integral neutron-transport equation is considered for two cases. First, for plane geometry, formulae for the asymptotic flux are obtained, under assumptions of homogeneous medium with isotropic scattering, extended to infinity (whole space and half-space), with sources vanishing at infinity as 0(esup(-IXI)). Next, for spherical geometry, the Milne problem is considered and formulae for the asymptotic flux are obtained. These formulae have the form of asymptotic expansions for small and large radii of the black sphere. (orig.) [de

  18. Evaluation of angular integrals in the generation of transfer matrices for multigroup transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The generalization of a semi-analytical technique for the evaluation of angular integrals that appear in the generation of elastic and discrete inelastic tranfer matrices for transport codes is carried out. In contrast to the generalized series expansions which are found to be too complex and thus of little practical value, when compared to the Gaussian quadrature technique, the recursion relations developed in this work are superior to the quadrature scheme, for those cases where the round-off error propagation is not significant. (Author) [pt

  19. Integration of numerical analysis tools for automated numerical optimization of a transportation package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, W.R.; Eldred, M.S.; Harding, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of state-of-the-art numerical analysis tools to determine the optimal design of a radioactive material (RAM) transportation container is investigated. The design of a RAM package's components involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal, and radioactive shielding analyses. The final design must adhere to very strict design constraints. The current technique used by cask designers is uncoupled and involves designing each component separately with respect to its driving constraint. With the use of numerical optimization schemes, the complex couplings can be considered directly, and the performance of the integrated package can be maximized with respect to the analysis conditions. This can lead to more efficient package designs. Thermal and structural accident conditions are analyzed in the shape optimization of a simplified cask design. In this paper, details of the integration of numerical analysis tools, development of a process model, nonsmoothness difficulties with the optimization of the cask, and preliminary results are discussed

  20. An experiential approach to improving the integration of knowledge during EIA in transport planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A.; Bertolini, Luca; Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2016-01-01

    The integration of knowledge from stakeholders and the public at large is seen as one of the biggest process-related barriers during the scoping phase of EIA application in transport planning. While the academic literature offers abundant analyses, discussions and suggestions how to overcome this problem, the proposed solutions are yet to be adequately tested in practice. In order to address this gap, we test the effectiveness of a set of interventions and trigger mechanisms for improving different aspects of knowledge integration. The interventions are tested in an experiential study with two sequential cases, representing “close-to-real-life” conditions, in the context of two cities in Andalusia, Spain. In general terms, the participants perceived that the integration of knowledge improved during the simulation of the EIA scoping phase. Certain shortcomings were also discussed, fundamentally related to how the time spent during the scoping phase was crucial to lead an effective learning process between the involved people. The study concludes with a reflection on the effectiveness of the tested interventions according to similarities and differences obtained from the two experiential case studies, as well as with a discussion of the potential to generate new knowledge through the use of experiential studies in EIA practice. - Highlights: • It tests a set of interventions and mechanisms to improve the integration of knowledge. • The scoping phase of EIA is simulated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. • Two sequential case studies are used.

  1. An experiential approach to improving the integration of knowledge during EIA in transport planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: julio.soria-lara@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Transport Research Unit, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    The integration of knowledge from stakeholders and the public at large is seen as one of the biggest process-related barriers during the scoping phase of EIA application in transport planning. While the academic literature offers abundant analyses, discussions and suggestions how to overcome this problem, the proposed solutions are yet to be adequately tested in practice. In order to address this gap, we test the effectiveness of a set of interventions and trigger mechanisms for improving different aspects of knowledge integration. The interventions are tested in an experiential study with two sequential cases, representing “close-to-real-life” conditions, in the context of two cities in Andalusia, Spain. In general terms, the participants perceived that the integration of knowledge improved during the simulation of the EIA scoping phase. Certain shortcomings were also discussed, fundamentally related to how the time spent during the scoping phase was crucial to lead an effective learning process between the involved people. The study concludes with a reflection on the effectiveness of the tested interventions according to similarities and differences obtained from the two experiential case studies, as well as with a discussion of the potential to generate new knowledge through the use of experiential studies in EIA practice. - Highlights: • It tests a set of interventions and mechanisms to improve the integration of knowledge. • The scoping phase of EIA is simulated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. • Two sequential case studies are used.

  2. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Kempton, Willett

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale sustainable energy systems will be necessary for substantial reduction of CO 2 . However, large-scale implementation faces two major problems: (1) we must replace oil in the transportation sector, and (2) since today's inexpensive and abundant renewable energy resources have fluctuating output, to increase the fraction of electricity from them, we must learn to maintain a balance between demand and supply. Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could reduce or eliminate oil for the light vehicle fleet. Adding 'vehicle-to-grid' (V2G) technology to EVs can provide storage, matching the time of generation to time of load. Two national energy systems are modelled, one for Denmark, including combined heat and power (CHP) and the other a similarly sized country without CHP (the latter being more typical of other industrialized countries). The model (EnergyPLAN) integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment (wind resource and weather-driven need for heat). Four types of vehicle fleets are modelled, under levels of wind penetration varying from 0% to 100%. EVs were assumed to have high power (10 kW) connections, which provide important flexibility in time and duration of charging. We find that adding EVs and V2G to these national energy systems allows integration of much higher levels of wind electricity without excess electric production, and also greatly reduces national CO 2 emissions

  3. Path integral approach for electron transport in disturbed magnetic field lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Takamaru, Hisanori

    2002-05-01

    A path integral method is developed to investigate statistical property of an electron transport described as a Langevin equation in a statically disturbed magnetic field line structure; especially a transition probability of electrons strongly tied to field lines is considered. The path integral method has advantages that 1) it does not include intrinsically a growing numerical error of an orbit, which is caused by evolution of the Langevin equation under a finite calculation accuracy in a chaotic field line structure, and 2) it gives a method of understanding the qualitative content of the Langevin equation and assists to expect statistical property of the transport. Monte Carlo calculations of the electron distributions under both effects of chaotic field lines and collisions are demonstrated to comprehend above advantages through some examples. The mathematical techniques are useful to study statistical properties of various phenomena described as Langevin equations in general. By using parallel generators of random numbers, the Monte Carlo scheme to calculate a transition probability can be suitable for a parallel computation. (author)

  4. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  5. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  6. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport

  7. Integration of geospatial multi-mode transportation Systems in Kuala Lumpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M A; Said, M N

    2014-01-01

    Public transportation serves people with mobility and accessibility to workplaces, health facilities, community resources, and recreational areas across the country. Development in the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to transportation problems represents one of the most important areas of GIS-technology today. To show the importance of GIS network analysis, this paper highlights the determination of the optimal path between two or more destinations based on multi-mode concepts. The abstract connector is introduced in this research as an approach to integrate urban public transportation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia including facilities such as Light Rapid Transit (LRT), Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) Komuter, Express Rail Link (ERL), KL Monorail, road driving as well as pedestrian modes into a single intelligent data model. To assist such analysis, ArcGIS's Network Analyst functions are used whereby the final output includes the total distance, total travelled time, directional maps produced to find the quickest, shortest paths, and closest facilities based on either time or distance impedance for multi-mode route analysis

  8. Integration of geospatial multi-mode transportation Systems in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. A.; Said, M. N.

    2014-06-01

    Public transportation serves people with mobility and accessibility to workplaces, health facilities, community resources, and recreational areas across the country. Development in the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to transportation problems represents one of the most important areas of GIS-technology today. To show the importance of GIS network analysis, this paper highlights the determination of the optimal path between two or more destinations based on multi-mode concepts. The abstract connector is introduced in this research as an approach to integrate urban public transportation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia including facilities such as Light Rapid Transit (LRT), Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) Komuter, Express Rail Link (ERL), KL Monorail, road driving as well as pedestrian modes into a single intelligent data model. To assist such analysis, ArcGIS's Network Analyst functions are used whereby the final output includes the total distance, total travelled time, directional maps produced to find the quickest, shortest paths, and closest facilities based on either time or distance impedance for multi-mode route analysis.

  9. An integrative assessment of the commercial air transportation system via adaptive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon Giap

    The overarching research objective is to address the tightly-coupled interactions between the demand-side and supply-side components of the United States Commercial Air Transportation System (CATS) in a time-variant environment. A system-of-system perspective is adopted, where the scope is extended beyond the National Airspace System (NAS) level to the National Transportation System (NTS) level to capture the intermodal and multimodal relationships between the NTS stakeholders. The Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation technique is employed where the NTS/NAS is treated as an integrated Multi-Agent System comprising of consumer and service provider agents, representing the demand-side and supply-side components respectively. Successful calibration and validation of both model components against the observable real world data resulted in a CATS simulation tool where the aviation demand is estimated from socioeconomic and demographic properties of the population instead of merely based on enplanement growth multipliers. This valuable achievement enabled a 20-year outlook simulation study to investigate the implications of a global fuel price hike on the airline industry and the U.S. CATS at large. Simulation outcomes revealed insights into the airline competitive behaviors and the subsequent responses from transportation consumers.

  10. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine; Edmonds, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  11. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine [Transnuclear, Inc., 7135 Minstrel Way Suite 300, Columbia MD 21045 (United States); Edmonds, Robert [AREVA Federal Services, 7207 IBM Drive, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  12. Transport simulation of EAST long-pulse H-mode discharge with integrated modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. Q.; Li, G. Q.; Chen, J. L.; Du, H. F.; Gao, X.; Ren, Q. L.; Li, K.; Chan, Vincent; Pan, C. K.; Ding, S. Y.; Jian, X.; Zhu, X.; Lian, H.; Qian, J. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Zang, Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Liu, H. Q.; Lyu, B.

    2018-04-01

    In the 2017 EAST experimental campaign, a steady-state long-pulse H-mode discharge lasting longer than 100 s has been obtained using only radio frequency heating and current drive, and the confinement quality is slightly better than standard H-mode, H98y2 ~ 1.1, with stationary peaked electron temperature profiles. Integrated modeling of one long-pulse H-mode discharge in the 2016 EAST experimental campaign has been performed with equilibrium code EFIT, and transport codes TGYRO and ONETWO under integrated modeling framework OMFIT. The plasma current is fully-noninductively driven with a combination of ~2.2 MW LHW, ~0.3 MW ECH and ~1.1 MW ICRF. Time evolution of the predicted electron and ion temperature profiles through integrated modeling agree closely with that from measurements. The plasma current (I p ~ 0.45 MA) and electron density are kept constantly. A steady-state is achieved using integrated modeling, and the bootstrap current fraction is ~28%, the RF drive current fraction is ~72%. The predicted current density profile matches the experimental one well. Analysis shows that electron cyclotron heating (ECH) makes large contribution to the plasma confinement when heating in the core region while heating in large radius does smaller improvement, also a more peaked LHW driven current profile is got when heating in the core. Linear analysis shows that the high-k modes instability (electron temperature gradient driven modes) is suppressed in the core region where exists weak electron internal transport barriers. The trapped electron modes dominates in the low-k region, which is mainly responsible for driving the electron energy flux. It is found that the ECH heating effect is very local and not the main cause to sustained the good confinement, the peaked current density profile has the most important effect on plasma confinement improvement. Transport analysis of the long-pulse H-mode experiments on EAST will be helpful to build future experiments.

  13. Private placements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeaud, G. J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included

  14. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  15. Integrating surrogate models into subsurface simulation framework allows computation of complex reactive transport scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Jatnieks, Janis; Kühn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Reactive transport simulations - where geochemical reactions are coupled with hydrodynamic transport of reactants - are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues. Given the high uncertainties inherently associated with the geochemical models, which also constitute the major computational bottleneck, such requirements may seem inappropriate and probably constitute the main limitation for their wide application. A promising way to ease and speed-up such coupled simulations is achievable employing statistical surrogates instead of "full-physics" geochemical models [1]. Data-driven surrogates are reduced models obtained on a set of pre-calculated "full physics" simulations, capturing their principal features while being extremely fast to compute. Model reduction of course comes at price of a precision loss; however, this appears justified in presence of large uncertainties regarding the parametrization of geochemical processes. This contribution illustrates the integration of surrogates into the flexible simulation framework currently being developed by the authors' research group [2]. The high level language of choice for obtaining and dealing with surrogate models is R, which profits from state-of-the-art methods for statistical analysis of large simulations ensembles. A stand-alone advective mass transport module was furthermore developed in order to add such capability to any multiphase finite volume hydrodynamic simulator within the simulation framework. We present 2D and 3D case studies benchmarking the performance of surrogates and "full physics" chemistry in scenarios pertaining the assessment of geological subsurface utilization. [1] Jatnieks, J., De Lucia, M., Dransch, D., Sips, M.: "Data-driven surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations.", Energy Procedia 97, 2016, p. 447-453. [2] Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., De Lucia, M., Nakaten, N., Otto, C., Pohl, M., Chabab [Tillner], E., Kühn, M

  16. A multi-purpose unit concept to integrate storage, transportation, and the engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Rozier, R.; Nitti, D.A.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Unit (MPU) is a new concept for standardizing and integrating the waste management functions of spent fuel storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The MPU concept would use one unit, composed of a relatively thick-walled inner canister with a multi-purpose overpack, to meet the requirements for storage in 10 CFR 72, transportation in 10 CFR 71, and the engineered barrier system in 10 CFR 60. The MPU concept differs from the recently proposed Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) concept in that the MPU concept uses a single multi-purpose overpack for storage, transportation, and geologic disposal, while the MPC concept uses separate and unique overpacks for each of these system functions. A design concept for the MPU is presented along with an estimate of unit costs. An initial evaluation of overall system cost showed that the MPU concept could be economically competitive with the current reference system. The MPU concept provides the potential for significant reduction, simplification, and standardization of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWMS) facilities and operations, including those at the utilities, during waste acceptance and transportation, and at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and the repository. The primary issues for the MPU concept relate to uncertainties with respect to licensing, and the programmatic risks associated with implementing the MPU concept before the repository design is finalized. The strong potential exhibited by the MPU concept demonstrates that this option merits additional development and should be considered in the next phase of work on multi-purpose concepts for the CRWMS

  17. IAEA'S International Working Group on Integrated Transport and Storage Safety case for Dual Purpose Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Varley, Kasturi; ); Droste, Bernhard; Wolff, Dietmar; Hirose, Makoto; Harvey, John; Reiche, Ingo; McConnell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel is generated from the operation of nuclear reactors and it is imperative that it is safely managed following its removal from reactor cores. Reactor pools are usually designed based on the assumption that the fuel will be removed after a short period of time either for reprocessing, disposal, or further storage. As a result of storing higher burn-up fuel, significantly increased time-frame till disposal solutions are prepared, and delays in decisions on strategies for spent fuel management, the volume of spent fuel discharged from reactors which needs to be managed and stored is on the increase. Consequently, additional storage capacity is needed following the initial storage in reactor pools. Options for additional storage include wet storage or dry storage in a dedicated facility or in storage casks. One of these options is the use of a Dual Purpose Cask (DPC), which is a specially designed cask for both storage and transport. The management of spent fuel using a DPC generally involves on-site and off-site transportation before and after storage. Most countries require package design approval for the DPC to be transported. In addition, it is required in many countries to have a licence for storage of the spent fuel in the DPC or a licence for a storage facility that contains DPCs. Therefore, demonstration of compliance of the DPC with national and international transport regulations as well as with the storage requirements is necessary. In order to address this increasing need among Member States, the IAEA established an international working group in 2010 to develop a guidance for integrating safety cases for both storage and transport in a holistic manner. The working group consists of experts from regulatory bodies, Technical Support Organizations, operators for both transportation and storage, and research institutes. This activity is planned to be completed by 2013. Currently, a technical report has been drafted and is expected to be

  18. Thinking and acting strategically: promoting integrated solid waste management and corporate responsibility through a public private partnership; the case of Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Bösl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an assessment of a public private partnerships (PPP among the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ, the Municipality of Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico and private counterparts BASF Mexicana and Terminal de LNG de Altamira (TLA. The municipality of Altamira, located in the urban-industrial hub of southern Tamaulipas, Mexico, faces important challenges in the field of urban public service delivery, particularly waste management, due to a high demographic growth rate and chronic budgetary constraints. The partnership was formed as a means to develop and implement the Municipal Program for the Prevention and Integrated Management of Solid and Special Wastes. The paper discusses the efficacy of the PPP as a policy instrument for the implementation of integrated solid waste management. As an assessment method, the authors draw on GTZ’s success criteria for the cooperation with the private sector. Criteria include the degree of complementarity, subsidiarity, neutrality and quality of private sector contributions. We argue that this PPP displays a pioneering alliance structure, since the private sector becomes a direct ally in creating strategies for the promotion sustainable development and not simply an exclusive contractor for urban public services delivery or a recipient of incentives from international development cooperation. The PPP provides a means to reach corporate social and environmental responsibility goals while at the same time it promotes development-related policy goals enshrined in the bilateral cooperation agreement between Germany and Mexico. However, the alliance faces important challenges related to different organizational cultures, electoral times and citizen participation.Cet article évalue un partenariat public-privé (PPP entre GTZ (société allemande de coopération technique, la municipalité d’Altamira, dans l’état du Tamaulipas au Mexique et deux homologues privés : BASF Mexicana et Terminal de

  19. On-chip integrated labelling, transport and detection of tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jane; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Haswell, Stephen J; Greenman, John

    2011-11-01

    Microflow cytometry represents a promising tool for the investigation of diagnostic and prognostic cellular cancer markers, particularly if integrated within a device that allows primary cells to be freshly isolated from the solid tumour biopsies that more accurately reflect patient-specific in vivo tissue microenvironments at the time of staining. However, current tissue processing techniques involve several sequential stages with concomitant cell losses, and as such are inappropriate for use with small biopsies. Accordingly, we present a simple method for combined antibody-labelling and dissociation of heterogeneous cells from a tumour mass, which reduces the number of processing steps. Perfusion of ex vivo tissue at 4°C with antibodies and enzymes slows cellular activity while allowing sufficient time for the diffusion of minimally active enzymes. In situ antibody-labelled cells are then dissociated at 37°C from the tumour mass, whereupon hydrogel-filled channels allow the release of relatively low cell numbers (<1000) into a biomimetic microenvironment. This novel approach to sample processing is then further integrated with hydrogel-based electrokinetic transport of the freshly liberated fluorescent cells for downstream detection. It is anticipated that this integrated microfluidic methodology will have wide-ranging biomedical and clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Integrated Analytic Radionuclide Transport Model for a Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Saturated Fractured Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Simple analytic expressions are presented for radionuclide transport from a KBS 3-type repository, where spent nuclear fuel is placed in copper canisters surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at a depth of 500 m in fractured granitic rock.Dissolution of readily accessible and fuel matrix embedded nuclides, chain decay, and nuclide precipitation is treated within the canister. Transport in the canister void and buffer is modeled with a dual stirred tank analogy, where transport resistances represent an assumed small initial damage in the canister and transport features of the buffer-geosphere interface. Initial, transient diffusion in the buffer is treated with a simple correction term. Chain decay is not included in the buffer.Geosphere transport expressions handle advection, longitudinal dispersion, matrix diffusion, sorption, and radioactive decay, but not chain decay. The treatment is based on earlier results for an instantaneous inlet and for a constant inlet to the geosphere in the nondispersive case. A correction is added so that longitudinal dispersion is taken approximately into account. The correction utilizes analytical expressions for the temporal moments of the geosphere release curve in the dispersive case.The near-field/geosphere integration is treated in a simplified manner avoiding numerical convolutions. The instantaneous inlet expression for the geosphere release is used when the near-field release decreases rapidly in comparison to a typical response time in the geosphere; the constant inlet expression is used in the opposite case.Twenty-seven calculation cases from a safety assessment of a KBS 3 repository using borehole data from three different field investigation sites were repeated with the analytic expressions. The agreement in both near-field and geosphere releases is in general well within an order of magnitude for the variety of long- and short-lived, sorbing, nonsorbing, solubility limited, immediately accessible, and fuel matrix

  1. Integrated Radiation Transport and Nuclear Fuel Performance for Assembly-Level Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Dilts, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Banfield, James E [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    The Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) Nuclear Fuel Performance code (AMPFuel) is focused on predicting the temperature and strain within a nuclear fuel assembly to evaluate the performance and safety of existing and advanced nuclear fuel bundles within existing and advanced nuclear reactors. AMPFuel was extended to include an integrated nuclear fuel assembly capability for (one-way) coupled radiation transport and nuclear fuel assembly thermo-mechanics. This capability is the initial step toward incorporating an improved predictive nuclear fuel assembly modeling capability to accurately account for source-terms and boundary conditions of traditional (single-pin) nuclear fuel performance simulation, such as the neutron flux distribution, coolant conditions, and assembly mechanical stresses. A novel scheme is introduced for transferring the power distribution from the Scale/Denovo (Denovo) radiation transport code (structured, Cartesian mesh with smeared materials within each cell) to AMPFuel (unstructured, hexagonal mesh with a single material within each cell), allowing the use of a relatively coarse spatial mesh (10 million elements) for the radiation transport and a fine spatial mesh (3.3 billion elements) for thermo-mechanics with very little loss of accuracy. In addition, a new nuclear fuel-specific preconditioner was developed to account for the high aspect ratio of each fuel pin (12 feet axially, but 1 4 inches in diameter) with many individual fuel regions (pellets). With this novel capability, AMPFuel was used to model an entire 17 17 pressurized water reactor fuel assembly with many of the features resolved in three dimensions (for thermo-mechanics and/or neutronics), including the fuel, gap, and cladding of each of the 264 fuel pins; the 25 guide tubes; the top and bottom structural regions; and the upper and lower (neutron) reflector regions. The final, full assembly calculation was executed on Jaguar using 40,000 cores in under 10 hours to model over 162

  2. Particle integrity, sampling, and application of a DNA-tagged tracer for aerosol transport studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, Cynthia Jeanne [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-07-21

    formulations of two different food-grade sugars (maltodextrin and erythritol) to humidity as high as 66% had no significant effect on the DNA label’s degradation or the particle’s aerodynamic diameter, confirming particle stability under such conditions. In summary, confirmation of the DNATrax particles’ size and label integrity under variable conditions combined with experiment multiplexing and high resolution sampling provides a powerful experimental design for modeling aerosol transport through occupied indoor and outdoor locations.

  3. Accelerating execution of the integrated TIGER series Monte Carlo radiation transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.M.; Hochstedler, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Execution of the integrated TIGER series (ITS) of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport codes has been accelerated by modifying the FORTRAN source code for more efficient computation. Each member code of ITS was benchmarked and profiled with a specific test case that directed the acceleration effort toward the most computationally intensive subroutines. Techniques for accelerating these subroutines included replacing linear search algorithms with binary versions, replacing the pseudo-random number generator, reducing program memory allocation, and proofing the input files for geometrical redundancies. All techniques produced identical or statistically similar results to the original code. Final benchmark timing of the accelerated code resulted in speed-up factors of 2.00 for TIGER (the one-dimensional slab geometry code), 1.74 for CYLTRAN (the two-dimensional cylindrical geometry code), and 1.90 for ACCEPT (the arbitrary three-dimensional geometry code)

  4. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  5. Nonequilibrium spin transport in integrable spin chains: Persistent currents and emergence of magnetic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Andrea; Collura, Mario; De Nardis, Jacopo

    2017-07-01

    We construct exact steady states of unitary nonequilibrium time evolution in the gapless XXZ spin-1/2 chain where integrability preserves ballistic spin transport at long times. We characterize the quasilocal conserved quantities responsible for this feature and introduce a computationally effective way to evaluate their expectation values on generic matrix product initial states. We employ this approach to reproduce the long-time limit of local observables in all quantum quenches which explicitly break particle-hole or time-reversal symmetry. We focus on a class of initial states supporting persistent spin currents and our predictions remarkably agree with numerical simulations at long times. Furthermore, we propose a protocol for this model where interactions, even when antiferromagnetic, are responsible for the unbounded growth of a macroscopic magnetic domain.

  6. Integral transport theory for charged particles in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffi, V.C.; Molinari, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    An integral transport theory for charged particles which, in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, diffuse by collisions against the atoms (or molecules) of a host medium is proposed. The combined effects of both the external fields and the mechanisms of scattering, removal and creation in building up the distribution function of the charged particles considered are investigated. The eigenvalue problem associated with the sourceless case of the given physical situation is also commented. Applications of the theory to a purely velocity-dependent problem and to a space-dependent problem, respectively, are illustrated for the case of a separable isotropic scattering kernel of synthetic type. Calculations of the distribution function, of the total current density and of relevant electrical conductivity are then carried out for different specializations of the external fields. (author)

  7. Accelerating execution of the integrated TIGER series Monte Carlo radiation transport codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Hochstedler, R. D.

    1997-02-01

    Execution of the integrated TIGER series (ITS) of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport codes has been accelerated by modifying the FORTRAN source code for more efficient computation. Each member code of ITS was benchmarked and profiled with a specific test case that directed the acceleration effort toward the most computationally intensive subroutines. Techniques for accelerating these subroutines included replacing linear search algorithms with binary versions, replacing the pseudo-random number generator, reducing program memory allocation, and proofing the input files for geometrical redundancies. All techniques produced identical or statistically similar results to the original code. Final benchmark timing of the accelerated code resulted in speed-up factors of 2.00 for TIGER (the one-dimensional slab geometry code), 1.74 for CYLTRAN (the two-dimensional cylindrical geometry code), and 1.90 for ACCEPT (the arbitrary three-dimensional geometry code).

  8. A model of integration among prediction tools: applied study to road freight transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Dias Blois

    Full Text Available Abstract This study has developed a scenery analysis model which has integrated decision-making tools on investments: prospective scenarios (Grumbach Method and systems dynamics (hard modeling, with the innovated multivariate analysis of experts. It was designed through analysis and simulation scenarios and showed which are the most striking events in the study object as well as highlighted the actions could redirect the future of the analyzed system. Moreover, predictions are likely to be developed through the generated scenarios. The model has been validated empirically with road freight transport data from state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results showed that the model contributes to the analysis of investment because it identifies probabilities of events that impact on decision making, and identifies priorities for action, reducing uncertainties in the future. Moreover, it allows an interdisciplinary discussion that correlates different areas of knowledge, fundamental when you wish more consistency in creating scenarios.

  9. CLUB - a multigroup integral transport theory code for lattice calculations of PHWR cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code CLUB has been developed to calculate lattice parameters as a function of burnup for a pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) lattice cell containing fuel in the form of cluster. It solves the multigroup integral transport equation by the method based on combination of small scale collision probability (CP) method and large scale interface current technique. The calculations are performed by using WIMS 69 group cross section library or its condensed versions of 27 or 28 group libraries. It can also compute Keff from the given geometrical buckling in the input using multigroup diffusion theory in fundamental mode. The first order differential burnup equations can be solved by either Trapezoidal rule or Runge-Kutta method. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  10. Study of pollutant transport in surface boundary layer by generalized integral transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Jesus S.P.; Heilbron Filho, Paulo F.L.; Pimentel, Luiz C.G.; Cataldi, Marcio

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical study was developed to obtain solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation for various point source, considering radioactive decay and axial diffusion, under neutral atmospheric conditions. It was used an algebraic turbulence model available in the literature, based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, for the representation of the turbulent transport in the vertical direction, in the longitudinal directions was considered a constant mass eddy diffusivity . The bi-dimensional transient partial differential equation, representative of the physical phenomena, was transformed into a coupled one-dimensional transient equation system by applying the Generalized Integral Transform Technique. The coupled system was solved numerically using a subroutine based in the lines method. In order to evaluate the computational algorithm were analyzed some representative physical situations. (author)

  11. Electronic Commerce: a battle on regulation, standards transportation media and business integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andersen

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards the electronic commerce organisation is both a troublesome and a strifted path for government, enterprises and consumers worldwide. In this article we analyse the evolution of electronic commerce in Denmark during the period 1995-1998 from four perspectives: regulation, standards, transportation media and business integration. The Danish government is stimulating the use of electronic commerce using direct and indirect policy initiatives on central, governmental regulation and establishment of greens enabling self-regulation. Also, the governments own, organisational management is in Denmark seen as a mean to exalt electronic commerce. Onwards, the fist on proprietary standards and the UN/EDIFACT is an ongoing source of delaying, stimulating or reventing electronic commerce depending on the business sector and the size of market actor addressed. In Denmark, the direct access and value added network supporters have so far been the dominating mean to transport the electronic documents in the business transaction. The Internet and XML technology is at the turn of the century challenging the way of doing business within this field. Some view this as the big blue to speed the diffusion of electronic commerce; others are worried that the incentive to investment and pull the partners in the value chain to use EDI might be lost. Finally, our study conclude that the debate on business integration issues is ambiguous and characterised by substantial uncertainty on for example the role of intermediates, direct sale, hyper-shift in business partners and the pull/push of global enterprises at the local markets.

  12. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  13. Integrated technique of planning the capital repair of residential buildings and objects of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fundamentally different methods for planning capital repairs of objects of transport infrastructure and residential development. The first method was based on perspective long-term plans. Normative service life were the basis for planning the periodicity of repairs. The second method was based on the performance of repairs in fact of the onset of the malfunction. Problems of financing repair work, of the uneven aging of constructs and engineering systems, different wear mechanism in different conditions of exploitation, absence of methods of planning repairs of administrative and production buildings (depots, stations, etc.) justify the need to optimize methods of planning the repair and the relevance of this paper. The aim of the study was to develop the main provisions of an integrated technique for planning the capital repair of buildings of any functional purpose, which combines the advantages of each of the discussed planning methods. For this purpose, the consequences of technical and economic risk were analyzed of the buildings, including stations, depots, transport transfer hubs, administrative buildings, etc when choosing different planning methods. One of the significant results of the study is the possibility of justifying the optimal period of capital repairs on the basis of the proposed technical and economic criteria. The adjustment of the planned repair schedule is carried out taking into account the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the exploitation process.

  14. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Integrating Building Energy Efficiency with Land Use and Transportation Planning in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Duduta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth occurring in the urban regions of China, it is critical to address issues of sustainability through practices that engender holistic energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we present results from a collaborative design project carried out with planning officials from the city of Jinan (population 3.4 million, for the Luokou district, a 3.1 km2 (1.2 mi2 area to the north of the CBD that is expected to house 100,000–130,000 people by 2020. By integrating sustainable building design, land use, urban design, and transportation, our proposal identified opportunities for improving energy efficiency that might have been overlooked by considering buildings and transportation separately. Mixed land uses and walkable neighborhoods were proposed along with highly differentiated street designs, intended to carry different traffic loads and prioritize diverse travel modes. Street widths and building heights were adjusted to maximize the potential for passive solar heating and daylight use within buildings. The district’s environmental performance, analyzed using building energy evaluation and traffic micro simulation models, showed that the design would reduce energy loads by over 25% compared to business as usual. While the proposal complied with national and local policies, and had far better energy performance than conventional designs, the proposal ultimately was not accepted by local officials because initial costs to the developers were higher than for conventional designs.

  16. Integration of two RAB5 groups during endosomal transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebine, Kazuo; Choi, Seung-won; Ichinose, Sakura; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2018-01-01

    RAB5 is a key regulator of endosomal functions in eukaryotic cells. Plants possess two different RAB5 groups, canonical and plant-unique types, which act via unknown counteracting mechanisms. Here, we identified an effector molecule of the plant-unique RAB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARA6, which we designated PLANT-UNIQUE RAB5 EFFECTOR 2 (PUF2). Preferential colocalization with canonical RAB5 on endosomes and genetic interaction analysis indicated that PUF2 coordinates vacuolar transport with canonical RAB5, although PUF2 was identified as an effector of ARA6. Competitive binding of PUF2 with GTP-bound ARA6 and GDP-bound canonical RAB5, together interacting with the shared activating factor VPS9a, showed that ARA6 negatively regulates canonical RAB5-mediated vacuolar transport by titrating PUF2 and VPS9a. These results suggest a unique and unprecedented function for a RAB effector involving the integration of two RAB groups to orchestrate endosomal trafficking in plant cells. PMID:29749929

  17. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  18. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-01-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current 'metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  19. Transportation fuel production from gasified biomass integrated with a pulp and paper mill – Part A: Heat integration and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Johan; Jansson, Mikael; Åsblad, Anders; Berntsson, Thore

    2016-01-01

    Production of transportation fuels from biorefineries via biomass gasification has been suggested as a way of introducing renewable alternatives in the transportation system with an aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. By co-locating gasification-based processes within heat demanding industries, excess heat from the gasification process can replace fossil or renewable fuels. The objective of this study was to compare the heat integration potential of four different gasification-based biorefinery concepts with a chemical pulp and paper mill. The results showed that the choice of end-product which was either methanol, Fischer-Tropsch crude, synthetic natural gas or electricity, can have significant impact on the heat integration potential with a pulp and paper mill and that the heat saving measures implemented in the mill in connection to integration of a gasification process can increase the biomass resource efficiency by up to 3%-points. Heat saving measures can reduce the necessary biomass input to the biorefinery by 50% if the sizing constraint is to replace the bark boiler with excess heat from the biorefinery. A large integrated gasification process with excess steam utilisation in a condensing turbine was beneficial only if grid electricity is produced at below 30% electrical efficiency. - Highlights: • Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill. • Different sizing constraints of integrated biofuel production. • The biofuel product largely influence the heat integration potential. • An oversized gasifier for increased power production could be favourable.

  20. Canada's Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) : deployment and integration plan : applicant's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    This document is the applicant's guide for proposing intelligent transportation systems projects to Transport Canada and details such matters as eligibility, Transport Canada's program objectives and assessment of projects

  1. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  2. Integration of RAMS in LCC analysis for linear transport infrastructures. A case study for railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Cordón, Álvaro; Jiménez-Redondo, Noemi; Morales-Gámiz, F. J.; García-Villena, F. A.; Garmabaki, Amir H. S.; Odelius, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis is an economic technique used to assess the total costs associated with the lifetime of a system in order to support decision making in long term strategic planning. For complex systems, such as railway and road infrastructures, the cost of maintenance plays an important role in the LCC analysis. Costs associated with maintenance interventions can be more reliably estimated by integrating the probabilistic nature of the failures associated to these interventions in the LCC models. Reliability, Maintainability, Availability and Safety (RAMS) parameters describe the maintenance needs of an asset in a quantitative way by using probabilistic information extracted from registered maintenance activities. Therefore, the integration of RAMS in the LCC analysis allows obtaining reliable predictions of system maintenance costs and the dependencies of these costs with specific cost drivers through sensitivity analyses. This paper presents an innovative approach for a combined RAMS & LCC methodology for railway and road transport infrastructures being developed under the on-going H2020 project INFRALERT. Such RAMS & LCC analysis provides relevant probabilistic information to be used for condition and risk-based planning of maintenance activities as well as for decision support in long term strategic investment planning.

  3. Advancing research on animal-transported subsidies by integrating animal movement and ecosystem modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Zollner, Patrick A

    2017-09-01

    Connections between ecosystems via animals (active subsidies) support ecosystem services and contribute to numerous ecological effects. Thus, the ability to predict the spatial distribution of active subsidies would be useful for ecology and conservation. Previous work modelling active subsidies focused on implicit space or static distributions, which treat passive and active subsidies similarly. Active subsidies are fundamentally different from passive subsidies, because animals can respond to the process of subsidy deposition and ecosystem changes caused by subsidy deposition. We propose addressing this disparity by integrating animal movement and ecosystem ecology to advance active subsidy investigations, make more accurate predictions of subsidy spatial distributions, and enable a mechanistic understanding of subsidy spatial distributions. We review selected quantitative techniques that could be used to accomplish integration and lead to novel insights. The ultimate objective for these types of studies is predictions of subsidy spatial distributions from characteristics of the subsidy and the movement strategy employed by animals that transport subsidies. These advances will be critical in informing the management of ecosystem services, species conservation and ecosystem degradation related to active subsidies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  4. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  5. Transportation and socioeconomic impacts of bypasses on communities : an integrated synthesis of panel data, multilevel, and spatial econometric models with case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Title: Transportation and Socioeconomic Impacts of Bypasses on Communities: An Integrated Synthesis of Panel Data, Multilevel, and Spatial Econometric Models with Case Studies. The title used at the start of this project was Transportation and Soc...

  6. Calculation of the critical buckling of a lattice based on the integral form of the transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1990-06-01

    The migration area, which relates the buckling to the multiplication factor, can be calculated by means of the Deniz formula. This formula involves the direct and adjoint angular fluxes. It is shown in this note that it is possible, using the integral form of the transport equation, to establish an equivalent formula in which only angle-integrated quantities appear. This formulation is more suitable for the calculation by the collision probably method [fr

  7. KPI Building Blocks For Successful Green Transport Corridor Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green transport corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development of integrated and sustainable transport solutions. Important properties of green corridors are their transnational character and their high involvement of large numbers of public and private stakeholders, including political level, requiring sophisticated approaches for implementation, management and governance. The current scientific discussion focusses on Key Performance Indicators (KPI for monitoring and management of green transport corridor performance emphasizing the operational aspects.

  8. Public-private partnership oversight : how FHWA reviews P3s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of State and local transportation agencies are considering the use of public-private : partnerships (P3s), in which a private entity is involved in designing, financing, constructing, operating, : and maintaining a transportation fac...

  9. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  10. How are America's private forests changing? An integrated assessment of forest management, housing pressure, and urban development in alternate emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinki. Mondal; Brett J. Butler; David B. Kittredge; Warren K. Moser

    2013-01-01

    Private forests are a vital component of the natural ecosystem infrastructure of the United States, and provide critical ecosystem services including clean air and water, energy, wildlife habitat, recreational services, and wood fiber. These forests have been subject to conversion to developed uses due to increasing population pressures. This study examines the...

  11. Transport Market and its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Market is the integrity of relations between supply and demandof traffic or some other service (goods which at a ce11ainplace and location, at a certain time affect the supply and purchaseof certain products, including services, stocks, money,and the set of all institutions, areas, devices and instrumentsthat act on the sale and other transactions realised at that point.It is the main resource allocator (~resource allocation in thesystems of free private ownership economic and transport systems.

  12. The Desired Quality of Integrated Multimodal Travel Information in Public Transport: Customer Needs for Time and Effort Savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, J-W.; Wiegmans, B.; Rietveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    Travel information is one of the factors that contribute to the quality of public transport. In particular, integrated multimodal travel information (IMTI) is expected to affect customers' modal choice. The objective of this research is to identify customers' desired quality of IMTI provision in

  13. Integral analysis of debris material and heat transport in reactor vessel lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.; Henry, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    An integral, fast-running, two-region model has been developed to characterize the debris material and heat transport in the reactor lower plenum under severe accident conditions. The debris bed is segregated into the oxidic pool and an overlying metallic layer. Debris crusts can develop on three surfaces: the top of the molten pool, the RPV wall, and the internal structures. To account for the decay heat generation, the crust temperature profile is assumed to be parabolic. The oxidic debris pool is homogeneously mixed and has the same material composition, and hence the same thermophysical properties, as the crusts, while the metallic constituents are assumed to rise to the top of the debris pool. Steady-state relationships are used to describe the heat transfer rates, with the assessment of solid or liquid state, and the liquid superheat in the pool being based on the average debris temperature. Natural convection heat transfer from the molten debris pool to the upper, lower and embedded crusts is calculated based on the pool Rayleigh number with the conduction heat transfer from the crusts being determined by the crust temperature profile. The downward heat flux is transferred to the lowest part of the RPV lower head through a crust-to-RPV contact resistance. The sideward heat flux is transferred to the upper regions of the RPV lower head as well as to the internal structures. The upward heat flux goes to the metal layer, water, or available heat sink structures above. Quenching due to water ingression is modeled separately from the energy transfer through the crust. The RPV wall temperature distribution and the primary system pressure are utilized to estimate challenges to the RPV integrity. ((orig.))

  14. Privatization and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  15. Private Water Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...

  16. Integrated waste-to-energy conversion and waste transportation within island communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsigraiova, Zdena; Tavares, Gilberto; Semiao, Viriato; Carvalho, Maria de Graca

    2009-01-01

    Usually in islands both primary energy sources and drinking water are missing. Additionally, municipal solid waste (MSW) must be managed avoiding exclusive use of landfills, which limits sustainable development. Power generation from MSW incineration contributes significantly to replacing energy produced from fossil fuels and to reduce overall emissions. A solution based on thermodynamics, environmental and economic analyses and 3D-GIS modelling for the afore-mentioned problems for Cape Verde is proposed. This model integrates waste transportation optimisation and incineration with energy recovery combining production of heat and power (CHP), the heat being used for drinking water production. The results show that extraction condensing steam turbines are more suitable when power production is a priority (5.0 MW with 4000 m 3 /d of drinking water), whereas back-pressure turbines yield 5540-6650 m 3 /d of drinking water with an additional power production of 3.3-4.7 MW. The environmental and economic assessment performed shows the feasibility of the proposed CHP solution, which brings a considerable reduction in net air emissions (1.6 kt), including a significant decrease in the greenhouse gas emissions (131 ktCO 2 ), and that the revenue from energy sales ( Euro 15 million) has potential to balance the incineration cost. Moreover, when terrain relief is accounted for in the route optimisation for minimum fuel consumption, savings up to 11% are obtained.

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity assessments of GPS and GIS integrated applications for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungchul; Vonderohe, Alan P

    2014-02-10

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methods are introduced, concerning the quality of spatial data as well as that of output information from Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated applications for transportation. In the methods, an error model and an error propagation method form a basis for formulating characterization and propagation of uncertainties. They are developed in two distinct approaches: analytical and simulation. Thus, an initial evaluation is performed to compare and examine uncertainty estimations from the analytical and simulation approaches. The evaluation results show that estimated ranges of output information from the analytical and simulation approaches are compatible, but the simulation approach rather than the analytical approach is preferred for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, due to its flexibility and capability to realize positional errors in both input data. Therefore, in a case study, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses based upon the simulation approach is conducted on a winter maintenance application. The sensitivity analysis is used to determine optimum input data qualities, and the uncertainty analysis is then applied to estimate overall qualities of output information from the application. The analysis results show that output information from the non-distance-based computation model is not sensitive to positional uncertainties in input data. However, for the distance-based computational model, output information has a different magnitude of uncertainties, depending on position uncertainties in input data.

  18. Public Transport Versus Private Car: GIS-Based Estimation of Accessibility Applied to the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area - www-publicatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benenson, I.; Martens, C.J.C.M.; Rofe, Y.; Kwartler, A.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing interest in sustainable development has underlined the importance of accessibility as a key indicator to assess transport investments, urban policy, and urban form. From both the environmental and the equity component of sustainability, a comparison of accessibility by car versus

  19. Integrated land-use and transport modelling using OTP to determine lowest cost trips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Q

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the link between economic infrastructure, that includes transport, and social infrastructure that includes social well-being and the basic necessities of people. It shows how transport models and urban models influence...

  20. Integrating climate change in transportation and land use scenario planning : an example from central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Central New Mexico Climate Change Scenario Planning Project, an Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Initiative, utilized a scenario planning process to develop a multiagency transportation- and land use-focused development st...

  1. A Freight Transport Model for Integrated Network, Service, and Policy Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.

    2013-01-01

    “The goal of the European Transport Policy is to establish a sustainable transport system that meets society’s economic, social and environmental needs…” (ECE, 2009). This statement indicates the challenges that the European transport policy makers are faced with when facilitating an increasing

  2. Comprehensive understandings of energy confinement in LHD plasmas through extensive application of the integrated transport analysis suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Seki, R.; Suzuki, C.; Ida, K.; Osakabe, M.; Satake, S.; Yamada, H.; Murakami, S.

    2014-10-01

    The integrated transport analysis suite, TASK3D-a, has enhanced energy transport analyses in LHD. It has clearly elucidated (1) the systematic dependence of ion and electron energy confinement on wide variation of plasma parameters, and (2) statistically-derived fitting expressions for the ion and electron heat diffusivities (χ i and χ e ), separately, taking also those radial-profile information into account. In particular, the latter approach can outstrip the conventional scaling laws for the global confinement time (τ E ) in terms of its considerations on profiles (temperature, density, heating depositions etc.). This has been made possible with the analysis database accumulated by the extensive application of the integrated transport analysis suite to experiment data. In this proceeding, TASK3D-a analysis-database for high-ion-temperature (high-T i ) plasmas in LHD (Large Helical Device) are exemplified. This approach should be applicable to any other combinations of integrated transport analysis suites and fusion experiments. (author)

  3. Transportation of Dangerous Goods in Green Transport Corridors - Conclusions from Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Meike

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Green Corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development and implementation of integrated and sustainable transport solutions based on trans-nationality, multi-modality and a high involvement of public and private stakeholders, including the political level. Despite the fact that the Green Transport Corridor (GTC concept is founded on the three dimensions of sustainability with a strong emphasis on environmental aspects, the corridor hubs as well as the whole transport corridors have to find ways to handle and transport dangerous goods by keeping the high sustainability standards.

  4. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  5. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  6. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. A new approach to calculate charge carrier transport mobility in organic molecular crystals from imaginary time path integral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a new non-perturbative method to calculate the charge carrier mobility using the imaginary time path integral approach, which is based on the Kubo formula for the conductivity, and a saddle point approximation to perform the analytic continuation. The new method is first tested using a benchmark calculation from the numerical exact hierarchical equations of motion method. Imaginary time path integral Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to explore the temperature dependence of charge carrier delocalization and mobility in organic molecular crystals (OMCs) within the Holstein and Holstein-Peierls models. The effects of nonlocal electron-phonon interaction on mobility in different charge transport regimes are also investigated

  8. Integral transform method for solving neutron transport problems with general anisotropic scattering in a cylinder of finite height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Sahni, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the mathematical techniques that were developed for solving the integral transport equation for the criticality of a homogeneous cylinder of finite height with general anisotropic scattering. They present the integral transport equations for the Fourier transformed spherical harmonic moments of the angular flux. These moments are also represented by a series of products of spherical Bessel functions. The criticality problem is, then, posed by the matrix eigenvalue problem whose eigenvector is composed of the expansion coefficients mentioned above. An methodology of calculating the general matrix element is discussed by using the recursion relations derived in this paper. Finally, for the one-group criticality of finite cylinders, the benchmark results are generated when scattering is linearly anisotropic. Also, these benchmarks are solved and compared with the S/sub N/ method of TWOTRAN

  9. Environmental impact assessment of transportation projects: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Mohamed Anwar

    Transportation projects will have impact on the environment. The general environmental pollution and damage caused by roads is closely associated with the level of economic activity. Although Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are dependent on geo-spatial information in order to make an assessment, there are no rules per se how to conduct an environmental assessment. Also, the particular objective of each assessment is dictated case-by-case, based on what information and analyses are required. The conventional way of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study is a time consuming process because it has large number of dependent and independent variables which have to be taken into account, which also have different consequences. With the emergence of satellite remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this research presents a new framework for the analysis phase of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for transportation projects based on the integration between remote sensing technology, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling. By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, the framework analyzes comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around the road and its impact on the environment. This framework is expected to: (1) improve the quality of the decision making process, (2) be applied both to urban and inter-urban projects, regardless of transport mode, and (3) present the data and make the appropriate analysis to support the decision of the decision-makers and allow them to present these data to the public hearings in a simple manner. Case studies, transportation projects in the State of Florida, were analyzed to illustrate the use of the decision support framework and demonstrate its capabilities. This cohesive and integrated system will facilitate rational decisions through cost effective coordination of environmental information and data management that can be tailored to

  10. Integrated planning of electric vehicles routing and charging stations location considering transportation networks and power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arias

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EVs represent a significant option that contributes to improve the mobility and reduce the pollution, leaving a future expectation in the merchandise transportation sector, which has been demonstrated with pilot projects of companies operating EVs for products delivering. In this work a new approach of EVs for merchandise transportation considering the location of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs and the impact on the Power Distribution System (PDS is addressed. This integrated planning is formulated through a mixed integer non-linear mathematical model. Test systems of different sizes are designed to evaluate the model performance, considering the transportation network and PDS. The results show a trade-off between EVs routing, PDS energy losses and EVCSs location.

  11. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  12. Public-private partnership as a solution for integrating genetic services into health care of countries with low and middle incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Florian; Schöffski, Oliver; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    In recent years scientific progress has dramatically raised the potential of genetic services, but the actual benefits of these developments are not universally shared. In countries of low and middle incomes, improvements in genetic services frequently lag behind. Since this is generally caused by lack of resources and not by the lack of political will, the question arises, how can one most easily acquire the necessary capital to improve the health care in these areas. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) offer one approach to solve this issue, aiming at the inclusion of private enterprises in the realisation of public authority services. So far PPPs have been used exclusively in other health service areas. In this paper a first attempt is being made to discuss the feasibility of transferring the concept of PPP to genetic services, and consideration is given as to where the most promising starting point might be. We start by defining a multilevel structure that needs to be considered in providing comprehensive genetic care. We continue by explaining the concept of PPPs and their current types of implementation in medical services. We then examine how the PPP model could be applied to genetic services or sections thereof. We arrive at the conclusion that a likely starting point for PPP in genetic services is at the level of the infrastructure building service.

  13. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 2: Enablers for multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. The part 2 of the paper is dedicated to recommend some concrete steps and actions as enablers to remove the barriers identified in the part 1 to develop multimodal rail freight transport. The enablers for multimodal rail freight transport include: •\tEuropean rail freight transport market needs full liberalisation so that incumbent and new entrants can compete freely. •\tThe rail operators need to acquire service (e.g. customer tailored services, door to door service quality offered by road freight operators. •\tThey need to conduct a combination of ‘terminal-to-terminal’ and door-to-door operations, as and when needed; •\tThey must build partnership with freight forwarder or 3PLs to include all types of customers

  14. Controlling Urban Sprawl with Integrated Approach of Space-Transport Development Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.; Pel, A.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sprawl phenomenon has been a huge issue since 20th century characterized by a rapid and unbalanced settlement development with transportation network particularly in a suburban area. The improvement of public transport system is a major requirement to minimize urban sprawl. Academic

  15. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  16. THE PERSPECTIVES OF MARITIME TRANSPORT IN EU AND ITS INTEGRATION IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobantu Roxana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised economy transport is one of the most important factors linking the national economies and maritime transport is the main way to deliver goods in international trade. For any international company, choosing the appropriate transportation as part of the logistic solution is vital for its competitiveness. In the context of the economic crisis, CEE strategic location factors play an important role for regional companies which adapt and change their logistic services by developing new scenarios for the shipping industry in order to obtain a better position on the global market. In addition to a favourable geographical location CEE has several other important arguments, like sufficient harbours for developing container terminals to launch extensive container transport transit. The most important recent trends in logistics are shown, as well as the framework of the EU maritime transport.

  17. An integrated risk communication system for the transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, J.W. IV; Abkowitz, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of the prototype of an an internet-based, risk communication system prototype for the transport of hazardous materials. The system was designed with the objectives of: (1) incorporating functionality and features that are useful for meeting a variety of risk communication needs, and (2) demonstrating a high degree of interaction among system components, enabling customisation to meet the specific transport risk communication needs requirements of the host organisation. To demonstrate 'proof of concept', the system is applied to two scenarios: 1) building knowledge and awareness, focusing on how information can be entered, organised and disseminated to the public and other transport stakeholders, and 2) emergency management, utilising the system for securely managing information in responding to a transport incident involving hazardous materials transport incident. The effectiveness of the system in these applications is subsequently discussed. (author)

  18. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  19. Radio-metabolite analysis of carbon-11 biochemical partitioning to non-structural carbohydrates for integrated metabolism and transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Benjamin A; Karve, Abhijit A; Judt, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Metabolism and phloem transport of carbohydrates are interactive processes, yet each is often studied in isolation from the other. Carbon-11 ((11)C) has been successfully used to study transport and allocation processes dynamically over time. There is a need for techniques to determine metabolic partitioning of newly fixed carbon that are compatible with existing non-invasive (11)C-based methodologies for the study of phloem transport. In this report, we present methods using (11)C-labeled CO2 to trace carbon partitioning to the major non-structural carbohydrates in leaves-sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was adapted to provide multisample throughput, raising the possibility of measuring different tissues of the same individual plant, or for screening multiple plants. An additional advantage of HPTLC was that phosphor plate imaging of radioactivity had a much higher sensitivity and broader range of sensitivity than radio-HPLC detection, allowing measurement of (11)C partitioning to starch, which was previously not possible. Because of the high specific activity of (11)C and high sensitivity of detection, our method may have additional applications in the study of rapid metabolic responses to environmental changes that occur on a time scale of minutes. The use of this method in tandem with other (11)C assays for transport dynamics and whole-plant partitioning makes a powerful combination of tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and whole-plant transport as integrated processes.

  20. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector-A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi [Economics Department, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Sadeghi@isu.ac.ir; Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mirshojaeian@ut.ac.ir

    2008-02-15

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of 'Reference Energy System (RES)' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon.

  1. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector-A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of 'Reference Energy System (RES)' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon

  2. Public-private implementation of integrated emergency response services: Case study of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Veena M; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Emergency medical services are important to the functioning of health systems, but these services tend to be neglected in low- and middle-income countries, such as India. In recent years, several models of pre-hospital emergency medical services have emerged in India. Research on these models holds important lessons for existing and future emergency medical service programs in low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to provide a comprehensive description of the organizational structure and service delivery model of a public-private partnership in the southern Indian state of Karnataka, GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute, with a particular focus on its operations in Bengaluru. A case study methodology was used to explore systematically the organizational model of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute in Karnataka. Qualitative data were collected through an in-person site visit to GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute headquarters in Bengaluru in July 2013. Three sources were used: in-depth, semistructured interviews, document review, and nonparticipant observation. Data were analyzed according to the health system "building blocks" proposed by the World Health Organization. The organization follows a standardized model across the states and union territories where they have contractual arrangements, including Karnataka. Processes for fleet maintenance, information systems/information technology and training, and deployment were well structured at the organizational level. The public-private partnership appears pro-poor in orientation; however, further demand-side research is required on the perspective of patients. Our study reveals a functional structure at the organizational level, which provides a key service at no cost to users. Detailed analyses of this nature can help inform global efforts for the development and strengthening of emergency medical services systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How private are Europe's private forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichiforel, Liviu; Keary, Kevin; Deuffic, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private...... across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners' rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational...... management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions' former socio-political background...

  4. Integration in the system of transport maintenance of the world economic connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. В. Щербакова

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the general principle of globalization of development and efficiency of multimodal transport technologies. The methods economy of time of delivery of commodities and reduction of the combined expenses of labour on the system a production is delivery is realization – consumption. By the main lever of mechanism of management becoming of country as sea power state support of national shipowner becomes on the basis of world experience. Due to the globalization of economic relations increases the value of the majority of local transport systems, which lie on the routes of movement of the mass of commodities between the main centers of production and consumption. At the same time the possibility of rational interaction in the multimodal transport technologies allow each country to certain investment opportunities to ensure the normal operation of national zones of international transport corridors. So focus on the continued efficacy of the transportation process, and, consequently, the formation of carrying capacity requires the establishment of general and specific subsystems of the economic mechanism. Specificity and is particularly suited to solving standard problems of marine transportation, despite the existence of international conventions and standards, is the desire of individual shipowners through a strategy of technical and economic advantages to expand their positions. So focus on the continued efficacy of the transportation process, and, consequently, the formation of carrying capacity requires the establishment of general and specific subsystems of the economic mechanism. Specificity and is particularly suited to solving standard problems of marine transportation, despite the existence of international conventions and standards, is the desire of individual shipowners through a strategy of technical and economic advantages to expand their positions. Thus, the marine transport industry refers to the activities that

  5. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 1: Barriers to multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. Examining and identifying the barriers in the part 1 (with the pan-Pacific examples of rail freight transports, the part 2 of the paper focuses on recommending clear actions and steps as enablers for the rail freight industry in general and operators in particular. The research in part 1 of the paper finds that: •\tIn many European countries, the rail freight market is not fully liberalised. In such market segment, infrastructure managers do act independently for incumbents and new entrant operators that hamper the progress of building a competitive market; •\tThe rail operators have not yet achieved the service quality (e.g. customer tailored service needed for the modern supply chains; •\tThey operate

  6. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  7. Integrating real-time GIS and social media for qualitative transportation data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-26

    New technologies such as global positioning system, smartphone, and social media are changing the way we move around. Traditional : transportation research has overwhelmingly emphasized the collection of quantitative data for modeling, without much c...

  8. Integrated framework to capture the interdependencies between transportation and energy sectors due to policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Currently, transportation and energy sectors are developed, managed, and operated independently of : one another. Due to the non-renewable nature of fossil fuels, energy security has evolved into a : strategic goal for the United States. The transpor...

  9. Local Government GIS and Geospatial Capabilities : Suitability for Integrated Transportation & Land Use Planning (California SB 375)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report examines two linked phenomena in transportation planning: the geospatial analysis capabilities of local planning agencies and the increasing demands on such capabilities imposed by comprehensive planning mandates.

  10. Integrating Shared Mobility into Multimodal Transportation Planning: Improving Regional Performance to Meet Public Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    New shared mobility services have become increasingly common and important modes of travel in U.S. cities, but transportation planning practices are only beginning to adapt in response. This white paper provides a framework and examples to assist tra...

  11. The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Thomas; Argyle, Morris; Popa, Tiberiu

    2009-06-30

    This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a

  12. Lessons from Transportation Agency Participation In Regional Conservation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Jaimee

    2017-01-01

    Transportation agencies struggle to maximize the benefits of transportation infrastructure while minimizing environmental harm. This dissertation examines institutional collaborations that integrate capital investments (e.g. highway and rail projects) with regional Habitat Conservation Plans (RHCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). It addresses ways of maintaining these collaborations over time. The ESA requires that public and private project developers mitigate any harm to endangered...

  13. Integral transport multiregion geometrical shadowing factor for the approximate collision probability matrix calculation of infinite closely packed lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowzani-Moghaddam, A.

    1981-01-01

    An integral transport method of calculating the geometrical shadowing factor in multiregion annular cells for infinite closely packed lattices in cylindrical geometry is developed. This analytical method has been programmed in the TPGS code. This method is based upon a consideration of the properties of the integral transport method for a nonuniform body, which together with Bonalumi's approximations allows the determination of the approximate multiregion collision probability matrix for infinite closely packed lattices with sufficient accuracy. The multiregion geometrical shadowing factors have been calculated for variations in fuel pin annular segment rings in a geometry of annular cells. These shadowing factors can then be used in the calculation of neutron transport from one annulus to another in an infinite lattice. The result of this new geometrical shadowing and collision probability matrix are compared with the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction and the probability matrix using constant shadowing on Yankee fuel elements in an infinite lattice. In these cases the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction factor and collision probability matrix using constant shadowing are in difference by at most 6.2% and 6%, respectively

  14. Privatization in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.

  15. The microtubule cytoskeleton does not integrate auxin transport and gravitropism in maize roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Lee, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Cholodny-Went hypothesis of gravitropism suggests that the graviresponse is controlled by the distribution of auxin. However, the mechanism of auxin transport during the graviresponse of roots is still unresolved. To determine whether the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is participating in auxin transport, the cytoskeleton was examined and the movement of 3H-IAA measured in intact and excised taxol, oryzalin, and naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-treated roots of Zea mays cv. Merit. Taxol and oryzalin did not inhibit the graviresponse of roots but the auxin transport inhibitor NPA greatly inhibited both auxin transport and graviresponse. NPA had no effect on MT organization in vertical roots, but caused MT reorientation in horizontally placed roots. Regardless of treatment, the organization of MTs in intact roots differed from that in root segments. The MT inhibitors, taxol and oryzalin had opposite effects on the MTs, namely, depolymerization (oryzalin) and stabilization and thickening (taxol), but both treatments caused swelling of the roots. The data indicate that the MT cytoskeleton does not directly interfere with auxin transport or auxin-mediated growth responses in maize roots.

  16. An integrated field-effect microdevice for monitoring membrane transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes via lateral proton diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Felix Schaffhauser

    Full Text Available An integrated microdevice for measuring proton-dependent membrane activity at the surface of Xenopus laevis oocytes is presented. By establishing a stable contact between the oocyte vitelline membrane and an ion-sensitive field-effect (ISFET sensor inside a microperfusion channel, changes in surface pH that are hypothesized to result from facilitated proton lateral diffusion along the membrane were detected. The solute diffusion barrier created between the sensor and the active membrane area allowed detection of surface proton concentration free from interference of solutes in bulk solution. The proposed sensor mechanism was verified by heterologously expressing membrane transport proteins and recording changes in surface pH during application of the specific substrates. Experiments conducted on two families of phosphate-sodium cotransporters (SLC20 & SLC34 demonstrated that it is possible to detect phosphate transport for both electrogenic and electroneutral isoforms and distinguish between transport of different phosphate species. Furthermore, the transport activity of the proton/amino acid cotransporter PAT1 assayed using conventional whole cell electrophysiology correlated well with changes in surface pH, confirming the ability of the system to detect activity proportional to expression level.

  17. Evaluation of Monte Carlo electron-Transport algorithms in the integrated Tiger series codes for stochastic-media simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.C.; Kensek, R.P.; Prinja, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic-media simulations require numerous boundary crossings. We consider two Monte Carlo electron transport approaches and evaluate accuracy with numerous material boundaries. In the condensed-history method, approximations are made based on infinite-medium solutions for multiple scattering over some track length. Typically, further approximations are employed for material-boundary crossings where infinite-medium solutions become invalid. We have previously explored an alternative 'condensed transport' formulation, a Generalized Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (GBFP) method, which requires no special boundary treatment but instead uses approximations to the electron-scattering cross sections. Some limited capabilities for analog transport and a GBFP method have been implemented in the Integrated Tiger Series (ITS) codes. Improvements have been made to the condensed history algorithm. The performance of the ITS condensed-history and condensed-transport algorithms are assessed for material-boundary crossings. These assessments are made both by introducing artificial material boundaries and by comparison to analog Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  18. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  19. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  20. A set of integrated environmental transport and diffusion models for calculating hazardous releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    A set of numerical transport and dispersion models is incorporated within a graphical interface shell to predict hazardous material released into the environment. The visual shell (EnviroView) consists of an object-oriented knowledge base, which is used for inventory control, site mapping and orientation, and monitoring of materials. Graphical displays of detailed sites, building locations, floor plans, and three-dimensional views within a room are available to the user using a point and click interface. In the event of a release to the environment, the user can choose from a selection of analytical, finite element, finite volume, and boundary element methods, which calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and dispersion within a building interior. The program runs on 486 personal computers under WINDOWS

  1. Nystro¨m method applied to integral formulation of the neutron transport equation in X-Y geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Fabio S.; Sauter, Esequia; Konzen, Pedro H.A.; Barichello, Liliane B., E-mail: fabio.azevedo@ufrgs.br, E-mail: esequia.sauter@ufrgs.br, E-mail: pedro.konzen@ufrgs.br, E-mail: lbaric@mat.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Matem´atica Pura e Aplicada

    2017-07-01

    Neutron transport problems in X-Y geometry have been solved with several techniques in last decades but it is still a challenge to produce a good balance between computational efficiency and accuracy. In this work, we address this problem by efficiently applying the Nystr¨om method to the integral formulation of the transport equation. Analytical techniques, modern numerical packages and optimized implementation were applied to reduce the computational time. This method presented results free of ray effects leading to high accurate numerical results for two-dimensional scalar flux. Our implementation simulates homogeneous problems with vacuum and reflective boundary conditions. Results were validated with up to seven significant digits and compared with those available in the literature. (author)

  2. The transport sectors potential contribution to the flexibility in the power sector required by large-scale wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    -scale integration of renewable energy in the power system – in specific wind power. In the plan, 20 % of the road transport is based on electricity and 20 % on bio- fuels. This, together with other initiatives allows for up to 55-60 % wind power penetration in the power system. A fleet of 0.5 mio electrical...... vehicles in Denmark in 2030 connected to the grid 50 % of the time represents an aggregated flexible power capacity of 1- 1.5 GW and an energy capacity of 10-150 GWh.......In 2006, the Danish Society of Engineers developed a visionary plan for the Danish energy system in 2030. The paper presents and qualifies selected part of the analyses, illustrating the transport sectors potential to contribute to the flexibility in the power sector, necessary for large...

  3. Double path integral method for obtaining the mobility of the one-dimensional charge transport in molecular chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo-Kong, Sikarin; Liewrian, Watchara

    2015-12-01

    We report on a theoretical investigation concerning the polaronic effect on the transport properties of a charge carrier in a one-dimensional molecular chain. Our technique is based on the Feynman's path integral approach. Analytical expressions for the frequency-dependent mobility and effective mass of the carrier are obtained as functions of electron-phonon coupling. The result exhibits the crossover from a nearly free particle to a heavily trapped particle. We find that the mobility depends on temperature and decreases exponentially with increasing temperature at low temperature. It exhibits large polaronic-like behaviour in the case of weak electron-phonon coupling. These results agree with the phase transition (A.S. Mishchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 146401 (2015)) of transport phenomena related to polaron motion in the molecular chain.

  4. Integrated rural mobility and access: mainstreaming environmental issues in community transport planning and construction projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available endeavours to find innovative solutions to challenges related to accessing socio-economic opportunities by communities within the ambit of environmental sustainability. These interventions would include inter alia, the provision of appropriate and integrated...

  5. On an integral equation arising in the transport of radiation through a slab involving internal reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2005-01-01

    The integral equation derived by Nieuwenhuizen and Luck for transmission of radiation through an optically thick diffusive medium is reconsidered in the light of radiative transfer theory and extended to slabs of arbitrary thickness. (author)

  6. Integrated aerodynamic-structural design of a forward-swept transport wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Grossman, Bernard; Kao, Pi-Jen; Polen, David M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of composite materials is having a profound effect on aircraft design. Since these materials permit the designer to tailor material properties to improve structural, aerodynamic and acoustic performance, they require an integrated multidisciplinary design process. Futhermore, because of the complexity of the design process, numerical optimization methods are required. The utilization of integrated multidisciplinary design procedures for improving aircraft design is not currently feasible because of software coordination problems and the enormous computational burden. Even with the expected rapid growth of supercomputers and parallel architectures, these tasks will not be practical without the development of efficient methods for cross-disciplinary sensitivities and efficient optimization procedures. The present research is part of an on-going effort which is focused on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration. A sequence of integrated wing design procedures has been developed in order to investigate various aspects of the design process.

  7. Transport Demand Management Policy Integration in Chinese Cities : A Proposed Analysis of Its Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.; Veeneman, W.; de Jong, W.M.

    2018-01-01

    Transport demand management (TDM) measures are widely regarded as essential tools to deal with traffic issues. Their effectiveness has been under scrutiny. Packaging of TDM measures has recently received much attention from researchers and governments because it can achieve more complex policy goals

  8. Integrating Stable Isotope - Reactive Transport Model Approach for Assessment of Chlorinated Solvent Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    aerobic cometabolism, reductive dechlorination evidence was reported from the toe of the plume, where TCE enters the Lower Lithologic Unit. The CSM of the...modeling in reactive transport: 50 years of artificial recharge in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes . J. Hydrology 454: 7-25. Khan, F. I., et al

  9. Integrated Stable Isotope - Reactive Transport Model Approach for Assessment of Chlorinated Solvent Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    reported from the toe of the plume. The CSM of the Deep Plume proposed that the contaminants reside in mobile (sand) and immobile (clay and silt...transport: 50 years of artificial recharge in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes ." Journal of Hydrology 454: 7-25. Kuder, T. and P. Philp (2013

  10. Trasax '90: An integrated transportation emergency response exercise program involving transuranic waste shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, S.; Everitt, J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and several states and numerous local governments have been preparing for the transportation of transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, near Carlsbad. Seven western states, represented by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), submitted a report to the US Congress that discussed the concerns of their constituents related to the transportation of TRU waste through their communities. One of the three major concerns identified was emergency preparedness. Initial funding to resolve concerns identified in the WGA report to Congress was provided by the US Department of Transportation. Upon receiving funding, lead states were assigned responsibilities to devise programs aimed at increasing public confidence in the areas of most concern. The responsibility for emergency response readiness, as demonstrated through a program of training and responding to simulated accident scenarios, was accepted by the state of Colorado. The state of Colorado laid out an exercise program which expanded upon the DOE training programs already offered to emergency responders along Colorado's designated TRU-waste transportation corridor. The ongoing program included a full-scale field exercise staged in Colorado Springs and dubbed, ''TRANSAX '90.''

  11. A simulation tool for integrating climate change and Canadian surface transport : towards assessing impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaroglou, P.; Maoh, H.; Woudsma, C.; Marshall, S.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme weather events resulting from climate change will have a significant impact of the performance of the Canadian transportation system. This presentation described a simulation tool designed to investigate the potential ramifications of future climate change on transportation and the economy. The CLIMATE-C tool was designed to simulate future weather scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050 using weather parameters obtained from a global general circulation model. The model accounted for linkages between weather, transportation, and economic systems. A random utility-based multi-regional input-output model was used to predict inter-regional trade flows by truck and rail in Canada. Simulated weather scenarios were used to describe predicted changes in demographic, social, economic, technological and environmental developments to 2100. Various changes in population and economic growth were considered. Six additional scenarios were formulated to consider moderate and high rainfall events, moderate, high and extreme snowfall, and cold temperatures. Results of the preliminary analysis indicated that the model is sensitive to changes in weather events. Future research is needed to evaluate future weather scenarios and analyze weather-transport data in order to quantify travel speed reduction parameters. tabs., figs.

  12. Integrating membrane transport with male gametophyte development and function through transcriptomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bock, K.W.; Honys, David; Ward, J.M.; Padmanaban, S.; Nawrocki, E.P.; Hirschi, K.D.; Twell, D.; Sze, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2006), s. 1151-1168 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6038409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : POLLEN-TUBE GROWTH * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.125, year: 2006

  13. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Schwartz, Moshe; Nakamura, Kennon H

    2008-01-01

    .... In Iraq, private firms known as Private Security Contractors (PSCs) serve to protect individuals, transport convoys, forward operating bases, buildings, and other economic infrastructure, and are training Iraqi police and military personnel...

  14. Comparison of heavy-ion transport simulations: Collision integral in a box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xun; Wang, Yong-Jia; Colonna, Maria; Danielewicz, Pawel; Ono, Akira; Tsang, Manyee Betty; Wolter, Hermann; Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Cozma, Dan; Feng, Zhao-Qing; Das Gupta, Subal; Ikeno, Natsumi; Ko, Che-Ming; Li, Bao-An; Li, Qing-Feng; Li, Zhu-Xia; Mallik, Swagata; Nara, Yasushi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Ohnishi, Akira; Oliinychenko, Dmytro; Papa, Massimo; Petersen, Hannah; Su, Jun; Song, Taesoo; Weil, Janus; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Simulations by transport codes are indispensable to extract valuable physical information from heavy-ion collisions. In order to understand the origins of discrepancies among different widely used transport codes, we compare 15 such codes under controlled conditions of a system confined to a box with periodic boundary, initialized with Fermi-Dirac distributions at saturation density and temperatures of either 0 or 5 MeV. In such calculations, one is able to check separately the different ingredients of a transport code. In this second publication of the code evaluation project, we only consider the two-body collision term; i.e., we perform cascade calculations. When the Pauli blocking is artificially suppressed, the collision rates are found to be consistent for most codes (to within 1 % or better) with analytical results, or completely controlled results of a basic cascade code. In orderto reach that goal, it was necessary to eliminate correlations within the same pair of colliding particles that can be present depending on the adopted collision prescription. In calculations with active Pauli blocking, the blocking probability was found to deviate from the expected reference values. The reason is found in substantial phase-space fluctuations and smearing tied to numerical algorithms and model assumptions in the representation of phase space. This results in the reduction of the blocking probability in most transport codes, so that the simulated system gradually evolves away from the Fermi-Dirac toward a Boltzmann distribution. Since the numerical fluctuations are weaker in the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck codes, the Fermi-Dirac statistics is maintained there for a longer time than in the quantum molecular dynamics codes. As a result of this investigation, we are able to make judgements about the most effective strategies in transport simulations for determining the collision probabilities and the Pauli blocking. Investigation in a similar vein of other ingredients

  15. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  16. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  17. Realistic integration of sorption processes in transport codes for long-term safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Fluegge, Judith; Britz, Susan; Schneider, Anke [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Brendler, Vinzenz; Stockmann, Madlen; Schikora, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Lampe, Michael [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Goethe Center for Scientific Computing

    2012-09-15

    One important aspect in long-term safety assessment is related to radionuclide transport in geologic formations. In order to assess its consequences over assessment periods of one million years numerical models describing flow and transport are applied. Sorption on mineral surfaces is the most relevant process retarding radionuclide transport. On the one hand an increased transport time might cause a decrease in radionuclide concentration by radioactive decay. On the other hand it might increase concentrations of dose-relevant daughter nuclides in decay chains. In order to treat the radionuclide sorption processes in natural systems close to reality the so-called smart K{sub d}-concept is implemented into the transport program r{sup 3}t, which is applied to large model areas and very long time scales in long-term safety assessment. In the first stage this approach is developed for a typical sedimentary system covering rock salt and clay formations in Northern Germany. The smart K{sub d}-values are based on mechanistic surface complexation models (SCM), varying in time and space and de-pending on the actual geochemical conditions, which might change in the future e. g. due to the impact of climate changes. The concept developed and introduced here is based on a feasible treatment of the most relevant geochemical parameters in the transport code as well as on a matrix of smart K{sub d}-values calculated in dependence on these parameters. The implementation of the concept comprises the selection of relevant elements and minerals to be considered, an experimental program to fill data gaps of the thermody-namic sorption database, an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to identify the most important environmental parameters influencing sorption of long-term relevant radionu-clides, the creation of a matrix with K{sub d}-values dependent on the selected environmental parameters, and the development and realisation of the conceptual model for treatment of temporal and

  18. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    sediment transport within the USACE HEC River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ) software package and to determine its applicability to Regional Sediment...Management (RSM) challenges. HEC - RAS SEDIMENT MODELING BACKGROUND: HEC - RAS performs (1) one- dimensional (1D) steady and unsteady hydraulic river ...Albuquerque (SPA)), and recently, the USACE RSM Program. HEC - RAS is one of several hydraulic modeling codes available for river analysis in the

  19. ITS Version 6 : the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

    2008-04-01

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of lineartime-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 6, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 5.0 codes, and (2) conversion to Fortran 90. The general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through memory allocation to reduce the need for users to modify and recompile the code.

  20. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  1. Integral transport computation of gamma detector response with the CPM2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.B.

    1989-12-01

    CPM-2 Version 3 is an enhanced version of the CPM-2 lattice physics computer code which supports the capabilities to (1) perform a two-dimensional gamma flux calculation and (2) perform Restart/Data file maintenance operations. The Gamma Calculation Module implemented in CPM-2 was first developed for EPRI in the CASMO-1 computer code by Studsvik Energiteknik under EPRI Agreement RP2352-01. The gamma transport calculation uses the CPM-HET code module to calculate the transport of gamma rays in two dimensions in a mixed cylindrical-rectangular geometry, where the basic fuel assembly and component regions are maintained in a rectangular geometry, but the fuel pins are represented as cylinders within a square pin cell mesh. Such a capability is needed to represent gamma transport in an essentially transparent medium containing spatially distributed ''black'' cylindrical pins. Under a subcontract to RP2352-01, RPI developed the gamma production and gamma interaction library used for gamma calculation. The CPM-2 gamma calculation was verified against reference results generated by Studsvik using the CASMO-1 program. The CPM-2 Restart/Data file maintenance capabilities provide the user with options to copy files between Restart/Data tapes and to purge files from the Restart/Data tapes

  2. Public private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  3. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  4. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  5. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  6. The rhetoric and realities of integrating air quality into the local transport planning process in English local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowoporoku, Dotun; Hayes, Enda; Longhurst, James; Parkhurst, Graham

    2012-06-30

    Regardless of its intent and purposes, the first decade of the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) framework had little or no effect in reducing traffic-related air pollution in the UK. Apart from the impact of increased traffic volumes, the major factor attributed to this failure is that of policy disconnect between the process of diagnosing air pollution and its management, thereby limiting the capability of local authorities to control traffic-related sources of air pollution. Integrating air quality management into the Local Transport Plan (LTP) process therefore presents opportunities for enabling political will, funding and joined-up policy approach to reduce this limitation. However, despite the increased access to resources for air quality measures within the LTP process, there are local institutional, political and funding constraints which reduce the impact of these policy interventions on air quality management. This paper illustrate the policy implementation gaps between central government policy intentions and the local government process by providing evidence of the deprioritisation of air quality management compared to the other shared priorities in the LTP process. We draw conclusions on the policy and practice of integrating air quality management into transport planning. The evidence thereby indicate the need for a policy shift from a solely localised hotspot management approach, in which the LAQM framework operates, to a more holistic management of vehicular emissions within wider spatial administrative areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic Public Private Partnerships for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Space transportation has evolved to entrepreneurs offering affordable transportation services to LEO. Society expects space tourism to produce low costs quickly, but entrepreneurs need the larger commercial transportation markets to raise the private money to build the orbital vehicles. Early heavy cargo is the logistics model of remote bases on Earth and is likely to be similar for off planet remote bases. Public Private Partnerships (PPP), (Norment, 2006) and other alliances with governments offer new transportation markets and combines private funding with government markets to accelerate the movement of mankind into space, (Kistler, 2004a). Entrepreneurs bring change like a multitude of innovation, changes to the traditional aerospace industry status quo, commercial market forces and the lowering of the cost of transportation to orbit. Within PPPs, government stretches space budgets, increases vehicle innovation without cost and gains cost advantages of larger markets. Examples of PPPs show some opportunity for change in space commerce is possible, (Stainback, 2000 and Spekman, 2000). Some of the items entrepreneurs bring include innovation in hardware, a maturing of the normal market forces such as the pressures from buyers and sellers rather than those from government planners or from regulation. Launch costs are high, society wants orbital hotels and current/future markets are not emerging because of high transportation costs. The paper proposes a new approach with examples, because mankind has taken a long time to transition from expendable launch vehicles to newer more affordable launch innovation and may require the introduction of new innovative approaches.

  8. Potential economic benefits of public-private partnership (P3s) on reclaimed mine sites in the construction of the I-73/74 NHS corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    A public private partnership (PPP or P3), according to the FHWA, is a contractual agreement : between a public agency and a private entity for private sector participation in the delivery of : transportation projects. One of the most innovat...

  9. Path Integral Treatment of Proton Transport Processes in BaZrO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qianfan; Wahnstrom, Goran; Björketun, Mårten

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear quantum effects on proton transfer and reorientation in BaZrO3 is investigated theoretically using the ab initio path-integral molecular-dynamics simulation technique. The result demonstrates that adding quantum fluctuations has a large effect on, in particular, the transfer barrier...

  10. An integrated finite-element approach to mechanics, transport and biosynthesis in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, B.G.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element approach was formulated, aimed at enabling an integrated study of mechanical and biochemical factors that control the functional development of tissue engineered constructs. A nonlinear biphasic displacement-velocity-pressure description was combined with adjective and diffusive

  11. Multipath transport for virtual private networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    interfaces connected to a MPTCP server with or without the same interfaces. MPTCP Client MPTCP Server Wi-Fi LTE Figure 2.7: Fullmesh Using a Wi-Fi and...by measuring the goodput experienced when downloading a test file from the web server. This test was conducted using the standard Linux TCP congestion

  12. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN

  13. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN

  14. Transpacific Transport of Dust to North American High-Elevation Sites: Integrated Dataset and Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassianov, E.; Pekour, M. S.; Flynn, C. J.; Berg, L. K.; Beranek, J.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhao, C.; Leung, L. R.; Ma, P. L.; Riihimaki, L.; Fast, J. D.; Barnard, J.; Hallar, G. G.; McCubbin, I.; Eloranta, E. W.; McComiskey, A. C.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of dust on the regional and global climate requires detailed information on particle size distributions and their changes with distance from the source. Awareness is now growing about the tendency of the dust coarse mode with moderate ( 3.5 µm) volume median diameter (VMD) to be rather insensitive to complex removal processes associated with long-range transport of dust from the main sources. Our study, with a focus on the transpacific transport of dust, demonstrates that the impact of coarse mode aerosol (VMD 3µm) is well defined at the high-elevation mountain-top Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL, about 3.2 km MSL) and nearby Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) during March 2011. Significant amounts of coarse mode aerosol are also found at the nearest Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site. Outputs from the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) show that the major dust event is likely associated with transpacific transport of Asian and African plumes. Satellite data, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and plume height from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar data provide the observational support of the WRF-Chem simulations. Our study complements previous findings by indicating that the quasi-static nature of the coarse mode appears to be a reasonable approximation for Asian and African dust despite expected frequent orographic precipitation over mountainous regions in the western United States.

  15. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Herrán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak−hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi−period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi−period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single−period model for each period, independently.

  16. Amphiphilic HPMA-LMA copolymers increase the transport of Rhodamine 123 across a BBB model without harming its barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Metz, Verena V; Koynov, Kaloian; Blank, Kerstin; Postina, Rolf; Zentel, Rudolf

    2012-10-28

    The successful non-invasive treatment of diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS) is generally limited by poor brain permeability of various developed drugs. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the passage of therapeutics to their site of action. Polymeric drug delivery systems are promising solutions to effectively transport drugs into the brain. We recently showed that amphiphilic random copolymers based on the hydrophilic p(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide), pHPMA, possessing randomly distributed hydrophobic p(laurylmethacrylate), pLMA, are able to mediate delivery of domperidone into the brain of mice in vivo. To gain further insight into structure-property relations, a library of carefully designed polymers based on p(HPMA) and p(LMA) was synthesized and tested applying an in vitro BBB model which consisted of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Our model drug Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) exhibits, like domperidone, a low brain permeability since both substances are recognized by efflux transporters at the BBB. Transport studies investigating the impact of the polymer architecture in relation to the content of hydrophobic LMA revealed that random p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) having 10mol% LMA is the most auspicious system. The copolymer significantly increased the permeability of Rh123 across the HBMEC monolayer whereas transcytosis of the polymer was very low. Further investigations on the mechanism of transport showed that integrity and barrier function of the BBB model were not harmed by the polymer. According to our results, p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers are a promising delivery system for neurological therapeutics and their application might open alternative treatment strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  18. Whole core neutronics modeling of a TRIGA reactor using integral transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Toffer, H.

    1990-01-01

    An innovative analysis approach for performing whole core reactor physics calculations for TRIGA reactors has been employed recently at the Westinghouse Hanford Company. A deterministic transport theory model with sufficient geometric complexity to evaluate asymmetric loading patterns was used. Calculations of this complexity have been performed in the past using Monte Carlo simulation, such as the MCNP code. However, the Monte Carlo calculations are more difficult to prepare and require more computer time. On the Hanford Site CRAY XMP-18 computer, the new methods required less than one-third of the central processing unit time per calculation as compared to an MCNP calculation using 100,000 neutron histories

  19. Inventory-transportation integrated optimization for maintenance spare parts of high-speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxi; Wang, Huasheng; Wang, Zhongkai; Li, Jian; Lin, Ruixi; Xiao, Jie; Wu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a 0–1 programming model aimed at obtaining the optimal inventory policy and transportation mode for maintenance spare parts of high-speed trains. To obtain the model parameters for occasionally-replaced spare parts, a demand estimation method based on the maintenance strategies of China’s high-speed railway system is proposed. In addition, we analyse the shortage time using PERT, and then calculate the unit time shortage cost from the viewpoint of train operation revenue. Finally, a real-world case study from Shanghai Depot is conducted to demonstrate our method. Computational results offer an effective and efficient decision support for inventory managers. PMID:28472097

  20. Integration of a Folding Electric two-wheeler vehicle for a future commuting transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Bjami Freyr; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    The paper issues the development, building and testing of a Folding Electric Motorbike, a lightweight, low cost and all-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure. The technology offers drivers to combine transportation methods, lowering cost, and greenhouse......-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure is very prospective. The alpha-prototype was successfully constructed and is considered to be ready for further laboratory testing and test driving before continuations on a fully designed beta-prototype....

  1. Uranium enrichment capacity: public versus private ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment

  2. Integration of safety in management tasks in onshore transport SME´s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    with animals and the risk of violence and robbery. To create a high level of safety in an enterprise is a difficult task that demands a great degree of management engagement. It is not only a question of having the right equipment, procedures and organization etc.; it is also necessary for everyone...... in the enterprise to have an understanding of safety and feel obligated to take responsibility for safety in all work at all times. Accident research shows that safety must be integrated in the whole enterprise and function on all levels of management, while it must also involve all employees in their daily work...... prevention. The result is a realistic strategy for integration safety, quality and environmental factors in an SME and procedures for how to go from strategy to action. Different tools were developed to fulfil the strategy ranging from risk identification, involvement of the employee and motivational...

  3. Robotically facilitated virtual rehabilitation of arm transport integrated with finger movement in persons with hemiparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Davidow Amy; Lafond Ian; Saleh Soha; Qiu Qinyin; Fluet Gerard G; Merians Alma S; Adamovich Sergei V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recovery of upper extremity function is particularly recalcitrant to successful rehabilitation. Robotic-assisted arm training devices integrated with virtual targets or complex virtual reality gaming simulations are being developed to deal with this problem. Neural control mechanisms indicate that reaching and hand-object manipulation are interdependent, suggesting that training on tasks requiring coordinated effort of both the upper arm and hand may be a more effective me...

  4. Air Traffic Management and Space Transportation - System Wide Information Management and the Integration in European Airspace

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens; Jakobi, Jörn; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2015-01-01

    Space Travel becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. The integration of space vehicles in airspace therefore is an increasingly important topic to be considered on an international scale. With the Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe, requirements have been defined for Shared and Reference Business Trajectories as well as System Wide Information Management (SWIM). The s...

  5. An Integrated Role Of Information In The Marketing Logistics Of The Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mimo Daskovic

    2006-01-01

    Marketing logistics concept is being used in all situations of goods, information and resources flow from the place of derivation to the consumptive destination. Importance of marketing logistics is seen through the fact that physical distribution expences make as many as 40% of the overall costs. This justifies its importance in making competitive advantage. Marketing logistics tends towards complex embracement of, that is, harmonization and integration of all logistic function. Informationa...

  6. A dual component heme biosensor that integrates heme transport and synthesis in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Christopher L; Clark, Justin R; Green, Sabrina I; Maresso, Anthony W

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial pathogens acquire host iron to power cellular processes and replication. Heme, an iron-containing cofactor bound to hemoglobin, is scavenged by bacterial proteins to attain iron. Methods to measure intracellular heme are laborious, involve complex chemistry, or require radioactivity. Such drawbacks limit the study of the mechanistic steps of heme transport and breakdown. Hypothesizing heme homeostasis could be measured with fluorescent methods, we coupled the conversion of heme to biliverdin IXα (a product of heme catabolism) by heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) with the production of near-infrared light upon binding this verdin by infrared fluorescent protein (IFP1.4). The resultant heme sensor, IFP-HO1, was fluorescent in pathogenic E. coli exposed to heme but not in the absence of the heme transporter ChuA and membrane coupling protein TonB, thereby validating their long-standing proposed role in heme uptake. Fluorescence was abolished in a strain lacking hemE, the central gene in the heme biosynthetic pathway, but stimulated by iron, signifying the sensor reports on intracellular heme production. Finally, an invasive strain of E. coli harboring the sensor was fluorescent during an active infection. This work will allow researchers to expand the molecular toolbox used to study heme and iron acquisition in culture and during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  8. Evaluating the role of private investment in infrastructure assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Public Private Partnership (P3) projects are likely to fundamentally impact entire : transportation systems. However, most studies are focused on system modeling rather than : policy analysis, and few studies have examined the impacts of P3s on real-...

  9. Benefits to Minnesotans of communications infrastructure public-private partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of the benefits of a communications infrastructure public-private partnership between the Minnesota Department of Transportation and the team of International Communications Systems (ICS) and Stone & Webster.

  10. Integration of finite element analysis and numerical optimization techniques for RAM transport package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Eldred, M.S.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Type B radioactive material transport packages must meet strict Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations specified in 10 CFR 71. Type B containers include impact limiters, radiation or thermal shielding layers, and one or more containment vessels. In the past, each component was typically designed separately based on its driving constraint and the expertise of the designer. The components were subsequently assembled and the design modified iteratively until all of the design criteria were met. This approach neglects the fact that components may serve secondary purposes as well as primary ones. For example, an impact limiter's primary purpose is to act as an energy absorber and protect the contents of the package, but can also act as a heat dissipater or insulator. Designing the component to maximize its performance with respect to both objectives can be accomplished using numerical optimization techniques

  11. Robotically facilitated virtual rehabilitation of arm transport integrated with finger movement in persons with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidow Amy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery of upper extremity function is particularly recalcitrant to successful rehabilitation. Robotic-assisted arm training devices integrated with virtual targets or complex virtual reality gaming simulations are being developed to deal with this problem. Neural control mechanisms indicate that reaching and hand-object manipulation are interdependent, suggesting that training on tasks requiring coordinated effort of both the upper arm and hand may be a more effective method for improving recovery of real world function. However, most robotic therapies have focused on training the proximal, rather than distal effectors of the upper extremity. This paper describes the effects of robotically-assisted, integrated upper extremity training. Methods Twelve subjects post-stroke were trained for eight days on four upper extremity gaming simulations using adaptive robots during 2-3 hour sessions. Results The subjects demonstrated improved proximal stability, smoothness and efficiency of the movement path. This was in concert with improvement in the distal kinematic measures of finger individuation and improved speed. Importantly, these changes were accompanied by a robust 16-second decrease in overall time in the Wolf Motor Function Test and a 24-second decrease in the Jebsen Test of Hand Function. Conclusions Complex gaming simulations interfaced with adaptive robots requiring integrated control of shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist and finger movements appear to have a substantial effect on improving hemiparetic hand function. We believe that the magnitude of the changes and the stability of the patient's function prior to training, along with maintenance of several aspects of the gains demonstrated at retention make a compelling argument for this approach to training.

  12. Robotically facilitated virtual rehabilitation of arm transport integrated with finger movement in persons with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merians, Alma S; Fluet, Gerard G; Qiu, Qinyin; Saleh, Soha; Lafond, Ian; Davidow, Amy; Adamovich, Sergei V

    2011-05-16

    Recovery of upper extremity function is particularly recalcitrant to successful rehabilitation. Robotic-assisted arm training devices integrated with virtual targets or complex virtual reality gaming simulations are being developed to deal with this problem. Neural control mechanisms indicate that reaching and hand-object manipulation are interdependent, suggesting that training on tasks requiring coordinated effort of both the upper arm and hand may be a more effective method for improving recovery of real world function. However, most robotic therapies have focused on training the proximal, rather than distal effectors of the upper extremity. This paper describes the effects of robotically-assisted, integrated upper extremity training. Twelve subjects post-stroke were trained for eight days on four upper extremity gaming simulations using adaptive robots during 2-3 hour sessions. The subjects demonstrated improved proximal stability, smoothness and efficiency of the movement path. This was in concert with improvement in the distal kinematic measures of finger individuation and improved speed. Importantly, these changes were accompanied by a robust 16-second decrease in overall time in the Wolf Motor Function Test and a 24-second decrease in the Jebsen Test of Hand Function. Complex gaming simulations interfaced with adaptive robots requiring integrated control of shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist and finger movements appear to have a substantial effect on improving hemiparetic hand function. We believe that the magnitude of the changes and the stability of the patient's function prior to training, along with maintenance of several aspects of the gains demonstrated at retention make a compelling argument for this approach to training.

  13. Integrity of the iron transport process in mice with X-linked anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, A.B.R.; Valberg, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    The defect in iron (Fe) absorption in X-linked anaemia (sla) remains an enigma; absorption of a tracer dose of Fe is impaired in mice raised on an iron-containing cube diet but not in those raised on an iron-deficient diet. Because cobalt (Co) shares a similar intestinal transport pathway with Fe, a study was made of the effect of iron deficient diet on Co absorption. The duodenum of sla and genetically normal mice was perfused for 30 min with labelled solutions containing Co or Fe. Co uptake and transfer were similar in sla and normals fed cubes whereas Fe uptake and transfer were less in sla than in normals. The iron deficient diet caused an increase in the uptake and transfer of Co and Fe in sla and normals. When Co and Fe were perfused together in sla fed deficient diet, the uptake and transfer of each metal was less than when perfused alone. The distribution of Fe and Co in subcellular mucosal fractions was determined by a differential centrifugation technique. Deficient diet resulted in a directionally similar change in the subcellular distribution of Co and Fe in sla and normals. The increase in Co as well as Fe absorption in the sla on an iron deficient diet to the same high level found in genetically normal animals, and the inhibitory effect of each metal on the absorption of the other suggests that the absorption defect in sla is unlikely to be due to a primary defect in the function of the transport carrier. (author)

  14. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-01-01

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power

  15. Final Technical Report - Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, John M

    2012-11-05

    The three major components of this research were: 1. Application of minimally invasive, cost effective hydrogeophysical techniques (surface and borehole), to generate fine scale (~1m or less) 3D estimates of subsurface heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is defined as spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity and/or hydrolithologic zones. 2. Integration of the fine scale characterization of hydrogeologic parameters with the hydrogeologic facies to upscale the finer scale assessment of heterogeneity to field scale. 3. Determination of the relationship between dual-domain parameters and practical characterization data.

  16. The MIRAGE project: large scale radionuclide transport investigations and integral migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Bidoglio, G.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    Predictions of radionuclide migration through the geosphere must be supported by large-scale, long-term investigations. Several research areas of the MIRAGE Project are devoted to acquiring reliable data for developing and validating models. Apart from man-made migration experiments in boreholes and/or underground galleries, attention is paid to natural geological migration systems which have been active for very long time spans. The potential role of microbial activity, either resident or introduced into the host media, is also considered. In order to clarify basic mechanisms, smaller scale ''integral'' migration experiments under fully controlled laboratory conditions are also carried out using real waste forms and representative geological media. (author)

  17. Integrating pro-environmental behavior with transportation network modeling: User and system level strategies, implementation, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul

    Personal transport is a leading contributor to fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse (GHG) emissions in the U.S. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that light-duty vehicles (LDV) are responsible for 61% of all transportation related energy consumption in 2012, which is equivalent to 8.4 million barrels of oil (fossil fuel) per day. The carbon content in fossil fuels is the primary source of GHG emissions that links to the challenge associated with climate change. Evidently, it is high time to develop actionable and innovative strategies to reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions from the road transportation networks. This dissertation integrates the broader goal of minimizing energy and emissions into the transportation planning process using novel systems modeling approaches. This research aims to find, investigate, and evaluate strategies that minimize carbon-based fuel consumption and emissions for a transportation network. We propose user and system level strategies that can influence travel decisions and can reinforce pro-environmental attitudes of road users. Further, we develop strategies that system operators can implement to optimize traffic operations with emissions minimization goal. To complete the framework we develop an integrated traffic-emissions (EPA-MOVES) simulation framework that can assess the effectiveness of the strategies with computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. The dissertation begins with exploring the trade-off between emissions and travel time in context of daily travel decisions and its heterogeneous nature. Data are collected from a web-based survey and the trade-off values indicating the average additional travel minutes a person is willing to consider for reducing a lb. of GHG emissions are estimated from random parameter models. Results indicate that different trade-off values for male and female groups. Further, participants from high-income households are found to have higher trade-off values

  18. Efficient method for the solution of the energy dependent integral Boltzmann transport equation in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, G.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of neutron-nuclei reaction rates in the lower resolved resonance region (167 eV - 1.855 eV) is considered in this dissertation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calculation of these reaction rates for tight lattices where their accuracy is most important. The results of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, VIM, are chosen as reference values for this study. The primary objective of this work is to develop a method for calculating resonance reaction rates which agree well with the reference solution, yet is efficient enough to be used by nuclear reactor fuel cycle designers on a production basis. A very efficient multigroup solution of the two spatial region energy dependent integral transport equation is developed. This solution, denoted the Broad Group Integral Method (BGIM), uses escape probabilities to obtain the spatial coupling between regions and uses an analytical flux shape within a multigroup to obtain weighted cross sections which account for the rapidly varying resonance cross sections. The multigroup lethargy widths chosen for the numerical integration of the two region energy-dependent neutron continuity equations can be chosen much wider (a factor of 30 larger) than in the direct numerical integration methods since the analytical flux shape is used to account for fine structure effects. The BGIM solution is made highly efficient through the use of these broad groups. It is estimated that for a 10 step unit cell fuel cycle depletion calculation, the computer running time for a production code such as EPRI-LEOPARD would be increased by only 6% through the use of the more accurate and intricate BGIM method in the lower resonance energy region

  19. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  20. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  1. Private sector development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...

  2. Private Web Browsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...

  3. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  4. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  5. A model library for dynamic transport and fate of micropollutants in integrated urban wastewater and stormwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Gevaert, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    by using substance inherent properties, following an approach commonly used in large-scale MP multimedia fate and transport models. The chosen level of complexity ensures a low data requirement and minimizes the need for field measurements. Next to a synthesis of model applications, a didactic example......The increasing efforts in reducing the emission of micropollutants (MP) into the natural aquatic environment require the development of modelling tools to support the decision making process. This article presents a library of dynamic modelling tools for estimating MP fluxes within Integrated Urban...... Wastewater and Stormwater system (IUWS – including drainage network, stormwater treatment units, wastewater treatment plants, sludge treatment, and the receiving water body). The models are developed by considering the high temporal variability of the processes taking place in the IUWS, providing a basis...

  6. Does Private Tutoring Payoff?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...

  7. Areva's privatization uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    The French nuclear public group Areva (the fusion of CEA-Industrie, Framatome and Cogema companies) will actively prepare its privatization and stock exchange introduction before the end of the first half of 2005, in order to re-launch its acquisitions and associations policy. However, the advantages of this privatization with a preponderant public share-holding will depend on the intentions of the French government. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. Privatizing electricity: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)

  9. Increased access to care and appropriateness of treatment at private sector drug shops with integrated management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea: a quasi-experimental study in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Awor

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug shops are a major source of care for children in low income countries but they provide sub-standard care. We assessed the feasibility and effect on quality of care of introducing diagnostics and pre-packaged paediatric-dosage drugs for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at drug shops in Uganda. METHODS: We adopted and implemented the integrated community case management (iCCM intervention within registered drug shops. Attendants were trained to perform malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in each fever case and count respiratory rate in each case of cough with fast/difficult breathing, before dispensing recommended treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design in one intervention and one non-intervention district, we conducted before and after exit interviews for drug seller practices and household surveys for treatment-seeking practices in May-June 2011 and May-June 2012. Survey adjusted generalized linear models and difference-in-difference analysis was used. RESULTS: 3759 (1604 before/2155 after household interviews and 943 (163 before/780 after exit interviews were conducted with caretakers of children under-5. At baseline, no child at a drug shop received any diagnostic testing before treatment in both districts. After the intervention, while no child in the non-intervention district received a diagnostic test, 87.7% (95% CI 79.0-96.4 of children with fever at the intervention district drug shops had a parasitological diagnosis of malaria, prior to treatment. The prevalence ratios of the effect of the intervention on treatment of cough and fast breathing with amoxicillin and diarrhoea with ORS/zinc at the drug shop were 2.8 (2.0-3.9, and 12.8 (4.2-38.6 respectively. From the household survey, the prevalence ratio of the intervention effect on use of RDTs was 3.2 (1.9-5.4; Artemisinin Combination Therapy for malaria was 0.74 (0.65-0.84, and ORS/zinc for diarrhoea was 2.3 (1.2-4.7. CONCLUSION: iCCM can be utilized to improve

  10. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  11. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  12. Approximate solutions of the two-dimensional integral transport equation by collision probability methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard

    1977-01-01

    A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the Interface Current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones which are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is made by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: the first uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion; the second uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark pr

  13. Integrated analysis of transportation demand pathway options for hydrogen production, storage, and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.S. [Directed Technologies Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Directed Technologies, Inc. has begun the development of a computer model with the goal of providing guidance to the Hydrogen Program Office regarding the most cost effective use of limited resources to meet national energy security and environmental goals through the use of hydrogen as a major energy carrier. The underlying assumption of this programmatic pathway model is that government and industry must work together to bring clean hydrogen energy devices into the marketplace. Industry cannot provide the long term resources necessary to overcome technological, regulatory, institutional, and perceptual barriers to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, and government cannot provide the substantial investments required to develop hydrogen energy products and increased hydrogen production capacity. The computer model recognizes this necessary government/industry partnership by determining the early investments required by government to bring hydrogen energy end uses within the time horizon and profitability criteria of industry, and by estimating the subsequent investments required by industry. The model then predicts the cost/benefit ratio for government, based on contributions of each hydrogen project to meeting societal goals, and it predicts the return on investment for industry. Sensitivity analyses with respect to various government investments such as hydrogen research and development and demonstration projects will then provide guidance as to the most cost effective mix of government actions. The initial model considers the hydrogen transportation market, but this programmatic pathway methodology will be extended to other market segments in the future.

  14. Application of NUHOMS reg-sign to an integrated MRS/transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.M.; Lehnert, R.A.; Quinn, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Storage of spent fuel at reactor sites in weld sealed canisters has been increasing steadily since 1989, with three facilities now having ISFSIs which employ the NUHOMS reg-sign technology. Expansion of existing Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs) and implementation of new ones will result in a substantial fraction of the at-reactor spent fuel inventory in dry storage canisters by 1998 and beyond. Since this same technology is readily applicable to the MRS, it is advantageous to transfer canisters directly from the ISFSI to the MRS for storage there without the need to reopen the canisters or rehandle the fuel. A store-only MRS offers the possibility of a simple, economical facility which can more easily be demonstrated to be temporary and environmentally benign. Transportation of an intact canister is feasible in a shipping cask of conventional design that is compatible with existing railcars and railroad interchange rules. The use of canisterized fuel also has advantages for eventual shipment and disposal at the federal repository

  15. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  16. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  17. Directions of development of transport infrastructure of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Kopytko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the transport infrastructure development as a basic factor of national security, the stable and dynamic economic growth, its integration into the European and world economic space are considered. The most important element of the transport infrastructure in the modern economy is a network of logistic providers, which reduce transaction costs and improve the quality of transport service. And the main direction of government policy according to infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activities for establishing and operating the infrastructure objects, that is a burden for the State, from a cost sphere to an efficient business based on the state-private partnership.

  18. An integrated management tool for rockfall evaluation along transportation corridors: the ParaChute research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Catherine; Locat, Jacques; Mayers, Mélanie; Noël, François; Turmel, Dominique; Jacob, Chantal; Dorval, Pierre; Bossé, François; Gionet, Pierre; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall is a significant hazard along linear infrastructures due to the presence of natural and man-made rock slopes. Knowing where the problematic rockfalls source areas are is of primary importance to properly manage and mitigate the risk associated to rockfall along linear infrastructures. The aim of the ParaChute research project is to integrate various technologies into a workflow for rockfall characterization for such infrastructures, using a 220 km-long railroad as the study site which is located on Québec's North Shore, Canada. The objectives of this 3-year project which started in 2014 are: (1) to optimize the use of terrestrial, mobile and airborne laser scanners data into terrain analysis, structural geology analysis and rockfall susceptibility rating, (2) to further develop the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetry applied to rock cliff characterization, and (3) to integrate rockfall simulation studies into a rock slope classification system similar to the Rockfall Hazard Rating System. Firstly, based on laser scanner data and aerial photographs, the morpho-structural features of the terrain (genetic material, landform, drainage, etc.) are mapped. The result can be used to assess all types of mass movements. Secondly, to guide field work and decrease uncertainty of various parameters, systematic rockfall simulations and a first structural analysis are made from point clouds acquired by mobile and airborne laser scanner. The simulation results are used to recognize the rock slopes that have potentially problematic rockfall paths, meaning they could reach the linear infrastructure. Other rock slopes are not included in the inventory. Field work is carried out to validate and complete the rock slopes characterization previously made from remote sensing technique. Because some or parts of cliffs are not visible or accessible from the railroad, we are currently developing the use of photogrammetry by UAV in order to complete the

  19. Integrative response of plant mitochondrial electron transport chain to nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takushi; Noguchi, Ko

    2011-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is widely known as a determinant of plant growth and respiration rate. However, less attention has been paid to the effect of the type of N source (nitrate, nitrite or ammonium) on the respiratory system. This review summarizes the latest findings on this topic, with an emphasis on the effect of ammonium and nitric oxide (NO) on the respiratory system, and the physiological role of alternative oxidase (AOX). First, concentrated ammonium has been found to increase plant respiration rate (ammonium-dependent respiratory increase, ARI). We will introduce two hypotheses to explain ARI, futile ammonium cycling and excess reducing equivalents, and verify the validity of each hypothesis. We suggest that these two hypotheses are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Second, gene expression of AOX is suppressed when N is predominately available as nitrate instead of ammonium. We will discuss possible signaling pathways leading to this expression pattern. Third, while AOX expression is induced by NO, AOX activity itself is insensitive to NO. In contrast, activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is sensitive to NO. We outline the NO production pathway, focusing on nitrite-dependent NO production, and discuss the physiological significance of the fact that AOX activity is insensitive to NO. Finally, this review aims to build an integrated scheme of the respiratory response to the type of N source, considering leaves in high light conditions or hypoxic roots.

  20. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  1. MC21 v.6.0 - A continuous-energy Monte Carlo particle transport code with integrated reactor feedback capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieshemer, D.P.; Gill, D.F.; Nease, B.R.; Carpenter, D.C.; Joo, H.; Millman, D.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Stedry, M.H.; Dobreff, P.S.; Trumbull, T.H.; Caro, E.

    2013-01-01

    MC21 is a continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport code for the calculation of the steady-state spatial distributions of reaction rates in three-dimensional models. The code supports neutron and photon transport in fixed source problems, as well as iterated-fission-source (eigenvalue) neutron transport problems. MC21 has been designed and optimized to support large-scale problems in reactor physics, shielding, and criticality analysis applications. The code also supports many in-line reactor feedback effects, including depletion, thermal feedback, xenon feedback, eigenvalue search, and neutron and photon heating. MC21 uses continuous-energy neutron/nucleus interaction physics over the range from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. The code treats all common neutron scattering mechanisms, including fast-range elastic and non-elastic scattering, and thermal- and epithermal-range scattering from molecules and crystalline materials. For photon transport, MC21 uses continuous-energy interaction physics over the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The code treats all common photon interaction mechanisms, including Compton scattering, pair production, and photoelectric interactions. All of the nuclear data required by MC21 is provided by the NDEX system of codes, which extracts and processes data from EPDL-, ENDF-, and ACE-formatted source files. For geometry representation, MC21 employs a flexible constructive solid geometry system that allows users to create spatial cells from first- and second-order surfaces. The system also allows models to be built up as hierarchical collections of previously defined spatial cells, with interior detail provided by grids and template overlays. Results are collected by a generalized tally capability which allows users to edit integral flux and reaction rate information. Results can be collected over the entire problem or within specific regions of interest through the use of phase filters that control which particles are allowed to score each

  2. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  3. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  4. Private Tutoring: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Mehtabul

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...

  5. Restaurant Management System Over Private Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat Dhillon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant Management System over Private Network is an automated business environment which allows restaurants to reduce operational costs increase efficiency of business improve customer satisfaction cut down labour costs decrease order processing time and provide better Quality-of-ServiceQ-S. This system manages a digital menu allowing the customers to place orders easily. Authentication fields for employees enable better administration of the restaurant. The whole restaurant is integrated into one private network thereby improving security and eliminating the need for a constant internet connection.

  6. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program

  7. Peruvian projects, privatization proceeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.

  8. At private den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida

    2006-01-01

    ?To go private? As an object the cell phone is a diminutive phenomenon, but its power and importance in the social space is infinite. What happens in the social space when the cell phone is used and when it is turned off? As a point of departure observations from a field study conducted in a youth...... club (teens between 12-16 years) in Denmark will be presented. The teens are always situated end located when they use the cell phone. When they use it, temporary personal reserves are created, in which they do territorial demands. As the most obvious they forget themselves and ?go private?. It has...

  9. Commodity Alliance Model – An Option for Advancing Private and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commodity Alliance Model – An Option for Advancing Private and Commercial ... that ensure adequate value addition and ultimate remunerative price for farmers' ... and integrating them in terms of fair price determination, information flow and ...

  10. Distant and Regional Atmospheric Circulation Influences Governing Integrated Water Vapor Transport and the Occurrence of Extreme Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosart, L. F.; Papin, P. P.; Bentley, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will show how the evolution of the large-scale and regional-scale atmospheric circulation contributes to the occurrence of extreme precipitation events (EPEs). An EPE requires that tropospheric moisture flux convergence (MFC) and the associated removal of hydrometeors be balanced by moisture replenishment via integrated (water) vapor transport (IVT) to continuously replenish condensed moisture. Moisture source regions may be distant or regional. Distant moisture sources may require the interaction of lower- and upper-level jet streams with a pre-existing mobile atmospheric disturbance to produce sufficient lift to condense moisture. Pre-existing regional moisture sources may require frontal lifting the presence of MFC to condense moisture. In cases of long-range IVT, such as moisture from a western North Pacific typhoon being drawn poleward along an atmospheric river (AR) toward the west coast of North America, moisture may be transported 1000s of kilometers along a low-level jet before a combination of dynamic and orographic lift results in an EPE. Alternatively, in the case of a typical summer warm and humid air mass over the continental United States, unused moisture may exist for several days in this air mass before sufficient MFC associated with a thermally direct mesoscale frontal circulation can concentrate and condense the moisture. In this case, there may be no long-range IVT via ARs. Instead, the atmospheric circulations may evolve to produce sustained MFC associated with mesoscale frontal circulations, especially in the presence of complex terrain, to produce an EPE. During this presentation, examples of EPEs associated with long-range IVT and distant MFC versus EPEs associated with regional MFC and mesoscale frontal circulations will be illustrated.

  11. Construction of the Cauchy problem for solution of the integral equation of transport in a sphere with a central absorbing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of the integral equation for neutron transport in a homogeneous isotropically-scattering sphere with an absolutely black central part an initial value problem has been formulated which permits the construction of a numerical scheme to find the neutron flux density

  12. Synthesis of public-private partnerships : potential issues and best practices for program and project implementation and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Public-private partnerships (P3s or PPPs) offer an innovative procurement method for the public sector. : P3s involve collaborations between the public and private sectors to finance, develop or maintain transportation : infrastructure. In an era of ...

  13. US SciDAC Program on Integrated Simulation of Edge Transport in Fusion Plasmas, and its Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    The multi-institutional collaborative center for plasma edge simulation (CPES) has been launched in the USA under the SciDAC (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing) Fusion Simulation Program. This is a multi-disciplinary effort among physicists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists from 15 national laboratories and universities. Its goal is to perform first principles simulations on plasma transport in the edge region from the top of the pedestal to the scrape off/divertor regions bounded by a material wall, and to predict L-H transition, pedestal buildup, ELM crashes, scrape-off transport and divertor heat load. As a major part of the effort, a PIC gyrokinetic edge code XGC is constructed. The gyrokinetic edge code XGC is coupled to a nonlinear edge MHD/2fluid code (M3D and NIMROD) to predict the cycle of pedestal buildup and ELM crash. The magnetic geometry includes the realistic separatrix, X-point, open field lines and material wall. In the first phase of this effort, the electrostatic version of the PIC gyrokinetic code XGC-1 has been built, to be extended into an electromagnetic version soon in the next phase. XGC-1 includes the gyrokinetic ions, electrons, and Monte Carlo neutrals with wall recycling. Since the ions have non-Maxwellian distribution function in the edge, as demonstrated in XGC, a full-f ion technique is used. Electrons are, though, handled with a mixed-f technique: the full-f technique for neoclassical and adiabatic or delta-f split-weight techniques for turbulence physics. The mixed-f electron approach used in XGC is new, successfully integrating the neoclassical and turbulence physics. Recent progress and results on neoclassical and electrostatic turbulence transports will be reported, which includes the pedestal buildup by neutral ionization, density pedestal width scaling, electrostatic potential and plasma flow distributions in the pedestal and scrape-off, and other important physical effects in the pedestal

  14. The Challenge of Private Cloud for the Digital Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Petac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For various organizations, a Private Cloud represents a stepping stone to a fully public model,while others consider it to be the ideal solution. Organizations such as the governmentalinstitutions that have stringent data security needs might choose the Private Cloud model. Itsqualities such as availability, security, compliance may convince other organizations to look at aprivate cloud model as well. In this paper we propose an integrated solution within the privatecloud area, based on open source software. In section 2 we provide brief characterizations of theexisting types of Clouds, focusing then on Private Cloud. In section 3 we address the security issuesin Private Cloud. In section 4 we present and analyze different open source software solutionswithin Private Cloud. Section 5 encompasses some conclusions regarding the benefits anddownsides of this technology, along with some detail information on how to set up an organizationthat runs in a Private Cloud.

  15. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  16. The Loyalty Model of Private University Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university..

  17. The Loyalty Model of Private University Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university.

  18. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  19. Secure quantum private comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  20. Secure quantum private comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yuguang [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao Weifeng [College of Electric and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)], E-mail: yangyang7357@bjut.edu.cn

    2009-12-15

    We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.

  1. Future Of Privatized Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    including Bosnia, Ukraine, Chile , and others made up the largest portion of private contractors in Iraq.43 Mercenary...56 movements, schools are now advocating “diversity rather than unity” and make “little effort to inculcate immigrants in American culture...identities are becoming increasingly important as a result of failures to assimilate new immigrants . Huntington highlights that immigrants from Mexico

  2. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 ... of public transport demand with respect to the price of private transport is .... If public transport companies ..... prices, quantities and regulations for all transport modes together with information on ...

  3. Time-dependent integral transport equation kernels, leakage rates and collision rates for plane and spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Time-dependent integral transport equation flux and current kernels for plane and spherical geometry are derived for homogeneous media. Using the multiple collision formalism, isotropic sources that are delta distributions in time are considered for four different problems. The plane geometry flux kernel is applied to a uniformly distributed source within an infinite medium and to a surface source in a semi-infinite medium. The spherical flux kernel is applied to a point source in an infinite medium and to a point source at the origin of a finite sphere. The time-dependent first-flight leakage rates corresponding to the existing steady state first-flight escape probabilities are computed by the Laplace transform technique assuming a delta distribution source in time. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, for a spatially uniform source is obtained for a slab and a sphere. Time-dependent first-flight leakage rates are also determined for the general two region spherical medium problem for isotropic sources with a delta distribution in time uniformly distributed throughout both the inner and outer regions. The time-dependent collision rates due to the uncollided neutrons are computed for a slab and a sphere using the time-dependent first-flight leakage rates and the time-dependent continuity equation. The case of a constant source emitting neutrons over a time interval, Δt, is also considered

  4. Development of a high integrity container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island unit II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzworth, R.E.; Chapman, R.L.; Burton, H.M.; Bixby, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    The EPICOR II ion exchange system used to decontaminate approximately 1900 m 3 of contaminated water in the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Building (AFHB) generated 50 highly loaded and 22 lesser loaded organic resin liners. The 22 lesser loaded resins were shipped to a commercial disposal site, but the highly loaded liners have been stored on the island since their generation. One highly loaded liner, or prefilter, was shipped to Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) in May, 1981 as part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Three Mile Island Information and Examination Program. The prefilter is being characterized to determine the behavior of the waste form with respect to time and the internal environment and to provide an information base for use in management and regulatory decisions relative to the storage, processing, and disposal of these wastes. Due to the unique characteristics of these wastes, the US DOE is sponsoring programs, such as the BCL Sorbent Experiments Program, to evaluate their characteristics and to provide a High Integrity Container (HIC) Development Program which would improve waste suitability for disposal at a land burial facility. This paper addresses regulatory considerations, establishment of design criteria, proposed design concepts, system demonstration, and status of the HIC Development Program for storage, transportation, and disposal of high specific activity, low level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II as typified by EPICOR II ion exchange media and liners

  5. Integrated transportation scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Regional land usetransportation scenario planning emerged as a planning technique in U.S. : metropolitan areas in the 1990s. Building on prior work by this research team, this study continues : to track the development and expansion of regional sc...

  6. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  7. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  8. Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

  9. Privatized Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  10. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  11. Privatize Candu (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Thomas.

    1981-01-01

    A report sponsored by a group of nuclear suppliers and the Royal Bank suggested that the Candu reactor system would sell better if it were owned by a private company. Licensing of a Candu reactor in the U.S.A. was also suggested. The author of this article agrees with these points, but disagrees with the suggestion that safeguards should be relaxed. He suggests that contracts should stipulate that instrumentation should be supplied as much as possible from Canadian sources

  12. Apaches push privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.

    1994-01-01

    Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co

  13. Public-Private Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... these initiatives in an institutional framework and suggest how the experiences can be understood in their own rights....

  14. Virtual private network (VPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A virtual private network (VPN) is the essential security feature that allows remote monitoring systems to take advantage of the low communications cost of the internet. This paper introduces the VPN concept and summarizes the networking and security principles. The mechanics of security, for example, types of encryption and protocols for exchange of keys between partners, are explained. Important issues for partners in different countries include the interoperability and mutual accreditations of systems. (author)

  15. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  16. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...

  17. An integrated system for the determination of the local, regional and long-transport contributions to Particulate Matter concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M.; Andriani, E.; Daresta, B. E.; de Gennaro, G.; di Gilio, A.; Ielpo, P.,; Placentino, C. M.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M.

    2010-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown the negative effects of air pollution on human health, which range from respiratory and cardiovascular disease to neurotoxic effects, and cancer. Most recent investigations have been focused on health toxicological features of Particulate Matter (PM) and its interactions with other pollutants: it was found that fine particles (PM2.5) could be an effective media to transport these pollutants deeply into the lung and to cause many kind of reactions which include oxidative stress, local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses (Künzli and Perez, 2009). Based on these implications on public health, many countries have developed plans to suggest effective control strategies which involve the identification of Particulate Matter sources, the quantitative estimation of the emission rates of the pollutants, the understanding of PM transport, mixing and transformation processes and the identification of main factors influencing PM concentrations. In this field, receptor models can be useful tools to estimate sources contributions to PM collected in an area under investigations. Different approaches to receptor model analysis can be distinguished on basis of whether chemical characteristics of emission sources are required to be known before the source apportionment. The multivariate approach could be preferred when a lack of information concerning sources profiles occurred (Hopke, 2003). In this work, the results obtained by applying an integrated approach in the monitoring of PM using several typologies of instrumentations will be shown. A prototype for the determination of the contributions of a single source (‘fugitive emission') on the fine PM concentrations has been developed: it consists of a Swam dual-channel sampler, an OPC Monitor, a sonic anemometer and a PBL Mixing monitor. The investigated site chosen for the application of prototype will be the iron and steel pole of Taranto (Apulia Region, South of Italy

  18. Development of Integrated Real-Time Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Advanced Operation Scenarios on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Crisanti, F.; Laborde, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important experimental programme is in progress on JET to investigate plasma control schemes which, with a limited number of actuators, could eventually enable ITER to sustain steady state burning plasmas in an 'advanced tokamak' operation scenario. A multi-variable model-based technique was recently developed for the simultaneous control of several plasma parameter profiles in discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB), using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) together with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The proposed distributed-parameter control scheme relies on the experimental identification of an integral linear response model operator and retains the intrinsic couplings between the plasma parameter profiles. A first set of experiments was performed to control the current density profile in the low-density/low-power LH-driven phase of the JET advanced scenarios, using only one actuator (LHCD) and a simplified (lumped-parameter) version of the control scheme. Several requested steady state magnetic equilibria were thus obtained and sustained for about 7s, up to full relaxation of the ohmic current throughout the plasma. A second set of experiments was dedicated to the control of the q-profile with 3 actuators (LHCD, NBI and ICRH) during the intense heating phase of advanced scenarios. The safety factor profile was also shown to approach a requested profile within about 5s. The achieved plasma equilibrium was close to steady state. Finally, during the recent high power experimental campaign, experiments have been conducted in a 3T/1.7MA plasma, achieving the simultaneous control of the current density and electron temperature profiles in ITB plasmas. Here, the distributed-parameter version of the algorithm was used for the first time, again with 3 actuators. Real-time control was applied during 7s, and allowed to reach successfully different target q-profiles (monotonic and reversed-shear ones) and different ITB

  19. Development of integrated real-time control of internal transport barriers in advanced operation scenarios on Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, D.; Laborde, L.; Litaudon, X.; Mazon, D.; Zabeo, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lennholm, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Moreau, D. [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Riva, M.; Tuccillo, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Murari, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Tala, T. [Euratom-TEKES Association, VTT Processes (Finland); Albanese, R.; Ariola, M.; Tommasi, G. de; Pironti, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, CREATE, Napoli (Italy); Felton, R.; Zastrow, K.D. [Euratom-UKAEA Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon(United Kingdom); Baar, M. de; Vries, P. de [Euratom-FOM Association, TEC Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); La Luna, E. de [Euratom-CIEMAT Association, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    An important experimental programme is in progress on JET to investigate plasma control schemes which, with a limited number of actuators, could eventually enable ITER to sustain steady state burning plasmas in an 'advanced tokamak' operation scenario. A multi-variable model-based technique was recently developed for the simultaneous control of several plasma parameter profiles in discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB), using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) together with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The proposed distributed-parameter control scheme relies on the experimental identification of an integral linear response model operator and retains the intrinsic couplings between the plasma parameter profiles. A first set of experiments was performed to control the current density profile in the low-density/low-power LH-driven phase of the JET advanced scenarios, using only one actuator (LHCD) and a simplified (lumped-parameter) version of the control scheme. Several requested steady state magnetic equilibria were thus obtained and sustained for about 7 s, up to full relaxation of the ohmic current throughout the plasma. A second set of experiments was dedicated to the control of the q-profile with 3 actuators (LHCD, NBI and ICRH) during the intense heating phase of advanced scenarios. The safety factor profile was also shown to approach a requested profile within about 5 s. The achieved plasma equilibrium was close to steady state. Finally, during the recent high power experimental campaign, experiments have been conducted in a 3 T / 1.7 MA plasma, achieving the simultaneous control of the current density and electron temperature profiles in ITB plasmas. Here, the distributed-parameter version of the algorithm was used for the first time, again with 3 actuators. Real-time control was applied during 7 s, and allowed to reach successfully different target q-profiles (monotonic and reversed-shear ones

  20. Development of integrated real-time control of internal transport barriers in advanced operation scenarios on Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Laborde, L.; Litaudon, X.; Mazon, D.; Zabeo, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lennholm, M.; Crisanti, F.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Riva, M.; Tuccillo, A.; Murari, A.; Tala, T.; Albanese, R.; Ariola, M.; Tommasi, G. de; Pironti, A.; Felton, R.; Zastrow, K.D.; Baar, M. de; Vries, P. de; La Luna, E. de

    2004-01-01

    An important experimental programme is in progress on JET to investigate plasma control schemes which, with a limited number of actuators, could eventually enable ITER to sustain steady state burning plasmas in an 'advanced tokamak' operation scenario. A multi-variable model-based technique was recently developed for the simultaneous control of several plasma parameter profiles in discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB), using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) together with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The proposed distributed-parameter control scheme relies on the experimental identification of an integral linear response model operator and retains the intrinsic couplings between the plasma parameter profiles. A first set of experiments was performed to control the current density profile in the low-density/low-power LH-driven phase of the JET advanced scenarios, using only one actuator (LHCD) and a simplified (lumped-parameter) version of the control scheme. Several requested steady state magnetic equilibria were thus obtained and sustained for about 7 s, up to full relaxation of the ohmic current throughout the plasma. A second set of experiments was dedicated to the control of the q-profile with 3 actuators (LHCD, NBI and ICRH) during the intense heating phase of advanced scenarios. The safety factor profile was also shown to approach a requested profile within about 5 s. The achieved plasma equilibrium was close to steady state. Finally, during the recent high power experimental campaign, experiments have been conducted in a 3 T / 1.7 MA plasma, achieving the simultaneous control of the current density and electron temperature profiles in ITB plasmas. Here, the distributed-parameter version of the algorithm was used for the first time, again with 3 actuators. Real-time control was applied during 7 s, and allowed to reach successfully different target q-profiles (monotonic and reversed-shear ones) and

  1. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  2. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  3. Restaurant Management System Over Private Network

    OpenAIRE

    Amanat Dhillon; Shreya Tuli

    2017-01-01

    Restaurant Management System over Private Network is an automated business environment which allows restaurants to reduce operational costs increase efficiency of business improve customer satisfaction cut down labour costs decrease order processing time and provide better Quality-of-ServiceQ-S. This system manages a digital menu allowing the customers to place orders easily. Authentication fields for employees enable better administration of the restaurant. The whole restaurant is integrated...

  4. Business process modeling for the Virginia Department of Transportation : a demonstration with the integrated six-year improvement program and the statewide transportation improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This effort demonstrates business process modeling to describe the integration of particular planning and programming activities of a state highway agency. The motivations to document planning and programming activities are that: (i) resources for co...

  5. Business process modeling for the Virginia Department of Transportation : a demonstration with the integrated six-year improvement program and the statewide transportation improvement program : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This effort demonstrates business process modeling to describe the integration of particular planning and programming activities of a state highway agency. The motivations to document planning and programming activities are that: (i) resources for co...

  6. A corrected NEGF + DFT approach for calculating electronic transport through molecular devices: Filling bound states and patching the non-equilibrium integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rui; Zhang Jiaxing; Hou Shimin; Qian Zekan; Shen Ziyong; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two problems in the conventional approach for studying charge transport in molecular electronic devices that is based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and density functional theory, i.e., the bound states and the numerical integration of the non-equilibrium density matrix. A scheme of filling the bound states in the bias window and a method of patching the non-equilibrium integration are proposed, both of which are referred to as the non-equilibrium correction. The discussion is illustrated by means of calculations on a model system consisting of a 4,4 bipyridine molecule connected to two semi-infinite gold monatomic chains

  7. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy - in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  8. Privatization an a national business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tokarski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is a very complicated process that builds a market economy. It entails numerous problems, the overcoming of which depends on the pace and scale of privatization in a particular country. The privatization process of the Polish economy is assessed differently, and still raises a lot of controversy and debate, not only for the economy, but also politics. This is particularly the privatization of state assets. Privatization was one of the foundations for political transformation in Poland and other Central- and Eastern European countries. Some say that was a great success, while for others it was a field for plunder and affairs. Who is right? Is privatization a success or a failure? This paper aims to present the arguments posed by both supporters and opponents of the privatization in Poland.

  9. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  10. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  11. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  12. A fruitful partnership with the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellet, D.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec's successful partnership with the private sector, in particular with the consulting engineering profession, was highlighted, as an indication of the unprecedented economic activity generated by the public utility throughout its fifty year existence, and most noticeably since the 1960s, when the 'Quiet Revolution' of the Lesage government set the tone for favoring Quebec consulting firms. The Corporation's rapid growth also stimulated the development of the province's private engineering sector, and served as the incentive for electrical equipment manufacturers, and the source of new skills and enterprises emerging from environmental concerns. Special mention was made of the economic advances made by native peoples through their involvement in land clearing, excavation, construction, and provision and transportation of supplies to remote construction sites

  13. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  14. Private incentives to vertical disintegration among firms with heterogeneous objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Gianpaolo

    2003-01-01

    A vertically integrated monopoly is compared to a decentralized market arrangement where production is segmented. A Labor Managed firm produces an input used by a profit maximizer manufacturer of a final good. Unlike what usually occurs between homogeneous firms we find circumstances in which the decentralised vertical arrangement is privately superior to the integrated one.

  15. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 4 : use of knowledge integrated visual analytics system in supporting bridge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The goals of integration should be: Supporting domain oriented data analysis through the use of : knowledge augmented visual analytics system. In this project, we focus on: : Providing interactive data exploration for bridge managements. : ...

  16. Determinants of private healthcare utilisation and expenditure patterns in India

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde

    2014-01-01

    In India, a substantial investment has been made in developing community-based programmes, such as Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), and networks of village-level health workers. In spite of these efforts, growth utilisation of government services has failed to keep pace with the private sector, particularly in the past two decades. The results presented in this paper show that Indian families, even poor families, receive most of their medical care from private practitioners. Mate...

  17. Investigating Philosophies Underpinning Dietetic Private Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Harper

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is limited theory or knowledge regarding dietitians’ practice philosophies and how these philosophies are generated and incorporated into their professional practices. For the purposes of this study, a conceptual framework will explain and define the ‘philosophies’ as three different types of knowledge; episteme, techne, and phronesis. This study aimed to develop an explanatory theory of how dietitians in private practice source, utilise, and integrate practice philosophies. A grounded theory qualitative methodology was used to inform the sampling strategy, data collection, and analytical processes. Semi-structured interviews with dietitians in private practice were undertaken and data were collected and analysed concurrently. The results show that dietitians form collaborative relationships with their clients, in order to nurture change over time. They use intrinsic and intertwined forms of episteme, techne, and phronesis, which allow them to respond both practically and sensitively to their clients’ needs. The learning and integration of these forms of knowledge are situated in their own practice experience. Dietitians adapt through experience, feedback, and reflection. This study highlights that private practice offers a unique context in which dietitians deal with complex issues, by utilising and adapting their philosophies.

  18. Integration, status and potential of environmental justice and the social impact assessment process in transportation development in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This research examines the Social Impact Assessment Process at the Missouri Department of Transportation as directed by the : National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The analysis includes an examination of the influences of the more recent directiv...

  19. Towards a more effective EIA in transport planning : A literature review to derive interventions and mechanisms to improve knowledge integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soria-Lara, J.A.; Bertolini, L.; Te Brömmelstroet, M.

    2016-01-01

    A set of process-related barriers negatively determines the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in transport planning. Recent research highlights the unstructured stakeholder involvement and inefficient public participation in earlier phases of EIA as key bottlenecks. While the

  20. Local government GIS and geospatial capabilities : suitability for integrated transportation and land use planning (California SB 375).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report examines two linked phenomena in transportation planning: the geospatial analysis capabilities of local planning agencies and the increasing demands on such capabilities imposed by comprehensive planning mandates. The particular examples ...